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NotesontheTroubleshootingandRepairof

ComputerandVideoMonitors
Version3.22(5Dec09)
Copyright19942013
SamuelM.Goldwasser
AllRightsReserved

Forcontactinfo,pleaseseetheSci.Electronics.RepairFAQEmailLinksPage.
Reproductionofthisdocumentinwholeorinpartispermittedifbothofthefollowingconditionsare
satisfied:
1.Thisnoticeisincludedinitsentiretyatthebeginning.
2.Thereisnochargeexcepttocoverthecostsofcopying.

TableofContents
Preface
AuthorandCopyright
DISCLAIMER
Introduction
Monitors,monitors,andmoremonitors
RelatedInformation
Monitorfundamentals
Monitorcharacteristics
Typesofmonitors
Whyautoscan?
Analogversusdigitalmonitors
Interlacing
Monitorperformance
Performancetestingofmonitors
Monitorrepair
MostCommonProblems
Repairorreplace
Monitors101
Subsystemsofamonitor
Formoreinformationonmonitortechnology
Onlinetechtipsdatabases
Additionalmonitortechnologyandrepairinformation

CRTBasics
ColorCRTsshadowmasksandaperturegrills
Degaussing(demagnetizing)aCRT
Howoftentodegauss
WhyaretherefinelinesacrossmyTrinitronmonitororTV?
MonitorPlacementandPreventiveMaintenance
Generalmonitorplacementconsiderations
Nonstandardmonitormountingconsiderations
Preventivemaintenancecareandcleaning
Monitortuneup?
MonitorTroubleshooting
SAFETY
WarningaboutdisconnectingCRTneckboard
Troubleshootingtips
Testequipment
Incrediblyhandywidgets
SafedischargingofcapacitorsinTVsandvideomonitors
AdditionalinformationondischargingCRTs
RemovingtheCRTHVconnector
Theserieslightbulbtrick
Gettinginsideamonitor
SpecificconsiderationsbeforepokingaroundinsideaTVormonitor
Dustingouttheinsideofamonitor
Troubleshootingamonitorwiththemainboarddisconnected
Commentsonrepairingmoderncomputermonitors
MonitorAdjustments
Userpictureadjustment
Focusadjustment
AdjustingMonitorswithDualFocusFlybacks
Brightnessandcolorbalanceadjustment
Optimalprocedureforsettingbrightness/backgroundandscreenadjustments
Position,size,andlinearityadjustment
Commentsonlinearityorlackthereof
Pincushion
Pincushionadjustments
Geometryadjustment
Whyistheconvergenceonmymonitorbadneartheedges
CRTpurityandconvergence
CRTpurityadjustment
CRTconvergenceadjustment
Tiltedpicture
Monochromemonitorsize,position,andgeometryadjustments
LowVoltagePowerSupplyProblems
Lowvoltagepowersupplyfundamentals
Componentsofthelowvoltagepowersupply
Whatsymptomsarelikelytheresultofalowvoltagepowersupplyproblem?
Monitorpowersupplyproblems
Troubleshootingtheswitchmodepowersupply
Commonproblems
Powerbuttononmonitorisflakey
Deadmonitor

Monitorblowsfuse
Internalfuseblewduringlightningstorm(orelephanthitpowerpole)
Fusereplaced(doesn'tblow)butmonitorisstillnearlydead
Nopicturebutindicationsofpower
Monitordeflectionderivedpowersupplyfaults
Powerontickticktickorclickclickclickbutnootheraction
Deadmonitorwithaudiblewhine,periodictweetorflub,andlowlowvoltage
Monitorpowercyclingonandoff
Startupproblemsnothinghappens,click,orticktickticksound
Reducedwidthpictureand/orhumbarsinpicture
Wigglingorjigglingpicture
Monitordoesn'tpowerupimmediately
Oldmonitorrequireswarmupperiod
Adjustmentorpictureinteractions
ShortedComponents
Monitorturnsoffafterwarmingup
Monitorshutsdownwithbrightpictureorwhenbrightnessisturnedup
RelaysinthePowerCircuitryofmonitors
Whatisaposistor?
FlameproofResistors
DeflectionProblems
Deflectionfundamentals
Monitordisplayisoffcenter
Grossproblemsinsizeorpositionatcertainscanrates
Reducedwidth
Canincorrectormissingvideodamagemymonitor?
Picturesqueezedinthendied
Horizontaldeflectionshuttingdown
Horizontalsquashed
Monitornonlinearity
Picturesqueezedonbothleftandrightsideofscreen
Verticalsquashed
Keystoneshapedpicture
Picturesizechanging
Monitorwillnotsync
Horizontallocklost
Insufficientwidth(withouthumbars)
Lossofhorizontalsync(alsoappliestovertical)afterwarmup
Replicatedoroffsetmultipleimages
Partofpicturecutoff
Brightordarkbarsonedgeofpicture(horizontalorvertical)
SingleVerticalLine
SingleHorizontalLine
Intermittentjumpingorjitteringofpictureorotherrandombehavior
Horizontaloutputtransistorskeepblowing(orexcessivelyhot)
Horizontaloutputtransistorsblowingatrandomintervals
Steve'scommentsonHOTreplacement
Verticalfoldover
Jaggedorunevenverticalsweep
Excessivewidth/pincushioningproblems
pincushion
Uncorrectablepincushiondistortionwithnewmonitor
pincushion
Deflectionyoketesting
Deflectionyokerepair

Testingofflyback(LOPT)transformers
Picturesizesuddenlybecomeslarger(orsmaller)
Burningupofvarioussizeorcenteringresistors
Pictureshiftedhorizontally
Horizontalorverticalflippedpicture
HighVoltagePowerSupplyProblems
IdentifyingHVvoltageproblems
Highvoltagepowersupplyfundamentals
Whatisatripler?
HighvoltageshutdownduetoXrayprotectioncircuits
Excessivelowvoltagesupplymaytriggerhighvoltageshutdown
Lowornohighvoltage
Excessivehighvoltage
Snaps,crackles,andotherHVbreakdown
Arcing,sparking,orcoronafromCRTHVanode(redwire/suctioncup)
ArcingatsparkgapsandgasdischargetubesonCRTneckboardorelsewhere
SparkgapsandgasdischargebulbsonCRTneckboardorelsewhere
Arcingfromflybackorvicinity
Dave'scompleteprocedureforrepairofanarcingflyback
ArcingduetobadconnectionstoordisconnectedCRTreturn
FlashoversinsidetheCRT
Ozonesmelland/orsmokefrommonitor
XrayandotherEMemissionfrommyTVormonitor?
ShouldIbeworriedaboutXrayexposurewhileservicingaTVormonitor?
MoreonradiationfromTVsandmonitors
Flybackgotwet
Bloomingorbreathingproblems
Erraticfocusorscreen(G2)voltageand/orcontrolsonflyback
Focus/Screendividerbypasssurgery
Decayingorerraticfocusorscreen(G2)voltages
Disconnectingflybackwire(s)fromCRTdriverboard
FocusorscreenvoltagedriftsafterwarmuponlywhenCRTisconnected
Raster,Color,andVideoProblems
Blankpicture,powerlighton,digitalcontrols(ifany)active
Brightnesscontrolhasnoeffect
Nocolorblackandwhitepicture
Onecoloristooweakortoostrong
Psychodeliccolor
Monitormanufacturingqualityandcoldsolderjoints
Whycan'tmonitormanufacturerslearntosolderproperly?
Intermittent,flickering,ormissingcolors
SomecommentaryonmonitorandTVwhacking
Ghosts,shadows,orstreaksinpictureadjacenttoverticaledges
Generalstreaksorlinestotherightofbrightordarkareas
Washedoutpicture
Retracelinesinpicture
White/grayretracelines
Red,green,orblueretracelines
BadCRTcausingretracelines
Red,green,orbluefullonfogoverpicture
Totallywhitescreen(probablywithretracelines)
ShortsinaCRT

ProvidingisolationforaCRTHKshort
RescuingashortedCRT
Highvoltagetofocusshort
Darkpicture
BrighteninganoldCRT
Colorbalancechangesacrossscreenfromlefttoright
Bleedinghighlights
Trailinglinesinoneormorecolors
Purityproblemswithbrightpictures
Whydoestheintensityappearsononuniforminbrightareas?
Brightnesschangesfromlefttorightacrossscreen
Picturefadesinandout
Occasionalbrightnessflashes
Occasionalstatic,lines,spots,orotherunsightlyblemishes
Flickeringmonitor
Excessivebrightnessand/orwashedoutpicture
Focusproblems
Badfocus(fuzzypicture)
Focusdriftwithwarmup
Aboutthequalityofmonitorfocus
Badfocusandadjustmentchangesbrightness
Charlie'scommentsonfocusproblems
Purplebloborworse
Colorringsbullseyepattern
Magnetfixforpurityproblemsifducttapeworks,useit!
Colormonitoronlydisplaysonecolor
DisappearingRed(orothercolor)
Interferenceresultinginjigglingorwiggling
Interferencefromelectricalwiring
Interferencefrompowerlines
Interferencefromcrossconnectedbuildings
Interferencefromotherequipment
Mymonitorispossessed!
Shimmeringimageduetovibrations
Wiringtransmittedinterference
JitteringorflickeringduetoproblemswithACpower
Mymonitorhastheshakes
Fred'scommentsonmonitorinterferenceproblems
Lossofcolorafterwarmup
MiscellaneousProblems
ContourlinesonhighresolutionmonitorsMoire
Moireandshadowmaskdotpitch
Sourcesofexternalinterferencethatcanaffectthemonitordisplay
InterferencebetweenmonitorandVCRorTV
Cableinstalledupsidedownnowmonitordoesnotsynccorrectly
Isolatedspotsondisplay
Powersavingproblems
Monitordrift?
Monitorshutsdownorgoesblankatcertainscanrates
Monitorflickerswhendiskaccessed
Buzzingmonitor
Highpitchedwhineorsquealfrommonitorwithnoothersymptoms
Monitorwhinesinpowersaving(standby)mode

Reducing/eliminatingyokenoise
Monitorwasrainedon
Monitorwasdropped
Reallycleaningamonitorinsideandout
Setupmenuswillnotgoawayorhieroglyphicsonscreen
SetupAdjustmentsLost
Monitordoesn'tworkafterbeinginstorage
Cheapmonitorswithmultipleintermittentproblems
Monitorhasburningsmell
Staticdischargenoiseandpicturetubequality
Loudspeakersandmonitors
ShouldIreplacealltheelectrolyticcapacitorsifIfindabadone?
Blackpowderbeinggeneratedinsidemonitor?
SweetlittleoldladiesandTVsfromattic
Disposingofdeadmonitors(CRTsandchargedHVcapacitors)
Apple/Sonymonitordiesaftervariablelengthoftime
MoreontheApple/Sony'bigredcapacitorthing'
CTXmonitorintermittentorblowsfuse
GatewayCrystalscanandMAGmonitorproblems
Allergiesfrommonitors?
ItemsofInterest
Websiteswithmonitorspecifications
Howdomultiscanmonitorsdetermineandstorethescanparameters?
MonitorreliabilitywithSVGA
HowhigharefreshrateshouldIuse?
Numberofcolorsandmonitortype
Variousvideostandards
Monitors,humans,andflicker
Isfluorescentlightingasignificantsourceofflicker?
Interlacedvs.noninterlacedmonitors
Digitalversusanalogcontrolsonmonitorsandpicturequality
ShouldIbeconcernedaboutveryfrequentscanrateswitching
Whatismonitorvideobandwidthandwhyisitimportant?
Whyagoodmonitormayproduceafuzzypicture
Ghostscardormonitor?
Extensioncablesandmonitorghosting
DrivingmultiplemonitorsfromasinglePC
UsingaPCasamonitortestpatterngenerator
Monitortestingprograms
UsingaTVtunercardinaPC
Whatiscolortemperatureandwhatdoesitaffect?
Whatisthisgooparoundsomeelectrolyticcapacitorsandothercomponents?
Whatdoestheflyback(LOPT)transformerdo?
Tony'snotesonsettingconvergenceonolderdeltagunCRTs
Jerry'scommentsonconvergenceandotheradvancedCRTadjustments
Useofsurgesuppressorsandlinefilters
GFCItrippingwithmonitor(orotherhightechequipment)
Monitorsonforeignpower
LifespansofMonitors
Howdomonitorsknowwhentoenterpowersavingmodes?
Monitorlife,energyconservation,andlaziness
Thermalcyclingandcomponentlife
Minimumandmaximumlifespanofmonitors

