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CATHOLIC SOCIAL

ENCYCLICALS
from Rerum Novarum to Laudato Si

Rerum Novarum

Pope Leo XIII

May 15, 1891

On the Conditions of Labor

First Social Encyclical

Dubbed as the MAGNA CARTA of the


Social Teaching of the Church

Context: Industrial Revolution/French


Revolution

THEMES:
THE GAP BETWEEN RICH
AND POOR, AND THE
UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF
WEALTH
It affirms the moral question
about the concentration of
income in the hands of the
capitalist, and it affirms that
labor is as important as the
capital
Inequality is a scandal to our
common humanity. We need not
treat our extreme inequalities as
if its natural.

Rerum Novarum

THEMES:
MORAL DECLINE AMONG THE
PEOPLE
Self direction has sadly lead to the
increasing ISOLATION among the
people, especially the poor.
We have severed the bonds we
have with other people.
We NO LONGER feel
RESPONSIBLE for the other
because we argue that the others
misery (poverty) is his/her own
responsibility; she/he has to provide
his/her needs as I do for mine.
We then justify our DIFFERENCES
towards the needs of others.

Rerum Novarum

Rerum Novarum
THEMES:
PRIVATE PROPERTY
Rerum Novarum also affirms the
legitimacy of private ownership.
Capitalists should not be greedy
and distribute fairly the profit
Socialist are more unjust when
they rob people of their property
Property must be made
available for COMMON USE if
there is dire need.

Rerum Novarum listed down four moral


criteria which make private property
legitimate. Which among the choices
cannot be a criterion for the morality of
private property?
A. Private property is inherent in mans nature
B. Man must be allowed to enjoy the fruits of his
labor
C. Property allows man to prepare for his future
D. Property ensures man of economic stability.
E. Properties are better cared if they are
apportioned to private owners
F. Private property respects inheritance and gifts.

Rerum Novarum listed down four moral


criteria which make private property
legitimate. Which among the choices
cannot be a criterion for the morality of
private property?

D. Property ensures man


of economic stability.
F. Private property
respects inheritance and
gifts.

THEMES:
WAGES AND CONTRACT
Contracts, though rightly
governed by mutual consent, may
not be sufficient to guarantee
the JUST WAGE of a worker.
CONTRACTS alone can still be
subjected to the manipulation
and exploitation of employers
who have greater bargaining
power over the employees.
There is a need for NATURAL
JUSTICE (Procedural fairness):
wages must be enough to
support the NEEDS of an upright
and honest worker (RN 45)

Rerum Novarum

THEMES:
WORKERS UNION
Unions, though suspected often
as communist organizations, were
supported by the Church.
UNIONS among workers will allow
them to earn enough
BARGAINING POWER to enter
into a negotiation with the owners
so that the interest of the workers
may also be safeguarded.
But, Unions priority is to
safeguard the COMMON GOOD.
The unions cause to represent the
workers interest must not
compromise the COMMON
GOOD.

Rerum Novarum

Pope PIUS XI

May 15, 1931

On Reconstructing the Social


Older

Why was there a need to


RECONSTRUCT the social order?

The rise of NATIONALIST


government (aims to form a
strong national government): they
wanted to curb poverty by
concentrating power on the
government so they could facilitate
the distribution of goods, with the
aim for social justice.

There was also the GREAT


DEPRESSION that contributed to
the massive unemployment, poverty
and misery among people.

Quadragesimo Anno

THEMES:
CRITIQUE AGAINST
ECONOMIC DICTATORS
Economic Dictators are those
people whose decisions have
wide implications in the socioeconomic system
Economic Dictatorship was
identified as one of the causes of
the Great Depression due to the
imbalances of power which also
led to the inequity of wealth
distribution.
There is a call to move towards
better power sharing even in the
economic system.

