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When Chantel submitted her plan for her science project, Mr.

Sanchez wrote
the comment that she needed more repetitions. What did Mr. Sanchez mean
by this comment?
a. Chantel needed to repeat the experiment multiple times.
b. Chantel needed to ask other students to do her experiment.
c. Chantel needed to add more variables to her experiment.
d. Chantel needed to submit the experiment to other science teachers

Which of the following experiments describes a controlled experiment?

a. Studying rocks and fossils to determine the cause of dinosaur
b. Rolling a car down a ramp of different heights to determine if height
affects speed.
c. Surveying students to see how music affects their ability to study.
d. Predicting the path of a hurricane.

You have to determine the volume of an iron nail. What method should you
a. Measuring with a ruler.
b. Finding mass with a balance.
c. Finding weight with a spring scale.
d. Using water displacement with a graduated cylinder.

A diver just discovered a chest buried in the ocean sand filled with yellow
colored jewelry. What physical property could he use to determine if the
metal was gold?
a. Melting point
b. Smell
c. Taste
d. Reaction to oxygen

When Cassandra was watching a tennis match on TV, the sports announcer
said that the extremely cold air temperature was affecting the height that the
tennis ball would bounce. Cassandra decided to test that scientific claim.
What is would be the independent variable in her investigation?
a. The brand of tennis ball
b. The temperature of the tennis ball
c. The height that the tennis ball bounces
d. The height that the tennis ball is dropped.

The increased energy of moving particles in most matter causes it to change

state from liquid to gas. Which of the following causes a sample of matter to
change from a liquid to a gas?
a. increased volume
b. decreased volume
c. increased temperature
d. decreased temperature
States of matter can be characterized by the space between the particles of
matter and the energy of their motion. Which of the following characteristics
best describes a solid?
a. far apart particles with high energy
b. close together particles with high energy
c. close together particles with low energy
d. somewhat close together particles with medium energy

Bruno’s lab group is asked to prepare a demonstration for the class showing
a chemical change. Which of the following choices would show chemical
change the best?
A. dissolving salt into water
B. baking cupcakes from a mix
C. changing liquid water into ice
D. heating shiny silver until it glows

Preparing food often involves the science of chemistry. Sandy peels

potatoes, browns the potatoes in butter, and mashes them up. What
sequence of physical and chemical changes do the potatoes go through?
a. physical chemical physical
b. physicalchemicalchemical
c. chemicalphysicalchemical
d. chemicalchemicalphysical

The teacher asked a group of 10 students to represent the atomic particles in

a sample of matter. Instead of doing a poster, they decided to create a skit.
Describe the movement of the students as they were the particles as thermal
energy was added to the liquid state.
a. They put their arms on each other’s shoulders and moved together
b. They moved slower and slower and finally stopped.
c. They moved together to the right and left.
d. They moved in all directions very fast.

Plant cells capture the energy from the Sun to convert water and carbon
dioxide into food through the process of photosynthesis. In which cell part
does photosynthesis occur?
a. nucleus
b. cytoplasm
c. chloroplast
d. mitochondria

Eukaryotic cells are different from prokaryotic cells. What characteristic do

eukaryotic cells have that prokaryotic cells do not?
a. permeable membranes
b. a much smaller size
c. a cell wall
d. a nucleus
After falling off of his skateboard, Jacob had lots of scrapes on his arms and
legs. He noticed that after his skin healed, the skin in those places was shiny
and new looking. What cellular process caused his skin to heal?
a. osmosis
b. mitosis
c. meiosis
d. diffusion

When bacteria get too large, a new cell membrane is formed down the
middle and two new bacteria cells are formed. What type of cellular process
is this bacterium undergoing?
a. repair of cell nucleus
b. repair of cell membrane
c. sexual reproduction
d. asexual reproduction

Our model of the atom shows electrons moving around the nucleus of the
atom, which contains protons and neutrons. How do we explain the electrons
staying around the nucleus?
a. The negative charges of the electrons are attracted to the positively
charged nucleus.
b. The negative charges of the electrons are attracted to the
negatively charged nucleus.
c. The positive charges of the electrons are attracted to the positively
charged nucleus.
d. The positive charges of the electrons are attracted to the negatively
charged nucleus