Implicationsofpowersavingmodes
Methodstopreventscreenburninonfixedformatmonitors
Monitors,heat,andcoolingfans
WhyarepricesofvideomonitorssohighcomparedtosimilarlysizedTVs?
WhyistheresolutionofacomputermonitorsomuchbetterthanaTV
CombinedTVandcomputermonitor
ProblemswithdesigningacombinationTVandcomputermonitor
So,whatabouttrulydigitalmonitors?
Aboutsyncpolarityoptions
VESADisplayDataChannelstandard
Identifyingconnectionsonunknownorcutmonitorcables
Replacingmonitorcablesorconnectors
ReplacingthecableonanHPD1182Amonitor
HowcanIdeterminemonitorspecificationsorwhetheritsupportsSVGA?
IsCRTreplacementworthit?
AninformalhistoryofXrayprotection
TurningaTV(ormonitor)intoanoscilloscope?
Displayingavideosignalasapictureonanoscilloscope
Couldamonitorbemodifiedfor3D(stereo)display?
ShouldIuseaVGAtoBNCcableifmymonitorhasBNCconnectors?
Buildinga5BNCcable
UsingaworkstationmonitoronaPC
Tweakingthedeflectionrateofafixedfrequencyornonstandardmonitor
DisplayingTVonacomputermonitor
ModifyingaCGA(orEGA)monitorforNTSCorPALinput
Pictureinstabilityofcomputermonitorusedtowatchvideos
Drivingmultiplenondaisychainedmonitorsfromonevideosource
DisplayingcomputervideoonaTV
HDTVascomputermonitorCanitbeworthit?
WhatisKellfactorwithrespecttointerlaceddisplays?
Weirdphenomenonofthemonth
BigAl'srulesofthumbonmonitorrepair
TicTocTips
Monitorserviceandhowtogetsome
Shippingdamage1:whymonitorsarelikebasketballs
Shippingdamage2:whymonitorsarelikehammers(asinthrow)
Shippingdamage3:whysmallmonitorsarelikefootballs
Shippingdamage4:somaybeifmonitorswerepackedandshippedlikeeggs
Cleaningplasticmonitorcases
Secretmenus
Reliabilityandperformanceofrefurbishedorremanufacturedmonitors
Ron'snotesonvideosignalqualityproblems
Monitorqualitycontrol
IsBigBrotherwatchingoveryourshoulder?
Lamentofthelackofadjustmentpotsonthenewestmonitors
AnalogversusdigitalLCDflatscreenmonitors
Whyisthereagrowthonmymonitorcable?
ServiceInformation
Advancedmonitortroubleshooting
Additionalinformation
TheUSENETnewsgroup:sci.electronics.repair
Suggestedreferences
FCCIDNumbersofmonitors

Partsinformation
Monitorschematicsandmanuals
InformationsourcesontheInternet
Interchangeabilityofcomponents
Horizontaloutputtransistorpinouts
HowdoyoulocatetheHOT
Replacementpowertransistorswhiletesting
TestingofreplacementHOTs
Removingandreplacingthedeflectionyoke
Swappingofdeflectionyokes
SwappingofnonidenticalCRTs
Decayedglueinelectronicequipment
Repairpartssources
Sourcesforadaptersandcables
Monitorreplacementcables

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

Preface
AuthorandCopyright
Author:SamuelM.Goldwasser
Forcontactinfo,pleaseseetheSci.Electronics.RepairFAQEmailLinksPage.
Copyright19942013
AllRightsReserved
Reproductionofthisdocumentinwholeorinpartispermittedifbothofthefollowingconditionsare
satisfied:
1.Thisnoticeisincludedinitsentiretyatthebeginning.
2.Thereisnochargeexcepttocoverthecostsofcopying.

DISCLAIMER
WorkinginsideaCRTbasedcomputerorvideomonitor,ortelevisionsetcanbelethalfromline
connectedandhighvoltagepowersuppliesaswellasCRTimplosion.ReadandfollowALLofthe
safetyguidelinesfoundinSafetyGuidelinesforHighVoltageand/orLinePoweredEquipmentand
thesection"SAFETY",below.Ifindoubtaboutyourabilitiesorexperience,leaverepairandinternal
adjustmentstoaprofessional.
Wewillnotberesponsiblefordamagetoequipment,yourego,countywidepoweroutages,
spontaneouslygeneratedmini(orlarger)blackholes,planetarydisruptions,orpersonalinjuryor
worsethatmayresultfromtheuseofthismaterial.

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

Introduction

Monitors,monitors,andmoremonitors
Intheearlydaysofsmallcomputers,a110baudteletypewithapersonalpapertapereaderwasthe
'preferred'inputoutputdevice(meaningthatthiswasagreatimprovementoverpunchedcardsand
havingtodealwiththebozosinthecomputerroom.Smallhere,alsomeantsomethingthatwould
comfortablyfitintoacoupleof6footelectronicsracks!)
Theearliestpersonalcomputersdidn'tcomewithadisplayyouconnectedthemtothefamilyTV.
YouandyourkidssharedthesingleTVandtheFlintstonesoftenwonout.TheCommodore64would
neverhavebeenassuccessfulasitwasifanexpensivemonitorwererequiredratherthananoption.
However,ascomputerperformanceimproved,itquicklybecameclearthatadedicateddisplaywas
essential.Evenforsimpletext,aTVcanonlydisplay40charactersacrossthescreenwithanydegree
ofclarity.
WhentheIBMPCwasintroduced,itcamewithanice80x25greenmonochrometextdisplay.Itwas
bright,crisp,andstable.Monographics(MGAorMDA)wasaddedat720x350,CGAatarangeof
resolutionsfrom160x200to640x200at2to16colors,andEGAextendedthisuptoaspectacular
resolutionof640x350.ThiswasreallyfineuntiltheintroductionofWindows(well,atleastonce
Windowsstayeduplongenoughforyoutocare).
AllofthesedisplaysuseddigitalvideoTTLsignalswhichcodedforaspecificdiscretenumberof
possiblecolorsandintensities.Boththevideoadapterandthemonitorwerelimitedto2,4,16,ora
whopping64colorsdependingonthegraphicsstandard.Thevideosignalswerelogicbits0sand1s.
WiththeintroductionoftheVGAstandard,personalcomputergraphicsbecame'real'.VGAandits
successorsPGA,XGA,andalloftheSVGA(non)standardsuseanalogvideoeachoftheR,G,
andBsignalsisacontinuousvoltagewhichcanrepresentacontinuousrangeofintensitiesforeach
color.Inprinciple,ananalogmonitoriscapableofanunlimitednumberofpossiblecolorsand
intensities.(Inpractice,unavoidablenoiseandlimitationsoftheCRTrestrictstheactualnumberto
orderof64256distinguishableintensitiesforeachchannel.)
NotethatanalogvideowasonlynewtothePCworld.TVsandothervideoequipment,workstations,
andimageanalysissystemshadutilizedanalogsignalsformanyyearspriortothePC's'discovery'of
thisapproach.Inallfairness,boththedisplayadapterandmonitoraremoreexpensivesoitisnot
surprisingthatearlyPCsdidnotuseanalogvideo.
MostoftheinformationinthisdocumentappliestocolorcomputervideomonitorsandTVstudio
monitorsaswellasthedisplayportionsoftelevisionsets.Blackandwhite,grayscale,and
monochromemonitorsuseasubsetofthecircuitry(andgenerallyatlowerpowerlevels)incolor
monitorssomuchofitappliestotheseaswell.
Formostdescriptionsofsymptoms,testing,diagnosis,andrepair,anautoscanPCSVGAmonitoris
assumed.Forafixedfrequencyworkstationmonitor,studiovideomonitor,orclosedcircuitTV
monitor,onlyasubsetofthepossiblefaultsandprocedureswillapply.
Note:weusetheterm'autoscan'todescribeamonitorwhichacceptsawide(andpossibly
continuous)rangeofscanrates.Usually,thisrefersmostlytothehorizontalfrequencyasthevertical
refreshrateisquiteflexibleonmanymonitorsofalltypes.Fixedscanorfixedfrequencymonitorsare
designedtoworkwithasinglescanrate(thougha5%orsovariationmayactuallybeaccepted).
Multiscanmonitorssyncattwoormoredistinctscanrates.Whilenotverycommonanymore,multi
scanmonitorsmaystillbefoundinsomespecificapplications.

RelatedInformation

Seethedocumentss:TroubleshootingandRepairofSmallSwitchmodePowerSuppliesand
TroubleshootingandRepairofTelevisionSetsforadditionalusefulpointers.Sinceamonitormust
performasubsetofthefunctionsofaTV,manyoftheproblemsandsolutionsaresimilar.Forpower
relatedproblemstheinfoonSMPSsmaybeusefulaswell.Ifyouareconsideringpurchasinga
monitororhaveonethatyouwouldliketoevaluate,seethecompaniondocument:Performance
TestingofComputerandVideoMonitors.

Monitorfundamentals
Note:throughoutthisdocument,weusetheterm'raster'torefertotheentireextentofthescanned
portionofthescreenandtheterms'picture','image'.or'display',torefertotheactualpresentation
content.
MonitorsdesignedforPCs,workstations,andstudiovideohavemanycharacteristicsincommon.
ModerncomputermonitorssharemanysimilaritieswithTVsbuttheautoscanandhighscanrate
deflectioncircuitryandmoresophisticatedpowersuppliescomplicatestheirservicing.
Currently,mostinexpensivecomputermonitorsarestillbasedontheCathodeRayTube(CRT)asthe
displaydevice.However,handheldequipment,laptopcomputers,andthescreensinsidevideo
projectorsnowuseflatpaneltechnology,mostlyLiquidCrystalDisplaysLCDs.Thesearealotless
bulkythanCRTs,uselesspower,andhavebettergeometrybutsufferfromcertainflaws.Asthe
priceofLCD(andothertechnology)flatscreentechnologydecreases,suchmonitorswillbecome
dominantfordesktopcomputersaswellandCRTbasedmonitorswilleventuallygothewayof
dinosaurs,corememory,andlongplayingrecordsthatdominatedtheirrespectiveindustriesfor
decadesbuteventuallyyieldedtofundamentallynewtechnology.:)
However,therearestillproblemswith(lowcost,atleast)LCDmonitors.First,thepicturequalityin
termsofgrayscaleandcolorisgenerallyinferiortoadecentanalogmonitor.Thenumberofdistinct
shadesofgrayordistinctcolorsisalotmorelimited.TheyaregenerallynotasresponsiveasCRTs
whenitcomestorealtimevideowhichisbecomingincreasinglyimportantwithmultimedia
computers.ThisispartlyduetotheresponseoftheLCDmaterialitselfbutalsoaresultofthescan
conversionthat'sneededfornonnativeresolutionformats.Brightnessisgenerallynotasgoodasa
decentCRTdisplay.Andlastbutnotleast,thecostisstillsomewhathigherduebothtotheincreased
complexityofflatpaneltechnologyandlowerproductionvolumes(thoughthisiscertainlyincreasing
dramatically).ItisreallyhardtobeatthesimplicityoftheshadowmaskCRT.
Thereallybadnewsfromtheperspectiveofrepairisthattheygenerallycannotberepairedoutsideof
amanufacturerauthorizedservicecenterandthewaytheydotherepairmostlikelywillbetoswap
theentireLCD/driverpanel,ifnottheentiremonitor.Onlyrepairofthemostsimpleproblemslike
obviousbadconnections,abadcable,abadbacklightlamp,orafailureofthepowersupplyor
backlightinverter,canrealisticallybeaccomplishedwithoutfancyspecializedtestequipmentand
facilities.Accesstothebacklightlampsmightsubstantialdisassembly.
BuyingabrokenLCDmonitortorepairmayhavebetteroddsthantheStateLottery,butprobablynot
bymuch.Whereoneormorecolumnsorrowsoranentirehalfscreenarenotdisplayingproperly,I
wouldn'tconsideritunlessnearlytotallyfree,hopingforamiracle,andeventhenitmightnotbe
worthit.Looseconnectorsandsolderjointsarepossible,thoughnotnearlyascommonaswithCRT
monitors.
Alsoanotetothosewithlessthanperfectvision:Ifyoutendtoviewyourmonitorfromlessthan10
to15inches,youmaybedisappointed,oratleasthaveahardtimegettingusedtoLCDmonitors.The
appearanceofaCRTdisplayisnearlyindependentofviewingangle.ButforanLCDdisplay,thisis
notthecase.Onlythecentralpartofyourfieldofvisionwillhavetheproperbrightness,contrast,and
colorrendition.Ifthecurserisn'twithinthiscentralarea,itwillbehardertolocatethanonaCRT.In

