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IETE Journal of Research

ISSN: 0377-2063 (Print) 0974-780X (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tijr20

Ant-based Integrated Traffic Control and


Management in ATM Networks
Sunil V K Gaddam, D K Lobiyal & Manohar Lal
To cite this article: Sunil V K Gaddam, D K Lobiyal & Manohar Lal (2015): Ant-based
Integrated Traffic Control and Management in ATM Networks, IETE Journal of Research, DOI:
10.1080/03772063.2014.961978
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03772063.2014.961978

Published online: 22 Sep 2015.

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Download by: [Dr Sunil V K Gaddam]

Date: 23 September 2015, At: 22:52

Ant-based Integrated Traffic Control and


Management in ATM Networks
Sunil V K Gaddam1, D K Lobiyal2 and Manohar Lal3
1

Department of Computer Science & Engineering, ACET, Allagadda, afliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anatapur (JNTUA),
Andhra Pradesh, India, 2School of Computer & Systems Sciences (SC & SS), Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, India, 3School of
Computer & Information Sciences (SOCIS), Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), New Delhi, India

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ABSTRACT
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a cell-switching and multiplexing technology that combines the benets of circuit switching with those of packet switching. Trafc management in ATM is concerned with ensuring that users get
their desired quality of service (QoS). The problem of trafc management is especially difcult during the periods of
heavy load particularly if the trafc demands cannot be predicted in advance. The issue of trafc control and bandwidth management in ATM-based networks is complex due to a mixture of different connection trafc types, QoS
requirements, and time scales. In this paper, we provide an ant-based integrated technique to control the occurrence
of congestion and allocate bandwidth for various trafc services in a prioritized manner. The forward ants collect the
QoS information of the nodes regarding the available bandwidth and the buffer size. Then based on the QoS requirements of the various trafc classes, the optimum path is selected based on the observed QoS statistics collected by
the ant agents. Therefore, the ant-based integrated technique provides the network to efciently use the trafc, thus
providing an efcient trafc management for the ATM network. By simulation results, we show that the proposed antbased technique outperforms the existing architecture in terms of throughput and delay.
Keywords:
ATM, Asynchronous transfer mode, Trafc management, Ant colony optimization, Attractiveness, Trail update.

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1

ATM Network

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a technology,


which has its roots in the advancement of broadband
integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) from
1970s and 1980s. ATM is a high-performance technology, which provides bandwidth on-demand for seamless transport of full-motion data, audio, video,
animations, and still images in local as well as wider
area environments. More particularly, it is a celloriented switching and multiplexing technology that
utilizes xed-length packets to carry diverse trafc
services [1]. According to [2], ATM is dened as a multiplexing technique in which a transmission capability
is organized in undedicated slots lled with cells with
respect to each applications instantaneous real need.
That is, ATM is composed of cell-switching and multiplexing technology, which provides a combined effect
of circuit switching (guaranteed capacity and constant
transmission delay) with those of packet switching
(exibility and efciency for intermittent trafc).
ATM is intended to accommodate any form of information including data, voice, video, facsimile, multimedia,
and image  whether in case of it being in compressed

IETE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH | 2015

or uncompressed state. Moreover, every data can be


supported along with a very small set of network protocols, regardless of whether the network is metropolitan, local or wide area in nature [3]. In ATM, before any
transmission takes place, a virtual circuit sets up the
intermediate switches to provide the requested quality
of service (QoS). Thus, it acts as a connection-oriented
technology. The allocation of bandwidth occurs in a per
channel basis simultaneously allowing other connection to take place through the same virtual path (VP)
[4]. ATM technology has been put into operation in a
very broad range of networking devices like ATM
switches in workgroup and campus to PC, workstation
and server network interface cards, in various multiplexers, edge switches, backbone switches and all [5].
1.2

Trafc Management

Trafc management is concerned with ensuring that


users get their desired QoS. The problem is especially
difcult during periods of heavy load particularly if the
trafc demands cannot be predicted in advance. ATM
technology supports diverse applications along with
their QoS requirements. Also there may be instances or
situations where the network cannot negotiate network
performances even for their previously established connections. These are analysed and provided by the trafc
1

Gaddam SVK, et al.: Ant-based Integrated Trafc Control and Management in ATM Networks

control and congestion control techniques, collectively


termed as trafc management. In trafc management,
the trafc control are sets of actions used by the network to evade congestion condition and congestion
control which refers to the set of actions taken by the
network to diminish the intensity, extension, and duration of congestion [6, 7].
1.3

Issues Related to Trafc Management

Trafc management mechanism brings forth the


following challenges [8].


