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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
The ability to read is one determiner of students' success or failure. They must form the habit of
reading to perform well in all subjects. A good reader has a better opportunity for greater
achievement.
Ajibola, (2006) states that a reading habit is cultivated by individuals who are ready to give their
all to it. The skill acquired in reading can promote the acquisition of language skills like
listening, speaking, and writing. Some primary school pupils find it difficult to read and
understand despite the fact that reading is indispensable. Some show a carefree attitude towards
reading. This problem is not peculiar to primary schools, but pertains to all categories of readers.
Lasisi (2007) asked a fundamental question on what books Nigerians read. His question included
whether political office holders in the country read. It was clear from the tone of the question that
he feels that reading is not part of the culture of the people that control Nigerian destiny.
Some English teachers are lagging behind in their approach to teaching reading comprehension.
The effect is poor performance among students. These teachers lack methods of imparting
reading skills to pupils. The condition is so bad that some pupils find it difficult to read and
understand a simple sentence. Amutheazi (2000) notes that there is an urgent need to investigate
into the causes of poor reading comprehension among our pupils with a view to finding a lasting
solution to the problem.
Reading is a crucial form of communication through which we get most of the information in
teaching and learning situations and in everyday life. Krashen (1993) says that we learn to read
by reading, not through drill and practice, but by free volition, and in this way learners become
readers.

Reading is the recognition of printed or written symbols, which serve as stimuli for the recall of
meanings built up through the reader's past experience. It has also been described as a process of
translating alphabetical symbols into a form of language from which the native speaker has
already derived the meaning. According to Lawal (1996), readers use the symbols to guide the
recovery of information from their repertoires and subsequently use this information to construct
interpretations of the message. Adewole (2001) describes critical reading skill, which which
students need to read, explore, and appreciate a literary text effectively. The ability to read is a
crucial skill for information retrieval (Dike, 2006).
The background of this project work is based on observation made by the researcher as a teacher
at Sapkalua Presby Primary School Primary three (3). During the observation, it was found that
almost all the pupils in Sapkalua Presby Primary School Primary three could neither speak nor
understand simple instruction in English language. Pupils who went out to urinate could not use
class teacher. Pupils could not understand questions asked by the class teacher in English unless
it is translated to Dagbani or the local language (L1).
After observing the pupil, the researcher identified a lot of factors leading to the pupils poor
English speaking.
To begin with, it was identified that the class teacher had interest mathematics and other subjects
to the determent of English language which should sense as a medium of language and through
which other subjects could be taught & learnt.
Secondly, it was observed that teachers spend much of instructional time on the writing aspect
and pay little attention to the oral or speaking aspect of the subject.
Again, it was realized that the pupils could neither speak nor understand simple instructions in
English language as a result of interference of their local language.

Further observation into this problem revealed that pupils who attempt to speak English are
being laughed at by their colleagues and this percent them from speaking English language. All
these were found as the major causes of the pupils poor English speaking in Sapkalua Presby
Primary School class three.
It is a real fact that without English language one cannot progress in the academic career. The
English language serves as the official instructional language in Ghanaian schools. In the
addition, English language is also internationally accepted as a medium of communication that is
why even in drawing the syllabus for most of the Ghanaian languages like Dagbani, every word
is written in English.
That is why the researcher has decided to use simple story telling and conversation to improve
upon English speaking among class three (3) pupils of Sapkalua Presby Primary School Primary
School.

Perceived Problem
As English language is the official language used in Ghanaian schools the researcher observed in
his English lesson that the pupils could neither speak nor understand simple instruction in
English language. This prompted the researcher to use simple stories and conversation to
improve upon English speaking skills in class three (3) at Sapkalua Presby Primary School.

Problem diagnosis
The researcher used the interview, observation and the tests to assess the causes of pupils
inability to speak English language. The researcher realized that the problem of the pupils
inability to speak English language had an influence in their participation during classroom

discussions. The researcher therefore designed a comprehensive and detailed research strategy to
discover the real causes of the problem and suggest the best ways of solving the problem.

Evidence of the problem


The researcher observed that pupils could not read their notes. This means that pupils could not
revise what they were taught in class after school. The researcher looked through the academic
assessment of some selected pupils and realized that they performed poorly. The researcher also
observed that some pupils who understand what have been taught in class later tend to forget and
since they cannot revise, they perform poorly during examinations.

