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FLUID MECHANICS

LECTURER: DR. MARIAH BINTI AWANG

ROOM: A-212-03 KAMPUS BANDAR
0137740458

CHAPTER 2- cont.

FLUID IN RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM:

Hydrostatic Pressure and Buoyancy

CONTENT
2.1 Pressure

HYDROSTATIC
FORCE
CONCEPT

Inclined
Submerged
Plane Surface

Submerged
Plane Surface

Submerged
Curved Surface

Horizontal
Submerged
Plane Surface

Vertical
Submerged
Plane Surface

Surfaces

liquid storage tank, subjected to fluid pressure

distributed over its surface.

Form a system of parallel forces, determine

magnitude & centre of pressure.

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

surface.

The direction & magnitude of force

perpendicular with plane surface at Center of
Pressure.

hc

Figure 3.2:
Pressure
distributions on
two vertical plane
areas (viewed
from edges)

F
F

hc

hp

Pressure varies from 0N at M to ON at NK.

The resultant parallel forces must act

point below the centered of the area.

P = h

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

hp

Center point

Center point

Free surface

perpendicular with plane surface at Center of Pressure.

If plane is lower to position MN force act nearer to
cantered
the deeper plane is submerged, the closer the
resultant force moves to the centered.

Figure 3.3 Coordinate system is defined so that y axis is

directed along the plane surface.

Free surface

FR

MAGNITUDE OF RESULTANT FORCE, FR

is calculated using:

dF
C
P

dA

c
y

P= F/A

CP

Center point

Center of
pressure

Figure 3.3: Notation for hydrostatic force on an inclined plane

surface of arbitrary shape

(Equation 3.1)

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F = P.A
where:
P = gh
= Density (kg/m3)
g = Gravity acceleration ( 9.81 m/s2)
hc = Vertical distance from fluid to the centroid of
the area (m)
A = Submerged plane area (m2)

Inclined Submerged Plane Surface

LOCATION OF RESULTANT FORCE AT y DIRECTION, yR

is based on x-y coordinate system originating from O as origin

to the submerged center of pressure at x direction.

origin to the submerged center of pressure at y

direction.

yR is calculated using:

xR is calculated using equation 3.3:

(Equation 3.2)

where:

(Equation 3.3)
where:
Ixc = Moment of area upon x-y coordinate system through
center of area (m4) See Table 3.1
xc = Distance from fluid surface at point O to the submerged
plane center directed along x coordinate system (m).

Ixc = Second moment of area with respect to an axis passing

througha1its centroid and parallel to the x axis (m4) See Table 3.1

yc = Distance from fluid surface at point O to the submerged plane

center directed along y coordinate system (m).

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Inclined Submerged Plane Surface

Table 3.1: Area, center point, second moment of area, moment of area with respect to an
orthogonal set of axes ( x y coordinate system)

SHAPE

RECTANGULAR

Ixc

Ixyc
0

b
d

TRIANGULAR

c
b

SEMI CIRCULAR

0.1098R4

CIRULAR

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hc =
yc

x
y
xc

QUARTER
CIRCULAR

0.05488R4

-0.01647R164

FR

yR yc

FR

arbitrary shape

arbitrary shape

Calculation for magnitude, location and direction of resultant force

on horizontal submerged plane surface are same as inclined plane
surface.
Distance of hc is equal to yc because of x-y coordinate system is
parallel to fluid surface.

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Calculation for magnitude, location and direction of resultant

force on vertical submerged plane surface are same as inclined
plane surface.

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Slide 13
a1

what is second moment of area?

amanifiza, 28/2/2012

SOLUTION

EXAMPLE 3.1

A rectangular gate (width = 5 m) that leans against

the floor with an angle of 45 with the horizontal is
to be opened from its lower edge by applying a
normal force at its centre. Find the minimum force
required to open the water gate.
1.2 m
FR

B
3m

45

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(i)

20

(ii)

where;

where;

hence;

hence;
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SOLUTION .... Cont

Take moment at point B = 0, therefore, the minimum force;

Submerged curve
Surface

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SUBMERGED CURVED
SURFACE

Many surface of interest (eg : dam, pipe and tanks)

are nonplanar curved design.

Determination of resultant force exerted to the

curved surface can be identified by considering fluid
free body diagram (right of semi circular Figure
3.6 ).
2 forces (FL and FV ) acting in the static fluid at
quarter circular surface Figure 3.7 ).

Figure 3.6: Fluid in open tank with semi circular shape at the bottom (
elevation view )

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1. W 1 FORCE

(i) MAGNITUDE

Is the liquid weight over OB surface line :

(Equation 3.4)

where,
= Unit weight of fluid (water = 9.81 kN/m2)
A1 = Fluid area at zone 1 ( above OB line Table 3.1
(m2). In this case; (rectangular shape)
L = Length of plane (m)

(ii) LOCATION

Act at the center point of zone 1 obtained from Table 3.1 & in this
case;

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SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACE

2. W 2 FORCE

(ii) LOCATION
Act at the center point of zone 2 from Table 3.1 & in this case;

(i) MAGNITUDE

&

Is the liquid weight over OB curved surface :

(Equation 3.5)

where,
A2 = Fluid area at zone 2 (at OBD curved surfae Table 3.1 (m2). In
this case;
(quarter circular shape)

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3.

FL FORCE

(i)

MAGNITUDE

(ii) LOCATION

Is the horizontal force acting on the projected vertical plane from

BD curved surface & can be calculated as:

where,
hc = Vertical distance from fluid surface to the
submerged centriod of the area (m)
A = Projected vertical plane area rectangular
shape : Figure 3.7 (m2). In this case;

Act at the center of pressure and can be calculated as;

Equation 3.6

Equation 3.7

where,
Ixc = Second moment of area for projected plane area
(m4) which is;

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Finally .

(i) MAGNITUDE

(ii) LOCATION

this

Equation 3.9

formula;

as;

Equation 3.11

Equation 3.12

Equation 3.10

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EXAMPLE 3.2

A curved water gate 3 m width is placed at the side

of reservoir that restores water inside. Find:(i)

(iii)

(ii)

Location of horizontal and vertical forces.

SOLUTION:
Consider the free body diagram;
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(i)

Magnitude of horizontal and vertical force (FH & Fv);

(a) Horizontal component force, FL:

where;
therefore;
Hence;
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(ii)

where;
therefore;

where;

therefore;

where;

therefore;
Hence;
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(iii)

where;
therefore;

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Exercise

rectangular plate blocks the end

of 5-m deep water channel. The
plate hinged about a horizontal
exist along its upper edge
through a point A and is
restrained from opening by a
fixed at point B. Determine the
force exerted on the plate by the
ridge.

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Exercise

force, FR and location of

resultant force, yR.

Exercise

Two parts are held together by a cable. Given width

is 3m. Calculate tension in each cable.

each cable.

is 5m.

End