short,don'tjustdependonthehype.AnLCDwithaslightlylowercontrastratioandlowerpricemay
haveasubstantiallywiderviewingangleandbettermatchtoyourneedsthanatopofthelinemodel.
TestdrivemultipleLCDmonitorsbeforecommittingtoone!
Nonetheless,avarietyoftechnologiesarecurrentlycompetingforuseintheflatpaneldisplaysofthe
future.AmongtheseareadvancedLCD,plasmadischarge,andfieldemissiondisplays.Onlytimewill
tellwhich,ifanysurvivestobecome**the**pictureonthewallornotepaddisplayatreasonable
cost.
Projectiondisplays,ontheotherhand,cantakeadvantageofanoveldevelopmentinintegrated
micromachiningtheTexasInstrumentsInc.DigitalMicromirrorDevice(DMD).Thisisbasicallyan
integratedcircuitwithatiltablemicromirrorforeachpixelfabricatedontopofastaticmemory
RAMcell.DMDtechnologywouldpermitnearlyanysizeprojectiondisplaytobeproducedand
wouldthereforebeapplicabletoHDTVaswellasPCs.Sinceitisareflectivedevice,thelightsource
canbeasbrightasneeded.Thistechnologyisalreadyappearingincommercialhighperformance
computerprojectorsandiscompetingforuseintotallydigitalmovietheaterstoreplacethefilm
projector,buttomyknowledgeisnotinanyconsumerTVsetsyet.
Asnoted,theplasmapanelflatscreendisplayhasbeenaroundforseveralyearsinhighendTVs,
typicallyinthe42inchdiagonalrange.Buttheyareveryexpensive($5,000to$15,000asofWinter,
2003),andtheirlifeexpectancymaybelimitedduetothegradualdegradationoftheactivepixelcells
whichoccursfasterthanforaCRT.Thephysicalresolutionisalsoprobablystilltoolowtoreally
justifythelargescreensizeforcomputerdisplays.However,thereislittledoubtthatthisorasimilar
technologywilleventuallyreplacethedirectviewCRTand3tubeprojectionTVsinthemidtolarge
screensizesinthenottoodistantfuture.Buttowhatextentitisusedforcomputermonitorsisstill
unclear.
TheremainderofthisdocumentconcentratesonCRTbasedcomputerandvideomonitorssincethese
stilldominatethemarketandrealistically,theyaretheonlytypewherethereisagoodchanceof
repairwithoutaccesstospecializedtestequipmentandparts.Iwouldn'trecommendanysortof
attemptatrepairofflatscreenTVsormonitorsnomatterwhatthesizebeyondcheckingforbad
connections,deadpowersupplies,orotherobviousproblems.Thechanceofsuccessisvanishingly
smallandit'sverylikelythatevenwithgreatcare,damagecouldoccurtothepanelsorcircuitry.

Monitorcharacteristics
Thefollowingdescribethecapabilitieswhichcharacterizeadisplay:
1.Resolutionthenumberofresolvablepixelsoneachlineandthenumberofscanninglines.
Bandwidthofthevideosource,cable,andmonitorvideoamplifiersaswellasCRTfocusspot
sizeareallcritical.However,maximumresolutiononacolorCRTislimitedbythedot/slot/line
pitchoftheCRTshadow/slotmaskoraperturegrille.
2.Refreshratethenumberofcompleteimages'painted'onthescreeneachsecond.Non
interlacedorprogressivescanningpoststheentireframeduringeachsweepfromtoptobottom.
Interlacedscanningposts1/2oftheframecalledafieldfirsttheevenfieldandthentheodd
field.Thisinterleavingreducestheapparentflickerforagivendisplaybandwidthwhen
displayingsmoothimagerysuchasforTV.Itisusuallynotacceptableforcomputergraphics,
however,asthinhorizontallinestendtoflickerat1/2theverticalscanrate.Refreshrateisthe
predominantfactorthataffectstheflickerofthedisplaythoughthepersistenceoftheCRT
phosphorsarealsoaconsideration.Longpersistencephosphorsdecreaseflickerattheexpense
ofsmearingwhenthepicturechangesormoves.Verticalscanrateisequaltotherefreshratefor
noninterlacedmonitorsbutisthetwicetherefreshrateforinterlacedmonitors(1frameequals
2fields).Noninterlacedverticalrefreshratesof7075Hzareconsidereddesirablefor

computerdisplays.Televisionuses25or30Hz(framerate)interlacedscanninginmost
countries.
3.Horizontalscanratethefrequencyatwhichtheelectronbeam(s)moveacrossthescreen.The
horizontalscanrateisoftenthelimitingfactorinsupportinghighrefreshratehighresolution
displays.Itiswhatmaycausefailureifscanratespeedlimitsareexceededduetothe
componentstresslevelsinhighperformancedeflectionsystems.
4.ColorormonochromeacolormonitorhasaCRTwiththreeelectrongunseachassociated
withaprimarycolorred,green,orblue.Nearlyallvisiblecolorscanbecreatedfromamixof
primarieswithsuitablespectralcharacteristicsusingthisadditivecolorsystem.
AmonochromemonitorhasaCRTwithasingleelectrongun.However,theactualcolorofthe
displaymaybewhite,amber,green,orwhateversinglecolorisdesiredasdeterminedbythe
phosphoroftheCRTselected.
5.Digitaloranalogsignaladigitalinputcanonlyassumeadiscretenumberofstatesdepending
onhowmanybitsareprovided.Asinglebitinputcanonlyproducetwolevelsusuallyblack
orwhite(oramber,green,etc.).FourbitEGAcandisplayupto16colors(withacolormonitor)
or16shadesofgray(withamonochromemonitor).
Analoginputsallowforatheoreticallyunlimitednumberofpossiblegraylevelsorcolors.
However,theactualstorageanddigitaltoanalogconvertorsinanydisplayadapterorframe
storeand/orunavoidablenoiseandothercharacteristicsoftheCRTandultimately,limitations
inthepsychovisualeyebrainsystemwilllimitthistoapracticalmaximumof64256
discerniblelevelsforagrayscaledisplayorforeachcolorchannel.
However,veryhighperformancedigitalvideosourcesmayhaveRAMDACs(D/Aconvertors
withvideolookuptables)ofupto10ormorebitsofintensityresolution.Whileitisnot
possibletoperceivethismanydistinctgraylevelsorcolors(percolorchannel),thisdoespermit
moreaccuratetonescale('gamma')correctiontobeapplied(viaalookuptableinthe
RAMDAC)tocompensatefortheunavoidablenonlinearityoftheCRTphosphorresponse
curveortomatchspecificphotometricrequirements.

Typesofmonitors
Monitorscanbeclassifiedintothreegeneralcategories:
1.StudiovideomonitorsFixedscanningratefortheTVstandardsinthecountryinwhichthey
areused.Highquality,oftenhighcost,utilitariancase(read:ugly),underscanoption.Small
closedcircuitTVmonitorsfallintotheclass.Inputisusuallycomposite(i.e.,NTSCorPAL)
althoughRGBtypesareavailable.
2.FixedfrequencyRGBHighresolution,fixedscanrate.Highquality,highcost,verystable
display.InputsareanalogRGBusingeitherseparateBNCconnectorsora13W3(Sun)
connector.Theseoftenhavemultiplesyncoptions.TheBNCvarietypermitmultiplemonitors
tobedrivenoffofthesamesourcebydaisychaining.Generallyusedunderscannedfor
computerworkstation(e.g.,Xwindows)applicationssothatentireframebufferisvisible.
Therearealsofixedfrequencymonochromemonitorswhichmaybedigitaloranaloginput
usingaBNC,13W3,orspecialconnector.
3.MultiscanorautoscanSupportmultipleresolutionsandscanratesormultiplerangesof
resolutionsandscanrates.Thequalityandcostofthesemonitorsrangesalloverthemap.
Whilecostisnotastrictmeasureofpicturequalityandreliability,thereisastrongcorrelation.
InputismostoftenanalogRGBbutsomeoldermonitorsofthistype(e.g.,Mitsubishi

AUM1381)supportavarietyofdigital(TTL)modesaswell.Afullcomplementofuser
controlspermitsadjustmentofbrightness,contrast,position,size,etc.totaste.Circuitryinthe
monitoridentifiesthevideoscanrateautomaticallyandsetsuptheappropriatecircuitry.With
moresophisticated(andexpensive)designs,themonitorautomaticallysetstheappropriate
parametersforuserpreferencesfrommemoryaswell.TheDB15highdensityVGAconnector
ismostcommonthoughBNCsmaybeusedormaybepresentasanauxiliary(andbetter
quality)input.

Whyautoscan?
ThankIBM.SincethePChasevolvedoveraperiodof15years,displayadaptershavechangedand
improvedanumberoftimes.Withanopensystem,vendorswithmorevision(andwillingtotake
morerisks)thanIBMwerecontinuouslycomingupwithimprovedhigherresolutiondisplayadapters.
WithworkstationsandtheAppleMacIntosh,theprimaryvendorcancontrolmostaspectsofthe
hardwareandsoftwareofthecomputersystem.NotsowithPCs.Newimprovedhardwareadapters
werebeingintroducedregularlywhichwerenotfollowinganystandardsforthehighresolution
modes(butattemptedtobebackwardcompatiblewiththeoriginalVGAaswellasEGAandCGA(at
leastintermsofsoftware).)Vastnumbersofprogramswerewrittenthatweredesignedtodirectly
controltheCGA,EGA,andVGAhardware.Adaptercardscouldbedesignedtoemulatetheseolder
modesonafixedfrequencyhighresolutionmonitor(andtheseexisttopermithighqualityfixedscan
rateworkstationmonitorstobeusedonPCs)However,thesewouldbe(andare)muchmore
expensivethanbasicdisplayadaptersthatsimplyswitchscanratesbasedonmode.Thus,autoscan
monitorsevolvedtoaccommodatethemultipleresolutionsthatdifferentprogramsrequired.
Note:Thegenericterm'autoscan'isusedtorefertoamonitorwhichautomaticallysensestheinput
videoscanrateandselectstheappropriatehorizontalandverticaldeflectioncircuitryandpower
supplyvoltagestodisplaythisvideo.Multiscanmonitors,whilesimplerthantrueautoscan
monitors,willstillhavemuchofthesamescanratedetectionandselectioncircuitry.Manufacturers
usevariousbuzzwordstodescribetheirversionsofthesemonitorsincluding'multisync',
'autosync','panasync','omnisync',aswellas'autoscan'and'multiscan'.
Ultimately,thefixedscanratemonitormayreappearforPCs.Consideronesimplefact:itisbecoming
cheapertodesignandmanufacturecomplexdigitalprocessinghardwarethantoproducethereliable
highqualityanalogandpowerelectronicsneededforanautoscanmonitor.Thisisbeingdoneinthe
specialtymarketnow.Eventually,thedevelopmentofacceleratedchipsetsforgraphicsmode
emulationmaybeforcedbytheincreasingpopularityofflatpaneldisplayswhicharebasically
similartofixedscanratemonitorsintermsoftheirinterfacingrequirements.

Analogversusdigitalmonitors
Therearetwoaspectsofmonitordesignthatcanbedescribedintermsofanalogordigital
characteristics:
1.Thevideoinputs.EarlyPCmonitors,videodisplayterminalmonitors,andmonoworkstation
monitorsusedigitalinputsignalswhichareusuallyTTLbutsomeveryhighresolution
monitorsmayuseECLinstead.
2.Themonitorcontrolanduserinterface.Originally,monitorsallusedknobssometimesquitea
numberofthemtocontrolallfunctionslikebrightness,contrast,position,size,linearity,
pincushion,convergence,etc.However,asthecostsofdigitalcircuitrycamedownandthe
needtoremembersettingsformultiplescanratesandresolutionsarose,digitalmicroprocessor
controlbecameanattractivealternativeintermsofdesign,manufacturingcosts,anduser
convenience.Now,mostbetterqualitymonitorsusedigitalcontrolsbuttonsandmenusfor
almostalladjustmentsexceptpossiblybrightnessandcontrastwhereknobsarestillmore

convenient.
Sincemonitorswithdigitalsignalinputsarealmostextincttodayexceptforspecializedapplications,
itisusuallysafetoassumethat'digital'monitorreferstotheuserinterfaceandmicroprocessor
control.And,exceptperhapsfortheverycheapestmonitors,allnowhavedigitalcontrols.