Causes of the problem


The researcher proposed the following as the possible causes of pupils inability to speak English
language.
Among the factors that made the pupils perform poorly in English reading may be due to, the use
of vernacular (L1) as a medium of instruction at the lower levels of primary schools. The child
has no problem with the native language for he or she is so much exposed to the language that,
the child need not to learn it as other second language. But it becomes difficult for the child at
the upper levels to use second langue (L2), which may lead to difficulty in identifying and
pronouncing words which may be resulted in poor reading.
Many of the teachers are inadequately equipped in the knowledge of phonic analysis, content
clues and structural or morphological analysis. Other factors may include: large class size,
inadequate classrooms, which makes the teaching of the language (reading) ineffective.

Also, the non existence of school library and inadequate teaching and learning materials which
will facilitate the teaching is seen as the cause to the inability of pupils to identify words. The
research is the therefore directed to remedy the reading problem mainly fishing out the words as
they pronounce them.

Objectives of the study


The research would be highlighted as a successful project if at the end it is able to suggest
practical solutions to improve the problem pupils inability to speak English language. It also
seeks to disclose the correct teaching methods for teaching English language and other subjects.

Purpose of the Study


The study seeks to identify the cause of poor English speaking among class three pupils of
Sapkalua Presby Primary School. The study also aimed at encouraging pupils of Sapkalua
Presby Primary School to cultivation habit of speaking English language.
Again, the study seeks to help pupils to enough time to talk chat with one another, so it is much
closer to the way language is used outside the classroom to minimize shyness.
Lastly, the study seeks to motivate pupils to take active part in English lessons through singing
and answering questions.

Research Questions
In this study, the researcher seeks to find answers to the following questions;
1. What are the causes of poor English speaking among class three pupils of Sapkalua
Presby Primary School Primary?
2. How simple stories and conversation activities would be used to improve English
speaking skills at Sapkalua Presby Primary School?
3. What other language activities can be used to improve and enhance English speaking
skills in the primary three of Sapkalua Presby Primary School apart from storytelling
and conversational approach?
4. How can storytelling and conversation be used to minimize shyness in pupils of
Sapkalua Presby Primary School when speaking English language?
5. How could storytelling and conversation use to motivate pupils of Sapkalua Presby
Primary School to actively take part in English lessons?

Significance of the Study


This study, which seeks to improve upon pupils English speaking skills at Sapkalua Presby
Primary School will be of much importance to many especially pupils in class three (3), teachers
and other researchers.
This study or research work, in the first place, will help class three (3) pupils of Sapkalua Presby
Primary School who cannot speak nor understand simple instruction in English language to be
able to speak and understand simple instruction in English language. It will also help pupils to
overcome fear and shyness and also develop their fluency skills.

Finally, this work will serve as a guide to other researchers who would like to research into this
area of study.

Delimitations
In this research work, the researcher limited herself to only oral English and not the other aspect
of English such as reading, Writing and Grammar since in our daily lives we speak more than we
write.
Also, it was the wish of the researcher to extend the study to cover the rest of the classes in the
classes in the school, but due t limited time coupled with limited funds, the researcher only
covered class three pupils of Sapkalua Presby Primary School primary school.

Organization of the Study


The whole research work is organized in five (5) chapters. The first chapter which is the
introduction specializes on the Background of the study, Statement of the problem, purpose of
the study, research questions, significance of the study, delimitations of the study, limitation of
the study and organization of the study.
Chapter two focuses of the review of related literature. This deals with what others have said or
written about the research question or the topic.
The third chapter is the methodology used to gather the necessary information about the issue
under study.
The fourth chapter talks about the result of the findings, presentation and analysis of data
collected.
Finally, chapter five is the summary of the study, conclusion and recommendation.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In this chapter, the researcher will review literature under the following headings;
-

The meaning of speaking

Causes of pupils poor English speaking skills

Suggested solution to improve pupils speaking skills.

How to use conversation and storytelling to improve pupils English speaking skills.

The language policy in Ghana.

Meaning of Speaking
Many writers have said and related the topic study, speaking means the act of using the voice to
produce a sound.
It can also mean the ability of the person to communicate in a particular language either than his
or her local language.
The Websters New International Dictionary with Reference History (1925) explains that to
speak means to articulate sound or letter words with the ordinary modulation of the voice, as
opposed to singing to express thoughts by spoken words.
According to the Macmillan students Dictionary (1984) speaking is the act of using ones voice
to talk, or the ability to use a language that is not ones own.
Finally, to speak means to letter words to talk, to discourse, to make a speech, to sound, to give
definition from the twentieth century Dictionary (1983).