Quadragesimo Anno

THEMES:

Quadragesimo Anno

PRINCIPLE OF SUBSIDIARITY
This is QAs response to the need to
balance personal freedom (capitalism
and democracy) vis-a-vis the common
good and equality (socialism and
totalitarian regimes).
The principle of SUBSIDIARITY
states: Just as it is gravely wrong to
take from individuals what they can
accomplish by their own initiative and
industry and give it to the community, so
also it is an injustice and at the same
time a grave evil and disturbance of
right order to assign to a greater and
higher association what lesser and
subordinate organizations can do. For
every social activity ought of its very
nature to furnish help to the members of
the social body, and never destroy and
absorb them. (QA79)

The principle needs to be


interpreted as a support both for
the EMPOWERMENT of the
lower bodies, and their
accountability for a
RESPONSIBLE performance of
their action.

THEMES:
WARNING AGAINST
IMPERIALISM
Quadragesimo Anno also warned
against the potential rise of
IMPERIALISM amidst the calls for
more collaboration between
nations.
The social teaching of the Church
warns that IMPERIALISM is the
NEW form of COLONIALISM
(neo-colonialism). Imperialism
happens when a state or
organization is no longer allowed
to govern itself, but is instead
influenced and even manipulated
by those with greater power.

Quadragesimo Anno
A) Economic Imperialism happens because of economic
dictators where the socioeconomic environment are
dominated by the few powerful
ones.
B) Political Imperialism - happens
when a powerful nation exercise
undue influence and dominance
over a weaker nation.

John XXIII

May 15, 1961

Christianity and Social Progress

SOCIAL PROGRESS

Post WWII context: there are


nations who were trying to
rebuild themselves after the war

The EAST-WEST bloc: after the


second world war there emerged
the war of IDEOLOGIES
(capitalism vs Socialism)
represented by USA and USSR

THe COLD WAR: the increasing


animosity between USA and
USSR.

Mater et Magistra

The ARMS RACE: increased


production of nuclear weapon

SPACE RACE: in 1969, USA


successful landed a manned craft
on the moon (before the Russians
did)

INTERNET: used by US Military in


1969

THEMES:
THE PRINCIPLE OF
SOCIALIZATION
Mater et Magistra encourages a
social arrangement that allows
cooperation and collaboration
between peoples and nations.
The primary aim of socialization
is: to form association/
institutions (especially the ones
initiated by governments) whose
primary task is to make
everyone, especially the
DEPRIVED POOR, are provided
with their BASIC NEEDS (MM
115, 127 and 136)

Quadragesimo
Anno
Mater et Magistra
MM however emphasizes that
socialization should be
complemented with the
principle of SUBSIDIARITY and
SOCIAL INCLUSION (recipients
must be empowered so they
could productively participate in
the production of communal
goods).

Quadragesimo
Anno
Mater et Magistra
THEMES:
THE UNDERDEVELOPMENT
OF PEOPLES
MM warns that some people are
poor not because they are not
hardworking, but because they
are exploited and are made to
work for ends which are
imposed on them (MM69)
Moreover, MM laments over the
differences of the social
conditions among people in the
rich and poor nations (MM70)

THEMES:
EMPHASIS ON THE SOCIAL
PROCESS: SEE-JUDGE ACT
There are three stages which
should normally be followed in
the reduction of social principles
into practice. First, one reviews
the concrete situation;
secondly, one forms a
judgment on it in the light of
these same principles; thirdly,
one decides what in the
circumstances can and should
be done to implement these
principles. These are the three
stages that are usually
expressed in the three terms:
look (see), judge, act. (MM236)

Quadragesimo
Anno
Mater et Magistra

John XXIII

April 11, 1963

Establishing Universal Peace in


Truth, Justice, Charity and Liberty

The NEED to talk about peace:

The growing tension because of


the COLD WAR

The CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS of


October 1962: presented the real
danger and possibility of a
NUCLEAR WAR

The realization that a modern-day


NUCLEAR conflict or war would
be qualitatively different from the
previous wars.

Pacem in Terris

THEMES:

Quadragesimo
Anno
Pacem in Terris

ORDER AND PEACE


PT argues that we could only
guarantee peace if there is
proper order among the
relationships of people and
nations
Order between INDIVIDUALS
(1) We need to realize that peace
starts with the order of our
personal relationship. (2) But,
order in personal relations had to
start with the recognition of the
RIGHTS of each individual (3)
Hence, PT extensively talks
about HUMAN RIGHTS.