Pennies were placed in a dish containing vinegar overnight. Some were in a

dish containing water. The next day the pennies in the vinegar were shiny,
while the pennies in the water had no change. What did the difference from
dull to shiny represent?
A. chemical change
B. physical change
C. chemical property
D. physical property

A scientist working in the forests of North Carolina discovers what she thinks
may be a new species. She finds that when the organism is removed from
the tree bark, it dies. She now concludes that the organism should be
classified as a virus. What reason would she have for this conclusion?
a. Viruses depend on other living things to survive.
b. Viruses are attached to nonliving things.
c. Viruses depend on tree bark to survive.
d. Viruses cause disease in tree bark

Euglena and plants both have chloroplasts. Since photosynthesis occurs in

the chloroplasts of plants, where would you expect euglena to be found?
A. At the bottom of an ocean trench
B. In the pools of water found in caves
C. In the middle of a glacier
D. At the edge of a shallow freshwater pond

Maria drew a habitat of a swamp. The teacher then asked her to describe
what would happen if one of the factors in her habitat were changed. Which
of the following is an example of the interrelated relationship between abiotic
and biotic factors?
A. Removing one alligator will cause decrease in the population of fish.
B. A sudden increase in temperature in the water of the pond may cause
a decrease in the populations of some of the fish.
C. A drop in the population of insects would result in an decrease in the
population of birds.
D. An increase in the amount of algae on the surface of the pond will
allow more sunlight to reach the bottom of the pond.

Soil organisms, such as fungi, worms and bacteria are all biotic parts of a
forest ecosystem. What is the role of these organisms in a forest ecosystem?
A. To break down the remains of other living things.
B. To obtain dissolved oxygen from moisture.
C. To store chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
D. To provide oxygen for the animals.

Which of these could cause a decrease in the number of squirrels in a

A. An increase in number of birds in the area.
B. An increase in the squirrel’s territory
C. An increase in competition with other nut-eating animals.
D. An increase in the squirrels’ food supply.

Many scientists feel that the genetic modification of plants and animals may
be harmful to humans and the environment. Which is a possible
disadvantage of the genetic modification of plants and animals?
A. Genetically modifying plants to need less fertilizer and pesticides will
decrease the amount of chemical pollutants released into the environment.
B. Genetically modifying farm animals such as cows and chickens will increase
the amount of food produced.
C. Genetically modifying plants to be more resistant to insects may alter the
ecosystem by the decrease in the insects needed to maintain equilibrium.
D. Genetically modifying some seafood, such as crawfish, can increase their
growth rates and produce larger crops.

Over several years, the feathers of male birds have become brighter and
more colorful than the feathers of the female birds of the same species.
What could be a reason for this adaption in the color of feathers in male
A. Dull feathers were noticed by the females over colorful feathers.
B. Dull feathers were more attractive than colorful feathers.
C. Colorful feathers were noticed by the females over dull feathers.
D. Colorful feathers were more visible to predators than dull feathers.
A forest ecosystem contains many small mammals such as squirrels,
chipmunks, and rats that live in the brown leaves on the forest floor. A
population of white mice was introduced into a forest environment. Why
were there no white mice found in the forest one year later?
A. It was difficult for the mice to find food.
B. It was difficult for the mice to hide from predators.
C. It was difficult for the mice to build shelter.
D. It was difficult for the mice to find water.

A neighbor accidentally used a chemical treatment on his lawn that killed the
natural populations of bacteria that lived in the soil. What function do the
bacteria perform in the lawn ecosystem?
A. A consumer that eats the worms living in the soil
B. A producer using sunlight to make its own food.
C. A decomposer that eats the roots of healthy grass.
D. A decomposer recycling nutrients back to the soil.