Causes of Poor English Speaking Skills


The causes of pupils poor English speaking has been identified by carious scholars. This is what
some of them say;
According to Rhodri Jones (1980), the causes of pupils poor English speaking skills is that too
much of emphasis is put on written work and not enough on oral work.
Fiona Lawtie (2004) agreed with Rhodri Jones that in our daily likes, we speak more than we
write, yet many English teachers spend much of their classes time on the other aspect of the
language and ignoring oral aspect.
These two writers believe that, since teachers have very limited time to teach pupils speaking, it
affects pupils speaking skills negatively.
Also from Gerry and Peter Wingard (1981) the size of a class in one the causes of poor English
speaking. They gave an example that in a class of fifty, everyone can read, write and can listen
simultaneously.

But they cannot all speak simultaneously and you cannot give individual

attention to all the fifty pupils. Each could receive less attention.
Moreover, B. Tomlinson and R. Ellis (1980) hold the view that pupils face the problem of
learning English language as a result of the strong interference from their local language.
Finally, Donn Byrne (1976) listed a number of causes of pupils poor English speaking.
-

The size of the class

The arrangement of the classroom.

The number of hours available for teaching English language.

After Donn Byrne has finished listing this possible causes of pupils poor English speaking, he
went further to say that the nature of our examination with a probable emphasis not skills that are
truly needed but on those that can be measured through a written examination.

Students

therefore do not give attention to such skills such as speaking but only concentrate on what can
be written in an examination.
In these, the researchers aggress with these scholars because in the researchers observation some
of these reasons were seen as causes of pupils poor English speaking.

Ways of Improving Pupils English speaking skills


Many researchers have suggested various ways through which pupils spoken English can be
improved. Since most of the pupils think they are not assessed on their speaking skills, and that
they will not practice to speak, Fiona Lawtin (2004) suggested to teachers that one way to get
pupils motivated to speak correct English is to allocate a percentage of their final grades to
speaking skills and let them know that they are assessed continually on their speaking practice in
class throughout the term.
Also from Swain (1985) we learn to speak by speaking. This goes to teachers as well as
pupils. The more you practice, the more you will improve your own oral skills.
Fiona again advised teachers to speak English themselves if they want their pupils to speak
English pupils learn directly from teachers, therefore teachers should try as much as possible to
speak English so that pupils will be motivated to speak.
According to Asamoah, Wiafe and Ayivi Tosuh (2003), oral activities such as storytelling,
conversation, poetry, drama, riddles among others can be sued to improve pupils spoken English.
Finally, Donn Byrne (1976) also suggested that learners must master as much of the language
system as they reasonably can. That is, its grammar, vocabulary and phonology.

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What is a story? According to Connolly et al (1993:1), a story takes place in the world of the
authors imagination. A story is not like history, an attempt to tell what actually did happen
given our knowledge of life and human nature, and our awareness of the laws that operate in the
authors story world. It can be deduced from the above that a story is a stimulation of the life
situation. Also it is a description either true or imagined of a connected series of events.
One of the most extensive studies on reading skills developed in school age children was
conducted by Charlotte S. Huck who has been quoted by Karlin in his book. Perspective on
Elementary Reading as follows: The enthusiastic teacher knows that one of the best ways to
create interest in book is to read to children every day. Children should her many stories before
they are expected to read. As they discover that books can produce environment, the gradually
developed purpose for learning to read. Karlin (1989) The lesson in the above statement is
clear that children love stores because it makes them happy or serves as a source of
entertainment. Therefore if the awareness is created in them that stories can be found in books,
then they will develop the desire to read.
Huck (1994), stresses that critical reading skills can be developed in children through the use of
stories. The point is that after reading or telling a story, the teacher through questions creates the
opportunity for children to relate what they have read to their own experience.
Through stories pupils are able to develop essential tool for effective study. The essential tool
for effective study is to be able to read and understand. As their interests are developed in stories
they will start searching for story books to read on their own. Reading on their own will help
develop their knowledge of understanding. There are types of reading done to obtain the greatest
possible understanding such as reading to visualize a scene, to comprehend directions, to follow
an argument or just to remember and organize what has been read.

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Stories help transmit the moral lesson to the pupils. During by the Fire Side, the hero Kwaku
Ananses bad ideas and its deceptive nature come with consequences which are bad.
This helps teach the youth lessons to obtain from bad things and do good things. Here stories
help curb the bad behaviour of pupils. How effectively can stories be used in the classroom to
stimulate pupils interest in reading.
A compressive discussion on how to prompt reading through stories can be found in Yemhs
techniques of teaching the language skills. Yemeh (1996) first dwells on what stories to choose
for children. Yemeh states that when choosing a story we must consider.

The age or level of the pupils

Their language level

Their interest

The background of the story (culturally familiar).