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Temporarily overload conditions occurring due to


the statistical uctuation of trafc ows.
Malicious users, who deliberately offer more trafc to
the network for economic gain or for obtaining operational advantage with respect to the other users.
Malfunctioning of terminal equipment, leading to
unexpected trafc volumes entering the network.
Fault conditions that prevail inside the network.
Mixture of different connection trafc types, QoS
requirements, and time scales.

1.4 Problem Identication and Proposed Solution


From the issues related to ATM and with respect to relevant available literature, we come across that there is
hardly any recent work for resolving the congestion
and bandwidth allocation issues of trafc management
in ATM networks. In this proposal, we propose to
design an ant-based technique to allocate the bandwidth and resolve the congestion. The forward ants collect the QoS information of the nodes regarding the
available bandwidth and the buffer size. Then based on
the QoS requirements of the various trafc classes, the
optimum path is selected based on the observed QoS
statistics collected by the ant agents.
Therefore, it can be adaptively used for both static and
dynamic (bursty) trafcs.
The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents
the related work in the eld. Section 3 presents the basic
concepts of ant colony optimization (ACO) techniques.
The proposed trafc management system is explained
in Section 4 and simulation results are given in Section
5. Section 6 gives the conclusion.

2.

RELATED WORK

Cidon et al. [9] have elaborated the protocols and mechanism necessary for network bandwidth management
and congestion control. They drew heavily on the lessons learned from the design and implementation of
the plaNET network. However, they believed that most
of the conclusions are general and could be applied to
2

other high-speed networks, including ATM-based


systems.
Hong et al. [10] have described an integrated network
management framework for providing point-to-multipoint reservation service (PMRS) in an ATM network.
They proposed a point-to-multipoint routing algorithm
composed of ordering and backtracking procedures,
which can nd the best branch point under the complex
network topology and can add more destinations to the
existing point-to-multipoint route. There were two
major issues confronting the network service provider
in relation to this service: one was to rapidly conrm
the acceptability of the subscribers reservation at subscription time and the other was to punctually activate
the reserved point-to-multipoint service. To meet these
requirements, they developed a service provision
model and a network resource model of a bandwidth
allocation timetable.
Zaim [11] has proposed a new algorithm to design a
trafc ow coming from malfunctioning users. The
congestion control mechanism is proposed for the
SSCOP protocol in signalling. The mechanism outperforms the existing congestion control mechanism which
is limited by the number of calls that would be created
simultaneously. The system is designed to work on
ADSL connections signalling over the UNI.
Ogwu et al. [12] have proposed a technique that backed
an analytical model for evaluating the cell loss probability of high and low priority cells. This technique was
used for improving the QoS, which is guaranteed in an
ATM network. Here, rejection of all low priority cells
works against the objective for which ATM networks
was introduced; hence, cells were only discarded when
the buffers are full. It ultimately leads to a signicant
improvement in the efciency of the network.
Dziong et al. [13] have proposed a unied framework
for trafc control and bandwidth management in ATM
networks. The central concept of the proposed theme is
the connection admission algorithm that estimates the
aggregate equivalent bandwidth required by connections that has to be carried in each output port of the
ATM switches. The estimation process takes into
account both the trafc source declarations and the connection superposition process measurements in the
switch output ports.
El-Madbouly [14] has proposed an efcient algorithm
to compute the minimum capacity required to satisfy
the QoS requirements when multiple classes of onoffs
are multiplexed on to a single VP. In this paper, ATM
networks in which the VP concept is implemented are
considered along with the static-time priority in which
IETE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH | 2015

Gaddam SVK, et al.: Ant-based Integrated Trafc Control and Management in ATM Networks

priority is assigned on-per-class basis and the priority


level is constant for the same class. All classes are multiplexed together into a common buffer.

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3.

ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION (ACO)

ACO can be dened as a paradigm for designing metaheuristic algorithms for combinatorial optimization
(CO) problems. The important attribute of an ACO
algorithm is using the combination of a-priori information about the structure of an encouraging result with
a-posteriori information about the structure of the
results obtained earlier [15]. The fundamental idea,
which is heavily motivated by the behaviour of real
ants, is that of conducting parallel search over several
constructive computational threads, each of which is
on the basis of local problem data and on a dynamic
memory structure which contains information about
the quality of earlier acquired result. The collective
behaviour originating from the interaction of the different search threads has resulted to be fruitful in solving
CO problems [16].
The ant-based routing uses two kinds of agents  forward and backward agents. The forward agents search
the network to gather the network trafc details and
are routed on normal priority queues. The forward
agent is replaced by the backward agent when it
reaches the destination and the backward agent takes
over the stack associated with the forward agent. The
backward agent is deterministic and is transmitted on a
queue with high priority. The backward agents follow
the path of the forward agent and use these details to
update the routing tables (RTs) regularly [17]. These
mobile agents are very minute and weightless packets.
They contain IP addresses of the source and destination, packet ID, node ID, and traveling time.
We will outline two distinctive elements of the ANTS
algorithm within the ACO framework, namely the
attractiveness function and the trail updating mechanism. The attractiveness represents the inclination of
the ant, which selects a new state (i.e. a new direction
toward the food) according to its internal evaluations.
The trail level, also called pheromone in accordance to
the biological deposit of this chemical, codies the
memory of the ant or better of all the ants which have
been in the same situation. Loosely speaking, the trail
level is a way, biologically proven in the case of real
ants, to enable the coordination of a colony of ants
without a direct communication [18].
Trail update: the trail updating procedure evaluates
each solution against the last k solutions globally constructed by ANTS. As soon as k solutions are available,
their moving average z is computed; each new solution
IETE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH | 2015

zcurr is compared with z and then used to compute the


new moving average value. If zcurr is lower than z , the
trail level of the last solutions moves is increased, otherwise it is decreased. Formula (i) species how this is
implemented [15]:


zcurr LB
Dtij D t0 : 1
;
z LB

(i)

where, z the average of the last k solutions and LB is a


lower bound on the optimal problem solution cost. The
use of a dynamic scaling procedure permits discrimination of a small achievement in the latest stage of search,
while avoiding focusing the search only around good
achievement in the earliest stages [15].

4.

PROPOSED ANT-BASED TRAFFIC


MANAGEMENT

There is no recent work done to solve the congestion


and bandwidth allocation issues of trafc management
in ATM networks. The authors in [19] have discussed a
similar plot related to QoS in routing of ATM network.
The QoS is related to time consumed, packet loss or
bandwidth loss. In this proposal, we propose to design
an ant-based technique to allocate the bandwidth and
resolve the congestion. The forward ants collect the
QoS information of the nodes regarding the available
bandwidth and the buffer size. Then based on the QoS
requirements of the various trafc classes, the optimum
path is selected based on the observed QoS statistics
collected by the ant agents. Therefore, it can be adaptively used for both static and dynamic (bursty) trafcs.
4.1

Trafc Classication

The issue of trafc control and bandwidth management


in ATM-based networks is complex due to a mixture of
different connection trafc types, QoS requirements,
and time scales. ATM offers ve classes of service [20].
Each class is designed to accommodate data bursts
according to customer needs and to provide the appropriate QoS for each service class. The ve service categories are: constant bit rate (CBR), real-time variable bit
rate (rt-VBR), non-real-time variable bit rate (nrt-VBR),
unspecied bit rate (UBR), and available bit rate (ABR).


Constant bit rate (CBR)


- provides a continuous rate of ow
- supports trafc sensitive to delay and loss
- emulates circuit switching
- carries uncompressed voice and video
 Real-time variable bit rate (rt-VBR)
- supports trafc dependent on timing and control
information
- carries compressed voice, video, and audio
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Gaddam SVK, et al.: Ant-based Integrated Trafc Control and Management in ATM Networks


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Non-real-time variable bit rate (nrt-VBR)


- supports trafc at rates that vary with time
- unaffected by loss or delay because of time to
recover
- carries data and buffered voice and video
 Unspecied bit rate (UBR)
- provides no assurance that the data will be delivered (best effort only)
- carries le transfers and email
 Available bit rate (ABR)
- provides no assurance that the data will be delivered (best effort only)
- supports nrt-VBR trafc with ow control
From the above service categories, the rst three categories are non-self-controllable (NSC) whereas the last
trafc service (ABR) is self-controllable (SC). According
to the priority basis, service categories related to NSC
are given higher priority with respect to SC. We do not
include the UBR category as its services have the
smallest priority on the cell layer and do not require
any additional trafc admission control or resource
allocation. We bring in use the priority factor of the trafc services in our technique to efciently allocate bandwidth and control congestion in order to maintain
trafc control for priority-based trafc services.
4.2

Ant Agent Technique

As discussed above in Section 3, the ant technique has


two agents, namely forward and backward, which can
be used for the following purposes.


