Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

# Basic logic symbols

Name

Symbol

Category

material implication
implies; if .. then

## propositional logic, Heyting algebra

material equivalence
if and only if; iff; means the same as

propositional logic

negation
not

&

propositional logic

logical conjunction
and

or

## propositional logic, Boolean algebra

exclusive disjunction
xor

Tautology
top, verum

## propositional logic, Boolean algebra

bottom, falsum, falsity

## propositional logic, Boolean algebra

universal quantification
for all; for any; for each

()

first-order logic
existential quantification
there exists
first-order logic
uniqueness quantification

## there exists exactly one

first-order logic

definition

is defined as
everywhere
precedence grouping

()

parentheses, brackets
everywhere

Turnstile

provable
propositional logic, first-order logic
double turnstile
entails

Explanation

Examples

Unicode
Value
(hexdecimal)

## A B is true only in the case that

either A is false or Bis true.

## may mean the same as (the symbol

may also indicate the domain and
codomain of a function; seetable of
mathematical symbols).

U+21D2

x = 2 x2 = 4 is true, but x2 = 4 x = 2
is in general false (since xcould be 2).

U+2192

U+2283
may mean the same as (the symbol may also meansuperset).
U+21D4

U+2261
A B is true only if both A and B are false,
x+5=y+2 x+3=y
or both Aand B are true.

U+2194

false.

(A) A

U+00AC

x y (x = y)

## A slash placed through another operator is

the same as "" placed in front.

U+02DC

U+0021
U+2227

U+00B7
The statement A B is true if A and B are
both true; else it is false.
U+0026
n< 4n>2n= 3 whennis anatural number.
U+2228

U+002B

## The statement A B is true if A or B (or

both) are true; if both are false, the
statement is false.

U+2225
n 4n 2n 3 whennis anatural number.
U+2295
The statement A B is true when either A
(A) A is always true, A A is always
or B, but not both, are true. A B means
false.
the same.

## The statement A B is true when either A

(A) A is always true, A A is always
or B, but not both, are true. A B means
false.
the same.
U+22BB

## The statement is unconditionally true.

A is always true.

U+22A4

A is always true.

U+22A5

The statement is unconditionally false. (The symbol may also refer toperpendicularlines.)

all x.

n : n2 n.

U+2200

## x: P(x) means there is at least one x such

n : n is even.
that P(x) is true.
U+2203
! x: P(x) means there is exactly
one x such that P(x) is true.

! n : n + 5 = 2n.

U+2203 U+00
21

U+2254
(U+003A U+0
03D)
xyorxymeansxis defined to be another name fory(but note that can also mean other thin
cosh x (1/2)(exp x + exp (x))

A XOR B : (A B) (A B)

U+2261

U+003A U+22
9C

## Perform the operations inside the

parentheses first.

2 = 4.
29

## x y means y is provable from x (in some

A B B A
specified formal system).

U+22A2

U+22A8

A B B A

HTML
Value

HTML
Entity

(decimal)

(named)

&#8658;

&rArr;

LaTeX
symbol

\Rightarrow
\to

&#8594;

&rarr;

\supset

\implies

&#8835;

&sup;

&#8660;

&hArr;

\Leftrightarrow
\equiv

&#8801;

&equiv;

\leftrightarrow

\iff

&#8596;

&harr;

&#172;

&not;

\lnot or \neg

\sim

&#732;

&tilde;

&#33;

&excl;

&#8743;

&and;

\wedge or \land
\&[2]

&#183;

&middot;

&#38;

&amp;

&#8744;

&#43;
&or;

\lor or \vee

&#8741;

&#8853;

\oplus

&oplus;

\veebar

&oplus;
&#8891;

&#8868;

\top

&#8869;

&perp;

\bot

&#8704;

&forall;

\forall

&#8707;

&exist;

\exists

&#8707;
&#33;

\exists !

&#8788;
(&#58; &#61;)

:=
\equiv

&#8801;

:\Leftrightarrow
&equiv;

&#8860;
&hArr;

&#40; &#41;

()

&#8866;

\vdash

&#8872;

\vDash

&#9671;
&#9723;