Hence, Yemeh stressed the point again that any story to be treated in the classroom ought to be
basic on the perceptual and intellectual abilities of children. In other words, the totality of the
child must be the determining factor in the choice of stories.
Presentation of a story lesson is another issue vividly discussed by Yemeh. He suggested that
this ought to be done in three stages. There is an initial state during which the teacher prepares
the pupils for the story, a second stage during which the story is presented and taught and the
third stage in which pupils do activities based on the story.
From the above, it is crystal clear that chidden must be psychologically prepared for the story, a
means by which they will pay much attention during the presentation.

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Later they will have to accomplish some follow up activities. Now having gone through these
stages successfully, there is no room for doubt that childrens interest in reading will definitely be
aroused.
Huck (1994), stressed that, one of the essential tools to stimulate pupils interest in reading is to
dramatize the story to the pupils. He said when the stories are dramatized, it helps arouse the
interest of the pupils which always makes them happy to read stories. Also he said opportunity
should be reacted for the pupils to relate what they have read to their own experience. Teachers
can have young children to draw a scene that is described in the story.
Ridat and Staurt (1998), require us to think, feel and use our imagination in reading. This point
is emphasized by Ridat and Staurt in their introductory notes to short stories for discussion.
They are saying that a good short story is life a good poetry. It can be read quickly for immediate
understanding. But to stop in a story means to miss the greater value to be found in the work.
What Ridat and Staurt are saying is that a good story is too well construct that one cannot read it
once and stop. There is the need to read it over and over to find out greater values that are
hidden in it. For the purpose of this study the implication here is that the desire to read items
more than once can be developed in children when they are made to discuss the story further
through questions. For example, why does the writer say Mr. Y is clever? All these help children
to be attentive when reading stories.

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How to Use Conversation and Story Telling To Improve English Speaking Skills of Pupils
According to Asamoah, Wiafe and Ayivi Tosuh there are three stages in teaching a conversation
lesson and these are the activities that can be done at each stage to develop pupils competence in
suing English language.

Preparation Stage
-

Teach vocabulary needed by pupils to engage in the conversation.

Use word cards to enable your pupils associate sounds with print.

Use different techniques such as mining, gestures and demonstrations to help pupils
get the meaning of the words.

Provide the opportunity for pupils to sue the vocabulary of form simple sentences.

Presentation Stage
-

Provide the stimulus materials. Eg. Picture, story riddles etc.

Discuss the materials with your pupils.

Present the conversation using the appropriate techniques such as role play
dramatization and mining.

Write conversation on chalkboard.

Production Stage
-

Group pupils to talk about the stimulus materials

Provide many activities such as role play, demonstration gestures to help pupils
converse using the appropriate structures.

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Asamoah, et al (2003) have suggested three main stages in teaching story telling lessons. These
are the activities that teachers can be use at each stage to develop pupils speaking skills.

Pre Reading Stage


-

Explore pupils background and link it to the story.

Explain the general meaning of the story

Teach some vocabulary items to help pupils understand the story.

Reading Stage
-

Put up the story on the board.

Present the story using pictures, realia and gestures

Use appropriate questions to help pupils to explain the meaning of the story. For
example, ask questions about cohesive devices and story structures.

Post Reading Stage


-

Find appropriate activities such as asking questions based on the story to make or
help pupils listen and speak.

Encourage pupils to re-tell whole or part of the story using, gestures, demonstration
and mining.

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The Language Policy in Ghana


According to Governor Fredick Gorden Guggisbeng (1919 1927) , the British Army Officer of
Canadian origin who assumed office as a governor of the Gold Coast. Guggistbery made a
recommendation that the use of the vernacular must start from lower primary.

The

recommendation made by Guggisbery help pupils to understand whatever they learn at the lower
primary.
This will help pupils to understand and speak English language, since they translate the English
into vernacular to solve problems in their learning process.
The 2002 review committee chaired by Professor Johns Anamuah Mensah, the vice chancellor of
the University of Education, Winneba presented a report. The report holds a view that, at the
kindergarten and lower primary levels, the medium of instruction shall be Ghanaian language
and English.
Also, English language shall be the medium of instruction for the upper primary.

Techniques of teaching storytelling


Discussion
Group discussion about what they think this character is thinking or feeling, and say it as if they
were the character. Each child adopts the pose of the character (possibly after pretending to be
that character) and the teacher touches a chosen child on the shoulder they then say what the
character is thinking or feeling.
Freeze frame

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Children recreate a picture or scene in a held pose and then bring it to life with action and
dialogue.

Hot seating
One person is in role as a character from a picture and sits in a chair at the front of the class.
Other children ask questions of the character. The person in role responds to the questions with
answers. The teacher should demonstrate this role first.