To detect the best path from source to destination.


 Detecting the congestion in the network path.
 Allocating bandwidth according to priority of trafc
services.
During a connection, at regular intervals Dt, every networks source node s transmits a forward agent ant
(FAA) to the destination d. The ant agent, who is transmitted to destination node d, discovers a feasible and
low-cost path to that node along with investigating the
load status of the network. Forward ants share the same
queues as data packets, so that they experience the same
trafc loads. The cycle of an ant agent should be greater
than half the ants age. The destinations are locally
selected according to the data trafc patterns generated
by the local workload. We take a prioritized stand in allocating bandwidth, which we discuss in Section 4.
While traveling toward their destination nodes, the
agents keep memory of their paths and of the trafc
conditions on the paths. At each node k, each traveling
agent headed towards its destination d, selects the node
n to move, choosing among the neighbours which it
4

had not already visited. The FAA selects its next hop
with a probability P(nd), which is given as [21]

Pnd D

P 0 nd C xLn
1 C x j Nk j 1

(1)

Where Nk denotes the set of neighbours of k, x the


weight value, P0 nd the normalized sum of the probabilistic entry. Further Ln denotes the instantaneous state
of the nodes queues which is proportional to the length
Qn of the queue of the link connecting the node k with
its neighbour n, given as [21]
Qn
Ln D 1 X j N j
k
n0 D 1

Qn 0

(2)

When FAA reaches the destination node d, it generates


a backward agent, namely, backward ant agent (BAA).
It takes the same path as that of its corresponding forward ant, but in the opposite direction. At each node k
along the path it pops its stack to know the next hop
node. BAA do not share the same link queues as data
packets; they use higher priority queues, because their
task is to quickly propagate to the RTs the information
accumulated by the forward ants. When BAA reaches a
node k coming from a neighbour node f, it updates the
two main data structures of the node.
The routing table (RT)  it consists of the probability
of choosing the best neighbour and the details of the
forwarded trip time.
 The trafc model table (TMT)  the table updates the
value of the required bandwidth allocation according
to priority basis.


The BAA updates the two tables till the destination and
presents a congested less, shortest path for the data trafc to ow.
4.3

Determining the Non-congested Best Shortest Path

As we have discussed above, the next node is chosen


from P(nd). To determine the best path, we provide an
increment-based technique to these probabilities. For
every successful hop to the next node, we provide an
increment value a. The value of a is related to trip time
(TT) and best TT experienced by the ants traveling
towards the destination d(BTTd).Thus, successful value
is given by [21]
Pnd D Pnd C a f1 Pndg;

(3)

IETE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH | 2015

Gaddam SVK, et al.: Ant-based Integrated Trafc Control and Management in ATM Networks

where,
BTTd
:
aD
TT

(4)

When the network is in a congested state, all the TTs


will score poorly with respect to the times observed in
low load situations. Nevertheless, a path with a high
TT should be scored as a good path if its TT is signicantly lower than the other TTs observed in the same
congested situation. Thus, the increment method will
provide the shortest path, which is relatively being congestion free.
Priority-based Bandwidth Allocation

In the priority-based bandwidth allocation technique,


we consider the two types of trafc service NSC and SC
(discussed in 4.1) for priority. If the trafc is of type
NSC, the FAA contains information about the declared
trafc parameters and required equivalent bandwidth BW. In each node, the trafc control and bandwidth management algorithm estimates the aggregate
equivalent bandwidth, BW which should be reserved
for all connections carried on each of the outgoing links.
This is carried out using the measurements of the
superposition cell process parameters Z, in the switch
output ports and the source declared trafc parameters
of the connections already accepted. When a CAC
cell arrives at the node, the algorithm veries whether
the requested bandwidth BW is smaller than (or equal
to) the residual bandwidth, RBW, given by, [21]

SIMULATION RESULTS

5.1

Simulation Model and Parameters

In this section, we examine the performance of our antbased integrated trafc control and management
approach with an extensive simulation study based
upon the NS-2 [22]. We compare our results with the
normal architecture. The topology used in our experiments consists of 60 nodes with some egress nodes connected with the core nodes to form a mesh of ATM
networks.
The following section discusses experiments based on
CBR and based on exponential trafc. The conclusions
from the results of these experiments are given in Section 6.
5.2

Egress bandwidth  the maximum and the minimum


upload speed through the network port.
Ingress bandwidth  the maximum and the minimum
download speed through the network port. In our
experiments, we vary the egress bandwidth and simulation time. We measure the following metrics.


