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Application forms: The first, and often easiest, way of filtering out less suitable applicants is through the

use of application forms. These will provide the organisation with relevant information about the
candidates. This will allow the organisation to:
eliminate unsatisfactory applicants
save interview time
form initial personnel records for successful candidates
Selection interviews: Once the least appropriate candidates have been rejected using their
application forms, the remaining applicants can be interviewed.
The purpose of an interview is to:
1)find the best person for the job
2)ensure that the candidate understands what the job involves and what the career prospects are
3)make the candidate feel that they have been treated fairly in the selection process.
Interviews have several key advantages and disadvantages as a way of selecting candidate
places candidate at ease
highly interactive, allowing flexible question and answers
opportunities to use nonverbal communication
opportunities to assess appearance, interpersonal and communication skills
opportunities to evaluate rapport between the candidate and the potential colleagues/bosses.
too brief to get to know candidates
interview is an artificial situation
halo effect from initial impression
qualitative factors such as motivation, honesty or integrity are difficult to assess
prejudice stereotyping groups of people
lack of interviewer preparation, skill, training and practice
subjectivity and bias.

Selection testing: Testing can be undertaken either before or after the interview has taken place.
The two basic types of test are: There are a range of specific tests that you need to be aware of, including:
Proficiency and attainment (Competence testing): these are used to examine the
applicants competences, skills and abilities in areas that will be required in the job they have applied for.

Intelligence test: assess the intellectual abilities of an individual. They are used to measure a range of abilities such
as candidate english language skills and quantitative apptitude skills.
Psychometric: these are more general and test psychological factors, such as aptitude, intelligence
and personality.

Assessment centres (group assessments):

Assessment centres involve candidates being observed and evaluated by trained assessors as they are given
a selection of preprogrammed exercises or trials.
Assessors will be looking for evidence that candidates have certain abilities that are important in the
job they have applied for. These criteria will change from job to job, but may include leadership or
communication skills, for example.
Limitations of testing: Testing , whether in groups or as individuals has several drawbacks, including:
1: There is often no direct relationship between ability in the test and ability in the job itself.
2: They are subject to coaching and practice efforts.
3: Interpretation of test results is often complex and requires training and experience.
4: Many tests can be highly subjective (especially personality tests).
5: It may be difficult to exclude bias from the tests.

References: The purpose of references is to confirm facts about the candidate and increase the degree of
confidence felt about information they provided during the selection process.
References should contain two types of information:

1:Straightforward, factual information, confirming the nature of the applicants previous job,
period of employment, pay and circumstances of leaving.
2:Opinions about the applicants personality and other attributes, though these are open to bias and should
therefore be treated with caution.
Many organisations ask for a minimum of two references including references from past employers as
well as personal references (which are likely to be more biased in favour of the candidate).
Who is involved in recruitment and selection?
1) Senior management tend to be responsible for identifying the overall needs of the organisation and
they are usually involved in recruiting people (from within or outside the organisation) for senior positions.
2)Human Resources (HR) department may be present in larger organisations. They may take overall
responsibility for the recruitment and selection process.
3)Line managers are likely to be the prospective managers for more junior candidates. In smaller businesses
they may, therefore, have sole responsibility for selection.