Interlacing
Whetheramonitorrunsinterlacedornoninterlacedisalmostalwaysstrictlyafunctionofthevideo
sourcetiming.Theverticalsyncpulseisoffsetanamountequalto1/2thelinetimeonalternatefields
(verticalscanstwofieldsmakeupaframewheninterlacedscanningisused).
Generally,amonitorthatrunsatagivenresolutionnoninterlacedcanruninterlacedata
resolutionwiththesamenumberofpixelsperlinebuttwicethenumberoflinesverticallyat
roughlythesamehorizontalandverticalscanratesandvideobandwidth(buthalftheframe
rate).
Alternatively,itmaybepossibletoincreasetheresolutioninbothdirectionswhilekeepingthe
horizontalscanratethesamethuspermittingamonitortodisplaythenextlargersizeformat.
However,inthiscase,thevideobandwidthwillincrease.
Hereareacoupleofexamples:
Amonitorthatwillrun640x240at60framespersecondnoninterlacedwillrun640x480at30
framespersecondinterlaced.Thiswouldpermitamonitorwithahorizontalscanrateof15.7
kHz(NTSCTVcompatible)todisplayVGAresolutionimagesthoughtheywilllikelyflicker
sincethe30Hziswaytoolowformostgraphics.
Aresolutionof1024x768at50framespersecondinterlacedrequiresroughlythesame
horizontalscanrate(about42kHz)as800x600at66framespersecondnoninterlaced.The
flickermaybeacceptableinthiscasebeingat50Hzfortheworstcaseofsinglehorizontallines
asthehigh100Hzverticalscanratewillreduceflickerotherwise.
Whethertheimageisusableatthehigherresolutionofcoursedependsonmanyotherfactors(in
additiontoflicker)includingthedotpitchoftheCRTandvideobandwidthofthevideocardand
monitorvideoamplifiers,aswellascablequalityandtermination.

Monitorperformance
Theultimateperceivedqualityofyourdisplayisinfluencedbymanyaspectsofthetotalvideo
source/computercablemonitorsystem.Amongthemare:
1.Resolutionofthevideosource.Foracomputerdisplay,thisisdeterminedbythenumberof
pixelsoneachvisiblescanlineandthenumberofvisiblescanlinesontheentirepicture.
2.ThepitchoftheshadowmaskoraperturegrilleoftheCRT.Thesmallestcolorelementonthe
faceoftheCRTisdeterminedbythespacingofthegroupsofR,G,andBcolorsphosphors.
Theactualconversionfromdotorlinepitchtoresolutiondiffersslightlyamongdotorslot
maskandaperturegrilleCRTsbutingeneral,thefiner,thebetterandmoreexpensive.
TypicaltelevisionCRTsarerathercoarse.75mmmightbeareasonablespecificationfora20
inchset.Highresolutioncomputermonitorsmayhavedotpitchesassmallas.22mmfora
similarsizescreen.
AroughindicationofthemaximumpossibleresolutionoftheCRTcanbefoundby

determininghowmanycompletephosphordotgroupscanfitacrossthevisiblepartofthe
screen.
RunningattoohigharesolutionforagivenCRTmayresultinMoireaninterferencepattern
thatwillmanifestitselfascontourlinesinsmoothbrightareasofthepicture.However,many
factorsinfluencetowhatextentthismaybeaproblem.Seethesection:Contourlinesonhigh
resolutionmonitorsMoire.
3.Bandwidthofthevideosourceordisplaycarduseofhighperformancevideoamplifiersor
digitaltoanalogconvertors.
4.Signalqualityofthevideosourceordisplaycardproperlydesignedcircuitrywithadequate
powersupplyfilteringandhighqualitycomponents.
5.Highqualitycableswithcorrectterminationandofminimalacceptablelengthwithout
extensionsorswitchboxesunlessdesignedspecificallyforhighbandwidthvideo.
6.SharpnessoffocuseveniftheCRTdotpitchisveryfine,afuzzyscanningbeamwillresultin
apoorqualitypicture.
7.Stabilityofthemonitorelectronicswellregulatedpowersuppliesandlownoiseshielded
electronicscontributetoarocksolidimage.
Thefollowingareonlypartlydependentonthemonitor'sdesign:
8.AntiglaretreatmentofscreenandambientlightingconditionsNomatterhowgoodarethe
monitor'selectronics,thedisplaycanstillbewashedoutanddifficultortiringtoviewifthereis
annoyingglareorreflections.Thelightingandlocationareprobablymoreimportantthanhow
thescreenitselfisdesignedtominimizeglare.
9.ElectromagneticinterferenceProximitytosourcesofmagneticfieldsandpowerlinenoisecan
degradetheperformanceofanymonitor,nomatterhowwellshieldeditmightbe.

Performancetestingofmonitors
WARNING:Nomonitorisperfect.Runningcomprehensivetestsonyourmonitororoneyouare
consideringmaymakeyouawareofdeficienciesyouneverrealizedwereevenpossible.Youmay
neverbehappywithanymonitorfortherestofyourlife!
Note:Theintentofthesetestsis**not**toevaluateorcalibrateamonitorforphotometricaccuracy.
Rathertheyareforfunctionaltestingofthemonitor'sperformance.
Obviously,theidealsituationistobeabletoperformthesesortsoftestsbeforepurchase.Withasmall
customerorientedstore,thismaybepossible.However,thebestthatcanbedonewhenorderingby
mailistoexamineasimilarmodelinastoreforgrosscharacteristicsandthendoathoroughtestwhen
yourmonitorarrives.Thefollowingshouldbeevaluated:
Screensizeandgeneralappearance.
Brightnessandscreenuniformity,purityandcolorsaturation.
Stability.
Convergence.
Edgegeometry.
Linearity.
Tilt.
Sizeandpositioncontrolrange.

Ghostingortrailingstreaks.
Sharpness.
Moire.
Scanrateswitching.
Acousticnoise.
Thecompaniondocument:PerformanceTestingofComputerandVideoMonitorsprovidesdetailed
proceduresfortheevaluationofeachofthesecriteria.
CAUTION:Sincethereisnoriskfreewayofevaluatingtheactualscanratelimitsofamonitor,thisis
notanobjectiveofthesetests.Itisassumedthatthespecificationsofboththevideosource/cardand
themonitorareknownandthatsupportedscanratesarenotexceeded.Somemonitorswilloperate
perfectlyhappilyatwellbeyondthespecifiedrange,willshutdownwithoutdamage,orwilldisplay
anerrormessage.Otherswillsimplyblowupinstantlyandrequireexpensiverepairs.

Monitorrepair
UnlikePCsystemboardswhereanydisastersarelikelytoonlyaffectyourpocketbook,monitorscan
beverydangerous.Read,understand,andfollowthesetofsafetyguidelinesprovidedlaterinthis
documentwheneverworkingonTVs,monitors,orothersimilarhighvoltageequipment.
Ifyoudogoinside,beware:linevoltage(onlargecaps)andhighvoltage(onCRT)forlongafterthe
plugispulled.ThereistheaddeddangerofCRTimplosionforcarelesslydroppedtoolsandoften
sharpsheetmetalshieldswhichcaninjureifyoushouldhaveareflexreactionupontouching
somethingyoushouldnottouch.IninsideofaTVormonitorisnoplaceforthecarelessornaive.
Havingsaidthat,abasicknowledgeofhowamonitorworksandwhatcangowrongcanbeofgreat
valueevenifyoudonotattempttherepairyourself.Itwillenableyoutointelligentlydealwiththe
servicetechnician.Youwillbemorelikelytobeabletorecognizeifyouarebeingtakenforarideby
adishonestorjustplainincompetentrepaircenter.Forexample,afaultypicturetubeCANNOTbethe
causeofacolormonitoronlydisplayinginblackandwhite(thisisprobablyasoftwareor
compatibilityproblem).Themajorityofconsumersandcomputerprofessionalsmaynotknoweven
thissimplefact.
Thisdocumentwillprovideyouwiththeknowledgetodealwithalargepercentageoftheproblems
youarelikelytoencounterwithyourmonitors.Itwillenableyoutodiagnoseproblemsandinmany
cases,correctthemaswell.Withminorexceptions,specificmanufacturersandmodelswillnotbe
coveredastherearesomanyvariationsthatsuchatreatmentwouldrequireahugeandverydetailed
text.Rather,themostcommonproblemswillbeaddressedandenoughbasicprinciplesofoperation
willbeprovidedtoenableyoutonarrowtheproblemdownandlikelydetermineacourseofactionfor
repair.Inmanycases,youwillbeabletodowhatisrequiredforafractionofthecostthatwouldbe
chargedbyarepaircenter.
Shouldyoustillnotbeabletofindasolution,youwillhavelearnedagreatdealandbeabletoask
appropriatequestionsandsupplyrelevantinformationifyoudecidetoposttosci.electronics.repair.It
willalsobeeasiertodofurtherresearchusingarepairtextsuchastheoneslistedattheendofthis
document.Inanycase,youwillhavethesatisfactionofknowingyoudidasmuchasyoucouldbefore
takingitinforprofessionalrepair.Withyournewfoundknowledge,youwillhavetheupperhandand
willnoteasilybesnowedbyadishonestorincompetenttechnician.

MostCommonProblems
Thefollowingprobablyaccountfor95%ormoreofthecommonmonitorailments:

Intermittentchangesincolor,brightness,size,orpositionbadconnectionsinsidethemonitor
oratthecableconnectiontothecomputerororvideosource.
Ghosts,shadows,orstreaksadjacenttoverticaledgesinthepictureproblemswithinputsignal
terminationincludinguseofcableextensions,excessivelylongcables,cheaporimproperly
madevideocables,improperdaisychainingofmonitors,orproblemsinthevideosourceor
monitorcircuitry.
MagnetizationofCRTcausingcolorblotchesorothercolorordistortionproblemslocateand
eliminatesourcesofmagneticfieldsifrelevantanddegausstheCRT.
ElectromagneticInterference(EMI)nearbyequipment(includingandespeciallyother
monitors),powerlines,orelectricalwiringbehindwalls,mayproduceelectromagneticfields
strongenoughtocausenoticeablewiggling,rippling,orothereffects.Relocatethemonitoror
offendingequipment.Shieldingisdifficultandexpensive.
WiringtransmittedinterferencenoisyACpowerpossiblyduetootherequipmentusing
electricmotors(e.g.,vacuumcleaners),lampdimmersormotorspeedcontrols(shoptools),
fluorescentlamps,andotherhighpowerdevices,mayresultinavarietyofeffects.Thesource
islikelylocalinyourhousebutcouldbeseveralmilesaway.Symptomsmightincludebars
ofnoisemovingupordownthescreenordiagonally.Theeffectsmaybebarelyvisibleasa
coupleofjigglingscanlinesorbebroadbarsofsaltandpeppernoise,snow,ordistortedvideo.
Pluggingthemonitorintoanotheroutletortheuseofalinefiltermayhelp.Ifpossible,replace
orrepairtheoffendingdevice.
Monitornotlockingononeormorevideoscanrangessettingsofvideoadapterareincorrect.
Usesoftwaresetupprogramtosetthese.Thiscouldalsobeafaultinthevideosourceor
monitordealingwiththesyncsignals.
AdjustmentsneededforbackgroundbrightnessorfocusagingCRTreducesbrightness.Other
componentsmayaffectfocus.Theseareofteneasyinternal(orsometimesexternal)adjustments
butsomemanufacturershavegonetodigitalsetuprequiringexpensiveanadapter(serialcable)
toaPCandtheirown(expensiveand/orunavailable)software.
Deadmonitorduetopowersupplyproblemsveryoftenthecausesaresimplesuchasbad
connections,blownfuseorothercomponent.

Repairorreplace
Ifyouneedtosendortakethemonitortoaservicecenter,therepaircouldeasilyexceedhalfthecost
ofanewmonitor.Servicecentersmaychargeupto$50ormoreforprovidinganinitialestimateof
repaircostsbutthiswillusuallybecreditedtowardthetotalcostoftherepair(ofcourse,theymay
justjackthisuptocompensatefortheirbenchtime).Withnewmonitorsgoingforunder$200,the
costsofanysignificantrepairarenolongerjustifiableunlessthereissomethinguniqueaboutyour
monitor.
SomeplacesofferattractiveflatratesforrepairsinvolvinganythingbuttheCRT,yoke,andflyback.
Suchoffersareattractiveiftherepaircenterisreputable.However,ifbymail,youwillbestuckwith
atoughdecisioniftheyfindthatoneoftheseexpensivecomponentsisactuallybad.
Monitorsbecomeobsoleteatasomewhatslowerratethanmostotherelectronicequipment.
Therefore,unlessyouneedthehigherresolutionandscanratesthatnewermonitorsprovide,repairing
anolderonemaymakesenseaslongastheCRTisingoodcondition(adequatebrightness,noburn
marks,goodfocus).However,itmayjustbeagoodexcusetoupgrade.

Ifyoucandotherepairsyourself,theequationchangesdramaticallyasyourpartscostswillbe1/2to
1/4ofwhataprofessionalwillchargeandofcourseyourtimeisfree.Theeducationalaspectsmay
alsobeappealing.Youwilllearnalotintheprocess.Thus,itmaymakesensetorepairthatold
clunkerforyour2ndPC(oryour3rdoryour4thor....).