Picture Person
Each pupil gets a picture, which they mustnt show anyone else in the group. Pupils are given
two minutes to look at the person in their picture and become that person. Decide what kind of
personality he or she has, how old the person is, what kind of life they lead, etc. Use the picture
to help you decide - are there details about the person's clothes, their surroundings, and their face
which give you ideas?
Try to create a "story" for this person, as well as a voice, mannerisms and attitude. All of your
characters will attend a party at the end of the two minutes. Students should not talk to one
another before the two minutes are up. At the end of the two minutes, the participants hand in
their pictures. As soon as they hand in the picture, they transform into their character.
They will then talk to the other characters, as if they are at a party. The participants should
attempt to talk to everyone else, and try to remember things about the other characters. The party
lasts five minutes, depending on the number of students. At the end of this time, the teacher
shows the pupils the pictures that were used, and asks the group to identify whose character
matches the picture.

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Summary
Under this chapter, the researcher reviewed literature on the meaning of speaking. It was
discovered that speaking is the act to using the voice to produce sound. The researcher went on
further to review literature on some of the possible causes of pupils poor English speaking skills.
It was identified that the size of a class and our examination system among others were the
causes.
Some of the suggested solutions to pupils poor English speaking skills were also received. The
researcher also reviewed literature on the language policy in Ghana.

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CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents information on the procedures and techniques used to embark on this
project work. Under this chapter, it deals with the methodology which describes the research
design and all other strategies and procedures employed in obtaining data for the study.

Research Design
The researcher decided to embark on action research in this project work. Action research
according to Mills (2002), is a systematic inquiry conducted by teachers, researchers, principal,
school counselor or other stake holders in the teaching and learning environment to gather
information about the way particular school operate, how they teach and how well their students
learn.
The action research creates opportunity for teachers to be aware of their own practice to critical
of that practice and to be prepared to change. The design does not only focus on generating new
knowledge, it also enables the teacher, researcher and the pupils to develop appropriate
intervention strategies aimed at finding solutions to the problem identified into the teaching and
learning process. More so, the design helps to get immediate solution to classroom problems. It
also provides first hand information. However, it consumes a lot of item and is laborious too.

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Population and Sample Selection


Population of a study refers to the total number of people on whom the research is being carried
out. The population for the study consists of all the students of Sapkalua Presby Primary School
Primary which comprises three hundred and thirty eight pupils. The researcher decided to work
on class three pupils out of the whole population of the school; this is thus the target group.

Sampling and Sampling Technique


Class three has a population of 28 pupils and out of the 28 pupils, 20 pupils were selected to
form the sampling technique. Because each of pupils under study has equal chance of being
selected to be part of the sample size for the study the researcher used the simple random
sampling technique. On the side of the teachers 3 (three) teachers were selected from the school
because they have been in the school for a long time and they know every detail of the problem
so the researcher used purposive sampling techniques in selecting them.

Research Instrument
The researcher used observation and interviews because there is no instrument that specifically
measures pupils English speaking skills.

Observation
The researcher used observation as one of the instrument for the study because with observation
the researcher has the chance to watch class three pupils in the teaching and learning process.
The researcher himself observed pupils in relation to a prepared checklist to guide the
observation during English lessons. See appendix A.

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From the observation made on teachers, it was revealed that teachers make use of the local
language more in English lessons. Teachers themselves do not speak English language on the
school compound.

Interview
After two weeks observation on teachers and pupils by the researcher, he further conducted a
face - to face interview with some teachers and pupils of school. Teachers indicated that
attention was not paid to pupils English speaking skills in the lower primary.
Because of this, pupils find it difficult to understand the language when used in the teaching and
learning process. This makes them use the local language in order to let their pupils understand
the, teachers again made it clear to the researcher that information such as punishment and
motivation are not used in the teaching and learning process and this does not encourage pupils
to speak.
Pupils made the researcher aware that they felt shy to speak the language for fear of making
mistakes or being laughed at by their colleagues when they were interviewed. Based on the
observation and interviews made by the researcher, he designed the following intervention to
address the problem.

Intervention Process
The researcher grouped the intervention process into pre intervention, intervention and post
intervention.

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Pre Intervention Stage


During the pre intervention the researcher engage the sample population in a conversation and
storytelling lessons. The researcher led pupils to talk about posters in the classroom. A story
entitled.
Ananse and the wicked Old lady was also introduced to pupils in the pre intervention stage.
The researcher observed the performance of pupils in relation to a prepared checklist. The
outcome of the discussions with pupils brought about the used to group pupils in relation to their
performance:
1. Pupils who cannot articulate simple sentence in English language (20%).
2. Pupils who feel shy to speak English for fear of being laughed at (25%).
3. Pupils who find it difficult to carry out instruction in English language (20%).
4. Pupils with limited or no vocabulary (35%).
Base on this category, the researcher designed the following activities to address the
problem with the sample size.

