Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

PPHVC-Power Quality Solutions

PQC-STATCON
Instantaneous and stepless power quality
compensation for dynamic reactive power
and unbalanced loads

Contents

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 2

What is poor power quality?


Reasons for investing in power quality solutions
Reactive power in a power system network
Instantaneous stepless compensation
Unbalance and reactive power compensation - principle
Applications
Key benefits
Energy efficient operation
Technology and features
Product portfolio
Sizing of PQC-STATCON
Conclusions

What is poor power quality?

Any event related to


the electrical network
that ultimately results
in financial loss

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 3

Power supply failures e.g :breakers tripping, blowing of


fuses
Utility regulations and penalties
System losses
Equipment failure, malfunctioning and lifetime reduction,
including
Equipment overheating (transformers, motors, etc)
Damage to sensitive equipment (PCs, UPS systems,
drives)
Capacitor problems
Electronic communication interference
Personnel issues (illness, poor work efficiency, etc)

Key elements of poor power quality

Reactive power
Load imbalance
Harmonics

High running costs and failures


ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 4

Reasons for investing in power quality solutions

Traditional reasons

Technical problems leading to system downtime

Compliance with regulations (local/IEC/company standards)

Production loss

Penalties if no compliance
No connection if no compliance

Energy savings potential

Poor Power Quality results in higher system losses


A topic which is becoming more important due to increasing energy
prices

Reactive power in a power system network

h
LOAD

P, Q
Source

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 6

Basic Power Flow diagram

P Real power
Q Reactive power
h Harmonics

Real power
Responsible for transfer of energy

Reactive power
Enabler for conversion of real power
Not a form of energy
Flows back and forth, causes loss in the
transmission/distribution system
Local supply of reactive power improves the system
efficiency

Reactive power in a power system network


Conventional solutions of reactive power compensation

FC (Fixed capacitor Bank)


Source
Fixed capacitor

APFC (Automatic power factor corrector)

CSC (Contactor switched capacitor)

Source
Contactors
Capacitors

TSC (Thyristor switched capacitor)

Source
Thyristors

Classical reactive power compensation techniques

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 7

Capacitors

Reactive power in a power system network


Limitation with conventional schemes
Fixed capacitor (FC)

Contactor switched capacitor (CSC)

Thyristor switched capacitor (TSC)

Source

Source
Fixed capacitor

Contactors

Thyristors

Capacitors

Capacitors

Q Load demand
Q Load demand
Q

Q Load demand

Q Fixed capacitor

Q TSC/CSC

time

1000

VOLTAGE
CURRENT

Voltage [V]

time

500

2000

250

1000

500

2000

250

1000

3000

-250

-1000

-250

-1000

-500

-2000

-500

-2000

-750

-3000

-750

-3000

-1000

-1000

-4000
0

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 8

750

3000

Voltage [V]

time

750

4000

VOLTAGE
CURRENT

4000

Current [A]

1000

10

15

20

25

Time [ms]

30

35

40

-4000
0

10

15

20

Time [ms]

25

30

35

40

Current [A]

Q TSC/CSC

Instantaneous stepless
compensation
What is better power quality?

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 9

IC Capacitive current

Vs

IL = ILd, Ilq, IlN

Ig = ILd

VS
I

Source
IR Resistive current

-Ilq, -ILN

IR Inductive current

Active
compensator

Active compensator based reactive power compensator technique

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 10

LOAD

Power electronics based compensator


Instantaneous stepless reactive power compensation

IGBT based power electronic current source


Fast dynamic response
Smooth and step-less
Inductive/capacitive reactive power operation
Unbalance compensation
Operates in shunt with loads

IL Load current
ILd Real current
Ilq Reactive current
IlN Negative
sequence current

Unbalance and reactive power compensation


Principle

Operating boundaries
of active compensator

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 11

PQC-STATCON
Applications
Instantaneous, stepless power electronics based dynamic
compensator for reactive power (power factor) and unbalanced
loads (<1 cycle response time)

ABB Group
October 30 2015 | Slide 12

For inductive and capacitive loads


For highly fluctuating loads e.g. welding loads, rolling mills
etc.
For industrial loads fed by weak networks , e.g. captive
generators
For three phase and single phase applications, e.g. railways
Suitable for LV networks, and MV networks with step-up
transformer

PQCSTATCON
Applications

ARC
FURNACES

TRACTION SUB-STATIONS

STEEL
ROLLING MILLS

WELDING LOADS

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 13

Railway/ traction sub Stations


Arc furnaces
Automotive / welding plant
Steel plants / rolling mills
Airports / shipyards / ships
Off-shore drilling
Process industries
Sky lifts / compressor loads
Pulp & paper Industries
Chemical plants
Hydro plants
Cement factories
Water treatment plants
Wind mills

PQC-STATCON
Key benefits

Improves power quality


Enhanced energy efficiency by reducing system losses
Reduced Carbon footprint
Improves the reliability of existing capacitor banks under dynamic
condition
Reduces maintenance need and enhances life of electrical
Installations
Easy installation & commissioning
Easy and convenient operation with touch screen interface
No risk of harmonic amplification

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 14

Grid CT

Load CT

Ig

Source

IL

LOAD

PQC-STATCON
Modes of operation

VSI

Active compensator

1. Dynamic compensation modes


- Open loop (Load CT Mode)
- Closed loop (Grid CT Mode), Highest accuracy and the most
recommended configuration
2. Fixed Compensation Mode
Multiple STATCONs in parallel can share the same CT feedback

