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SURYA REGIONAL WATER

SUPPLY SCHEME FOR WESTERN


SUB-REGION OF MUMBAI
METROPOLITAN REGION

STRUCTURAL WORK DESIGN


PARAMETERS

Contents
1.

Water Treatment Structures and Buildings...........................................................1


1.1

General.......................................................................................................... 1

1.2

Design Standards........................................................................................... 1

1.3

Dead Load...................................................................................................... 3

1.4

Live Load........................................................................................................ 3

1.5

Wind load....................................................................................................... 4

1.6

Seismic Load.................................................................................................. 4

1.7

Dynamic Load................................................................................................ 4

1.8

Design Requirements..................................................................................... 5

1.9

CONCRETE & REINFORCEMENT......................................................................6

2.

Structural Design Parameters for bridges............................................................9

3.

Design parameters for Tunneling.......................................................................10


3.1

Introduction................................................................................................. 10

3.1.1

Design sections and Design parameters:..............................................11

3.1.2

Basically there are four different groups of design methods:................11

3.2

Detailed design procedure...........................................................................12

3.3

Design Methods........................................................................................... 12

3.4

Direct Loading Method................................................................................. 12

3.4.1

Fundamentals of Seismic Analysis.........................................................13

3.4.2

Design Load Conditions.........................................................................13

3.4.3

Design loads considered in tunnel lining...............................................14

3.4.4

Tunnel Structure Dead Load...................................................................14

3.4.5

Ground Pressure (Soil or rock surrounding Tunnel)................................14

3.4.6

Water Pressure....................................................................................... 14

3.4.7

Traffic/Vehicle Loads/ Train Loads...........................................................15

3.4.8

Seismic Loads........................................................................................ 15

3.5

Design of Radial Joints in Underground Tunnel Segments............................15

3.5.1

Safety Check of Radial Joints.................................................................15

1. Water Treatment Structures and Buildings


1.1 General
The aspects for good engineering practice and ease of maintenance /operation for which it is
intended shall be considered in the design. The material of construction shall be RCC and
Structural steel.
The minimum design life of all Structures and Buildings shall be 60 years.
Building shall be designed as 3D RCC frame structures using any suitable software like
ETABS/STAAD.
Water retaining structures shall be designed as no crack structures.
As a general rule foundations of vibrating machineries shall be isolated from other structures
Suitable gaps at the location of expansion joints at suitable interval of not more than 30 m shall
be provided in walls, floors and roof slab of all structures. However, no expansion joints shall be
allowed for water retaining structures. Expansion joints for non-liquid retaining structures shall
be provided as per IS 3414.

1.2 Design Standards


i.

All design shall be based on the latest Indian Standard Specifications or Codes of Practice
the design standards adopted shall follow the best / modern engineering practice in the
field based on any other international standard or specialist literature.

ii.

All reinforced concrete structural design shall generally confirm to the recommendations
made in the following latest publications of the Indian Standards Institution/Indian Road
Congress.

iii.

All underground structures shall be designed for buoyancy condition with a factor of safety
of 1.2. For satisfying buoyancy condition 50% dead weight and maximum of 50% rock
anchoring is allowed.

iv.

The socketing criteria in the hard rock shall be as specified by Geotechnical Consultant or
recommended in the structural drawings, whichever is higher and in line with the energy
requirement. Socketing depth shall be minimum 1.5 times the diameter of pile.

For liquid retaining structures following norms shall be followed:-

a) All liquid retaining structure should be designed as uncracked section.


b) Liquid depth up to full height of wall (including free board): no relief due to lateral soft
pressure from outside to be considered.
c) Reservoir empty (i.e. no liquid or any material inside the storage area): full lateral earth
pressure at rest due to surrounding soil and surcharge pressure as applicable shall be
considered.
d) Partition wall if any between dry sump and wet sump and or sumps / container to be
designed for full liquid depth up to full height of wall.
e) Partition Wall between two compartments to be designed as one compartment empty and
other full.
f) Structures shall be designed for safety against uplift in empty conditions considering the
depth of the water table at GL.
g) Walls shall be designed under operating conditions to resist forces developed due to
mobilization of earth and dynamic water loads.
h) Underground or partially underground structures shall also be checked against stresses
developed due to any combination of full and empty compartments with appropriate
Adequate precaution shall be taken to avoid temperature or differential movement of structural
and non-structural elements by providing expansion joints at suitable locations.
All Buildings and Structures shall be designed to resist the worst combination of the following
loads
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

dead load,
live load,
wind load,
seismic load,
stress due to temperature changes, shrinkage and creep in materials,
2