Intervention Stage
The researcher at this stage designed some activities to address the problem with the sample size.
In all, the researcher used two methods, conversation and storytelling. The researcher started
with the conversation and this is how the conversation was used to improve pupils English
speaking skills. During the first week of intervention, the researcher led pupils to talk about a
label on a tin of ideal milk.

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Activity One
Materials used: Five empty tines of ideal milk. The researcher began the lesson by teaching the
vocabulary needed to help pupils talk about the tin. The researcher pronounced the words one
after the other for pupils to repeat them. After that, the researcher explained the meanings and
drilled pupils to use them in meaningful sentences.

The researcher group the pupils in a mixed ability groups. Four pupils are in a group. Each
group was given one empty ideal milk tin. The researcher asked pupils to observe the pictures
and information on the label of the ideal milk tin carefully and discuss among themselves any
comment they have about the pictures.

A label on a tin of ideal milk?


Tr: How many of you like ideal milk?
Seth: I like ideal milk
Albertha: Sir, I like ideal milk very much
Tr: Ok, now look at the chart on the label, what does it represent?
Charity: It represents the nutritional values and the information about nutrient.
Daniel: I represents the various nutrients in the milk.
Tr: What does the nest which caution the birds on the side of the nutritional chart
represent?
Nanny: It represents the symbol of the company that manufactured the ideal sure?
Tr: Nanny, are you sure?
Nanny: Yes, Sir.

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Tr: Very Good


Tr: Look at the top of your tin, there is an expiring data written there. What does this tell
you?
Dominic: It tells you that after that date, the milk is unwholesome.
Tr: How heavy is a tin of ideal milk?
Prince: One hundred and seventy grams.
Tr: what will you do if you have a problem with your ideal milks you bought from a
shop?
Bernice: I will send it to the seller and collect my money. This ended the activity for the
first week of the intervention.
In the second week of the intervention, the researcher led the pupils to talk about a frog in a
natural habitat. Teaching learning materials used - a chart depicting frog, its eggs and the
tadpole in water.
The researcher assisted pupils to pronounce the words. The researcher then explained the
meaning of the words in their context form.
The researcher at this point pasted the chart of the frog in water on the board. Five pupils in each
group. Each group was given the chance to look at the chart. They were asked to discuss among
themselves for fifteen minutes anything they see on the chart.
Each group described the chart and marks were awarded to them depending on their
performance. After the fifteen minutes given them, the researcher conducted a whole class
discussion on the chart.

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After taking pupils through two weeks of conversational lesson, the researcher then moved from
conservation to storytelling in the following week.

Activity two
In the third week of the intervention, the researcher introduced pupils to a simple story entitled.
The king of the Animal (lion) and his pond.
Teaching and learning materials used.
The researcher began the lesson by posting the picture of the king of the animals (lion) and other
animals on the chalkboard for pupils to identify them by names and also talk about them.
Tr: What do you see on the chart.
Serwaa: I see Tortoise, Hare, Tree with a bucket on it and then a lion.
Tr: Yes, very good.
Tr: What does the bucket on the tree indicate.
Daniel: It indicate that there is some water flowing from the tree to the bucket.
Charles: Sir, what is the name of the tree
Tr: It is a sap tree.
The researcher after asking some questions about the chart treated the needed vocabulary to
establish the meaning of the story. The researcher wrote the words on the chalkboard and
pronounced the words. The researcher then explained the meaning of the words.
The researcher after explaining the meaning of the words narrated the story using
demonstrations, mining and gestures.

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After taking pupils through the full three weeks of activities, it was then left with how to measure
the effectiveness of the interventions.
This then led the study to the next intervention stage.

Post Intervention Stage


After administering the intervention, the researcher conducted a reading test. Through the test
reading, the researcher compared pupils performance before the introduction of the intervention.
The researcher realized that there has been an improvement in pupils speaking skills.
The researcher again engaged in a conversational test. Pupils were asked to talk about their best
friend and that was done perfectly. The researcher afterwards observed pupils for a week and
detected that pupils who could not use simple sentences in English were using English
occasionally. Those with limited or no vocabulary, those who could not carry instructions in
English and those who felt shy to speak English had improved on their speaking skills.

Limitations
In conducting researches like this, the researcher is likely to face some limitations.