Packet loss
Throughput in terms of packets
 End-to-end delay measured in seconds


The results are described in the following sub-sections.


5.3

RBW D T BW 0 ; T D Total bandwidth:


This information of the bandwidth is noted by FAA and
updated in TMT and at the destination, the cell is
returned as BAA. During the process of returning to
the source S, the agent re-checks those bandwidths and
then allocates the bandwidth.
Similarly, in the SC trafc, the FAA updates each node
in the TMT with the desired bandwidth. As SC has an
available bandwidth, thus the values of SC are not
dynamic in nature. This provides the agents to pass the
value for the required bandwidth to each node, simultaneously allocating the needed bandwidth.
Thus our ant-agent-based technique provides an efcient way in allocating bandwidth in a prioritized manner. Our technique also provides a congestion free
shortest path to provide a free trafc access in the ATM
network.
IETE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH | 2015

Performance Metrics

Experiment Based on CBR

In our rst experiment, we have CBR trafc ow with


varying egress bandwidth requirements as 0.25, 0.5,
0.75, and 1 Mb. The CBR sending rate is set according
to the egress bandwidths.
Figures 1 to 3 show that the egress bandwidth varies
from 0.25 to 1.00 Mb. From the gures, we can see that
the Received bandwidth is higher, Delay and Packet
Loss is lower in our ant-based scheme when compared

Egress Bandw idth Vs Received


Bandw idth(CBR)
Received
Bandwidth

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4.4

5.

3
2

Normal

Ant

0
0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

egress Bandw idth

Figure 1: Egress bandwidth vs. received bandwidth.


5

Gaddam SVK, et al.: Ant-based Integrated Trafc Control and Management in ATM Networks

Tim e Vs PacketLost
4000

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

Packets

Delay(Sec)

Egress Bandw idth Vs Delay(CBR)

Normal
Ant

3000

Normal

2000

Ant

1000
0

0.25

0.50

0.75

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

1.00

Egress Bandw idth

Tim e(Sec)

Figure 2: Egress bandwidth vs. delay.

Figure 6: Time vs. packet lost.

Egress Bandw idth Vs Packet Lost(CBR)


3000

Normal

2000

Packet Lost is lower in the ant-based scheme when


compared with the existing normal scheme.

Ant

1000

5.4

Experiment Based on Exponential Trafc

0
0.25

0.50

0.75

In our second experiment, we have exponential trafc


ow with varying egress bandwidth requirements as
0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 Mb. The exponential trafc sending
rate is set according to the egress bandwidths. The idle
and burst time values are set as 0.

1.00

Egress Bandw idth

Figure 3: Egress bandwidth vs. packet lost.


with the existing normal scheme.
Next we measure the performance metrics in different
time intervals having CBR trafc ow with egress
bandwidth requirement as 1Mb. The CBR sending rate
is set according to the egress bandwidth.

Figures 7 to 9 show that the egress bandwidth varies


from 0.25 to 1.00 Mb. From the gures, we can see that
the received bandwidth is higher, delay, packet lost is
lower in our ant-based scheme when compared with
the existing normal scheme.

Figures 4 to 6 show that the Time interval difference


varies from 1 sec to 4.5 sec. From the gures, we can
see that the Received bandwidth is higher, Delay,

Next, we measure the performance metrics in different


time intervals having exponential trafc ow
with egress bandwidth requirement as 1 Mb. The

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

Egress Bandw idth Vs Received Bandw idth


(EXP)
Normal
Ant

Received
Bandwidth

Received
Bandwidth

Tim e Vs Received Bandw idth(CBR)

3
2

Normal

Ant

0
0.25

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Tim e Vs Delay(CBR)

Figure 5: Time vs. delay.


6

Delay(Sec)

Ant

Tim e(Sec)

Egress Bandw idth Vs Delay


(EXP)

Normal

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

0.75

Figure 7: Egress bandwidth vs. received bandwidth.