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

Monitors101
Subsystemsofamonitor
PleaserefertoTypicalSVGAMonitorBlockDiagramwhilereadingthefollowingdescription.
Acomputerorvideomonitorincludesthefollowingfunctionalblocks:
1.Lowvoltagepowersupply(somemayalsobepartof(2).)Mostofthelowervoltagesusedin
themonitormaybederivedfromthehorizontaldeflectioncircuits,aseparateswitchmode
powersupply(SMPS),oracombinationofthetwo.Rectifier/filtercapacitor/regulatorfromAC
lineprovidestheB+totheSMPSorhorizontaldeflectionsystem.Autoscanmonitorsmay
havemultipleoutputsfromthelowvoltagepowersupplywhichareselectivelyswitchedor
enableddependingonthescanrate,oranpowersupplywithprogrammableoutputvoltagefor
thedeflectionsystem.AcommonconfigurationisapairofSMPSswhereoneprovidesallthe
fixedvoltagesandtheotherisprogrammablebasedonscanrate.
Degaussoperatesoffofthelinewheneverpoweristurnedon(afterhavingbeenoffforafew
minutes)todemagnetizetheCRT.Bettermonitorswillhaveadegaussbuttonwhichactivates
thiscircuitryaswellsinceevenrotatingthemonitoronitstiltswivelbasecanrequiredegauss.
2.Horizontaldeflection.Thesecircuitsprovidethewaveformsneededtosweeptheelectronbeam
intheCRTacrossandbackatanywherefrom15kHztoover100kHzdependingonscanrate
andresolution.Thehorizontalsyncpulsefromthesyncseparatororthehorizontalsyncinput
locksthehorizontaldeflectiontothevideosignal.Autoscanmonitorshavesophisticated
circuitrytopermitscanningrangeofhorizontaldeflectiontobeautomaticallyvariedovera
widerange.
3.Verticaldeflection.Thesecircuitsprovidethewaveformsneededtosweeptheelectronbeamin
theCRTfromtoptobottomandbackatanywherefrom50120ormoretimespersecond.The
verticalsyncpulsefromthesyncseparatororverticalsyncinputlockstheverticaldeflectionto
thevideosignal.Autoscanmonitorshaveadditionalcircuitrytolocktoawiderangeofvertical
scanrates.
4.CRThighvoltage'flyback'powersupply(alsopartof(2).)AmoderncolorCRTrequiresupto
30kVforacrispbrightpicture.Ratherthanhavingatotallyseparatepowersupply,most
monitorsderivethehighvoltage(aswellasmanyothervoltages)fromthehorizontaldeflection
usingaspecialtransformercalleda'flyback'or'LineOutPutTransformer(LOPT)forthoseof
youontheothersideofthelake.Somehighperformancemonitorsuseaseparatehighvoltage
boardormodulewhichisaselfcontainedhighfrequencyinverter.
5.Videoamplifiers.Thesebufferthelowlevelinputsfromthecomputerorvideosource.On
monitorswithTTLinputs(MGA,CGA,EGA),aresistornetworkalsocombinestheintensity
andcolorsignalsinakindofpoorman'sD/A.Analogvideoamplifierswillusuallyalsoinclude
DCrestore(blacklevelretention,backporchclamping)circuitrystabilizetheblacklevelonAC

coupledvideosystems.
6.Videodrivers(RGB).Thesearealmostalwayslocatedonalittlecircuitboardpluggeddirectly
ontotheneckoftheCRT.Theyboosttheoutputofthevideoamplifierstothehundredvoltsor
soneededtodrivethecathodes(usually)oftheCRT.
7.Syncprocessor.Thisacceptsseparate,composite,or'syncongreen'signalstocontrolthe
timingofthehorizontalandverticaldeflectionsystems.Whereinputiscompositeratherthan
separateHandVsyncs(asisusedwithVGA/SVGA),thiscircuitextractstheindividualsync
signals.Forworkstationmonitorswhichoftenhavethesynccombinedwiththegreenvideo
signals,itneedstoseparatethisaswell.Theoutputofthesyncprocessorishorizontaland
verticalsyncpulsestocontrolthedeflectioncircuits.
8.Systemcontrol.Mosthigherqualitymonitorsuseamicrocontrollertoperformalluserinterface
andcontrolfunctionsfromthefrontpanel(andsometimesevenfromaremotecontrol).So
called'digitalmonitors'meaningdigitalcontrolsnotdigitalinputs,usebuttonsforeverything
exceptpossiblyuserbrightnessandcontrast.Settingsforhorizontalandverticalsizeand
position,pincushion,andcolorbalanceforeachscanratemaybestoredinnonvolatile
memory.ItmaycommunicatewiththevideocardovertheserialVESAbustoinformifofits
capabilities.Themicroprocessoralsoanalyzestheinputvideotimingandselectsthe
appropriatescanrangeandcomponentsforthedetectedresolution.Whilethesecircuitsrarely
fail,iftheydo,debuggingcanbequiteatreat.
Mostproblemsoccurinthehorizontaldeflectionandpowersupplysections.Theserunatrelatively
highpowerlevelsandsomecomponentsrunhot.Thisresultsinbothwearandtearonthecomponents
aswellasincreasedlikelihoodofbadconnectionsdevelopingfromrepeatedthermalcycles.Thehigh
voltagesectionispronetobreakdownandarcingasaresultofhairlinecracks,humidity,dirt,etc.
Thevideocircuitryisgenerallyquitereliable.However,itseemsthatevenafter15+years,
manufacturersstillcannotreliablyturnoutcircuitboardsthatarefreeofbadsolderconnectionsor
thatdonotdevelopthemwithtimeanduse.

Formoreinformationonmonitortechnology
Thebookslistedinthesection:Suggestedreferencesincludeadditionalinformationonthetheoryand
implementationofthetechnologyofmonitorsandTVsets.
Philips/Magnavoxusedtohaveaveryniceonlineintroductiontoavarietyofconsumerelectronics
technologies.Althoughtheirsitehasdisappearedandevenpeoplewhoworkforthemhavenoclue
IhavenowrecoveredseveralofthearticlesincludingthoseonTVs,VCRs,camcorders,satellite
reception,andconnections.SeetheIntroductoryConsumerElectronicsTechnologySeries.Theseas
wellasmostoralloftheotherarticles,aswellaglossaryandmuchmore,canbealsobeaccessedvia
theInternetArchiveWaybackMachine.CopyandpastethefollowingURLintothesearchbox:
http://www.magnavox.com/electreference/electreference.html
Theearliest(Nov09,1996)archiveseemstobethemostcomplete.

Onlinetechtipsdatabases
Anumberoforganizationshavecompileddatabasescoveringthousandsofcommonproblemswith
VCRs,TVs,computermonitors,andotherelectronicequipment.Mostchargefortheirinformation
butafew,accessibleviatheInternet,areeitherfreeorhaveaveryminimalmonthlyorpercasefee.
Inothercases,alimitedbutstillusefulsubsetoftheforfeedatabaseisfreelyavailable.

Atechtipsdatabaseisacollectionofproblemsandsolutionsaccumulatedbytheorganization
providingtheinformationorothersourcesbasedonactualrepairexperiencesandcasehistories.Since
theidenticalfailuresoftenoccuratsomepointinalargepercentageofagivenmodelorproductline,
checkingoutatechtipsdatabasemayquicklyidentifyyourproblemandsolution.
Inthatcase,youcangreatlysimplifyyourtroubleshootingoratleastconfirmadiagnosisbefore
orderingparts.Myonlyreservationwithrespecttotechtipsdatabasesingeneralthishasnothingto
dowithanyoneinparticularisthatsymptomscansometimesbedeceivingandasolutionthatworks
inoneinstancemaynotapplytoyourspecificproblem.Therefore,anunderstandingofthehowsand
whysoftheequipmentalongwithsomegoodoldfashionedtestingishighlydesirabletominimizethe
riskofreplacingpartsthatturnoutnottobebad.
Theotherdisadvantageatleastfromonepointofviewisthatyoudonotlearnmuchbyjust
followingaproceduredevelopedbyothers.Thereisnoexplanationofhowtheoriginaldiagnosiswas
determinedorwhatmayhavecausedthefailureinthefirstplace.Noristherelikelytobeanylistof
othercomponentsthatmayhavebeenaffectedbyoverstressandmayfailinthefuture.Replacing
Q701andC725maygetyourequipmentgoingagainbutthiswillnothelpyoutorepairadifferent
modelinthefuture.
Pleaseseethedocument:OnLineTechTipsDatabasesforthemostuptodatecompilationofthese
resourcesforTVs,VCRs,computermonitors,andotherconsumerelectronicequipment.

Additionalmonitortechnologyandrepairinformation
SeeSam'sNeat,Nifty,andHandyBookmarksunder"Monitor"and"Manuals/Schematics/Repair
Guides"foradditionallinks.

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

CRTBasics
Note:MostoftheinformationonTVandmonitorCRTconstruction,operation,interferenceandother
problems.hasbeenmovedtothedocument:TVandMonitorCRT(PictureTube)Information.The
followingisjustabriefintroductionwithinstructionsondegaussing.

ColorCRTsshadowmasksandaperturegrills
AllcolorCRTsutilizeashadowmaskoraperturegrillafractionofaninch(1/2"typical)behindthe
phosphorscreentodirecttheelectronbeamsforthered,green,andbluevideosignalstotheproper
phosphordots.SincetheelectronbeamsfortheR,G,andBphosphorsoriginatefromslightly
differentpositions(individualelectrongunsforeach)andthusarriveatslightlydifferentangles,only
theproperphosphorsareexcitedwhenthepurityisproperlyadjustedandthenecessarymagneticfield
freeregionismaintainedinsidetheCRT.Notethatpuritydeterminesthatthecorrectvideosignal
excitesthepropercolorwhileconvergencedeterminesthegeometricalignmentofthe3colors.Both
areaffectedbymagneticfields.Badpurityresultsinmottledorincorrectcolors.Badconvergence
resultsincolorfringingatedgesofcharactersorgraphics.
TheshadowmaskconsistsofathinsteelorInVar(aferrousalloy)withafinearrayofholesonefor
eachtrioofphosphordotspositionedabout1/2inchbehindthesurfaceofthephosphorscreen.With
someCRTs,thephosphorsarearrangedintriangularformationscalledtriadswitheachofthecolor
dotsattheapexofthetriangle.WithmanyTVsandsomemonitors,theyarearrangedasverticalslots
withthephosphorsforthe3colorsnexttooneanother.

Anaperturegrille,usedexclusivelyinSonyTrinitrons(andnowtheirclonesaswell),replacesthe
shadowmaskwithanarrayoffinelytensionedverticalwires.Alongwithothercharacteristicsofthe
aperturegrilleapproach,thispermitsasomewhathigherpossiblebrightnesstobeachievedandis
moreimmunetootherproblemslikelineinducedmoireandpuritychangesduetolocalheating
causingdistortionoftheshadowmask.
However,therearesomedisadvantagesoftheaperturegrilledesign:
Weightaheavysupportstructuremustbeprovidedforthetensionedwires(likeapiano
frame).
Price(proportionaltoweight).
Alwaysacylindricalscreen(thismaybeconsideredanadvantagedependingonyour
preference.
Visiblestabilizingwireswhichmaybeobjectionableorunacceptableforcertainapplications.
(Definitelyon15"andlargersizes,possiblyonsmalleronesaswell.)
Apparently,thereisnoknownwayaroundtheneedtokeepthefinewiresfromvibratingorchanging
positionduetomechanicalshockinhighresolutiontubesandthusallTrinitronmonitorsrequire1,2,
or3stabilizingwires(dependingontubesize)acrossthescreenwhichcanbeseeasveryfinelineson
brightimages.Somepeoplefindthesewirestobeobjectionableandforsomecriticalapplications,
theymaybeunacceptable(e.g.,medicaldiagnosis).

Degaussing(demagnetizing)aCRT
Degaussingmayberequirediftherearecolorpurityproblemswiththedisplay.Onrareoccasions,
theremaybegeometricdistortioncausedbymagneticfieldsaswellwithoutcolorproblems.TheCRT
cangetmagnetized:
iftheTVormonitorismovedorevenjustrotated.
iftherehasbeenalightningstrikenearby.Afriendofminehadalightningstrikenearhishouse
whichproducedalloftheeffectsoftheEMPfromanuclearbomb.
Ifapermanentmagnetwasbroughtnearthescreen(e.g.,kid'smagnetormegawattstereo
speakers).
Ifsomepieceofelectricalorelectronicequipmentwithunshieldedmagneticfieldsisinthe
vicinityoftheTVormonitor.
Degaussingshouldbethefirstthingattemptedwhenevercolorpurityproblemsaredetected.Asnoted
below,firsttrytheinternaldegausscircuitsoftheTVormonitorbypowercyclingafewtimes(onfor
aminute,offforatleast20minutes,onforaminute,etc.)Ifthisdoesnothelpordoesnotcompletely
curetheproblem,thenyoucantrymanuallydegaussing.
Note:Somemonitorshaveadegaussbutton,andmonitorsandTVsthataremicroprocessorcontrolled
maydegaussautomaticallyuponpoweron(butmayrequirepullingtheplugtodoahardreset)
regardlessoftheamountofofftime.However,repeateduseofthese'features'inrapidsuccessionmay
resultinoverheatingofthedegausscoilorothercomponents.The20minutesoff/1minuteon
precedureisguaranteedtobesafe.(Someothersmaydegaussuponpoweronaslongastheprevious
degausswasnotdonewithinsomepredeterminedamountoftimetheykeeptrackwithaninternal
timer.)