One

limitation is that during the intervention, due to truancy some pupils were not present at school
throughout the period of intervention and this affected the result of the study.
Another limitation was that during the intervention, the pupils were reluctant to speak English
for fear of making instates or being laughed at.
Also, the researcher could not use poetry and drama apart from his intervention to cover more
pupils. However, due to time constraints and other logistics, the researcher limited himself to
only class three (3) pupils at Sapkalua Presby Primary School.

26

Data Analysis Plan


The data collection was analyzed using simple percentage and tables. This statistical instrument
aided in the determination of the intensity of the problem and the effectiveness of the
intervention strategies.

27

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter deals with the presentation of results gathered through the administration of the
instruments, findings and discussions.

The use of conversation method


Table 1A: pre intervention reading test results
Scores (20)
1-5

Frequency
10

Percentage (%)
50

6-10

25

11-15

15

16-20

10

Totals

20

100

Table 1 B: post intervention reading test results


Scores (20)
1-5

Frequency
2

Percentage (%)
10

6-10

25

11-15

10

50

16-20

15

Totals

20

28

100

From table one A, about 15 pupils representing 75% scored below the past mark whiles about 5
representing 25% pupils scored above the average score. This table therefore shows that three
thirds of the pupils find it difficult to express themselves fluently in English language.
According to table one B which shows the scores of pupils after the intervention activity
(conversation method), seven pupils representing 35% of pupils scored marks below the average
score whiles thirteen pupils representing 65% of pupils scored marks above the average score.
Comparing the information in the two tables above, one can safely conclude that the use of the
intervention activity has improved the ability of pupils to speak English language fluently.
Table one shows the results of pupils in a test that was conducted before the intervention
process.

The use of storytelling method


The researcher began the lesson by posting the picture of the king of the animals (lion) and other
animals on the chalkboard for pupils to identify them by names and also talk about them.
The researcher after explaining the meaning of the words narrated the story using
demonstrations, mining and gestures.
Table 2 A: pre intervention scores
Scores (20)
1-5

Frequency
10

Percentage (%)
50

6-10

25

11-15

15

16-20

10

Totals
20
Table 2 B: post intervention scores (storytelling)

29

100

Scores (20)
1-5

Frequency
2

Percentage (%)
10

6-10

15

11-15

10

50

16-20

25

Totals

20

100

From table two A, about 15 pupils representing 75% scored below the past mark whiles about 5
representing 25% pupils scored above the average score. This table therefore shows that three
thirds of the pupils find it difficult to express themselves fluently in English language.
According to table two B, which shows the scores of pupils after the intervention activity
(storytelling method), five pupils representing 25% of pupils scored marks below the average
score whiles fifteen pupils representing 75% of pupils scored marks above the average score.
Comparing the information in the two tables above, one can safely conclude that the use of the
intervention activity has improved the ability of pupils to speak English language fluently.
Table one shows the results of pupils in a test that was conducted before the intervention
process.

Table 3: causes for pupils poor English speaking skills


Reasons
Shy looking attitude of pupils

No. Of Respondent
6
30

Percentage %
30

Lack of exposure
Poor methods of teaching
The influence of the local language
Total

6
5
3
20

30
25
15
100

From the table, the shy attitude of pupils towards English speaking has contributed greatly to
pupils poor English speaking skills representing about 30% of the responses from pupils. About
another thirty percent (30%) of the pupils agreed that lack of exposure to English language was
found one of the causes of pupils poor English speaking skills. Twenty five percent (25%) of
the pupils agreed that their inability to speak English language fluency is as a result of poor
teaching methods used by their teachers. About 15% of the pupils agreed that the influence of the
local language was the cause of their inability to speak English language fluently.

Analysis of findings
After the administration of the intervention, there was improvement in pupils English speaking
skills. The interventions were successful due to the fact that the researcher gathered enough
information on the intervention. This made the use of the intervention very smooth and friendly.
Under the review, a lot of the suggestions were made of which the most appropriate ones were
chosen by the researcher.
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Introduction

31

This chapter deal with what the researcher has accomplished on how to use simple story telling
and conversation to improve upon English speaking skills among class three pupils of Sapkalua
Presby Primary School.
It provides a general summary of the study, conclusion reached based on the findings and some
recommendation in addition to suggestions made for further research or studies.

Discussion of results
English language is of importance to education in Ghana. English is the medium of instruction
in all subject areas apart from the other languages.
It was revealed that a lot of pupils do concentrate on learning writing in their early stages of their
development in the basic school system. According to Rhodri Jones (1980), the causes of pupils
poor English speaking skills is that too much of emphasis is put on written work and not enough
on oral work.
It was observed that using a story telling could help develop speaking skills among pupils. Huck
(1994), stressed that, one of the essential tools to stimulate pupils interest in reading is to
dramatize the story to the pupils.