Order between CITIZENS and


GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES (1) PT
argues for the legitimacy of the state
authorities (citizens are morally bound
to exercise CIVIC participation) (2)
But, government authorities are also
reminded that their mandate comes
from the people, and they would have
to RESPONSIBLY carry out the
COMMON GOOD.
Order between nations (1) increased
calls for cooperation among nations
through the creation of a GLOBAL
COMMUNITY (2) Appreciation of
UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION
and the call for it to maintain the
respect for the SOVEREIGNTY OF ITS
MEMBER STATES (PT, 141)

THEMES:
CALL FOR DISARMAMENT
DISARMAMENT: The stockpiles of armaments which have
been built up in various
countries must be reduced all
around and simultaneously by
the parties concerned (PT112)
CALL FOR MUTUAL TRUST:
true and lasting peace among
nations cannot consist in the
possession of an equal supply
of armaments but only in mutual
trust (PT113)

Quadragesimo
Anno
Pacem in Terris

Research Paper: Gaudium et Spes

Literal English Translation of the Title

English Subtitle

Who/When it was solemnly promulgated

to whom it was addressed (audience)

Context/Background of the Document - How it came


about?

At least three themes discussed by the document

site your sources/references

Populorum Progressio

Paul VI

March 26, 1967

On the Development of
Peoples

THEME
INTEGRAL HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT
PP reminds us that development
is not just about economic
growth, but it is also SOCIAL
PROGRESS as we'll (PP34)

SOCIAL PROGRESS:
development must be
MEANINGFUL to human
persons.
It is rather sad when people
economically progressed, and
yet lose their sense of meaning
and purpose.
We are reminded that as we
work towards progress, we
should not LOSE SIGHT of the
more meaningful things in life.

TOP 5 THINGS MODERN YOUNG WORKERS CANT LIVE


WITHOUT

MONEY
FOOD
FRIEND (PARTNER)
GADGETS
INTERNET ACCESS

THEMES:
CALL FOR GLOBAL
SOLIDARITY
RICH NATIONS are morally
responsible to provide aid to the
poor. While other nations live in
abundance (some peoples live
wasteful lives), others are dying
of hunger and deprivation.
AUTHENTIC AID: donor nations
are encouraged to do away with
oppressive structures in loads
and aids; imperialism should
not become a norm between the
donor and the beneficiary
(PP54)

Populorum Progressio

THEMES:
DEVELOPMENT, THE NEW
NAME FOR PEACE
CONFLICT often stem from
hunger, deprivation, poverty and
misery.
Works for peace-building
would have to include
capacity-building.
When people are contented,
only then can we start
discussing about peaceful coexistence.

Populorum Progressio

John Paul II

September 14, 1981

On Human Work

THEME
WORK as the key to the Social
Problem
Work as fundamental to our
nature and dignity as persons
Distinction: ENDS OF WORK
OBJECTIVE WORK (product of
labor) versus SUBJECTIVE
WORK (acting agent)

Laborem Exercens
Critique against the practice of
ECONOMISM (give much importance
to economic achievements. We
become blinded to the integral needs
of the dignified workers)
WORK and PERSONAL DIGNITY:
attention to an increasing
dissatisfaction among workers

TOP 5 MOST ETHICAL JOBS

NURSES
MILITARY/POLICE
PHARMACISTS
TEACHERS
DOCTORS

Quadragesimo
Anno
Laborem Exercens
THEMES:
THE ROLE OF INDIRECT
EMPLOYERS

EXAMPLES OF INDIRECT
EMPLOYERS

The concept of indirect


employer includes both persons
and institutions of various kinds,
and also collective labour
contracts and the principles of
conduct which are laid down by
these persons and institutions
and which determine the whole
socioeconomic system or its
result (LE 17)

Policies and laws that are


oppressive to an ordinary
working man.
Income tax and other taxes
make the life of workingmen
more difficult.
Other policies such as
outsourcing and contractual
employment are also oppressive
to workers.

