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Kingston Technology was founded on October 17, 1987, in response to a severe shortage of
surface-mount memory chips in the high-tech marketplace in the 1980s. To provide a
solution, Taiwan immigrants John Tu and David Sun drew on their engineering expertise and
designed a new single in-line memory module (SIMM) that used readily available, oldertechnology through-hole components. In 1989 Kingston differentiated itself from its competitors with
100-percent testing, which resulted in quality assurance and the leadership position in the market.
[citation needed]

The following year the company branched out into its first non-memory product line,

processor upgrades. By 1992, Kingston was ranked #1 by Inc. as the fastest-growing privately held
company in America. The company expanded into networking and storage product lines, and
introduced DataTraveler and DataPak portable products. In September 1994, Kingston became ISO
9000 certified on its first assessment attempt.
Kingston began expanding its services into Europe by opening a branch office in Munich,
Germany[when?] to provide technical support and marketing capabilities for its European distributors and
In October 1995, the company joined the Billion-Dollar Club. After the companys 1995 sales
exceeded $1.3 billion, ads ran thanking the employees ("Thanks a Billion!") with each individual
employee-name in The Wall Street Journal, The Orange County Register and The Los Angeles
Times. Ads also appeared in trade publications and The Wall Street Journal thanking the company's
suppliers and distributors.
On August 15, 1996 SoftBank Corporation of Japan acquired 80 percent of Kingston for a total of
$1.8 billion. In November of the same year, Kingston and Toshiba co-marketed memory upgrades for
Toshiba PCs - the first time that a PC OEM and a memory manufacturer had teamed up to create a
co-branded module. In 1999, Tu and Sun eventually bought back the 80 percent of Kingston owned
by Softbank for $450 million.
On December 14, 1996 John Tu and David Sun allocated $100 million for employee bonuses as a
result of the acquisition, averaging $130,000 for each of the company's 550 workers. [3] Kingston
announced a 49% increase in unit sales for its memory module products in calendar year 1996 over
calendar year 1995.
In January 1997, Kingston opened its European headquarters in the United Kingdom, a
manufacturing facility/office in Taiwan, a sales office in Japan, and a manufacturing facility and
offices in Dublin, Ireland. The company also expanded its American manufacturing capacity by

purchasing PC-OEM manufacturing buildings in Fountain Valley, CA. Kingston also introduced
ValueRAM, which was a high-quality, low-cost memory designed for system integrators to use
in white box solutions.
Kingston launched Advanced Validation Labs, Inc. (AVL), a sister company that provides memory
validation services. Kingstons Storage Products Division (SPD) was also spun off as a new
company, StorCase Technology, Inc. In June of the same year, Kingston announced a new supply
chain management model to its memory manufacturing process. Payton Technology Inc. was
established to help support this new model. Forbes listed Kingston as number 141 on its list of "The
500 Largest Private Companies in the U.S," with revenues of $1.5 billion for 1999.
In March 2001, Kingston announced the formation of the Consumer Markets Division (CMD), a new
division focusing on the retail and e-tail channel.
In 2002 Kingston launched a patented, memory tester, a new HyperX line of high-performance
memory modules, and patented EPOC chip-stacking technology. In August, Kingston made a $50
million investment in Elpida and launched a green initiative for module manufacturing.
In 2004, Kingston announced revenues of $1.8B for 2003. In September, Kingston announced new
DataTraveler Elite USB drives, with hardware-based security encryption. In October, Advanced
Micro Devices named Kingston "Outstanding Partner" for contributions to the AMD Athlon 64
and Opteron launches. Kingston reported revenues of $2.4B for 2004. In May, Kingston launched a
line of validated ValueRam modules for Intel-based servers. The company was later granted a U.S.
patent on dynamic burn-in tester for server memory. They also announced a $26M investment in
Tera Probe, the newest and largest wafer testing company in the world. They also opened the
world's largest memory module manufacturing facility in Shanghai, China. In 2006, Kingston reported
revenues of $3.0B for 2005. In March, Kingston introduced the first fully secure 100% privacy USB
drive with 128-bit hardware encryption, and later with 256-bit hardware encryption. The company
also launched Fully Buffered Dimms (FBDIMMs), which broke the 16GB barrier. The company
entered the portable media market with KPEX (Kingston Portable Entertainment eXperience).
In 2007, Kingston reported revenues of $3.7B for 2006. Forbes listed Kingston as number 83 on its
list of "The 500 Largest Private Companies in the U.S". Inc. ranked Kingston as the #1 Fastest
Growing Private Company By Revenue.
In 2008, Kingston reported revenues of $4.5B for 2007. In August,'s "Top 100 Inc. 5000
Companies" ranked Kingston #2 in both Gross Dollars of Growth and Overall Revenue. Forbes lists
Kingston as number 79 on its list of "The 500 Largest Private Companies in the U.S."