Nitrogen is a substance that is important in life processes. Organisms need

nitrogen to build proteins and to make DNA for new cells. Where do living
organisms obtain the nitrogen?
A. directly from the atmosphere
B. through evaporation and condensation
C. indirectly from bacteria in the soil
D. through respiration and photosynthesis

In the summer in Jacksonville the U.S. Weather Service issues severe weather
warnings when there are thunderstorms with lightning. What important part
does lightning play in one of the Earth’s cycles?
A. In the water cycle causing runoff
B. In the nitrogen cycle causing nitrogen fixation
C. In the carbon cycle causing respiration
D. In the deforestation cycle causing loss of trees

A tortoise living on the Galapagos Island off of South America is the largest
living tortoise. It has been reported that it takes 6 to 8 men to lift them.
They are also believed to be the first tortoises on the Island after floating on
the currents from the mainland several hundred years ago. What would be a
possible reason for the very large size of the Galapagos tortoises?
A. Due to ocean currents, the tortoises could not return to South America.
B. The lack of predators made it possible for the larger tortoises to
C. There was an abundance of rain on the Island.
D. The very cold winters made it easy for the tortoises to hibernate.

In 1912, Wegener proposed the Continental Drift Theory. This theory

proposed that there was originally only one large supercontinent that later
split into the continents we see today. He could not explain how the plates
moved. Later investigations showed that the plates rested on top of a molten
layer that was constantly in motion. Why wasn’t Wegener’s Continental Drift
Theory completely discarded but modified?
A. New evidence was not properly maintained and recorded.
B. Proper scientific methods were not used when gathering the newer
C. The scientists that gathered the newer evidence were not as famous as
D. New evidence added a better understanding to the existing theory.

Melvin understands that the food web illustrates the flow of energy between
organisms with an ecosystem and that all of the energy within one organism
is not transferred to the organism that eats it. What happens to the
remaining energy that is not transferred when one organism is consumed by
A. It is still within the system but being used in a different way.
B. It is lost from the system and cannot be recovered.
C. It was destroyed when the energy that was transferred left the
D. It was used to create new energy to replace the energy that left the

A particular type of fungus gets is nutrients by growing sticky structures

when living roundworms move too close to them. The fungus will then trap
the roundworms in their sticky structures when the worm is within reach. It
then penetrates and digests the trapped roundworms. Which function
describes the role of the fungus?
A. Competitor
B. Herbivore
C. Parasite
D. Predator

Multicellular organisms are made of many different types of cells that are
specialized for different functions. Which of the following statements best
describes how having specialized cells benefits multicellular organisms?
A. It allows them to perform more functions than unicellular organisms.
B. It allows them to pass genetic material from parent cells to new
C. It allows them to move from place to place.
D. It allows them to carry out life functions.

Eukaryotic cells have organelles called mitochondria that break down sugars
in food to produce the chemical energy an organism uses to carry out its life
processes. In what form is this energy stored in the cell?
G. carbon dioxide
H. glucose
I. oxygen
Cells in the body must receive nutrients to perform life processes. Cells must
also be able to get rid of their wastes. If wastes could not be removed, they
would build up in cells and cause the organism to become sick and die. Which
of the following structures helps the cell remove wastes?
F. vesicles
G. mitochondria
H. Golgi complex
I. endoplasmic reticulum

What cell process is responsible for growth in multicellular organisms?

F. active transport
G. diffusion
H. mitosis
I. osmosis

Anita knows that all cells reproduce. She also knows that each type of cell
reproduces for different reasons. What is the main reason that prokaryotic
cells reproduce?
F. to repair damaged cells
G. to create new organisms
H. to increase specialization
I. to grow into a larger organism

Cells obtain the raw materials they need to keep the organism healthy
through many different processes. Many of these processes do not require
the cell to use any energy. One process that does require the use of energy is
called active transport. Which of the following is an example of active
A. osmosis of water across the cell membrane
B. diffusion of small particles across the cell membrane
C. movement of large particles from an area of low concentration to an
area of high concentration
D. movement of small particles from an area of high concentration to
an area of low concentration

When two dogs reproduce, two parent cells join together to form the
Which of the following best describes how the offspring will appear?
F. They will express only recessive traits.
G. They will be exactly like their parents.
H. They will share some traits with both parents, but will not be
identical to either parent.
I. They will not express any dominant traits.