Quadragesimo
Anno
Laborem
Exercens
Pacem in
Terris
THEMES:
LABOR VERSUS CAPITAL
ISSUE
Reiterates the tradition of
speaking ON BEHALF OF
LABOR (the world evolves to its
present form because of the
persons labor.)
But, we should resist to interpret
labor in purely ECONOMIC
terms

Workers wage must allow him/


her to ACQUIRE PROPERTIES in
order to better secure his/her
familys FUTURE (JUST WAGE).
Workers should not feel that they
are just COGS in a huge
machine.

Quadragesimo
Anno
Laborem
Exercens
Pacem in
Terris
THEMES:
WORK UNIONS
We need to stop viewing labor
unions within the context of
CLASS STRUGGLE
UNIONS are organizations: their
role is to UNITE people and not
to instigate CONFLICTS,
OPPOSITIONS or HOSTILITIES.
UNIONS must aim towards the
COMMON GOOD

Quadragesimo
Anno
Laborem
Exercens
Pacem in
Terris
THEMES:
SPIRITUALITY OF WORK
For the SATISFACTION of human
nature
Work brings a person CLOSER
to God
Human work REFLECTS the
CROSS and RESURRECTION of
Christ

John Paul II

December 30, 1987

On Social Concerns

20th Anniversary of PP

THEME
SUPERDEVELOPMENT AND
UNDERDEVELOPMENT
Reiterated the irony of having
nations which are super
developed (where waste because
of excess is a problem), while
there are underdeveloped nations
(where people are deprived and
are miserable) - (SRS28)

Sollicitudo Rei Socialis


Its both an IRONY and a
SCANDAL to our COMMON
HUMANITY

Sollicitudo
Rei
Socialis
Quadragesimo
Anno
Laborem
Exercens
Pacem in
Terris
THEMES:
EMERGENCE OF TERRORISM
Some groups/sectors justify
terrorism for some supposedly
noble cause.
DANGER: other group have
already found a way to
LEGITIMIZE terroristic
practices This has
increasingly made our world less
and less secure.

Sollicitudo
Rei
Socialis
Laborem
Exercens
Pacemby
in
Terris
THEMES:
DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEM
Increased campaign to control
population.
WHAT REALLY IS THE
SITUATION? While governments
seem to have an unanimous
understanding that we need to
control population, it is also true
that there are nations whose
populations are increasingly
ageing.

HOUSING PROBLEM: SRS


concentrated on the issue about
housing problems.

TOP 5 MOST POPULATED PROVINCES

CAVITE (3.0-3.3M)
BULACAN (2.9-3.1M)
LAGUNA (2.7-2.9M)
CEBU (2.6-2.8M)
RIZAL (2.5-2.7M)

THEMES:
THE NEED TO OVERCOME
STRUCTURES OF SIN
Some struggles perpetuate
SINFUL and CORRUPT
practices.
It becomes difficult to say NO to
corruption if the structures
encourage corrupt practices.
SRS is then challenging us to
purify and improve our
structures so they become
ENABLING structures, rather
than PARALYZING ones.

Sollicitudo
Rei
Socialis
Quadragesimo
Anno
Laborem
Exercens
Pacem in
Terris

John Paul II

May 1, 1991

On the 100th Anniversary of Rerum


Novarum

THEME
REVIEW ON SOCIALISM AND
CAPITALISM
Though capitalism as an ideology had
also achieved progress in coming up
with more humane laws, there are still
continuing challenges in capitalism:
(1) the dignity of workers remain a
concern (2) Inequality of power,
income and wealth distribution has
not fully disappeared (3) Economism
(priotizing income and things over
persons) remain a valid concern.

Centisimus Annus
Socialisms demise was
sounded off by the fall of the
Berlin Wall in 1989.
It reiterated the error of Socialist
anthropology: to treat the human
person as a mere pawn for
grand social agenda: socialism
denies basic human freedom.