Figure 4: Time vs. received bandwidth.

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

0.5

Egress Bandw idth

Tim e(Sec)

Delay(Sec)

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Packets

4000

0.1
Normal

0.05

Ant

0
0.25

0.5

0.75

Egress Bandw idth

Figure 8: Egress bandwidth vs. delay.


IETE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH | 2015

Gaddam SVK, et al.: Ant-based Integrated Trafc Control and Management in ATM Networks

Egress Bandw idth Vs Packet Lost (EXP)

6.

Packets

4000
3000

Normal

2000

Ant

1000
0
0.25

0.5

0.75

CONCLUSION

ATM technology supports variety of application along


with their QoS requirements. These provide a great
challenge for proper trafc management among the different applications and trafc services. In this paper,
we provide an efcient trafc management for the
ATM network. In this respect, we

Egress Bandw idth




Figure 9: Egress bandwidth vs. packet lost.

Figures 10 to 12 show that the time interval difference


from 1 to 4.5 sec. From the gures, we can see that the
received bandwidth is higher, delay, packet lost is
lower in the ant-based scheme when compared with
the existing normal scheme.

Received
Bandwidth

Tim e Vs Received Bandw idth (EXP)

Normal
Ant

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5


Tim e(Sec)

Figure 10: Time vs. received bandwidth.

The ant-agent technique is used to efciently detect the


best shortest path. We provide an increment type value
to the best path, which provides the network to prociently detect the congestion free best path. For allocation of bandwidth, a priority-based technique is used
among the trafc services which are divided into NSC
and SC trafcs. The higher priority-based trafc of NSC
uses the residual bandwidth to calculate the bandwidth
allocation whereas the lower priority-based SC allocates the needed bandwidth to each node for trafc
management. Therefore, the ant-based integrated technique provides the network to efciently use the trafc,
thus providing an efcient trafc management for the
ATM network. Through simulation results, we have
shown that the proposed ant-based technique outperforms the existing architecture in terms of throughput
and delay.

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Delay(Sec)

Tim e Vs Delay (EXP)


1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Normal

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2.5
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Authors
Sunil V K Gaddam received his BTech (ECE) from
Sri Venkateswara University (SVU), Tirupati, India
in 1993, post graduate diploma in computer engineering (PGDCE) from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University (JNTU), Hyderabad, India in
1994, and MTech (computer science & technology) from School of Computer and Systems Sciences, (SC & SS) Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU),
New Delhi, India in 1997. He received PhD in computer science from School of Computer and Information Sciences (SOCIS),
IGNOU in 2012. He has over 16 years of experience both in teaching and
research in the discipline of computer science in various Indian institutions/universities. He is currently working as principal at Alfa College of
Engineering & Technology, Allagadda, Kurnool (Dist.), Andhra Pradesh.
E-mail: sunilvkg@gmail.com

D K Lobiyal received his BTech (CST) from the


Institute of Engineering and Technology, Lucknow
University, 1988, his MTech (CST), Jawaharlal
Nehru University, 1991, and his PhD (CST), Jawaharlal Nehru University, 1996. Presently, he is
working as an associate professor at School of
Computer and Systems Sciences (SC & SS) at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU). His areas of interest
include computer networks, mobile ad-hoc networks, natural language processing, video on demand, bioinformatics, etc.

Manohar Lal is the former director of the School


of Computer & Information Sciences, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi (India).
He has teaching and research experience of more
than 30 years at various Indian universities including University of Delhi and Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi.
Prof. Manohar Lal is a product of reputed Indian
academic institutions including IIT Kanpur, IIT Delhi and University of Delhi.
He completed his MTech in computer science and engineering from IIT Kanpur and pursued his second PhD in computer science and engineering from
IIT, Delhi. Earlier, he completed his masters and PhD programmes in mathematics from University of Delhi. During 198283, he visited North Carolina State University for post-doctoral work. In the context of academic
work, he has visited a number of countries including USA, UK, Germany
and France.
Prof. Lal has long research experience. Earlier, he worked in the area of
error-correcting codes. Currently, he is working in the areas of e-learning,
automation of reasoning and computer networks.
E-mail: mlal@ignou.ac.in

E-mail: dkl@mail.jnu.ac.in
DOI: 10.1080/03772063.2014.961978; Copyright 2015 by the IETE

IETE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH | 2015