Which of the following traits would most likely improve the chances that an
organism will survive and reproduce?
F. brightly colored scales, which make a fish easier to spot by its
G. poor vision, which makes it more difficult for an eagle to see its prey
H. bright colors, which attract bees to a flower
I. dull-colored feathers, which make it less likely that a bird will find a

An area that is occupied by one animal or a group of animals that do not

allow other members of the species to enter is called a territory. Which of the
following best describes why establishing a territory is a survival behavior?
A. Establishing a territory is not a survival behavior.
B. Establishing a territory makes it harder for an animal to find a mate.
C. Establishing a territory decreases the genetic variation of a
D. Establishing a territory makes it easier for an animal to raise young
and find food.

Jonquila finds an interesting lizard near a pond. Its tail is colored bright yellow
and red. What type of defense against predators does this lizard most likely
F. camouflage
G. chemical
H. grouping
I. remoras

The characteristics of a praying mantis make it easy for it to be camouflaged

by the green stems of plants. While camouflaged, a praying mantis
can feed on other insects that inhabit or feed on a plant. If a praying mantis
feeds on natural enemies of a plant, what type of relationship is occurring
between the praying mantis and the plant?
A. camouflage
B. competition
C. mutualism
D. parasitism

Which of the following best describes the availability of energy at each

higher level in an energy pyramid?
F. The amount of energy available to organisms increases.
G. The amount of energy available to organisms decreases.
H. The amount of energy available to organisms remains constant.
I. The amount of energy increases as the number of organisms
becomes smaller.

As part of a field investigation, you survey the features of a river in your

community. The river channel is narrow, straight and deep. Water flows
Aerial photographs you have obtained for the river also show that it has few
tributaries. Which of the following is a valid conclusion based on these data?
F. The river is in a youthful stage of development.
G. The river is at a mature stage of development.
H. The river is old.
I. The data provide no clues as to the stage of the river’s development.

Which of the following parts of an atom has no electrical charge?

A. electron
B. neutron
C. proton
D. the proton and the neutron

How many electrons does an atom with an atomic number of 20 and a mass
number of 42 have?
F. 20
G. 22
H. 42
I. 62

Physical properties of a substance can be determined without changing the

identity of the substance. Chemical properties of a substance describe the
substance’s ability to change into new matter that has different properties.
Which of the following describes a chemical property of a substance?
A. Iron is denser than limestone.
B. Burning wood results in ash and smoke.
C. Copper conducts electric current, glass does not.
D. The boiling point of alcohol is lower than the boiling point of water

Pedro is conducting an experiment on plants. One morning he observed dew

drops on blades of grass. Which of the following is a valid explanation for this
F. Energy was removed and water vapor in the air underwent
sublimation to form dew.
G. Energy was removed and water vapor in the air underwent
condensation to form dew.
H. Energy was added and water vapor in the air evaporated to form
I. Energy was added and water vapor in the air melted to form dew.

Chemical reactions are used in many processes, such as cooking food,

heating homes, and powering automobiles. In chemical reactions, energy is
transferred from one molecule to another. How is this energy transferred?
A. by the gravitational attraction between molecules
B. by the bumping of one molecule into another molecule
C. by one molecule sending out electricity to another molecule
D. by one molecule sending out heat waves to another molecule

A scientist carries out a reaction in a test tube. After the bubbling stops, she
notices that the test tube is very warm. What might she conclude about the
F. The reaction happened very quickly.
G. The reaction is endothermic.
H. The reaction is exothermic.
I. No reaction took place.
Juanita has two plants in her garden. One plant produces red flowers and the
other plant produces white flowers. When Juanita crossed a true-breeding
plant with white flowers with a true-breeding plant with red flowers, the
offspring had pink flowers. What principle of heredity can explain why pink
flowers are produced from this cross?
A. self-pollination
B. selective breeding
C. incomplete dominance
D. environmental influence

A group of birds become separated from its original population. Over a period
of time, the new population of birds adapted to its new environment.
If this new population returned to the environment it originated from, which
of the following would most likely determine its ability to survive as a
A. its beak size
B. its ability to fly
C. its common ancestry
D. its ability to reproduce

Today, scientists know that variation happens as a result of the exchange of

genetic information as it is passed from parent to offspring. Therefore, each
offspring has its own combination of genes. Which of the following is true
about inherited variation?
F. Variation can influence separation.
G. Variation can influence selective breeding.
H. Variation can influence the resources that are available to an
I. Variation can influence whether an organism is more likely to survive
to reproduce.