6. dynamic loads:

1.3 Dead Load


This shall comprise of loads arising due to all permanent construction including walls, floors,
roofs, partitions, stairways, fixed service equipments and other items of machinery. In estimating
the loads of process equipment all fixtures and attached piping shall be included.
The following minimum loads shall be considered in design of structures:
a. Weight of water: 9.81 kN/m3
b. Weight of soil: 20.00 kN/m3
(Irrespective of strata available at site and type of soil used for filling etc.) However, for
checking stability against uplift, actual weight of soil as determined by field test shall be
considered.
a. Weight for concrete 24.00 kN/m3
b. Weight of reinforced concrete 25.00 kN/m3
c. Weight of brickwork (exclusive 22.00 N/m3 per mm of plaster) thickness of brickwork
d. Weight of plaster to masonry 18.00 N/m3 per mm surface thickness (minimum)
e. Weight of granolithic terrazzo 24.00 N/m3 per mm finish or rendering thickness
f. weight of sand (filter media) 16.00 kN/m3

1.4 Live Load


Live loads shall be in general as per IS: 875. However, the following minimum loads shall be
considered in the design of structures:
(i)

Live loads on roofs : 1.50 kN/m2

(ii)

Live loads on floors supporting : 10.00 kN/m2


Equipments such as pumps, blowers, compressors, valves etc

(iii)

Live load on all other floors : 5.00 kN/m2


Walkways, stairways and platforms

In the absence of any suitable provisions for live load in I.S. Codes or as given for any particular
type of floor or structure, assumptions made must receive the approval of the MMRDAs
representative prior to starting of the design Work.
Apart from the specified live loads or any other load due to storage of materials, any other
equipment load or possible overloading during maintenance or erection/construction in part or
full, most critical condition shall be considered in the design.

1.5 Wind load


Wind Loads in general shall be as per IS: 875 (Part 3): 1987. However, the following parameters
shall be considered for calculation.
Basic Wind Speed = 44.0 m/s
Probability Factor, k1 = 1.0
Topography factor, k3 = 1.0
K2 = As per IS: 875, Table 2, Category 2

1.6 Seismic Load


Seismic loading in general shall be as per IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002. The following parameters shall
be considered for the calculation of Ah.
Ah = (Z1/2R)*(Sa/g)
Seismic Zone = Zone III
Zone Factor, Z = 0.16
Sa/g = As per Cl. 6.4.5 of IS: 1893
Importance Factor, I = 1.25
Response Reduction Factor, R = 5.0
Ductile detailing as per IS: 13920 shall be followed wherever applicable.

1.7 Dynamic Load


Dynamic loads due to working of plant items such as pumps, blowers, compressors, centrifuges,
reduction gears, traveling cranes, etc. shall be considered in the design of structures.
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Ground/uplift pressures on the base slab. A minimum factor of safety of 1.2 shall be ensured
against uplift or floatation.

1.8 Design Requirements


a) The minimum cover to all reinforcement including stirrups and links shall be as specified
in Standard Specifications and IS: 456-2000. However the minimum clear cover shall not
be less than the following:
Location
Slabs (floor & roof), Canopy Cantilevers, Waist

Minimum Clear Cover (in mm)


30 mm or dia. of bar whichever is

Slabs, Chhajjas
Beams (floor, roof and tie), Lintel and Plinth
Columns
Column Pedestals
Foundation Slabs
Retaining Walls, Basements and Pit Walls
A. Face in contact with earth
B. Free Face
Liquid Retaining Structures

greater
45 mm
45 mm
50 mm
50 mm

A. Face in contact with liquid


B. Face away from liquid but in contact with earth
C. Free Face
Piles
Pile Caps

45 mm
45 mm
45 mm
50 mm
75 mm

45 mm
45 mm

b) For walls and base slabs of liquid retaining structures, the following shall be considered.
Minimum reinforcement shall be as per IS 3370, part II. This reinforcement shall be placed
closer to the concrete faces and the minimum specified clear cover as per IS: 3370 and
Clause (a) above.
The maximum length of Panel to be concreted, sequential of pouring and height of pour
shall be as per Standard Specifications, IS 456-2000 and IS 3370 part I, latest revision as
applicable.
c) The minimum thickness of all RCC works for various structural members/elements shall
be as follows:
i)
ii)

