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LUFA USB Stack CDC Demo


AN0861 - Application Note

Introduction
This application note introduces the LUFA USB stack running on the EFM32
platform. Software examples implementing LUFA USB Communication Device
Class (CDC) on the EFM32GG-DK3750 and the EFM32GG-STK3700 are also
included.
This application note includes:
This PDF document
Source files (zip)
Example C-code
Multiple IDE projects

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1 Introduction
USB revolutionized the PC peripheral space by making a very simple plug-and-play interface for users.
As a result, many modern computers no longer support RS-232 serial COM ports, opting for the slimmer
USB alternative. This can be an issue for the developer who needs a COM port for communication
between a peripheral and host PC. A subset of the USB Communication Device Class (CDC) can be
used to emulate a serial port providing a virtual COM port UART interface. This allows developers to use
legacy applications with new products using the same COM port interface as before, with few hardware
and software modifications.
Figure 1.1. USB CDC Virtual COM Port System

This application note describes the USB communications device class driver (or USB CDC) in detail and
includes an implementation example for the Silicon Labs EFM32 MCU.

1.1 Assumptions
This document assumes the following:
A working knowledge of the C programming language.
Familiarity with the USB 2.0 specification and terms and abbreviations defined by the USB
specification.
Familiarity with Silicon Labs EFM32 development environment.

1.2 Features and Limitations


The CDC firmware implemented with this application note includes the following features:

Emulates a serial COM port on a PC that supports the CDC Abstract Control Model (ACM).
Provides an abstract communication interface for data transfers between the host and the device.
Handles standard Chapter 9 USB device requests.
Handles CDC-specific requests from USB host.
Notifies the USB host of status using an interrupt endpoint.
Provides data communication with the USB host using a bulk endpoint.
The following baud rates are supported: 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 14400, 19200, 38400, 57600,
76800, 115200 and 230400 bps.

The example does not implement the following:


No CTS/RTS control is performed, so flow control must be set to none in the terminal program.
RTS/DTR control is not implemented.

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2 Relevant Documentation
EFM32 Application Notes are listed on the following website: http://www.silabs.com/32bit-appnotes
AN758 IMPLEMENTING USB COMMUNICATION DEVICE CLASS (CDC) ON SiM3U1XX MCUs -Provides an implementation example on porting LUFA USB CDC on SiM3U1xx MCUs.
AN0822 SIMPLICITY STUDIO USERS GUIDE -- Provides a description of the Simplicity Studio IDE
features and environment.
AN0046 USB Hardware Design Guide -- Provides recommendations on hardware design for
implementing USB host and device applications using USB capable EFM32 micro-controllers.
AN0065 EFM32 as USB Device -- Provides a description of the EFM32 USB Device stack.

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3 USB Communication Device Class


The USB communications device class (CDC) is a composite USB device class, and the class may
include more than one interface. The CDC is used primarily for modems, but also for ISDN, fax machines,
and telephony applications for performing regular voice calls. The Abstract Control Model subclass
of CDC and bridges the gap between legacy modem devices and USB devices, enabling the use of
application programs designed for older modems.

3.1 Class Requests


The class requests and class notifications supported are listed in Table 3.1 (p. 4) .
Table 3.1. Abstract Control Model Requests
Request

Code

Description

SET_LINE_CODING

20h

Configures baud rate, stop-bits, parity, and number-ofcharacter bits.

GET_LINE_CODING

21h

Requests current DTE rate, stop-bits, parity, and


number-of-character bits.

SET_CONTROL_LINE_STATE

22h

RS232 signal used to tell the DCE device the DTE


device is now present.

These class-specific requests are used by the host to configure and receive status info from the CDC
device.

3.1.1 Set Line Coding


This request allows the host to specify typical asynchronous line-character formatting properties.
bmRequestType

bRequest

00100001b

wValue

SET_LINE_CODING

wIndex

interface

wLength

Data

size of
structure

line coding
structure

Table 3.2 (p. 4) defines the line coding properties.


Table 3.2. Line Coding Format
Offset

Field

Size

Value

Description

dwDTERate

Number

Data terminal rate, in bits per second.

bCharFormat

Number

0: 1 Stop bit
1: 1.5 Stop bits
2: 2 Stop bits

bParityType

Number

Parity:
0: None
1: Odd
2: Even
3: Mark
4: Space

bDataBits

Number

Data bits (5, 6, 7, 8 or 16).

3.1.2 Get Line Coding


This request allows the host to find out the currently configured line coding. Table 3.2 (p. 4) defines
the line coding properties.

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bmRequestType

bRequest

10100001b

wValue

GET_LINE_CODING

wIndex

wLength

interface

Data

size of
structure

line coding
structure

3.1.3 Set Control Line State


This request generates RS-232/V.24 style control signals.
bmRequestType

00100001b

bRequest

wValue

SET_LINE_CONTROL_STATE

wIndex

control signal
bitmap

interface

wLength

Data

none

The following table defines control signal bitmap.


Table 3.3. Control Signal Bitmap
Bit Position

Description

15:2

Reserved (Reset to zero).

