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Cable Engineering in Substation and Power Plant

http://electrical- engineering- portal.com/cable- substation- power- plant

January 21, 2013

Cable Engineering in Subst at ion and Power Plant (on phot o: Sealing of power cables
t hrough t he out er wall in subst at ion; by Roxt ec Lt d. @ Flickr)

Single core cable should be unarmored?


Is it true that single core cable should be unarmored because eddy currents are induced in
armor of single core cable which will cause additional losses? If true then why not three core
cables also unarmored and why single core armored cables manufactured at all.
In this scenario one phase induces eddy current in the armor and in three phases it is not
there as the flux of all the three phases cancel each other so armoring is required what is the
solution, we can use non Ferromagnetic substance for armoring.
A detailed description is given below:
1. Aluminium Wire Armor (AWA) and Galvanized Steel Wire (GSW) are of f ered as
standard mechanical protection f or single and three core cables respectively.

2. Non f erromagnetic materials must be used on single core cables. As the magnetic f ield
travels through any protection layers on single core cables, a f erromagnetic material such
as steel will have signif icant eddy current losses induced in the wires causing signif icant
heating of the cable and subsequent derating of its current carrying capacity.
The same principle applies when selecting cable clamps.
3. Even if a single core cable is armored with f erromagnetic material like steel then three
single core cable has to be laid in tref oil arrangement so that the f lux of all the three
single core cable cancel each other as happens in three core cable.

What type of armor should be used, wire or strip armor and when?
As per bureau of Indian standards no 7098 part-2 clause 16.2 Type of Armor Where the
calculated diameter below armoring does not exceed 13 mm, the armor shall consist of
galvanized round steel wires.
The armor of cables having calculated diameter below armoring greater than 13 mm shall
consist of either galvanized round steel wires or galvanized steel strips.

What are the required conditions for earthed system?


Earthed System An electric system which fulfils any of the following conditions:
1. Neutral point or the mid-point connection is earthed in such a manner that, even under
f ault conditions, the maximum voltage that can occur between any conductor and the
earth does not exceed 80 percent of the nominal system voltage.
2. The neutral-point or the mid-point connection is not earthed but a protective device is
installed which automatically cuts out any part of the system which accidently becomes
earthed.
3. In case of ac systems only, the neutral-point is earthed through an arc suppression coil
with arrangement f or isolation within 1 h of occurrence of the f ault f or the non-radial f ield
cables and within 8 hours f or radial cables, provided that the total of such periods in a
year does not exceed 125 hours.

What are the required conditions for unearthed system?


An electric system which does not f ulf ill the requirement of the earthed system is
unearthed system.

What is meant by earth grade of cables?


Earth grade of a cable is parameter which governs the degree of suf f icient separation
between the conductor and the nearest electrical ground to preclude dielectric f ailure and
makes sure that the required thickness of insulation, to physically protect the conductor,
is more than adequate f or required dielectric strength.
For cables to be used in solidly earthed system, the phase conductor to armor insulation
has to be rated f or VL/3 volts that is phase to ground voltage only. This earth grade is
to be adopted when the system is solidly earthed without any intentional resistance or
inductance in neutral circuit.
In case the system is resistance/inductance earthed or unearthed, the phase to ground
voltage of two healthy phases rises to approximately phase to phase voltage when earth
f ault occurs in the third phase.
The phase to ground voltage of healthy phase comes very close to or attains phase to
phase value depending upon the degree of ef f ectiveness of system neutral earthing.
Hence phase conductor to armor insulation of cables used in unearthed or
resistance/inductance earthed system should be rated f or f ull phase to phase voltage
instead of VL/3.
For example in case of 6.6kV unearthed or resistance earthed system 6.6kV/6.6kV UE
class cables should be used while 6.6kV/3.85kV E class cables are adequate f or solidly
earthed system.
So insulation class of cables of any particular voltage level f or unearthed system is
equivalent to insulation class of next voltage level of earthed system.
So now question is f or 6.6kV resistance earthed system can we use 11kV/6.35kV E class
cables?
Since f or the selected cable phase to phase voltage is 11kV and phase to ground voltage
is 11kV/3=6.35kV, which is lesser than the phase to phase voltage of 6.6kV system and
hence during earth f ault in one phase the insulation of healthy phase may prove to be
insufficient.
AS PER IS-IS 7098, Indian Standard Specif ication f or cross linked polyethylene insulated
PVC sheathed cables part-2 f or working voltage f rom 3.3kV up to and including 33kV
(7098 part-2) gives the f ollowing clause f or the same:The standard covers the requirements of f ollowing categories of cross linked
polyethylene insulated and PVC sheathed power cables f or single phase or three phase
(earthed or unearthed) systems f or electricity supply purposes:
a) Types of Cables
1. Single-core unscreened, unarmored (but non-magnetic metallic tape covered)