Walls for liquid retaining structures


Roof slabs for liquid retaining structures

200 mm
150 mm
5

iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)

Bottom slabs for liquid retaining structures


Floor slabs including roof slabs, walkways, canopy slabs
Walls of cables/pipe trenches, underground pits etc
Column footings
Parapets, chajjas
Precast trench covers
Pile caps

200 mm
100 mm
125 mm
300 mm
100 mm
100 mm
500 mm

d) Ordinary Portland cement shall be used in the design and construction

1.9 CONCRETE & REINFORCEMENT


Reinforced Concrete for Structural Components shall be of M35 grade exclusively. Plain Cement
Concrete shall be of M20 Grade. Dead Weight Concrete shall be of M10 grade.
The Condition of Exposure for all water Treatment Units and other Units is VERY SEVERE.
The Structural Components shall be designed as per IS: 3370 & IS: 456-2000 and other relevant
Codes with latest revisions.
The minimum Cement Content in Concrete shall be as per latest relevant IS code for all concrete
work as per the specified concrete grade.
The Condition of Exposure for all Building Works is VERY SEVERE for substructure as well as
superstructure.
All Reinforcing Steel shall be TMT Fe 500 Grade of Thermex or Tempcore from approved
Manufacturers viz. TISCO, SAIL, RINL, or as per the approved vendor list mentioned in Volume
4 of 4. All reinforcement steel shall be provided with Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating.
LIST OF REFERENCE CODES TO BE FOLLOWED FOR DESIGN
1.
2.

Code of Practice for Plain and reinforced concrete


Code of Practice for design loads for buildings and

IS: 456 2000


IS: 875

3.

structures (Part I to IV).


Code of Practice for concrete structures for the

IS: 3370

4.
5.

storage of liquids (Part I to IV)


Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures
Code of Practice for design and construction of

IS: 1893
IS: 2974

6.

machine foundations (part I to IV)


Standard Specification and Code of Practice for

IRC: 6 Part II
6

road bridges Loads and Stresses


All structural steel design shall generally conform to the following recommended
latest publications of the Indian Standards Institution:
7.
Code of Practice for general construction in steel
8.
Code of Practice for use of steel tubes in general

IS: 800
IS: 806

9.

building construction
Code of Practice for earthquake resistant design and

IS: 4326 1993

10.

Construction of Buildings
Code of practice for design and construction of

IS: 1904 1986

11.

foundations in soil: General requirements.


Code of practice for design and construction of pile

IS: 2911 (Part-I)

Foundations.

1979, (Part-3) 1980

12.

Code of practice for ductile detailing for reinforced

& (Part-4) 1985


IS: 13920 1993

13.

concrete structures subjected to seismic forces.


Code of Practice for Concrete Structures for the

IS:

14.

storage of Liquids.
Code of Practice for Design and Construction of

(PART I to IV)
IS: 11089 1984

15.

ring Foundation
Criteria for design for R.C.C. Staging for Overhead

IS: 11682 1985

16.

water tanks.
Recommendations for detailing of reinforcement in

IS: 5525 1969

17.

reinforced concrete works.


Specification for 43-grade Ordinary Portland

IS: 8112 : 1989

18.

Cement.
Specification for 53-grade Ordinary Portland

IS: 12269 1987

19.

Cement.
Specification for mild steel and medium tensile

IS: 432 (Part I) -

steel bars and Hard drawn wires for concrete

1982

3370

1967

reinforcement.
20.

Part-I: Mild steel and medium tensile steel bars.


Specification for high strength deformed steel bars
and

21.

Hard

drawn

steel

wires

for

IS: 1786 1985

concrete

reinforcement.
Specifications for Portland Pozzolana Cement

IS: 1489 1991

22.

Specifications for Concrete Admixtures

IS: 9103 1999

23.