Carrier control for half duplex modems. This signal corresponds to V.24 signal 105 and
RS232 signal RTS.
0: Deactivate carrier.
1: Activate carrier.
The device ignores the value of this bit when operating in full duplex mode.

Indicates to DCE if DTE is present or not.This signal corresponds to V.24 signal 108/2
and RS232 signal DTR.
0: DTE is not present.
1: DTE is present

3.2 Class Notifications


Table 3.4 (p. 5) shows the class notifications supported by the Abstract Control Model.
Table 3.4. Abstract Control Model Notifications
Bit Notification

SERIAL_STATE

Code

20h

Description

Returns the current state of the carrier detects, DSR, break, and ring
signal.

Serial State
This notification sends an asynchronous message containing the current UART status.
bmRequestType

10100001b

bRequest

SERIAL_STATE

wValue

wIndex

interface

wLength

Data

UART state bitmap

The data field for this notification is a bit-mapped value that contains the current state of detects
transmission carrier, break, ring signal, and device overrun error. These signals are typically found on a
UART and are used for communication status reporting. A state is considered enabled if its respective
bit is set to 1.
Note: The firmware example included with this application does not currently support state change

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Table 3.5. UART State Bitmap
Bit Position

Field

15:7

Description

Reserved (future use).

bOverRun

Received data has been discarded due to overrun in the device.

bParity

A parity error occurred.

bFraming

A framing error occurred.

bRingSignal

State of ring signal detection of the device.

bBreak

State of break detection mechanism of the device.

bTxCarrier

State of transmission carrier. This signal corresponds to V.24 signal 106


and RS232 signal DSR.

bRxCarrier

State of receiver carrier detection mechanism of device. This signal


corresponds to V.24 signal 109 and RS232 signal DCD

3.3 Endpoint Configuration


Table 3.6 (p. 6) illustrates the endpoint configuration for the Abstract Control Model.
Table 3.6. USB Endpoint Configuration
Endpoint

Direction

Type

Max Packet Size

Description

EP0

In/Out

Control

64

Standard requests, class requests.

EP1

In

Interrupt

16

State notification from device to host.

EP2

In

Bulk

64

Data transfer from device to host.

EP3

Out

Bulk

64

Data transfer from host to device.

The following figure shows a standard CDC communication flow.


Figure 3.1. USB CDC Communication Flow

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4 LUFA USB Stack


The USB CDC firmware example is based on the LUFA open-source project. LUFA is an opensource
complete USB stack released under the permissive MIT License. It includes support for many
USB classes, both for USB Hosts and USB Devices. For USB Devices, the LUFA stack includes
support for Audio Class, CDC Class, HID Class, Mass Storage Class, MIDI Class, and RNDIS
Class. More information about the LUFA project can be found on the official website: http://
www.fourwalledcubicle.com/LUFA.php
The USB CDC project contains a prebuilt LUFA USB stack documentation which is located at .\LUFA
\Documentation\html Double click on the index.html, and the documentation will show in your
default browser.
Figure 4.1. USB LUFA Library Documentation

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5 EFM32 Software Examples


The software example included with this application note contains drivers and full LUFA USB stack for
EFM32. USB CDC Demo is implemented in this software example. It supports two boards of EFM32,
EFM32GG-STK3700 and EFM32GG-DK3750.
The Communications Device Class(CDC) demonstration application gives a reference for
implementing a CDC device acting as a Virtual COM Port(VCP). Source code is located at .\Demos
\Device\LowLevel\EFM32Demos\VCP. The LUFA VirtualSerial.inf file located at this
directory too. You need to supply the .INF file when running under Windows for the first time. This will
enable Windows to use its inbuilt CDC drivers.
This implementation supports two boards of EFM32, EFM32GG-STK3700 and EFM32GG-DK3750.
Two set of project files for each board are provided in this implementation. The board's macro definition
can be found in .\LUFA\Common\BoardTypes.h. Default setting is EFM32GG-DK3750.

#if !defined(__DOXYGEN__)
#define BOARD_
#if !defined(BOARD)
#define BOARD
#endif
#endif

BOARD_DK3750
BOARD_DK3750

Running on the EFM32GG-DK3750 board, a BSP initialize function (BSP_Init(BSP_INIT_DEFAULT))


is called in VirtualSerial.c. This is enabled by macro BOARD_DK3750.
Each board has its own board specific driver code located at .\LUFA\Drivers\Board\EFM32GG.
There are two directories, DK3750 and STK3700. Button, LED and USART initialize functions are
included in each directory. DK3750\Serial.h calls BSP functions to activate the RS232 port on
the DK.
For the EFM32GG-STK3700 board, there is no UART socket on the board. USART signals are
connected to EXP Header. Connect those signals to other UART bridge devices, and you can get
access it from PC host.
Table 5.1. USART signals on STK3700 Expansion Header
Peripheral

USART/SPI

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Peripheral pin

MCU pin

EXP Header pin number

USART1_TX

PD0

USART1_RX

PD1

USART1_CLK

PD2

USART1_CS

PD3

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6 USB CDC Driver


The CDC class is implemented in all releases of Windows, and the operating system needs an INF file for
the CDC driver. This INF file contains the Vendor ID and Product ID. If the VID/PID of the USB devices
matches the INF file, Windows will load the driver described in the file. The LUFA VirtualSerial.inf file
can be found in the .\Demos\Device\LowLevel\EFM32Demos\VCP directory.
Installing the Driver
To install the driver on Windows 7:
1. Build the project and download firmware to the EFM32 kit.
2. Connect the USB cable between the Device MCU plug-in board USB connector and the PC.
3. Open Device Manager. The device will appear under Other devices as the EFM32 CDC Device.