CommercialCRTDegaussersareavailablefrompartsdistributorslikeMCMElectronicsandconsist
ofahundredorsoturnsofmagnetwireina612inchcoil.Theyincludealinecordandmomentary
switch.Youflipontheswitch,andbringthecoiltowithinseveralinchesofthescreenface.Thenyou
slowlydrawthecenterofthecoiltowardoneedgeofthescreenandtracetheperimeterofthescreen
face.Thenreturntotheoriginalpositionofthecoilbeingflatagainstthecenterofthescreen.Next,
slowlydecreasethefieldtozerobybackingstraightupacrosstheroomasyouholdthecoil.When
youarefartherthan5feetawayyoucanreleasethelineswitch.
Thekeywordhereis**slow**.Gotoofastandyouwillfreezetheinstantaneousintensityofthe
50/60HzACmagneticfieldvariationintotheferrouscomponentsoftheCRTandmaymakethe
problemworse.
WARNING:Don'tattempttodegaussinsideorinthebackoftheset(neartheCRTneck.Thiscan
demagnetizetherelativelyweakpurityandconvergencemagnetswhichmayturnasimplerepairinto
afeaturelengthextravaganza!
ItlooksreallycooltodothiswhiletheCRTispowered.Thekidswilllovethecoloreffects(butthen
lockyourdegaussingcoilsafelyawaysotheydon'ttryitoneveryTVandmonitorinthehouse!).
Bulktapeerasers,tapeheaddegaussers,openframetransformers,andthe"buttend"ofaweller
solderingguncanbeusedasCRTdemagnetizersbutitjusttakesalittlelonger.(Becarefulnotto
scratchthescreenfacewithanythingsharp.FortheWeller,thetipneedstobeinplacetogetenough
magneticfield.)ItisimperativetohavetheCRTrunningwhenusingthesewhimpierapproaches,so
thatyoucanseewheretherearestillimpurities.Neverreleasethepowerswitchuntilyou're4or5feet
awayfromthescreenoryou'llhavetostartover.
I'veneverknownofanythingbeingdamagedbyexcessmanualdegaussingaslongasyoudon't
attempttodegauss*inside*orthebackofthemonitoritispossibletodemagnetizegeometry
correction,purity,andstaticconverencemagnetsintheprocess!However,Iwouldrecommend
keepingreallypowerfulbulktapeerasersturneddegaussersacoupleofinchesfromtheCRT.
Anotheralternativewhichhasbeenknowntoworkistoplaceanothersimilarsizemonitorfaceto
facewiththesuspectmonitor(takecarenottobumporscratchthescreens!)andactivatedegauss
functionontheworkingmonitor.Whilenotideal,thismaybeenoughtoalsodegaussthebrokenone.
IfanACdegaussingcoilorsubstituteisunavailable,Ihaveevendonedegaussedwithapermanent
magnetbutthisisnotrecommendedsinceitismorelikelytomaketheproblemworsethanbetter.
However,ifthedisplayisunusableasis,thenusingasmallmagnetcandonoharm.(Don'tusea20
poundspeakerormagnetronmagnetasyoumayriptheshadowmaskrightoutoftheCRTwellat
leastdistortitbeyondrepair.WhatIhaveinmindissomethingaboutaspowerfulasarefrigerator
magnet.)
Keepdegaussingfieldsawayfrommagneticmedia.Itisagoodideatoavoiddegaussinginaroom
withfloppiesorbackuptapes.Whenremovingmediafromaroomremembertocheckdeskdrawers
andmanualsforstrayfloppies,too.
Itisunlikelythatyoucouldactuallyaffectmagneticmediabutbettersafethansorry.Ofthedevices
mentionedabove,onlyabulkeraserorstrongpermanentmagnetarelikelytohaveanyeffectand
thenonlywhenatextremelycloserange(directcontactwithmediacontainer).
AllcolorCRTsincludeabuiltindegaussingcoilwrappedaroundtheperimeteroftheCRTface.
TheseareactivatedeachtimetheCRTispoweredupcoldbya3terminalthermistordeviceorother
controlcircuitry.Thisiswhyitisoftensuggestedthatcolorpurityproblemsmaygoaway"inafew
days".Itisn'tamatteroftimeit'sthenumberofcoldpowerupsthatcausesit.Ittakesabout15
minutesofthepowerbeingoffforeachcooldowncycle.Thesebuiltincoilswiththermalcontrolare

neveraseffectiveasexternalcoils.
NotethatwhilethemonochromeCRTsusedinB/WandprojectionTVsandmonomonitorsdon't
haveanythinginsidetogetmagnetized,thechassisorothercabinetpartsoftheequipmentmaystill
needdegaussing.Whilethisisn'tlikelyfromnormaluseorevenafterbeingmovedorreoriented,a
powerfulmagnet(likethatfromalargespeaker)couldleaveiron,steel,orotherferrouspartswith
enoughresidualmagnetismtocauseanoticeableproblem.
Seethedocument:TVandMonitorCRT(PictureTube)Informationforsomeadditionaldiscussionof
degaussingtools,techniques,treatmentsforseveremagnetizationfromlightningstrikes,andcautions.

Howoftentodegauss
Somemonitormanufacturersspecificallywarnaboutexcessiveuseofdegauss,mostlikelyasaresult
ofoverstressingcomponentsinthedegausscircuitrywhicharedesigned(cheaply)foronlyinfrequent
use.Inparticular,thereisoftenathermistorthatdissipatessignificantpowerforthesecondortwo
thatthedegaussisactive.Also,thelargecoilaroundtheCRTisnotratedforcontinuousoperation
andmayoverheat.
Ifoneortwoactivationsofthedegaussbuttondonotclearupthecolorproblems,manualdegaussing
usinganexternalcoilmaybeneededorthemonitormayneedinternalpurity/coloradjustments.Or,
youmayhavejustinstalledyourmegawattstereospeakersnexttothemonitor!
YoushouldonlyneedtodegaussifyouseecolorpurityproblemsonyourCRT.Otherwiseitis
unnecessary.Thereasonsitonlyworksthefirsttimeisthatthedegausstimingiscontrolledbya
thermistorwhichheatsupandcutsoffthecurrent.Ifyoupushthebuttontwiceinarow,that
thermistorisstillhotandsolittlehappens.
Onewordofclarification:Inorderforthedegaussoperationtobeeffective,theACcurrentinthecoil
mustapproachzerobeforethecircuitcutsout.Thecircuittoaccomplishthisofteninvolvesa
thermistortograduallydecreasethecurrent(overamatterofseveralseconds),andinbettermonitors,
arelaytototallycutoffthecurrentafteracertaindelay.Ifthecurrentwasturnedoffsuddenly,you
wouldlikelybeleftwithamoremagnetizedCRT.Therearetimedelayelementsinvolvedwhich
preventmultipledegaussoperationsinsuccession.Whetherthisisbydesignoraccident,itdoes
preventthedegausscoilwhichisusuallygrosslyundersizedforcontinuousoperationtocool.

WhyaretherefinelinesacrossmyTrinitronmonitororTV?
Thesearenotadefecttheyarea'feature'.
AllTrinitron(orclone)CRTstubesthatuseanaperturegrillerequire1,2,or3veryfinewires
acrossthescreentostabilizethearrayofverticalwiresintheaperturegrille.Withoutthese,the
displaywouldbeverysensitivetoanyshockorvibrationandresultinvisibleshimmeringorrippling.
(Infact,evenwiththesestabilizingwires,youcanusuallyseethisshimmeringifyouwhacka
Trinitronmonitor.)Thelinesyouseearetheshadowscastbythesefinewires.
Thenumberofwiresdependsonthesizeofthescreen.Below15"thereisusuallyasinglewire
between15"and21"thereareusually2wiresabove21"theremaybe3wires.(Someverysmall
TrinitronCRTsmaynotneedthesebuttheywillbepresentonmostofthesizesofinteresthere.)
OnlyyoucandecideifthisdeficiencyisseriousenoughtoavoidtheuseofaTrinitronbasedmonitor.
Somepeoplenevergetusedtothefinelinesbutmanyreallylikethegenerallyhighqualityof
Trinitronbaseddisplaysandeventuallytotallyignorethem.

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

MonitorPlacementandPreventiveMaintenance
Generalmonitorplacementconsiderations
Propercareofamonitordoesnotrequiremuch.Followingtherecommendationsbelowwillassure
longlifeandminimizerepairs:
Subduedlightingispreferredforbestviewingconditions.Avoiddirectoverheadlightfallingon
thescreenorcomingfrombehindthemonitorifpossible.
Locatethemonitorawayfromextremesofhotandcold.Avoiddampordustylocationsif
possible.(Rightyousay,keepdreaming!)ThiswillhelpkeepyourPChappyaswell.
Allowadequateventilationmonitorsuseafairamountofpowerfrom60wattsfora12inch
monochromemonitortoover200Wfora21inchhighresolutioncolormonitor.Heatisone
majorenemyofelectronics.
Donotputanythingontopofthemonitorthatmightblocktheventilationgrillintherearortop
ofthecover.Thisisthemajoravenuefortheconvectionneededtocoolinternalcomponents.
Donotplacetwomonitorsclosetooneanother.Themagneticfieldsmaycauseeitherorbothto
sufferfromwigglingorshimmeringimages.Likewise,donotplaceamonitornexttoaTVif
possible.
Locateloudspeakersandothersourcesofmagneticfieldsatleastacoupleoffeetfromthe
monitor.Thiswillminimizethepossibilityofcolorpurityorgeometryproblems.Theexception
iswithrespecttogoodqualityshieldedmultimediaspeakerswhicharedesignedtoavoid
magneticinterferenceproblems.
Otherdeviceswhichmaycauseinterferenceincludeanythingwithpowertransformers
includingaudioequipment,ACorDCwalladapters,andlaptoppowersuppliesfluorescent
lampswithmagneticballastsandmotorizedorheavydutyappliances.
Situatemonitorsawayfrompowerlinesevenelectricwiringbehindorontheothersideof
wallsandheavyequipmentwhichmaycausenoticeableinterferencelikerippling,wiggling,
orswimmingofthepicture.Shieldingisdifficultandexpensive.
Makesureallvideoconnectionsaresecure(tightenthethumbscrews)tominimizethe
possibilityofintermittentornoisycolors.Keepthecablesasshortaspossible.Donotadd
extensioncablesifatallpossibleasthesealmostalwaysresultinareductioninimagecrispness
andintroduceghosting,smearing,andotherterminationproblems.Ifyoumustaddan
extension,useproperhighqualitycableonlylongenoughtomakeconnectionsconveniently.
Followtheterminationrecommendationselsewhereinthisdocument.
Finally,storemagneticmediawellawayfromallelectronicequipmentincludingandespecially
monitorsandloudspeakers.Heatandmagneticfieldswillrapidlyturnyourdiskettesandtapes
intosomuchtrash.Theoperationofthemonitordependsonmagneticfieldsforbeam
deflection.Enoughsaid.