In 2009, Kingston reported revenues of $4.0B for 2008. Volume increased 41% in memory units
shipped from 2007. iSuppli ranked Kingston as the world's number-one memory module
manufacturer for the third-party memory market for the sixth consecutive year. In August,'s
"Top 100 Inc. 5000 Companies" ranked Kingston #5 in Private Companies by Revenue and number
1 in the computer hardware category. In October, Forbes listed Kingston as number 97 on its list of
"The 500 Largest Private Companies in the U.S."
In 2010, Kingston reported revenues of $4.1B for 2009. iSuppli ranked Kingston as the world's
number-one memory module manufacturer for the third-party memory market with 40.3% market
share, up from 32.8% in 2008 and 27.5% in 2007. In August,'s "Top 100 Inc. 5000
Companies" ranked Kingston #6 in Private Companies by Revenue and number 1 in the computer
hardware category. In November, Forbes listed Kingston as number 77 on its list of "The 500 Largest
Private Companies in the U.S."
In 2011, Kingston reported revenues of $6.5B for 2010. iSuppli ranked Kingston as the world's
number-one memory module manufacturer for the third-party memory market, with 46% market
share. Kingston also launched the Wi-Drive line of wireless storage products. Forbes ranked
Kingston as the 51st largest private company in the US, up from #77. Inc. ranked Kingston #4 by
revenue in the top 100 companies and #1 in computer hardware category. Gartner Research ranked
Kingston as the #1 USB drive manufacturer in the world.
In 2012, Kingston celebrated 25 years in the memory business. iSuppli ranked Kingston as the
world's number-one memory module manufacturer for the third-party memory market for the 9th
consecutive year. Kingston celebrated 10 years of HyperX gaming memory. Kingston releases
HyperX branded SSD drives and releases the first Windows to Go USB drive. Forbes lists Kingston
as #48 on its list of "The 500 Largest Private Companies in the U.S." Gartner Research ranked
Kingston #1 USB manufacturer in the world.
In 2013, Kingston ships its fastest, worlds largest-capacity USB 3.0 Flash Drive with DataTraveler
HyperX Predator 3.0, available up to 1 TB. Kingston launches the MobileLite Wireless reader line of
storage products for smartphones and tablets. iSuppli ranks Kingston as the world's number-one
memory module manufacturer for the third-party memory market for the 10th consecutive year.
Gartner Research ranks Kingston the no. 1 USB Flash drive manufacturer in the world for the 6th
straight year. Forbes lists Kingston as #94 on its list of "The 500 Largest Private Companies in the
In 2014, Kingston HyperX released the FURY memory line for entry-level overclocking and gaming
enthusiasts. HyperX then launched a maximum comfort, superior sound Cloud gaming headset.
iSuppli (IHS) ranks Kingston as the world's number-one memory module manufacturer for the third-

party memory market for the 11th consecutive year. HyperX sets DDR3 overclocking world record
mark at 4620MHz, using one 4GB HyperX Predator 2933MHz DDR3 module. Kingston ships M.2
SATA SSDs for new notebook platforms, small-form factor devices and Z97 motherboards. Kingston
releases MobileLite Wireless G2, the second generation media streamer for smartphones and
tablets. HyperX demos DDR4 memory at PAX Prime, allowing for faster speeds at a lower voltage.
Forbes lists Kingston as #69 on its list of "The 500 Largest Private Companies in the U.S."
In 2015, IHS ranks Kingston as the world's number-one memory module manufacturer for the thirdparty memory market for the 12th consecutive year. In January, HyperX reclaimed the top DDR4
overclocking mark in the world at 4351MHz. HyperX Launches High-Performance PCIe SSD with
the highest-end SSD with the fastest speeds in the HyperX lineup. HyperX releases enhanced Cloud
II gaming headset with USB sound card audio control box and virtual 7.1 Surround Sound. HyperX
creates the worlds fastest DDR4 128GB memory kit running at an astoundingly fast 3000MHz with
HyperX Predator modules with ultra-tight timings. Gartner ranks Kingston as the #2 aftermarket PC
SSD manufacturer in the world for 2014. Forbes lists Kingston as #54 on its list of "The 500 Largest
Private Companies in the U.S."
In 2016, Kingston Digital, the Flash memory affiliate of Kingston Technology Company, acquired the
USB technology and assets of IronKey from Imation Corp.