Which of the following is not part of Darwin’s theory of natural selection?

A. Individuals in a population are different from one another. Some of
those differences are genetic traits.
B. More offspring are born than will live to become adults.
C. Individuals that have favorable traits are more likely to survive and
D. All organisms have the same number of offspring.

Joaquin wants to learn about the effect different amounts of sunlight have on
plants. He sets up tables with eight different plants. Every part of his
experiment should be the same except the variable he is testing. What is that
A. the type of plant
B. the amount of light each plant may have
C. the amount of water received by each plant
D. the amount of nutrients he gives each plant

The cycling of carbon between the atmosphere, land, water, and organisms is
called the carbon cycle. The key processes in the carbon cycle include
photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and combustion. In which of the
following processes do organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, break down
organic matter into simple molecules?
A. combustion
B. decomposition
C. photosynthesis
D. respiration

Isotopes exist because atoms of the same element can have different
numbers of
a. protons. c. electrons.
b. neutrons. d. None of the above

Which of the following items is NOT found on the periodic table?

a. the atomic number of each element
b. the name of each element
c. the date that each element was discovered
d. the atomic mass of each element

The elements are arranged in the periodic table in such a way that a
repeating pattern exists in the chemical and physical properties of the
elements. Which of the following statements about the periodic table is true?
a. There are more nonmetals than metals on the periodic table.
b. Atoms of elements in the same period have the same number of
electrons in their outer level.
c. The elements at the far right of the periodic table are nonmetals.
d. Elements are arranged by increasing atomic mass.

The amount of space something occupies is called

a. mass. c. volume.
b. density. d. area.

Which of the following properties is a chemical property?

a. flammability c. hardness
b. malleability d. color

Marta stirs potassium chloride crystals into a beaker of water. They dissolve
in the clear liquid. She observes the beaker the next day and sees a clear
liquid. What type of matter is in the beaker?
a. a suspension
b. a solution
c. a colloid
d. a pure substance

Water is an unusual compound because it exists naturally on Earth in three

states: solid, liquid, and gas. In which of the following are the water
molecules farthest apart?
a. in an iceberg c. in river water
b. in a raindrop d. in vapor in the air
Your body has many levels of structural organization. For example, your brain
cells work together and form brain tissue. Various types of brain tissues work
together and form the brain. The brain is a part of your nervous system.
Which of the following best describes your brain?
a. a group of cells that work together to perform a specific job
b. a group of tissues that belong to different systems
c. a group of tissues that work together to perform a specific job
d. a group of organ systems working separately

Bacteria play an important role in Earth’s cycles. In which of the following

processes are bacteria most important?
a. combustion c. nitrogen fixation
b. condensation d. evaporation

Many desert animals experience an internal slowdown in the hottest part of

the summer. When the availability of food and water is scarce, these animals
undergo a period of inactivity and lowered body temperature. What is this
seasonal behavior called?
a. hibernation c. parenting
b. estivation d. circadian rhythm

A limiting factor is a resource that is so scarce that it limits the size of a

population. When are resources such as water, food, or sunlight most likely to
be limiting factors?
a. when population size is decreasing
b. when predators eat their prey
c. when a population is small
d. when a population is approaching its habitat’s carrying capacity

Most plants need nitrogen to grow. What might happen to other resources in
an ecosystem if all of its nitrogen were removed?
a. Nothing, the soil alone will replenish the nitrogen.
b. Nothing, other resources in the ecosystem will be unaffected.
c. All of the consumers will not survive, but the producers will die.
d. Most of the producers, and thus the rest of the community, will die.

Density is an important physical property of matter. It is used to distinguish

one kind of matter from another. Which of the following statements about
density is true?
a. Density is measured in grams.
b. Density is mass-per-unit volume.
c. Density is measured in milliliters.
d. Density is a chemical property.