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# Analysis of Laterally loaded piles.

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NIT Warangal

## 2nd May 2016

Members:
Aakash Mishra(121201)
Rajeeb Singh(121148)
Khandu Wangmo(121130)
Sherab Jorden(121260)
Supervisor:
Dr. Ramana Murthy V, Associate Professor, Geotechnical Division
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## Analysis of Laterally loaded piles.

Piles are commonly used in transferring the axial loads or
forces which is primarily arises due to gravity load(weight of
the superstructure). But piles are often subjected to lateral
The lateral load can be sustained like earth pressure on
retaining wall or it can be alternating as from reciprocating
machine, or can be pulsating which occurs due to traffic load
in structure like bridge pier or it can be seismic load.
Response of lateral pile is very complex behavior because
deflection of pile depends upon soil reaction which in turn
depends upon pile deflection.
A fairly reliable methods were developed later to predict the
lateral response of the pile by Matlock and Reese, Broms and
so.
we used finite element method for the analysis of laterally
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## Analysis of Laterally loaded piles.

Failure mechanism.
Failure mechanism for Axial pile is simple. Pile moves
downward if acting load exceeds the soil resistance and pile
suffers excessive vertical deflection and ultimately leads to
collapse of the structure.
In case of Lateral pile mechanism is a bit complex. In this
case pile can rotate, bend or translate.
If the pile is small then it doesnt bend much but rotates or
even translate. This type is called rigid pile.
If the pile is long and slender then it bends on application of
load. This type is known as flexible pile.

Figure: Translation.

Figure: Rotation
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## Different Approaches for Analysis.)

Beams on Elastic Foundation.
Reese and Matlock: They were the first who assumed that
the soil modulus to be changing i.e. increasing with depth and
developed solutions for laterally loaded piles in a
non-dimensional form. They have developed the expressions
for the computation of shear force, bending moment, soil
reaction and deflection for cohesion less soil.
Davisson and Gill: For elastic cohesive soil this method is
employed to calculate deflection, shear force, bending moment
and soil reaction.
Broms approch :- Broms provided the graph for calculation
of lateral capacity of the pile in both cohesive and
non-cohesive soil, in both conditions of Rigid and Flexible pile.
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## Analysis of Laterally loaded piles.

Continuum Approach.
soil which is surrounding the pile as 3 D continuum.
This concept is conceptually more appealing than Beams on
Elastic Foundation Approach since the interaction between
pile and soil is indeed 3 D in nature.
Today the most versatile continuum based method for analysis
available is Finite Element Method. Same method is employed
for our analysis using FEM software.

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## Analysis of Laterally loaded piles.

clay.

The soil, pile and Load details are given below:Medium clay
C/s of the pile = Circular
Length of the pile(L)=15m
Pile Diameter(D) = 80cm
pile Cover= 75mm
Concrete() = 25kN/m3
Horizontal Force(H) = 400kN
unit weight= 19kN/m3
cohesion(C)= 25kN/m3

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## Figure: Change in the

deflection.

Figure: Change in BM

Figure: Change in
Lateral Capacity.

Figure: Change in
MOR
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Summary.

## It is observed that with change in modulus of elasticity of the

medium clay with other parameters constant, the Lateral
Capacity against the lateral load decreases.
Max. deflection and max. bending moment also decreases
with increase in modulus of elasticity of the soil.
It can be concluded that with an increase in modulus of
elasticity cant improve the lateral capacity of the soil but it
helps in reducing the lateral deflection of the pile.

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## Change in cohesion in soft clay.

Figure: Change in
Lateral capacity.

Figure: Change in
MOR

Figure: Change in
Axial Capacity.

Figure: Change in
deflection
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Summary.

## It is observed that with change in the cohesion of the soil the

Lateral Capacity , Axial Capacity as well as Lateral Moment
of Resistance of the soil against the lateral load increases.
Max. deflection, max. Bending moment and Max. Shear
Force remains constant.
It can be concluded that with an increase in the cohesion of
the soil lateral capacity of the soil increases. It is wise to
improve the cohesion of the soil instead of the modulus of
elasticity to increase the lateral capacity.
At the same time if the issue is regarding the deflection then
its wise to improve the elasticity of the soil rather than
improving the cohesion.

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soil

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## Change in angle of shear resistance for dense sand.

Figure: Change in
Lateral capacity.

Figure: Change in
MOR

Figure: Change in
Axial Capacity.

Figure: Change in
deflection
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Summary.

## It is observed that with change in the value of the Lateral

Capacity , Axial Capacity as well as Lateral Moment of
Resistance of the soil against the lateral load increases.
It can also be concluded from the graph that Axial capacity of
the soil increases curve linearly as the value of the angle of
shear resistance increases.
The max. deflection, max. Bending moment and Max. Shear
Force remains constant with change in the Angle of Shearing
Resistance of the soil.
It is wise to improve the Angle of shear Resistance of the soil
to increase the lateral capacity.

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## The soil, pile and Load details are given below:

Sand 1
Cross-section of the pile = Circular
Length of the pile(L)=15m
Pile Diameter(D) = 80cm
pile Cover= 75mm
Concrete () = 25kN/m3
Moment acting at tip of pile (M) = 400kN-m
Eccentricity(e)= 1m unit weight= 14.5kN/m3
Angle of Shearing resistance() = 37

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Results

Figure:
Bending
moment and
SF.

Figure: Soil
pressure and
axial force.

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## C/s of the pile = Circular

Length of the pile(L)=15m
Pile Diameter(D) = 80cm
pile Cover= 75mm
Concrete() = 25kN/m3
Horizontal Force(H) = 400kN
unit weight= 14.5kN/m3
Angle of Shearing resistance() = 37
Poisson ration()=0.3
Elasticity of the soil(E)= 40Mpa.

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Conclusions

## It is essential to check the reinforcement in the pile by taking

both flexural stress and shear stress into consideration. and
shear stress.
To take care of bending stress flexural reinforcement is
provided all along the length of the pile in the form of
longitudinal bars and for the shear stress helical stirrups are
provided all along the length of the pile with desired spacing
between stirrup steps.

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## When a single fixed head circular pile subjected to lateral loads in

embedded multi-layered soil strata.

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Results

and axial force.

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## Analysis of Laterally loaded piles.

Figure: Ultimate
horizontal capacity of
the pile.

Figure: Horizontal
and vertical
deflection.

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pile.

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## When top 7m layer of the soil is replaced by the stiff clay

layer
The top layer of the soil is replaced with stiff clay and change in
pile and soil characteristics are observed and comparison is made.

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Results

force.

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Results

## Figure: Horizontal and

vertical de- flection of the
pile. .
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## Figure: Ultimate horizontal

capacity of the pile.

Results

pile.

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Results

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stiff clay.

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axial force.

capacity.

## Figure: Horizontal and

vertical deflection.

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pile.

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## Analysis of Laterally loaded piles.

When the soil layer below the tip of the pile is replaced
with stiff clay

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Results

axial force.

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Results

capacity.

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pile.

Results

## Figure: Horizontal and

vertical deflection.

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References.

## M.J. Tomlinson. PILE DESIGN and CONSTRUCTION

PRACTICE. Fourth Edition, 1994.
APPC soil properties,
http://docslide.us/documents/appc-soil-properties.html
Analysis of laterally loaded piles in layered soils,
http://www.ejge.com/2008/Ppr0886/Ppr0886.pdf
Three dimensional modeling of laterally loaded pile groups
resting in sand,
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article

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THANK YOU!

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