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 15

PQC-STATCON technology and features


Instantaneous and precise control
Green
PQC-STATCON
Current
Blue
Supply Voltage
Magenta
Step Response

Response
time:
8.062ms
(Rise)

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 16

Instantaneous reaction to step changes


Fast dynamic response ( < 1 cycle)
Excellent steady state / transient stability
Native closed loop operation, open loop operation is also
possible
Four cascaded control loops

Response
time:
8.002ms
(Fall)

PQC-STATCON technology and features


Energy efficient operation
Energy save mode
Programmable option
IGBT converter is switched off after 30 s, during idle
condition
Cooling system is turned off, after 2 minutes
POC-STATCON enters deep sleep mode
Delivers rated kvar within 8 cycles(from sleep mode) of
load demand

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 17

PQC-STATCON technology and features


Reliability is an important factor!
Rugged
protections PQC-STATCON

Protection

Over current protection


DC over voltage protection
IGBT short circuit protection
Over temperature protection
Cooling system failure detection

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 18

IGBT stack failure detection


Supply overvoltage/under voltage
protection
Switchgear acknowledgement
feedback errors
Unstable grid detection
Door open detection

Unique advantages of PQC-STATCON


Parallel operation
PQC-STATCON

PQC-STATCON

PQC-STATCON

PQC-STATCON

PQC-STATCON

In parallel system of PQC-STATCON, the system reliability will be increased by X times,


unlike other ONE MASTER-SLAVE systems where, in the event of master failure the total
system gets to shutdown. In PQC-STATCON all individual PQC-STATCONs are capable of
being a master and will take over as and when required.
ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 19

2-Ph
Load
P (kw)

3 Phase Source

3 Phase source

Unbalance & reactive power compensation


Eliminating unbalance - energy efficiency perspective

(Assuming line Resistance is R)

System losses comparison with balance / unbalance loads

50 % Lower line losses


ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 20

3-Ph
Load
P (kw)

Operation with parallel fixed capacitor banks


Cost effective - more kvar / $
Operation with parallel fixed capacitor banks (existing/new)
200%

0%

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 21

0%
-100%

-100%

PQC-STATCON

100%

100%

100%

Fixed capacitor

Total solution

PQC-STATCON doubling the dynamic compensation range with parallel capacitor banks.

Power quality solutions with PQC-STATCON + FC


Dynamic
compensation

Real
Power
harmonics
+ Reactive
flow
MV bus

LV bus

LOAD

PQC-STATCON
Fixed compensation (FC)

Real power
Real + reactive power

For Harmonics

Harmonics

PQC-STATCON
Product portfolio
PQCS - Single Phase Compensator
Reactive power compensation PF
improvement
Main/Auxiliary PF setting (supports
Utility/Generator sources)
PQCT & PQCT-Light(PQCL)
Three Phase Compensator
Reactive power compensation PF
improvement
Main/Auxiliary PF setting (supports
Utility/Generator sources)
Unbalance compensation Reduction of
negative sequence components
Priority configuration Reactive
power/Unbalance compensation

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 23

PQC-STATCON
Product portfolio
PQCS

PQCT

PQCT-Light
(PQCL)

S. No

Type No.

Application

Voltage

kVAr

Amp (Ir)

PQCS-50-V240

1-Ph

240

50

210

PQCS-100-V240

1-Ph

240

100

420

PQCS-100-V415

1-Ph

415

100

240

PQCS-150-V415

1-Ph

415

150

360

PQCS-250-V415

1-Ph

415

250

600

Type No.

Application

Voltage

kVAr

Amp (Ir)

PQCT-100-V415

3-Ph

415

100

140

PQCT-150-V415

3-Ph

415

150

210

PQCT-250-V415

3-Ph

415

250

350

PQCT-300-V415

3-Ph

415

300

420

Type No.

Application

Voltage

kVAr

Amp (Ir)

PQCL-70-V415

3-Ph

415

70

100

S. No

S. No
1

For MV applications:
PQC-STATCON supports operation through step-down transformer
ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 24

PQC-STATCON
Sizing for reactive power and imbalance
To quickly calculate the size of a PQC-STATCON based
reactive power compensation system,
Calculate the required capacity for dynamic compensation
through PQC STATCON, which is half of the total dynamic
compensation requirement
QPQC-STATCON* = Qdyn/2 = (Qmax - Qmin)/2
Calculate the required capacity for fixed capacitor based
compensation, which is the sum of base compensation
requirement and half of the total dynamic compensation
requirement.
Qcapacitor = Qbase + Qdyn/2 = Qbase + (Qmax - Qmin)/2
Note:
To perform load balancing, add the negative sequence demand of load

PQC-STATCON
Sizing for reactive power and imbalance

Load Q demand

Qmax

Qdyn = (Qmax - Qmin)

Qmin
Qbase
time

Qcapacitor

QPQC-STATCON* =

Qbase + (Qdyn/2)
Qdyn/2

Note:
* To perform load balancing, add the negative sequence demand of load.

Conclusions

Talk to us for expert advice on solving your power quality problems

ABB
Has complete range of power quality solutions
Has vast amount of experience in instantaneous stepless
compensation for reactive power and unbalanced loads (Example:
Automobile, rolling mills, railways and furnaces etc.,)

Website
Links
ABB Website for PQC-STATCON
http://www.abb.com/product/seitp329/3403ece22de0fcd6c125796c004f4c63.aspx?productLanguage=us&country=IN

ABB Group
October 30, 2015 | Slide 28