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Akhlaque Shaikh
ROLL NO: 0926103



Its is a scenario base I would like to choose the MEEZAN BANK LIMETED. From which I
will Define these issues in assignment . First I would like to tell about the history of MEEZAN
BANK LIMETED that what they are doing means what business they are running. The history
.of Meezan Bank. I took from Internet from the MEEZAN BANK LIMETED web site


The Meezan Bank Limeted Trust is Pakistan’s largest and oldest Mutual Fund, having
approximately 52,000 account holders in Meezan Bank Limited holders. MEEZAN BANK
LIMETED's distribution network comprises of 50 MEEZAN BANK branches, various
Authorized bank branches all over Pakistan. The Trust constituted under the Trust Deed dated
12th November 1962, executed between (MEEZAN BANK LIMETED) as Management
.Company and National Banks of Pakistan as Trustee


Accounting infrmation system we know deal with numbers, which gather the data and
manipulate data into information, to define the firm activities and current position of the
.company by the portfolio and related graph

And deliever this accounting information to external partners and internal partners means
.available to both for inside the organization and outside the organization

To store this accounting information the organization need huge data storage, and all the data is
.related to the accounting database

Like I choose the MEEZAN BANK LIMETED LTD for scenario base the purchasing rate of
share is different from selling so the MEEZAN BANK LIMETED store all the secification about
the user that when they buying at what rate the buyer purachase share and when they sale and at
what rate so for all these information MEEZAN BANK LIMETED naeed huge accounting
.database storage

And at end of the year they publish the company portfolio position to describe the position where
.the company is standing. And how much divident company will declare

Accounting Information Systems provide efficient delivery of information needed to perform

necessary accounting work and to assist in delivery of accurate and informative data to users,
.especially those who are not familiar with the accounting and financial reporting areas itself

For all these information the firm need accounting information software. Like MEEZAN BANK
LIMETED fill the customer order purchasing,account payable, account recieveable, billing of
.customer and that perform all the general ledger system


A management information system (MIS) is a system or process that provides information

needed to manage organizations effectively [1]. Management information systems are regarded
to be a subset of the overall internal controls procedures in a business, which cover the
application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures used by management
accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide
strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that
they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the
organization.[2] Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information
management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision
Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems

MIS as System : MIS is a system, which makes available the right information to the right
.person at the right place, at the right time, in the right form & at the right cost


At the start, in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was made manually and
only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistic(s),
and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. Previously, data had to
be separated individually by the people as per the requirement and necessity of the organization.
Later, data was distinguished from information, and instead of the collection of mass of data,
.important, and to the point data that is needed by the organization was stored

Early on, business computers were mostly used for relatively simple operations such as tracking
sales or payroll data, often without much detail. Over time these applications became more
complex and began to store increasing amounts of information while also interlinking with
previously separate information systems. As more and more data was stored and linked man
began to analyze this information into further detail, creating entire management reports from the
raw, stored data. The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications, which were
developed to provide managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that
would help in managing the enterprise. Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts
and includes (but is not limited to): decision support systems, resource and people management
.applications, ERP, SCM, CRM, project management and database retrieval application

An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collecting, processing, storing and disseminating data in the
form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. In a way it is a
documented report of the activities that were planned and executed. According to Philip Kotler
"A marketing information system consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort,
analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision

The terms MIS and information system are often confused. Information systems include systems
that are not intended for decision making. The area of study called MIS is sometimes referred to,
in a restrictive sense, as information technology management. That area of study should not be
confused with computer science. IT service management is a practitioner-focused discipline.
MIS has also some differences with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) as ERP incorporates
.elements that are not necessarily focused on decision support

Any successful MIS must support a businesses Five Year Plan or its equivalent. It must provide
for reports based up performance analysis in areas critical to that plan, with feedback loops that
allow for titivation of every aspect of the business, including recruitment and training regimens.
In effect, MIS must not only indicate how things are going, but why they are not going as well as
planned where that is the case. These reports would include performance relative to cost centers
and projects that drive profit or loss, and do so in such a way that indentifies individual
.accountability, and in virtual real-time

Professor Allen S. Lee states that "...research in the information systems field examines more
than the technological system, or just the social system, or even the two side by side; in addition,
".it investigates the phenomena that emerge when the two interact

Decision Support Systems .3

The concept of a Decision Support System (DSS) emerged in the 1970s following developments
in IT which allowed the interactive use of computer technology, see DSS History at
dssresources.com.. The DSS concept reflected dissatisfaction with previous inflexible modelling
approaches which did not allow management intervention in problem solving. The early
definitions of DSS emphaised the role of DSS as flexible systems combining database and model
components aimed at less structured decisions. These modelling and database components are
under the control of the user through an interface or dialogue system

Consequently the DSS field combines elements of OR/MS and IS and members of CMSS
.have been working in the DSS area for many years
The best example I want to give here is that, rthe decision of class to attained or not. Every
.time we make decision and for this decision we use system

Decision system give you alternaives, Decision support system can be used by Management
.Information system

Introduce and mostly use in America, Before DSS we used the traditional decision but in
.traditional decision system we have error and more cost

There are two types of decision

Day by day decision or routine decision (1
Uncertain condition occur and take decision on the spot Like disaster and earthquake and (2