Nonstandardmonitormountingconsiderations

Monitorsnormallyarepositionedhorizontallyorviathelimitsoftheirtiltswivelbasesoutinthe
openonatableordesktop.However,foruseinexhibitsorforcustominstallations,itmaybe
desirabletomountamonitorinanonstandardpositionand/orinsideanenclosure.
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Yourmileagemayvary,but(andpleasetakethefollowingforwhatitis,averygeneralanswer)...
Therearebasicallytwopotentialproblemshereoneiscooling,andtheotheristhefactthatthe
monitorhasnodoubtbeensetupbythefactoryassumingstandardmagneticconditions,which
probablyDIDN'Tinvolvethemonitortiltingatmuchofanangle.Ifyou'rehappywiththeimage
qualitywhenit'sinstalledinthecabinet,thatleavesjustthefirstconcern.THATonecanbeaddressed
bysimplymakingsurethecabinetprovidesadequateventilation(andpreferablyaddingafanforabit
offorcedaircooling),andmakingsurethatthewholeinstallationisn'tgoingtobeexposedtohigh
ambienttemperatures.(Mostmonitorsarespecedtoa40deg.Cambientintheirnormalorientation
addingforcedaircoolingwillusuallyletyoukeepthatratinginpositionssomewhatbeyondthe
normal.)Undernocircumstancesshouldyoublockthecabinet'svents,anddependingonthe
installationitmaybepreferabletoremovetherearcasepartsofthemonitor(butNOTthemetal
coversbeneaththeplasticskin)inordertoimproveaircirculation.
Yourbestbetistosimplycontacttheservice/supportpeopleofthemonitormanufacturer,andget
theirinputontheinstallation.Failingtogetthemanufacturer'sblessingonsomethinglikethismost
oftenvoidsthewarranty,andcanprobablyleadtosomeliabilityproblems.(NoteI'mnotalawyer,
andI'mnotabouttostartplayingoneonthenet.)

Preventivemaintenancecareandcleaning
Preventivemaintenanceforamonitorisprettysimplejustkeepthecasecleanandfreeof
obstructions.ForCRTmonitors,cleanthescreenwithasoftclothjustdampenedwithwaterandmild
detergentorisopropylalcohol.Thiswillavoiddamagetonormalaswellasantireflectioncoated
glass.DONOTuseanythingsowetthatliquidmayseepinsideofthemonitoraroundtheedgeofthe
CRT.Youcouldendupwithaveryexpensiverepairbillwhentheliquiddecidestoshortoutthemain
circuitboardlurkingjustbelow.Thendrythoroughly.UsetheCRTsprayssoldincomputerstoresif
youlikebutagain,makesurenonecanseepinside.Ifyouhavenotcleanedthescreenforquitea
while,youwillbeamazedattheamountofblackgrimethatcollectsduetothestaticbuildupfromthe
CRThighvoltagesupply.
ThereissomedisputeastowhatcleanersaresafeforCRTswithantireflectivecoatings(notthe
etchedorfrostedvariety).Water,milddetergent,andisopropylalcoholshouldbesafe.Definitely
avoidtheuseofanythingwithabrasivesforanytypeofmonitorscreen.Andsomewarnagainst
productswithammonia(whichmayincludeWindex,TopJob,andotherpopularcleaners),asthis
maydamage/removesometypesofantireflectivecoatings.Tobedoublysure,testasmallspotina
cornerofthescreen.
Inreallydustysituations,periodicallyvacuuminginsidethecaseandtheuseofcontactcleanerforthe
controlsmightbeagoodideabutrealistically,youwillnotdothissodon'tworryaboutit.
Notethatadropofoilorothercontaminationmightappearlikeadefect(hole)intheARcoating.
Beforegettingupset,trycleaningthescreen.
ForLCDTVs,LCDcomputermonitors,andlaptopdisplays,thecleaningisparticularlycritical.The
frontsurfaceofthesefacingtheviewerisgenerallynotmadeofglasslikethoseinCRTdisplays,but
ratheraplasticlayerorfilm.Thus,anycleaningmethodthatusesharshchemicalscanpermanently
damagethescreen,withorwithoutanantireflectioncoating.Someglasscleaners,acetone(nail
polishremover),andotherstrongsolventscanattacktheplasticveryquickly.Bythetimeyourealize

thereisdamage,itmaybetoolate.And,ofcourse,NEVERuseanythingevenmildlyabrasive.
Adampclothwithsoapordetergentandwaterissafe,asisgenerallyadampclostwithasolutionof
70percentisopropyl(rubbing)alcoholdilutedintheratio1:1withwater.
Anditisevenmoreessentialtoavoidallowinganyliguidtoseepinsidealongtheedgesasthiscan
shortoutthecircuitry,especiallythehighvoltagebacklightdriver,whichoftenlocatedbehindthe
trimatthebottom,andpossiblyruinthedisplayentirely,oratleastrequiringamajorrepair.
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
WindexisperfectlyfinefortheOCLIHEAcoatingorequivalentsOCLI'scoatingisprettytoughand
chemicalresistantstuff.Theremaybealternative(er..cheaper)coatingsinusewhichcouldbe
damagedbyvariouscommercialcleaners,(Forwhatit'sworth,OCLIalsosellstheirownbrandof
glasscleanerunderthename"TFC",for"ThinFilmCleaner".)
IhavecleanedmonitorsofvariousbrandswithbothWindexandtheOCLIbrandcleaner,withnoill
results.Butthen,I'musuallyprettysurewhatsortofcoatingI'mdealingwith...:)
Monitorcoatingsarealwayschangingbesidesthebasic"OCLItype"quarterwavecoatingsandtheir
conductiveversionsdevelopedtoaddressEfieldissues,justabouteverytubemanufacturerhastheir
ownbreworthreeofantiglare/antistaticcoatings.TherearealsostillSOMEtubesthataren'treally
coatedatall,butinsteadareusingmechanicallyorchemicallyetchedfaceplatesasacheap"anti
glare"(actually,glarediffusing)treatment.
Ingeneral,lookintheuserguide/owner'smanualandseewhatyourmonitor'smanufacturer
recommendsinthewayofcleaningsupplies.
(From:TomWatson(tsw@johana.com).)
Ifyouaremaintainingasite,considerperiodiccleaningofthemonitors.Dependingonthelocation,
theycanaccumulatequiteabitofdust.Innormaloperationthereisaelectrostaticchargeontheface
ofthecrt(largerscreenshavebiggercharges)whichactas'dustmagnets'.Iftheoperatorsmokes
(thankfullydecreasing),itisevenworse.AtonesiteIhelpedoutwith,mostoftheoperatorssmoked,
andthescreensslowlygotcoveredwithafilmofbothdustandsmokeparticles.Alittlebitofglass
cleanerappliedwithreasonablecautionandthedecreeof"adjustments"tomakethescreenbetter
(thesewerecharactermonochrometerminals),andloandbehold,"whatanimprovement!".Yes,even
inmydustyhouse,theTVsgetacoatingoffilm/goowhichneedstobecleaned,andthepicture
quality(BayWatchviewersbeware)improvesquiteabit.TrythisonyourhomeTVtoseewhat
comesoff,thenshoweveryoneelse.Youwillbesurprisedwhatalittlebitofcleaningdoes.
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
1.Don'tblocktheventsmakesurethemonitorhasadequateventilation,anddon'toperateitmore
thannecessaryathighambienttemperatures.
2.Ifthemonitorisusedinparticularlydustyenvironments,it'sprobablyagoodideatohavea
qualifiedservicetechopenitupeverysooften(perhapsonceayear,ormoreoftendepending
onjusthowdirtyitgets)andcleanoutthedust.
3.Theusualsortsofcommonsensethingsdon'tsubjectthemonitortomechanicalshockand
vibration,cleanupspills,etc.,promptly,andsoforth.Andifyou'rehavingrepeatedpower
supplyproblemswithyourequipment,itmaybetimetogetsuspiciousofthequalityofyour
ACpower(areyougettingnoiseontheline,sags,surges,spikes,brownouts,thatsortof
thing?).

Andmostimportantly:
4.TurnthemonitorOFFwhenit'snotgoingtobeusedforanextendedperiod(suchasovernight,
orifyou'llbeawayfromyourdeskfortheafternoon,etc.).Heatistheenemyofallelectronic
components,andscreensaversdoNOTHINGinthisregard.Manyscreensaversdon'tevendo
aparticularlygoodjobofgoingeasyontheCRT.Withmodernpowermanagementsoftware,
there'sreallynoreasontobeleavingamonitorupandrunningallthetime.
Thesewon'tguaranteelonglife,ofcoursenothingcandothat,astherewillalwaysbethepossibility
oftherandomcomponentfailure.Butthesearethebestthattheusercandotomakesurethemonitor
goesaslongasitcan.

Monitortuneup?
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
MostmanufacturerswillquoteanMTBF(MeanTimeBeforeFailure)ofsomewhereinthe30,000to
60,000hourrange,EXCLUSIVEOFtheCRT.ThetypicalCRT,withoutanextendedlifecathode,is
usuallygoodfor10,000to15,000hoursbeforeitreacheshalfofitsinitialbrightness.Notethat,ifyou
leaveyourmonitoronallthetime,ayearisjustabout8,000hours.
Theonly"tuneup"thatamonitorshouldneed,exclusiveofadjustmentsneededfollowingreplacement
ofafailedcomponent,wouldbevideoamplifierand/orCRTbiasingadjustmentstocompensatefor
theagingofthetube.Theseareusuallydoneonlyifyou'reusingthethinginanapplicationwhere
exactcolor/brightnessmatchingisimportant.Regulardegaussingoftheunitmaybeneeded,of
course,butI'mnotconsideringthata"tuneup"oradjustment.

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

MonitorTroubleshooting
SAFETY
TVsandcomputerorvideomonitorsareamongthemoredangerousofconsumerelectronic
equipmentwhenitcomestoservicing.(Microwaveovensareprobablythemosthazardousdueto
highvoltageatfleshfryingandcardiacarrestinghighpower.)
Therearetwoareaswhichhaveparticularlynastyelectricaldangers:thenonisolatedlinepower
supplyandtheCRThighvoltage.
MajorpartsofnearlyallmodernTVsandmanycomputermonitorsaredirectlyconnectedtotheAC
linethereisnopowertransformertoprovidetheessentialbarrierforsafetyandtominimizetherisk
ofequipmentdamage.Inthemajorityofdesigns,thelivepartsoftheTVormonitorarelimitedtothe
ACinputandlinefilter,degausscircuit,bridgerectifierandmainfiltercapacitor(s),lowvoltage(B+)
regulator(ifany),horizontaloutputtransistorandprimarysideoftheflyback(LOPT)transformer,
andpartsofthestartupcircuitandstandbypowersupply.Theflybackgeneratesmostoftheother
voltagesusedintheunitandprovidesanisolationbarriersothatthesignalcircuitsarenotline
connectedandsafer.
Sinceabridgerectifierisgenerallyusedinthepowersupply,bothdirectionsofthepolarizedplug
resultindangerousconditionsandanisolationtransformerreallyshouldbeusedtoprotectyou,your
testequipment,andtheTV,fromseriousdamage.SomeTVsdonothaveanyisolationbarrier

whatsoevertheentirechassisislive.Theseareparticularlynasty.
ThehighvoltagetotheCRT,while200timesgreaterthanthelineinput,isnotnearlyasdangerousfor
severalreasons.First,itispresentinaverylimitedareaoftheTVormonitorfromtheoutputofthe
flybacktotheCRTanodeviathefatHVwireandsuctioncupconnector.Ifyoudon'tneedtoremove
themainboardorreplacetheflybackorCRT,thenleaveitaloneanditshouldnotbite.Furthermore,
whiletheshockfromtheHVcanbequitepainfulduetothecapacitanceoftheCRTenvelope,itisnot
nearlyaslikelytobelethalsincethecurrentavailablefromthelineconnectedpowersupplyismuch
greater.
Ofparticularnotein:MajorPartsofTypicalSVGAMonitorwithCoverRemovedaretheCRTHV
cableandconnector,flybackorLOPT,andthehorizontaloutputtransistoranditsheatsink.With
manyTVsandsomemonitors,thismaybelineconnectedandelectricallyhot.However,thismonitor
usesaseparateswitchmodepowersupplyandinanycase,thereislikelyaninsulatorbetweenthe
transistorandheatsink.
SafetyGuidelines:Theseguidelinesaretoprotectyoufrompotentiallydeadlyelectricalshock
hazardsaswellastheequipmentfromaccidentaldamage.
Notethatthedangertoyouisnotonlyinyourbodyprovidingaconductingpath,particularlythrough
yourheart.Anyinvoluntarymusclecontractionscausedbyashock,whileperhapsharmlessin
themselves,maycausecollateraldamagetherearemanysharpedgesinsidethistypeofequipment
aswellasotherelectricallylivepartsyoumaycontactaccidentally.
Thepurposeofthissetofguidelinesisnottofrightenyoubutrathertomakeyouawareofthe
appropriateprecautions.RepairofTVs,monitors,microwaveovens,andotherconsumerand
industrialequipmentcanbebothrewardingandeconomical.Justbesurethatitisalsosafe!
Don'tworkaloneintheeventofanemergencyanotherperson'spresencemaybeessential.
Alwayskeeponehandinyourpocketwhenanywherearoundapoweredlineconnectedorhigh
voltagesystem.
Wearrubberbottomshoesorsneakers.
Don'twearanyjewelryorotherarticlesthatcouldaccidentallycontactcircuitryandconduct
current,orgetcaughtinmovingparts.
Setupyourworkareaawayfrompossiblegroundsthatyoumayaccidentallycontact.
Knowyourequipment:TVsandmonitorsmayusepartsofthemetalchassisasgroundreturn
yetthechassismaybeelectricallylivewithrespecttotheearthgroundoftheACline.
Microwaveovensusethechassisasgroundreturnforthehighvoltage.Inaddition,donot
assumethatthechassisisasuitablegroundforyourtestequipment!
Ifcircuitboardsneedtoberemovedfromtheirmountings,putinsulatingmaterialbetweenthe
boardsandanythingtheymayshortto.Holdtheminplacewithstringorelectricaltape.Prop
themupwithinsulationsticksplasticorwood.
Ifyouneedtoprobe,solder,orotherwisetouchcircuitswithpoweroff,discharge(across)large
powersupplyfiltercapacitorswitha2Worgreaterresistorof100to500ohms/Vapproximate
value(e.g.,fora200Vcapacitor,usea20Kto100Kohmresistor).Monitorwhiledischarging
andverifythatthereisnoresidualchargewithasuitablevoltmeter.InaTVormonitor,ifyou
areremovingthehighvoltageconnectiontotheCRT(toreplacetheflybacktransformerfor
example)firstdischargetheCRTcontact(underthesuctioncupattheendofthefatHVwire).