2. Single-core screened, unarmored


3. Single-core armored (non-magnetic) screened or unscreened
4. Three-core armored, screened or unscreened
b) Voltage Grade (UO/U)
1. Earthed System 1.9/3.3 kV, 3.8/6.6 kV, 6.35/11 kV, 12.7/22 kV and 19/33 kV
2. Unearthed System 3.3/3.3 kV and 11/11 kV
NOTES:
Cables of 6.35/11 kV grade (earthed system) are suitable f or use on 6.6/6.6 kV
(unearthed system) also.
The cables conf orming to this standard may be operated continuously at a power
f requency voltage 10 percent higher than rated voltage.
Under Rule 54 of the Indian Electricity Rules 1956, in case of high voltage, the
permissible variation of declared voltage at the point of commencement of supply is
+6 & -9 percent.

How many types of cable faults are there & how are they
diagnosed?
Faults can be divided into two types:
1. Series type cable f ault
2. Shunt type cable f ault

1. Series type cable faults


Series f ault occur where the continuity one or more of metallic element (i.e. conductor or
sheath) of cable is impaired. Usually series f aults only become apparent when continuity
has been completely lost at least in one conductor, to cause an open circuit f ault.

2. Shunt type cable faults


Shunt f ault occur where the insulation of one or more conductor is damaged. The most
common type of shunt f ault is single phase to earth f ault. On screened cables, all shunt
f aults are earth f aults.
Depending on the degree of carbonization of the dielectric, the shunt fault could be of
following types:

1. High Resistance f ault


2. Low Resistance f ault
3. Flashing f ault

Diagnosis:
Usually the first indication of the possible existence of a fault is given by the automatic
operation of the circuit protection. The f aulty cable should be disconnected f rom the
other electrical equipments and is retested f or conf irmation of f ault in insulation by
applying D.C. High voltage or by Megger.
If the insulation indicates a healthy result, cable continuity should be checked.
In case the insulation shows a f aulty cable, the value of f ault resistance should be
measured with a multimeter.
Facts about interf ace cabling between control & instrumentation and electrical f or any
power plant or process plant.
Regarding C&I cables for any power or process plants, please note that there are two
categories of cables:
1. Those C&I cables which are to be considered by electrical group. They are mainly
control/indication/annunciation related cables.
2. Those C&I cables which are to be considered by Instrumentation group.
The C&I cable supposed to be considered by electrical group:
1. Special cables f or interf ace between PLC/Relay based control panel (in local control
room to) and main plant DCS or ECP. In most cases nature of such cables is Fiber
optics because of large amount of data to be carried over a large distance.
2. Cables between PLC and MCC f or analog and binary signals. Nature of such cables
is usually paired cables, which may be twisted or untwisted pair. Engineering
including scheduling with terminal details and interconnection diagram, procurement
and erection of above mentioned two types of C&I cables is carried out by electrical
group.
The C&I cables supposed to be considered by Instrumentation group and consequently
excluded by electrical group:
1. Paired cable f rom PLC to instrument JB in the local instrument rack or enclosure in
the f ield.
2. Paired cables between Instrument JB in the local instrument rack or enclosure to
f ield instruments.
3. Paired cable between PLC & packaged vendor panels like VMS (Vibration monitoring

system), IPR & SOV.


4. Paired cable between above mentioned packaged vendor panels to Junction box in
f ield.
5. Special cables between f ield junction box to individual instruments by packaged
vendors like vibration sensors.
6. Paired cable between PLC to modulating drives.
7. Paired cable between bidirectional drive to PLC.
8. Cables between GPS clock system (for time synchronization) and PLC/SCADA.
Please note that the target of such time synchronization of DCS or PLCs (located
geographically apart) with GPS is that, if we have more than one controller system, by
def ault each system will have its clock adjusted individually f rom the PC which
downloaded the program in the system, so if any trip or trouble occur in the system
and all the system doesnt have the same time, the reports will be messy and
conf used about at which time the problem occur due to dif f erence in reporting time.
.
So a main controller or GPS signal is send to every control system in a specif ied
time so that every system readjusts its clock and has same time in terms of hour
minute and seconds.

Summary
Cables mentioned in point number-II are the only two types of instrumentation cable
which electrical group considers and engineering done thereby requires interf ace &
coordination with C&I department.
Eight types of cables mentioned in point number-III, should not be considered by
electrical group of any project. These cables are exclusively C&I cables and entire
engineering & procurement is to be carried out by C&I department.
Erection is sometimes carried out by electrical contractor, but in most cases erection is
carried out by C&I site team on perf orated type cable trays dedicated f or
instrumentation.

Cable Block Diagram


Download cable block diagram in PDF.

Cable Block Diagram