When we find solution we give first priority to enviornment means first we find the solution
from enviornment. And then choose activity step by step. Decision can be made by review the
.past trends

DSS support the manager to solve the problems and support the manager judgement.DSS not
.provide the solution but provide the altrenatives,it assist the decision

Like in NIT if the firm website server has down then the manager will ask to the Database
Administrator to quickly solve the problem in order to provide the facility to customer or the
.Administrator can use the backup server

As mentioned above, there are theoretical possibilities of building such systems in any
knowledge domain. One example is the Clinical decision support system for medical diagnosis.
Other examples include a bank loan officer verifying the credit of a loan applicant or an
engineering firm that has bids on several projects and wants to know if they can be competitive
.with their costs

DSS is extensively used in business and management. Executive dashboard and other business
performance software allow faster decision making, identification of negative trends, and better
.allocation of business resources

A growing area of DSS application, concepts, principles, and techniques is in agricultural

production, marketing for sustainable development. For example, the DSS package developed
through financial support of USAID during the 80's and 90's, has allowed rapid assessment of
several agricultural production systems around the world to facilitate decision-making at the
farm and policy levels. There are, however, many constraints to the successful adoption on DSS
in agriculture

A specific example concerns the Canadian National Railway system, which tests its equipment
on a regular basis using a decision support system. A problem faced by any railroad is worn-out
or defective rails, which can result in hundreds of derailments per year. Under a DSS, CN
managed to decrease the incidence of derailments at the same time other companies were
.experiencing an increase

DSS has many applications that have already been spoken about. However, it can be used in any
field where organization is necessary. Additionally, a DSS can be designed to help make
.decisions on the stock market, or deciding which area or segment to market a product toward


Knowledge Management System (KM System) refers to a (generally IT based) system for
managing knowledge in organizations for supporting creation, capture, storage and
dissemination of information. It can comprise a part (neither necessary or sufficient) of a
.Knowledge Management initiative

The idea of a KM system is to enable employees to have ready access to the organization's
documented base of facts, sources of information, and solutions. For example a typical claim
justifying the creation of a KM system might run something like this: an engineer could know
the metallurgical composition of an alloy that reduces sound in gear systems. Sharing this
information organization wide can lead to more effective engine design and it could also lead to
.ideas for new or improved equipment
:A KM system could be any of the following
Document based i.e. any technology that permits creation/management/sharing of.1
.formatted documents such as Lotus Notes, web, distributed databases etc
Ontology/Taxonomy based: these are similar to document technologies in the sense that a.2
system of terminologies (i.e. ontology) are used to summarize the document e.g. Author,
Subj, Organization etc. as in DAML & other XML based ontologies
Based on AI technologies which use a customized representation scheme to represent the.3
.problem domain
Provide network maps of the organization showing the flow of communication between.4
entities and individuals
Increasingly social computing tools are being deployed to provide a more organic.5
.approach to creation of a KM system
KMS systems deal with information (although Knowledge Management as a discipline may
extend beyond the information centric aspect of any system) so they are a class of information
system and may build on, or utilize other information sources. Distinguishing features of a KMS
:can include
Purpose: a KMS will have an explicit Knowledge Management objective of some type.1
.such as collaboration, sharing good practice or the like
Context: One perspective on KMS would see knowledge is information that is.2
meaningfully organized, accumulated and embedded in a context of creation and
Processes: KMS are developed to support and enhance knowledge-intensive processes,.3
tasks or projects of e.g., creation, construction, identification, capturing, acquisition,
selection, valuation, organization, linking, structuring, formalization, visualization,
transfer, distribution, retention, maintenance, refinement, revision, evolution, accessing,
retrieval and last but not least the application of knowledge, also called the knowledge
.life cycle
Participants: Users can play the roles of active, involved participants in knowledge.4
networks and communities fostered by KMS, although this is not necessarily the case.

KMS designs are held to reflect that knowledge is developed collectively and that the
“distribution” of knowledge leads to its continuous change, reconstruction and
application in different contexts, by different participants with differing backgrounds and
Instruments: KMS support KM instruments, e.g., the capture, creation and sharing of the.5
codifiable aspects of experience, the creation of corporate knowledge directories,
taxonomies or ontologies, expertise locators, skill management systems, collaborative
filtering and handling of interests used to connect people, the creation and fostering of
.communities or knowledge networks
A KMS offers integrated services to deploy KM instruments for networks of participants, i.e.
active knowledge workers, in knowledge-intensive business processes along the entire
knowledge life cycle. KMS can be used for a wide range of cooperative, collaborative,
adhocracy and hierarchy communities, virtual organizations, societies and other virtual networks,
to manage media contents; activities, interactions and work-flows purposes; projects; works,
networks, departments, privileges, roles, participants and other active users in order to extract
and generate new knowledge and to enhance, leverage and transfer in new outcomes of
knowledge providing new services using new formats and interfaces and different
.communication channels
The term KMS can be associated to Open Source Software, and Open Standards, Open Protocols
.and Open Knowledge licenses, initiatives and policies

Benefits of KM Systems
:Some of the advantages claimed for KM systems are
.Sharing of valuable organizational information throughout organisational hierarchy.1
.Can avoid re-inventing the wheel, reducing redundant work.2
May reduce training time for new employees.3
Retention of Intellectual Property after the employee leaves if such knowledge can be.4