Description of product
Kingston Pen Drive also referred as USB flash drive is a portable device which allows
user to transfer data (text, images, videos etc) to and from computer quickly. Users
can easily read and write the data on the Pen Drive by plugging it into the USB port
on the computer. Pen Drives are quite compact and can fit easily into the pocket;
they run without battery and draw power from the USB connection itself. Both
Floppy disks and CDs are now being gradually replaced by Pen Drive as a preferred
means of data storage. Its because latter offers mass data transfer and storage
capability and at a much faster rate.

Storage capacity of the Pen Drive can vary from few megabytes to over 100 GB.
Nowadays even external hard drives are available in the market with huge storage
capacity, which like Pen Drive can be connected to a USB port on the computer. Pen
drive consist of an electronic circuit board and a USB connector connects the drive
to the computer. Pen Drive also known as a Flash memory is an example of NAND
style storage device. It is a memory chip which holds the data. Data output is
controlled by Crystal oscillator which produces 12 MHz clock signal in the device.
Most Pen Drives are covered with plastic, metal or rubber casing for insulation.

USB flash drives represent a large part of the storage device market, which is also
occupied by hard-disk drives and SD memory cards. Often, buyers must make the
choice between these three devices when looking for a way to store and transfer
computer data. Each of these products suits different needs, but USB flash drives
offer a certain number of advantages when compared to hard-disk drives and SD
memory cards.

Because USB drives contain no moving parts, they are more durable than hard
drives, and it is this durability, combined with their very small size that makes them
easy to carry around. USB drives also provide transfer speeds and memory capacity
that equal or surpass those of other storage devices. This enables users to move
data around more quickly and to store a large number of media files, computer files,
and even programs on USB drives. USB flash drives do this all while consuming less
power than standard hard-disk drives. Plus, USB drives can be connected to
essentially any type of computer. As a result, USB drives offer many advantages not
only to individual buyers but also to business owners, who often use these devices
for promotional purposes.

Hard-disk drives are constructed from aluminum or glass platters that spin around
when data is being read or written onto the disk drive. Because of this movement,
hard-disk drives are more fragile and can be damaged if they are dropped or receive

other shocks. Because there are no moving parts in USB flash drives, they are
considered to be a type of solid-state drive. This means that they are much less
vulnerable to damage from shocks or drops.

USB flash drives are much smaller than hard-disk drives, and it is common to slip
them into pockets or attach them to key chains. It would be unthinkable to do the
same thing with a bulky hard-disk drive. Average USB drives are typically no longer
than two or three inches, with a width of about one inch. Some novelty USB drives
may be bigger, but their fun designs cater to a niche of buyers who are willing to
sacrifice a little bit of portability. In addition to size, the previously mentioned
durability of USB flash drives make them better suited for being carried around on a
regular basis.

Memory Capacity
Most USB flash drives offer memory capacities ranging from 1 to 128 gigabytes. As
a result, buyers have a diverse selection of USB flash drives to choose from,
depending on their computing needs. USB drives with one gigabyte or less of
memory are very inexpensive to manufacture and are sometimes even given away.
Buyers who want to distribute USB drives can find deals on bulk lots of models
offering one gigabyte of memory capacity. For casual computer users, one gigabyte
is often sufficient for simple file transfers and light storage.

However, for running programs and backing up computer hard drives, USB flash
drives with at least 32 gigabytes of memory are preferred. This amount of memory
capacity opens up many more possibilities. The USB drive could be used as a
backup, or to store large media files like photographs, movies, and music.

Transfer Speeds
USB 3.0 devices provide a transfer rate of up to 4.8 gigabytes per second. Even the
highest-performing SD memory cards cannot match this speed, trailing behind with
a maximum rate of 312 megabytes per second. Although buyers should keep in
mind that these rates represent theoretical maximums that will vary depending on
the actual devices used, this data provides a good indication of what users can
generally expect from a USB flash drive versus an SD memory card. Similarly, the

fastest hard-disk drive transfer rates top out at only 150 megabytes for the drives
boasting the highest performances. For average hard-disk drives, the maximum
transfer rates range from roughly 50 to 110 megabytes per second.