Code of practice for Ancillary structures in

IS: 4111 (Part-4)

24.

sewerage system
Code of practice for corrosion protection of steel

1968
IS: 9077 1979

25.

reinforcement in RB and RCC construction


Code of practice for use of fly ash in concrete

IS: 3812

2. Structural Design Parameters for bridges


The width of the bridge will be decided to accommodate the pipeline and provision for access
road for future operation and maintenance requirement will be kept. Any provision for future
augmentation will also be made
The basic design standards adopted for the structural designs are as per the requirements laid
down in the latest editions of IRC codes of practices & standard specifications and guidelines of
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Additional technical references are used wherever the
provisions of IRC/IS codes are found inadequate.
Following IRC/IS Codes are followed in the design
IRC: 5 Standard Specifications & code of Practice for Road Bridges
Section -I. General Features of Design
IRC: 6 Standard Specifications & code of Practice for Road Bridges,
Section -II. Loads and Stresses
IRC: 18 Design Criteria for Pre-stressed Concrete Road Bridges (PostTensioned Concrete) (Third Revision)
IRC: 21 Standard Specifications & code of Practice for Road Bridges,
Section -III. Cement concrete (Plain and reinforced)
IRC: 22 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,
Section VI -Composite Construction (First Revision)
IRC: 78 Standard Specifications & code of Practice for Road Bridges, Foundations & Substructure.
IRC: 69 Guidelines and Specifications of Expansion joint
IRC: 83(Part-III) - Standard Specifications and codes of Practices for Road
Bridges, Section IX Bearing, Part II: POT Bearings

3. Design parameters for Tunneling


3.1 Introduction
The establishment of the geological model and geological rock mass properties preparation of
the Geological longitudinal sections and Geological cross sections.
Selection of Design Zones (Longitudinal Section): By the selection of design zones, the tunnel is
divided, along its alignment, in longitudinal sections. Within one zone a similar behavior of the
ground and the structure is expected. In the evaluation of design zones following steps are
followed:

Estimate of the size of the influence zone of construction


Evaluation of the dominating construction specific parameters required information for
design

Topography and overburden

Surface structures

Surface hydrological conditions

Stratification

Classification of Soil Layers (Classification Parameters, Density, Stiffness)

Sssessment of the Groundwater Condition (GW Flow, Water Pressure Distribution,


Aquifer System)

Tunnel Geometry

Conditions at the Portal Zones of the Tunnel

Zones of Enlargement of the Standard Tunnel Section

Cross Passages

Connection with ventilation shafts, tunnels or similar structural constraints


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3.1.1 Design sections and Design parameters:


The number of design sections will be defined on the basis of changes of the surface and
subground condition and with respect to the structural layout.
Design parameters are design specific soil parameters and are determined for the particular
design section according to the input requirements of the calculation method. They comprise the
following information:

Thickness of the Individual Layer

Unit Weight

Water table and water Pressure Distribution

Modulus of the Ground

Poissons Ratio

Shear Parameters (Friction, Cohesion)

Coefficient of the Earth Pressure at Rest

Subgrade Reaction

Design section represents an average section, so there is no need to assume the lowest value for
all design data. In general the average soil parameters within the respectve design zone and the
average layering system will be adopted for the design.
Design methods and engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel supports
3.1.2 Basically there are four different groups of design methods:

Empirical

Observational
11

Analytical

Numerical

3.2 Detailed design procedure


Characteristics of rock/soil mass and collection of engineering geological data-base from surface
exposures and boreholes.
Rock mass/soil classification and identification of potential failure modes.
Structurally controlled and gravity driven failures and Stress induced, gravity assisted failures.
Evaluation of static and dynamic possible failure modes.
Determination of in situ stress field in surrounding rock/soil mass.
Checking of shear strength to potential failure surface.
Calculation of factor of safety or risk of potential failures.
Analysis of size of overstress zones around excavations
Determination of support requirements.
Non-linear support-interaction analysis to design support
Design of support, taking into account excavation sequences availability of materials and cost
effectiveness of the design.
Installation of support with strict quality control to ensure correct bolt and cable lengths,
anchoring, tensioning and grouting, and effective Shotcreting as required.
Monitoring of excavation and support behavior to validate design and to permit modifications of future

