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Reading comprehension and reading strategies

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Do students fully understand what they are reading? Are
they able to express verbally or written communication what
they have read? Professional teachers need to guide students
to become independent and effective in our fast-paced, fastgrowing society. To do this we need to start with the basic
skill

that

is

used

throughout

life;

and

that

skill

is

reading comprehension.
Reading comprehension is a skill that is critical in
the educational success of all individuals. Without adequate
reading comprehension skill, students can struggle in many
subjects areas. Reading comprehension is an important skill
needed for all areas of school.
Educators need to provide instruction to students in
elementary and junior high school to improve their reading
and

comprehension

school.

One

can

abilities
only

before

assert

reaching

that

senior

improving

high

reading

comprehension skills in younger people will improve literacy


rates as time progress.
Reading comprehension is a key to increasing reading
scores.

Solving

problems,

preparing

for

college

and

illiteracy are very credible reasons for the improvement of


reading comprehension skills.
This study will be conducted to determine if there is a
difference

between

reading

comprehension

strategy

and

reading comprehension scores prior to instruction of the


self-questioning reading comprehension strategy and reading
comprehension

scores

after

instruction

of

the

self-

questioning reading comprehension strategies for grade eight


students

at

F.

Dominice

National

High

School,

Bugko,

Mondragon, Northern Samar. There are many positive results


that can come to this study. Readers of the study will
observe the self-questioning comprehension.

Statement of the Problem


This study will seek to analyze

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The main purpose for reading is to comprehend the ideas
in the material. Without comprehension, reading would be
empty and meaningless. Providing a basis for this study is
the existing theory by Thomas G. Gunning, the Schema Theory.
Gunning (1996) defines a schema as the organized knowledge
that

one

already

has

about

people,

places,

things,

events.1

1 Gunning, Thomas G. (1996). Creating Reading Instruction for All


Children. Chapter 6, 192-236.

and

The

above

theory

is

relevant

to

the

study

for

it

involves an interaction between the readers own knowledge


and the text, which results in comprehension.
Another theory that exists, which is relevant to the
study is Thomas G. Gunnings, the Mental Model theory. It
seemingly relies the heaviest on the Spatial Intelligence
area in Gardners Multiple Intelligences theory (Armstrong
1994).2 Therefore, this model may not be as affective for
non-spatial learners. Teaching the process of how a mental
picture

is

formed

could

develop

this

skill.

Taking

information about the main character as it comes through the


readings and writing descriptive pieces on that character
would

be

way

to

improve

this

skill

and

work

towards

increasing comprehension.
Another

theory

that

is

relevant

to

the

study

is

the

Propositional Theory. This involves the reader constructing


a main idea or macrostructure as they process the text.
These main ideas are organized in a hierarchical fashion
with the most important things given the highest priority to
be memorized (Gunning, 1996).3 The Proposition theory works
2 Et. al
3 Loc. Cit.

hand

in

hand

with

Organizational

strategies

such

as

remembering only the relevant information, or identifying


the main idea. These are skills widely taught throughout
schools as well as seen on standardized tests.
Here is another theory that supports to the abovementioned

theories.

David

S.

Katims

(1997)

stated

that

learning strategies are techniques, or routines that enable


students

to

learn

to

solve

problems

and

complete

tasks

independently. A strategy is an individuals approach to a


task.4
It is interesting to note how intertwined the theories
are. Each one supports the other. In order to form a mental
model in ones head; one must have a schema of that topic
already stored. According to the Proposition theory, the
student is forming a mental model in their mind as they are
forming the macrostructure.
Forming a schema is the most basic comprehension tool
used by students. As they become more advanced, they can
build on their base of schemas and create mental models

4 Katims, David S. (1997). Improving the Reading Comprehension of


Middle School Students in Inclusive Classrooms. Journal of Adolescent
and Adult Literacy, Issue 2, 116-124.

throughout the reading. The most complex comprehension tool


is forming a series of propositions, which are constantly
updated throughout the text.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

In this study, the researchers believe that reading


comprehension will depend on the profile of the students. In
terms of age, socio-economic status, and values orientation
in the family has a direct relation to the comprehension
ability of the students.

INDEPENDENT
VARIABLES

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

STUDENTS
PROFILE
1. age
2. socioeconomic status
3. values
orientation

READING
COMPREHENSION

READING
COMPREHENSION
STRATEGIES

FIGURE 1. Paradigm showing the variables of the study