Devices with slower transfer speeds take a longer time to transfer files back and
forth from the computer. Programs running from the device will also be slower to
start up. USB flash drives provide transfer performance that can be almost 100
times faster than other technologies. Therefore, users who spend excessive
amounts of time waiting for files to be transferred could greatly reduce this time by
employing USB flash drives instead of external hard-disk drives or SD memory

Applications and Programs Made Specifically for USB Flash Drives

USB flash drives offer the option of adding a variety of applications that can be run
directly from the device. There are already a wide range of USB-drive applications,
including portable office software, image editors, web browsers, games, and even
whole operating systems that can be quickly booted from the portable drive. The
fast transfer speeds and large storage capacities offered by USB flash drives make
running programs from them both easy and convenient. Portable programs also give
users a simple way to protect the data stored on the USB drives, with many
different kinds of antivirus and encryption applications available to be stored on and
run from the flash drive.

The USB interface has become one of the most common ways to connect an
electronic device to virtually any type of computer. Netbooks, laptops, and desktop
computers all feature multiple USB ports, and it is not uncommon to see at least
three USB ports on even the smallest netbooks. This means that a USB drive can be
plugged into almost any type of computer that a user might have. In this way, USB
drives are much more practical than SD memory cards, as many computers do not
feature slots for memory cards. Furthermore, certain USB drives can themselves be
used to read memory cards for users whose computers lack memory-card slots.
These special USB drives, which are a combination of flash drives and memory-card
adapters, allow users to switch between storing data on flash drives and memory

Low Power Consumption

While hard drives require several motors in order to rotate the disk platters and
move the reading and writing head, USB drives have no moving parts or motors.
Therefore, USB drives consume a lot less power than hard-disk drives. This reduced
consumption not only affects users' electricity bills, it also allows USB drives to be
more convenient than hard drives. Many hard drives need so much electrical power
that they have special cables that must be plugged into two USB ports
simultaneously, in order to supply the drive with enough electricity from the
computer. A USB drive, on the other hand, only needs to be plugged into one USB
port at a time, leaving the other ports free for other devices.

USB Flash Drives Can Be Used to Gain Public Interest

Because USB flash drives with low storage capacities are inexpensive to buy in bulk,
many businesses and organizations give these devices away for free as part of
marketing or public awareness campaigns. USB drives, with their durability and
sleek visual appeal, provide the perfect canvas for printing names, logos, or
slogans. Promotional USB flash drives can even be pre-loaded with videos, trial
software, or any other kind of information that might attract interest from the
public. Promotional usage of USB drives has become very common for businesses,
and there are now many ways to buy USB drives in bulk.

USB flash drives are a remarkably convenient way to store your information. With
the invention of these small, affordable drives, users can easily transport essential
information from one computer to another. Their size enables users to carry these
drives on keychains or in bags, and each year their storage capacity seems to grow.
These popular devices are not without their disadvantages, however, and it is
important to weigh both potential gains and losses when considering whether they
will serve your needs.


Adrian Kingsley-Hughes reports that the security firm Syss has found an encryption
weakness in most USB flash drives. This weakness exposes all of your data,
regardless of previously established authentication programs. According to KingsleyHughes, the major producers of the flash drives have either issued a recall or
updated software, but users should check their drives and proceed cautiously with
sensitive data.

Physical Size
The strength of USB flash drives may also be their weakness. Because the drives
are designed to be as small as possible to assist portability, it also means that they
are much easier to lose. Whether they are lost among a bag's contents, drawer or
busy office, finding these simple-looking devices may be difficult. The potential for
sliding between couch cushions or falling out of a pocket is much greater than with
larger technological devices.

The flash drive's design usually involves a retractable USB plug. As with any moving
parts, wear and tear may damage or break the USB plug. And because little protects
the flash drive, there is also the potential for bending the relatively soft metal of the
USB plug, which renders the device useless.

Over time flash drive files can become corrupted and unreadable. This may be a
result of sharing the drive with many different computers and computer systems.
Some companies, like USB Drive, offer drive recovery software that
may correct the corruption and rescue lost files, but there are no guarantees.
Conversely, flash drives may infect computers. Michael Horowitz, in his CNET article
"USB Flash Drives Need a Condom," reminds users that flash drives are an easy way
to spread viruses and corrupt computer systems; he recommends scan programs to
investigate drives and protect your computer.

Evolution of technologies of that product

Marketing strategies