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Equations of lines and planes:

Things you need to find equation of a line in 3D:

- Position vector parallel to the line
- A point
Things you need to find equation of a plane in 3D:
- A point on the plane
- A normal vector to the plane
Cylinders and Surfaces in 3D:
Cylinders have 2 (changing) variables, while surfaces have 3 (changing) variables. This
info tells you what you are dealing with.
- Equations have only 2 variables. These EQs give a trace of the curve on coord. plane
denoted by the given variables.
- Curve is directed along the axis of the missing variable.
- The curve/trace does not change along the direction axis.
General surfaces:
- Surfaces have 3 variables.
- Traces occur more than one plane (coord. planes and on planes parallel to it).
- Still directed along an axis, but the trace/curve changes along the axis.
1. Determine the type of surface.
2. Determine the direction axis.
3. Find trace of coord. plane.
4. Find at least 2 other traces along direction axis.
x2/a2 + y2/b2 + z2/c2 = 1
How to tell:
1. All positives (+).
2. All power 2.
3. Has a constant.
1-Sheet Hyperboloid:
x2/a2 + y2/b2 - z2/c2 = 1

Everything same as ellipsoids except one negative variable. Always is directed along
the negative variable axis.
Set negative variable to 0 and to + - sort. to get all 3 traces (will be circle or ellipse).
2-Sheet Hyperboloid:
x2/a2 - y2/b2 - z2/c2 = 1
Everything same as 1-sheet hyperboloid except two negative variables now. But is now
directed along the positive variable axis.
Set both negative variables to zero to find where they intersect on the positive variable
axis. To get remaining two traces, set the positive variable to #s divisible by the
x2/a2 + y2/b2 - z2/c2 = 0
1. Has one negative (-) variable.
2. All power 2.
3. Has no constant (is 0).
Set negative variable equal to #s divisible by denominator to get traces.
x2/a2 + y2/b2 = Cz
How to tell:
1. 3 variables with 2 squares.
2. Variables with squares has to be positive.
Opens along the variable with degree one (i.e. z) axis. Set degree-1 variable to zero
(only if para. is shifted) to get trace (only has one trace).
Hyperbolic paraboloids:
x2/a2 - y2/b2 = Cz
1. 3 variables with 2 squares.
2. One square has a negative variable.
Plug in both positive and negative #s in degree-1 variable.

Vector Functions:
Parametric EQ:
x = f(t) , y = g(t) , t is the parameter. For some interval, I, on a common domain.
For 3-D:
x = f(t) , y = g(t) , z = h(t)
But vectors are defined by r = Xi + Yj + Zk
r(t) = f(t)i + g(t)j + h(t)k
is a vector function.
The terminal points of the vectors create a curve thru space (not a surface) for the
domain of t
Sketching vector functions:
1. Identify x, y, z
2. Use one or more components to get a curve or surface (get rid of t). For two
components, sketch it on a plane. For three components, the curve is on a surface.
More than one surface is possible but stick to ones that are easy to visualize (like
cylinders) if possible. The unused component will give the curve. For ex, r(t) = < t, t2, t3
>. y = x2 will give surface. z = t3 will give the curve.
3. Use values of t to find points & direction.

Derivatives and integrals of vector functions:

Derivative of vector functions is just the limit of the function. Derivative of a vector
function gives you a tangent vector to a space curve which can represent instantaneous
velocity of a particle in space.
Tangent Lines: need a point (of tangency) and a tangent vector (at the point of
tangency). Tangent vector is just the derivative of vector function. To find the C term in
integrals, initial condition or point must be given (i.e. r(0) = i + k ) just set it equal to each
other and solve for C.
Arc length and arc length parameterization:
Still use formula L = int (a to b) of sqroot of f(t)^2 + g(t)^2 dt. You can extend this to 3D
also by adding h(t)^2. But it is easier to know that the derivative of a vector function, find
its magnitude and then take the integral will give you the arc length: L = int (a to b) of [||

r(t) ||].
For Smooth Curves we can reparameterize by arc-length it allows us to walk the curve
and make some formula way easier. Also, the magnitude of the derivative of a
reparameterized function r(s) is always 1.
So to reparameterize just find the arc-length function, solve for t in terms of arc-length
s, then replace every t in the original function with this value in terms of s, in other
words, it give you the unit tangent vector.
TNB Frames (Fernet-Serret Frames) at every point it gives the unit vectors. Suppose a
plane/particle is flying then:
T is the unit tangent vector, it is the direction in which the plane is pointing/heading. It
gives direction.
N is the unit normal vector, is direction where the plane/particle is turning. It is
perpendicular to T vector.
B is the unit binormal vector, direction of particles twisting. It is orthogonal to both T and
So TNB are unit vectors that are mutually orthogonal .

Limits and Continuity of Multivariable:

It is easier to prove limit doesnt exist than to prove it exists by showing that along 2
paths we get different values when approached same point. So let X or Y = 0 first then
take limit of the remaining equation. Then do the same for the other variable. If their
limits are different values then limit D.N.E.
- Try x = 0 & y = 0 paths first. If different value, limit DNE.
- If above doesnt work, chose other paths.
Be certain the point (a,b) is actually on your path.
Try to substitute so that the degree of numerator and denominator are same.
Always use either x = 0 or y = 0 as one of the paths.
For 3 variable limits:
- Paths are now parametric.
- Always choose an Axis as 1st path. Along x-axis (y = 0 & z = 0).
- Along the Curve, C: let x = t, y = t, z = t

Continuity: A function is continuous at any point on the region for which it is defined
(domain is defined).
- All polynomials are continuous
- All rational functions are continuous where denominator != 0
- continuity holds for compositions.
Derivatives of Multivariables:
To find the slope of the tangent line to a surface, we must give it a direction. For now we
restrict direction to be along x and y axis only.
To find the slope in the x-direction we must contain the tangent line in a plane parallel to
the xy plane (contains x-axis). Requires y to be held constant. I.e. ( y = 3 is || to xz
parallel, and makes certain the tangent is in the xz plane). For y direction, same logic
but now x is held constant.
The idea of treating a variable as a constant & thereby insuring that the tan line is in the
direction of the other variable is called a partial derivative.

dy = the differential. It is the difference between the height of a point P and the line
tangent to it. dx = delta x doesnt change.
dy = f(x)dx
So dy is the height of the tangent line at some point. So it makes sense that it will be the
slope (f(x)) times run (dx or delta x).