Conclusion
In all, this work hopes to help pupils to overcome their difficulties in English speaking in order
to advance in academic career.

32

There was improvement in the English speaking skills of pupils of Sapkalua Presby Primary
School Primary three after the implementation and administration of the interventions.

Recommendations
After successfully completing this work, the researcher would like to make the following
recommendations.
First and foremost, teachers should try as much as possible to speak English language in teaching
and learning process, in the staff common room and the school compound. This will motivate
pupils to also develop the habit of speaking English language.
Secondly, teachers should pay equal attention to all the aspects of English language. In order to
help pupils develop their speaking skills, language system should be mastered that is the
grammar, vocabulary and phonology.
Again, pupils should be made to work in group if the target is their speaking skills. With group
discussion, pupils get the opportunity to express themselves without feeling shy.

REFERENCES
Abbott, G and Wingard, P. (1981). The Teaching of English as an Interventional Language
Collins: Glasgow and London.

33

Afolayan. A.A. and Newsum. H. E. (1986). The Use of English, communicative skills for
University students. Harlow: Long man ltd.
Huck (1994). Teacher preparation and teacher competence: A comparative analysis of four
approaches to secondary teacher preparation in Uganda and their relative effectiveness
in the teaching process. Dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at
Makerere University. Kampala.
Ajibola, A. (2006). A practical guide to purposeful reading for students. School Panorama 1.1
(2): 9.
Amutheazi (2000). An evaluation of teachers methods in P310/3 (Novels). Dissertation
submitted for the degree of Master of Education at Makerere University. Kampala.
America education TESOL. (2009) Essential Principles of the Communicative Approach.
Asamoah, J. K. Hammond W and Ayivi Tosuch S. (2003) Teaching English in basic School.
Ghana Institute for Educational Development and Extensions.
Byrne Donn. (Eds.) (1976). Voices from the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Swain (1985). English in Education. London: Geoffrey Bles Ltd.
Brian Jackson and Denys Thompson. (1962). English in Education. London: Chatto & Windus.
Byrne, D. (1976), Teaching Oral English. Chambers 20th Century Dictionary (1983) New
Edition W and R. Chambers Ltd.
Dike (2006). Teaching English. Notes and Comments on Teaching English Overseas, London:
Longman.
Fiona, L. (2004) Overcoming classroom problem ELT Teacher, British Council.
http://www1.american.edu/tesol/CA%20Characteristics.pdf
Macmillan (1984), Students Dictionary, Macmillan Publisher limited London
34

McGregor, G.P. (1971). English in Africa, A Guide to the teaching of English as a Second
language with particular reference to the post-primary school stage. London:
Heinemann.
Mills, E. G. (2000), Action research: a guide for the teacher researcher. Southern Oregon
University.
Ojo, O. I. (2003). Narrative descriptive, argumentative, conversational and dialogic speech
types. In Alabi, A.O. (Ed.). New perspectives in English language skills. Oyo:
Immaculate City Publisher.
Rhodri, J. (1980) An ABC of English Teaching. Heinemann Educational Books, London.
Tomlinson, B and Ellis (1980) Teaching Secondary English. Longman Group UK Limited.
Websters New Interventional Dictionary with reference History (1925).

APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
OBSERVATION CHECKLIST FOR CLASS TEACHER
1. How often does the teacher teach oral skills?

35

a. Always

b. Frequently

c. Occasionally

d. Seldom

e. Never.
2. How often does the teacher speak English language?
a. Always b. Frequently

c. Occasionally

d. Seldom

e. Never.
3. How often does the teacher teach Mathematics?
a. Always

b. Frequently

c. Occasionally

d. Seldom

e. Never.
4. How often does the teacher speak Ghana Language?
a. Always

b. Frequently

c. Occasionally

d. Seldom

e. Never.
Observation checklist for pupils before intervention.
1. Do pupils feel shy to speak English language?
a. Yes

b) No

2. Do pupils have adequate vocabulary?


a. Yes

b) No

3. Can pupils carry out instructions in English language?


a. Yes

b) No

4. Can pupils use simple sentence in English language?


a. Yes

b) No

5. Do pupils hardly speak English language?


a. Yes

b) No

36

Observation checklist for pupils after intervention


1. Do pupils feel shy to speak English language?
a. Yes

b) No

2. Can pupils use simple sentences in English language?


a. Yes

b) No

3. Can pupils carry out instructions in English language?


a. Yes

b) No

4. Do pupils have adequate vocabulary?


a. Yes

b) No

5. Do pupils hardly speak English language?


a. Yes

b) No

37