designs

3.3 Design Methods


There are three main categories of Design methods of Tunnel Linings

3.4 Direct Loading Method


In this method, the load is calculated based on the rock/soil depth on the tunnel using the finite
element method. This load is independent of rock/soil-structure proportional stiffness. In this
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method, restrain effects of the rock/soil around the structure can be modeled by Winkler springs
(compression only).
In cut and cover parts, considering the whole rock/soil weight on the tunnel crest this is a
realistic method to determine the internal forces on the tunnel.
In this method, the effect of rock/soil-structure proportional stiffness is taken into account to
determine the internal forces of the structure. In order to determine the erection loads of the
structural components, it is necessary to consider the rock/soil structure proportional stiffness
plus the order and succession of the construction. To achieve, Convergence Confinement Method
(CCM) or Numerical Methods (NM) or Finite Element Method (FEM) is used, with the
limitations, advantages and applicability of each method is taken into account.
3.4.1 Fundamentals of Seismic Analysis
Effects of Ground motion on the tunnel during the earthquake is generally categorized into the
following three classes:
a) Longitudinal Bending
b) Compression-Extension
c) Warping (In-Plane deformation of the structure section - Ovaling)
The mobilized strains in the structure due to longitudinal bending and compression extension are
usually analyzed on the model of Beam on Elastic Bed at which the equivalent linear or nonlinear springs must be considered. However, it is easy to decrease the longitudinal strains by
using structural joints along the tunnel. In order to calculate the structural internal forces due to
the ground shear displacements which cause ovaling in the structure, Seismic Intensity Method
or Rock/Soil-Structure Interaction Method by using time history or displacement methods such
as Response Displacement Method can be employed. The effects of Rock/soil-structure
proportional stiffness around the tunnel must be taken into account anyway.
3.4.2 Design Load Conditions
It is worth mentioning that in underground tunnels which are drilled using NATM method, the
retaining system to control the tunnel stability comprises two stages of primary covering and
final covering. The load distribution assumption between these two parts is highly effective in
the design procedure

13

it must be tried to make the primary covering that bear the erection loads alone as much as
possible and avoid using the final covering capacity for that, otherwise it would be necessary to
construct the final covering with a little distance from the primary covering to make sure that the
primary covering is not supposed to bear the external loads singly for a long time. Thus, the
primary covering will be designed for the erection loads and the final covering will be designed
for the other loads on the tunnel.
3.4.3 Design loads considered in tunnel lining
(i)

Loads due to strength loss of the primary covering after a long term loads due to
the probable saturation of the soil mass in NATM method

(ii)

Live loads due to the on ground traffic.

(iii)

Live load due to the train movement, if applicable.

(iv)

Dead load on Tunnels

(v)

Ground pressure (soil/rock) surrounding tunnel

(vi)

Water pressure

3.4.4 Tunnel Structure Dead Load


Dead Load on Tunnel comprises the vertical load due to the tunnel weight which is distributed
along the structure middle axis.
3.4.5 Ground Pressure (Soil or rock surrounding Tunnel)
Considering the soil/rock mass geo-mechanical properties along with the path, any method of
direct loading or rock/soil-structure interaction can be employed to calculate the soil pressure. In
cut and cover parts, all the soil/rock weight is applied to the structure in which lateral pressure
will be calculated based on the tunnel walls displacements toward the side soil/rock mass and
with respect to the lateral reaction coefficient of the soil. In other parts, which are constructed in
underground methods, loading for primary structure must be determined considering the order of
construction stages by taking the rock/soil-structure interaction into account.
3.4.6 Water Pressure
In case the underground water table is high with respect to the tunnel floor, the hydrostatic water
pressure contribution must be considered to see the effect of water load on tunnel

14

3.4.7 Traffic/Vehicle Loads/ Train Loads


On ground vehicle loads/ train loads must be considered along with the grade level according to
Indian Code of Practice for Bridge Loading. Besides the mentioned load, tunnels must be
designed for a uniform load of 24 kN/m on the road level separately. This uniform load should
include the impact coefficient.
3.4.8 Seismic Loads
Considering the seismic danger in the project area as Delhi falls under Seismic Zone IV, the
tunnel needs to be designed in a way such that both primary cover and the final cover are able to
bear static and seismic loads simultaneously with the proper safety factors. In order to determine
the seismic loads, soil-structure interaction must be considered along with the stiffness
proportions between the structure and soil/rock.

3.5 Design of Radial Joints in Underground Tunnel Segments


3.5.1 Safety Check of Radial Joints
The safety of Radial joints (flat type) being used is required to be checked at the joints of tunnel
segments, bolts are treated as reinforcement to check whether they are safe against the moments
and shear forces. Safety of joints is done in the same method as checking of safety of segments is
done.

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