Quadragesimo
Anno
Laborem
Centisimus
Exercens
Annus
Pacem in
Terris
THEMES:
CALL FOR SOCIAL
INCLUSION
Redistribution of wealth can only
be justified if it aims towards
EMPOWERMENT and SOCIAL
INCLUSION: the reason why we
would have to redistribute the
wealth (through taxation) is to
address the inequality of wealth
and the deprivation of the poor.

But, such efforts would be


incomplete if the recipients are
reduced to dependency. hence,
socialization efforts (financed by
wealth distribution) have to result
in the empowerment of the
recipient and making them
participative in the common
endeavors of the community.

Benedict XVI

June 29, 2009

On Integral Human
Development in Charity and
Truth

THEME
DANGERS OF
GLOBALIZATION
(a) The strong eating up the
weak
(b) Eclecticism: relativism
(c) Leveling: loss of identity

Caritas in Veritate

Sollicitudo
Rei
Socialis
Quadragesimo
Anno
Laborem
Caritas
Exercens
Veritate
Pacemin
in
Terris
THEMES:
ADVANTAGES OF
GLOBALIZATION
Better sharing of knowledge and
resources but, there should be
no strings attached.
Better opportunity of
collaboration and solidarity
Authentic dialogue should
however be pursued
(fundamentalism has to be
overcome)

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Viva Films

THEMES:
RECAPTURING OUR
GIFTEDNESS
The recognition of our own
giftedness: that we all have our
gifts to offer (Enhancing our
traditional skills - i.e. Medical
Practices)

Sollicitudo
Rei
Socialis
Quadragesimo
Anno
Laborem
Caritas
Exercens
Veritate
Pacemin
in
Terris
The realisation that the World is
a GIFT
(1) Our forgetfulness about this
giftedness makes us selfish
and arrogant
(2) Denken ist Danken: To think
is to thank - when we direct
(recreate the world, it should
be with grateful heart)
(3) Real gratitude is expressed in
ones OPENNESS: the
willingness to authentically
commune with others.

Francis

November 24, 2013

The Proclamation of the Gospel


in Todays World

THEME
ECONOMY OF EXCLUSION
He refers to our culture as
THROW-AWAY culture
(1) We have increasing lost sight of
what really matters (what is really
the good for us) (2) Our economy
only values the strong and ignores
the WEAK. (3) We are no longer
MOVED (scandalized) by the
condition of the poor and the
miserable among us (EG54)

Evangelii Gaudium

Sollicitudo
Rei
Socialis
Quadragesimo
Anno
Evangelii
Laborem
Caritas
Exercens
Gaudium
Veritate
Pacemin
in
Terris
THEMES:
NO TO A FINANCIAL SYSTEM
THAT RULES RATHER THAN
SERVES
Not to share ones wealth with
the poor is to steal from them
and to take away their livelihood.
It is not our own goods which we
hold, but theirs (EG57)
Economists can no longer ignore
the role of the moralists and the
ethicists To save the financial
system, it has to become ethical.

Just as goodness tends to


spread, the toleration of evil,
which is injustice, tends to
expand its baneful influence and
quietly to undermine any political
and social system, no matter
how solid it may appear. if every
action has its consequences, an
evil embedded in the structures
of a society has a constant
potential for disintegration and
death (EG59)
This echoes JPIIs warning
against the proliferation of
terrorists ideology (SRS24)

Sollicitudo
Rei
Socialis
Quadragesimo
Anno
Evangelii
Laborem
Caritas
Exercens
Gaudium
Veritate
Pacemin
in
Terris
THEMES:
SOCIAL DIALOGUE AS A
CONTRIBUTION TO PEACE
No one ought to ignore the
presence of the other The
good individuals and
communities have to be a
product of a commune
discussion and dialogue.
Evangelization involves the path
of dialogue (EG238)

Its a form of dialogue Christian


denominations try to enter into so
that they can talk about things that
may unite them.

MCSUIMENE

Its a form of dialogue the Christian


denominations try to enter into so
that they can talk about things that
may unite them.

ECUMENISM