4. Right-click on the EFM32 CDC Device and select Update Driver Software.

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5. Select Browse my computer for driver software.

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6. Enter the directory path of the LUFA VirtualSerial.inf file (.\Demos\Device\LowLevel


\EFM32Demos\VCP). If the Include subfolders option is checked, entering the main
an0861_efm32_lufa_usb_cdc directory in the workspace is sufficient.

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7. Windows will display a warning. Select Install this driver software anyway.

8. When the driver finishes installing, Windows will report the installation results.
9. Open Device Manager and observe the device. It will now appear under Ports (COM & LPT) with
an assigned COM port number.

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7 Revision History
7.1 Revision 1.00
2014-07-01
Initial revision.

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A Disclaimer and Trademarks


A.1 Disclaimer
Silicon Laboratories intends to provide customers with the latest, accurate, and in-depth documentation
of all peripherals and modules available for system and software implementers using or intending to use
the Silicon Laboratories products. Characterization data, available modules and peripherals, memory
sizes and memory addresses refer to each specific device, and "Typical" parameters provided can and
do vary in different applications. Application examples described herein are for illustrative purposes
only. Silicon Laboratories reserves the right to make changes without further notice and limitation to
product information, specifications, and descriptions herein, and does not give warranties as to the
accuracy or completeness of the included information. Silicon Laboratories shall have no liability for
the consequences of use of the information supplied herein. This document does not imply or express
copyright licenses granted hereunder to design or fabricate any integrated circuits. The products must
not be used within any Life Support System without the specific written consent of Silicon Laboratories.
A "Life Support System" is any product or system intended to support or sustain life and/or health, which,
if it fails, can be reasonably expected to result in significant personal injury or death. Silicon Laboratories
products are generally not intended for military applications. Silicon Laboratories products shall under no
circumstances be used in weapons of mass destruction including (but not limited to) nuclear, biological
or chemical weapons, or missiles capable of delivering such weapons.

A.2 Trademark Information


Silicon Laboratories Inc., Silicon Laboratories, Silicon Labs, SiLabs and the Silicon Labs logo, CMEMS,
EFM, EFM32, EFR, Energy Micro, Energy Micro logo and combinations thereof, "the worlds most
energy friendly microcontrollers", Ember, EZLink, EZMac, EZRadio, EZRadioPRO, DSPLL,
ISOmodem, Precision32, ProSLIC, SiPHY, USBXpress and others are trademarks or registered
trademarks of Silicon Laboratories Inc. ARM, CORTEX, Cortex-M3 and THUMB are trademarks or
registered trademarks of ARM Holdings. Keil is a registered trademark of ARM Limited. All other products
or brand names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective holders.

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B Contact Information
Silicon Laboratories Inc.
400 West Cesar Chavez
Austin, TX 78701
Please visit the Silicon Labs Technical Support web page:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/contacttechnicalsupport.aspx
and register to submit a technical support request.

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 2
1.1. Assumptions .................................................................................................................................. 2
1.2. Features and Limitations .................................................................................................................. 2
2. Relevant Documentation ............................................................................................................................. 3
3. USB Communication Device Class ............................................................................................................... 4
3.1. Class Requests .............................................................................................................................. 4
3.2. Class Notifications .......................................................................................................................... 5
3.3. Endpoint Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 6
4. LUFA USB Stack ...................................................................................................................................... 7
5. EFM32 Software Examples ......................................................................................................................... 8
6. USB CDC Driver ....................................................................................................................................... 9
7. Revision History ...................................................................................................................................... 14
7.1. Revision 1.00 ............................................................................................................................... 14
A. Disclaimer and Trademarks ....................................................................................................................... 15
A.1. Disclaimer ................................................................................................................................... 15
A.2. Trademark Information ................................................................................................................... 15
B. Contact Information ................................................................................................................................. 16
B.1. ................................................................................................................................................. 16

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List of Figures
1.1. USB CDC Virtual COM Port System .......................................................................................................... 2
3.1. USB CDC Communication Flow ................................................................................................................ 6
4.1. USB LUFA Library Documentation ............................................................................................................. 7

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List of Tables
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
5.1.

Abstract Control Model Requests ...............................................................................................................


Line Coding Format ................................................................................................................................
Control Signal Bitmap ..............................................................................................................................
Abstract Control Model Notifications ...........................................................................................................
UART State Bitmap .................................................................................................................................
USB Endpoint Configuration .....................................................................................................................
USART signals on STK3700 Expansion Header ...........................................................................................

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