Usea1Mto10Mohm5Worgreaterwattage(foritsvoltageholdoffcapability,notpower
dissipation)resistorontheendofaninsulatingstickortheprobeofahighvoltagemeter.
DischargetothemetalframewhichisconnectedtotheoutsideoftheCRT.
ForTVsandmonitorsinparticular,thereistheadditionaldangerofCRTimplosiontakecare
nottobangtheCRTenvelopewithyourtools.Animplosionwillscattershardsofglassathigh
velocityineverydirection.ThereareseveraltonsofforceattemptingtocrushthetypicalCRT.
Whileimplosionisnotreallylikelyevenwithmodestabuse,whytakechances?However,the
CRTneckisrelativelythinandfragileandbreakingitwouldbeveryembarrassingandcostly.
AlwaysweareyeprotectionwhenworkingaroundthebacksideofaCRT.
Connect/disconnectanytestleadswiththeequipmentunpoweredandunplugged.Useclipleads
orsoldertemporarywirestoreachcrampedlocationsordifficulttoaccesslocations.
Ifyoumustprobelive,putelectricaltapeoverallbutthelast1/16"ofthetestprobestoavoid
thepossibilityofanaccidentalshortwhichcouldcausedamagetovariouscomponents.Clipthe
referenceendofthemeterorscopetotheappropriategroundreturnsothatyouneedtoonly
probewithonehand.
Performasmanytestsaspossiblewithpoweroffandtheequipmentunplugged.Forexample,
thesemiconductorsinthepowersupplysectionofaTVormonitorcanbetestedforshort
circuitswithanohmmeter.
Useanisolationtransformerifthereisanychanceofcontactinglineconnectedcircuits.A
Variac(tm)isnotanisolationtransformer!TheuseofaGFCI(GroundFaultCircuitInterrupter)
protectedoutletisagoodideabutwillnotprotectyoufromshockfrommanypointsinaline
connectedTVormonitor,orthehighvoltagesideofamicrowaveoven,forexample.(Note
however,that,aGFCImaynuisansetripatpoweronoratotherrandomtimesduetoleakage
paths(likeyourscopeprobeground)orthehighlycapacitiveorinductiveinputcharacteristics
oflinepoweredequipment.)Afuseorcircuitbreakeristooslowandinsensitivetoprovideany
protectionforyouorinmanycases,yourequipment.However,thesedevicesmaysaveyour
scopeprobegroundwireshouldyouaccidentallyconnectittoalivechassis.
Don'tattemptrepairworkwhenyouaretired.Notonlywillyoubemorecareless,butyour
primarydiagnostictooldeductivereasoningwillnotbeoperatingatfullcapacity.
Finally,neverassumeanythingwithoutcheckingitoutforyourself!Don'ttakeshortcuts!

WarningaboutdisconnectingCRTneckboard
SomemanufacturerswarnagainstpoweringaTVormonitorCRTwithouttheCRTneckboard
connected.Apparently,withoutsomethinganythingtodrainthechargeresultingfromthecurrent
flowduetoresidualgasionsinsidetheCRT,theshortestpathmaybethroughtheglassneckofthe
tubetotheyokeorfromthepinsoutsidetheCRTtowhateverisnearby.Therearen'tmanyionsina
modernCRTbutIsupposeafewhere,afewthere,andeventuallytheyadduptoenoughtocausea
majordisasteratleastonsomeCRTs.
ThisisprobablynotaproblemonsmallCRTsbutforlargeoneswithhighhighvoltagesandhigh
deflectionangleswheretheglassoftheneckisverythintoallowformaximumdeflectionsensitivity,
thepotentialdoesexistforarcingthroughtheglasstotheyoketooccur,destroyingtheCRT.
Thereisreallynowaytoknowwhichmodelswillselfdestructbutitshouldbepossibletoavoidsuch
adisasterbyprovidingatemporaryreturnpathtotheDAGgroundoftheCRT(NOTSIGNAL
GROUND!!)viathefocusorG2pinspreferablythroughahighvaluehighvoltageratedresistorjust
incaseoneoftheseisshorted.

ThisprobablyappliesmostlytolargedirectviewTVssincetheyusehighdeflectionangleCRTsbutit
won'thurttotakeappropriateprecautionswithvideoandcomputermonitorsaswell.

Troubleshootingtips
Manyproblemshavesimplesolutions.Don'timmediatelyassumethatyourproblemissome
combinationofesotericcomplexconvolutedfailures.Foramonitor,itmayjustbeabadconnectionor
blownfuse.Rememberthattheproblemswiththemostcatastrophicimpactonoperationlikeadead
monitorusuallyhavethesimplestsolutions.Thekindofproblemswewouldliketoavoidatallcosts
aretheonesthatareintermittentordifficulttoreproduce:theoccasionaljitteroramonitorthatblows
itshorizontaloutputtransistoreverysixmonths.
Ifyougetstuck,sleeponit.Sometimes,justlettingtheproblembouncearoundinyourheadwilllead
toadifferentmoresuccessfulapproachorsolution.Don'tworkwhenyouarereallytireditisboth
dangerous(especiallywithrespecttomonitors)andmostlynonproductive(orpossiblydestructive).
Wheneverworkingoncomplexequipment,makecopiousnotesanddiagrams.Youwillbeeternally
gratefulwhenthetimecomestoreassembletheunit.Mostconnectorsarekeyedagainstincorrect
insertionorinterchangeofcables,butnotalways.Apparentlyidenticalscrewsmaybeofdiffering
lengthsorhaveslightlydifferentthreadtypes.Littlepartsmayfitinmorethanoneplaceor
orientation.Etc.Etc.
Pillbottles,filmcanisters,andplasticicecubetrayscomeinhandyforsortingandstoringscrewsand
othersmallpartsafterdisassembly.Thisisparticularlytrueifyouhaverepairsonmultiplepiecesof
equipmentunderwaysimultaneously.
Selectaworkareawhichiswideopen,welllighted,andwheredroppedpartscanbelocatednotona
deeppileshagrug.Thebestlocationwillalsoberelativelydustfreeandallowyoutosuspendyour
troubleshootingtoeatorsleeporthinkwithouthavingtopileeverythingintoacardboardboxfor
storage.
AnotherconsiderationisESDElectroStaticDischarge.Somecomponents(likeICs)inaTVare
vulnerabletoESD.Thereisnoneedtogooverboardbuttakingreasonableprecautionssuchasgetting
intothehabitoftouchinga**safe**groundpointfirst.
WARNING:evenwithanisolationtransformer,alivechassisshould**not**beconsideredasafe
groundpoint.Whenthemonitorisunplugged,theshieldsorothersignalgroundpointsshouldbesafe
andeffective.
Abasicsetofprecisionhandtoolswillbeallyouneedtodisassembleamonitorandperformmost
adjustments.Thesedonotneedtobereallyexpensivebutpoorqualitytoolsareworsethanuseless
andcancausedamage.NeededtoolsincludeaselectionofPhilipsandstraightbladescrewdrivers,
socketdrivers,needlenosepliers,wirecutters,tweezers,anddentalpicks.Foradjustments,a
miniature(1/16"blade)screwdriverwithanonmetallictipisdesirablebothtopreventthepresenceof
metalfromalteringtheelectricalpropertiesofthecircuitandtominimizethepossibilityofshorting
somethingfromaccidentalcontactwiththecircuitry.Asetofplasticalignmenttoolswillbeusefulfor
makingadjustmentstocoils(thoughyoucanforgotheseuntilthe(rare)needarises.
Alowpower(e.g.,25W)finetipsolderingironandfinerosincoresolderwillbeneededifyou
shouldneedtodisconnectanysolderedwires(onpurposeorbyaccident)orreplacesoldered
components.Ahigherpowerironorsmallsolderinggunwillbeneededfordealingwithlarger
components.Neveruseacidcoresolderorthetypeusedforsweatingcopperpipes!
CAUTION:Youcaneasilyturnasimplerepair(e.g.,badsolderconnections)intoanexpensivemess
ifyouuseinappropriatesolderingequipmentand/orlackthesolderingskillstogoalongwithit.Ifin

doubt,findsomeoneelsetodothesolderingoratleastpractice,practice,practice,solderingand
desolderingonajunkcircuitboardfirst!Seethedocument:TroubleshootingandRepairofConsumer
ElectronicEquipmentforadditionalinfoonsolderingandreworktechniques.
Forthermalorwarmupproblems,acanof'coldspray'or'circuitchiller'(theyarethesame)andaheat
gunorblowdryercomeinhandytoidentifycomponentswhosecharacteristicsmaybedriftingwith
temperature.Usingtheextensiontubeofthespraycanormakingacardboardnozzlefortheheatgun
canprovideveryprecisecontrolofwhichcomponentsyouareaffecting.
Forinfoonusefulchemicals,adhesives,andlubricants,see"RepairBriefs,anIntroduction"aswellas
otherdocumentsavailableatthissite.

Testequipment
Don'tstartwiththeelectronictestequipment,startwithsomeanalyticalthinking.Yourpowersof
observation(andalittleexperience)willmakeagoodstart.Yourbuiltinsensesandthatstuffbetween
yourearsrepresentsthemostimportanttestequipmentyouhave.
However,sometestequipmentwillbeneeded:
Multimeter(DMMorVOM)Thisisessentialforcheckingofpowersupplyvoltagesand
voltagesonthepinsofICsorothercomponentsserviceliteratureliketheSAMsPhotofacts
describedelsewhereinthisdocumentincludevoltagemeasurementsatnearlyeverycircuittie
pointforproperlyfunctioningequipment.Themultimeterwillalsobeusedtocheck
componentsliketransistors,resistors,andcapacitorsforcorrectvalueandforshortsoropens.
Youdonotneedafancyinstrument.AbasicDMMaslongasitisreliablewillsufficefor
mosttroubleshooting.Ifyouwantonethatwilllastformanyyears,gowithaFluke.However,
eventhemidrangeDMMsfromRadioShackhaveproventobereliableandofacceptable
accuracy.ForsomekindsofmeasurementstodeducetrendsforexampleananalogVOMis
preferred(thoughsomeDMMshaveabargraphscalewhichalmostasgood).
OscilloscopeWhilemanyproblemscanbedealtwithusingjustamultimeter,a'scopewillbe
essentialasyougetmoreintoadvancedtroubleshooting.Basicrequirementsare:dualtrace,10
20MHzminimumverticalbandwidth,delayedsweepdesirablebutnotessential.Agoodsetof
proper10X/1Xprobes.Higherverticalbandwidthisdesirablebutmostconsumerelectronics
workcanbedonewitha10MHzscope.Astoragescopeordigitalscopemightbedesirablefor
certaintasksbutisbynomeansessentialforbasictroubleshooting.
IwouldrecommendagoodusedTektronix(Tek)orHewlettPackard(HP)scopeoveranew
scopeofalmostanyotherbrand.Youwillusuallygetmorescopeforyourmoneyandthese
thingslastalmostforever.Untilrecently,my'good'scopewasthemilitarizedversion
(AN/USM281A)oftheHP180labscope.Ithasadualchannel50MHzverticalpluginanda
delayedsweephorizontalplugin.Ihaveseenthesegoingforunder$300fromsurplusoutfits.
Foralittlemoremoney,youcangetaTek465or465B(newerversionbutsimilar
specifications)100Mhzscope($200to$600,sometimescheaperoneBayorelsewherebut
thereismoreriskthanbuyingfromareputabledealer).IhavenowacquiredaTek465Band
that'swhatIusemostlythesedays.TheHP180isstillfinebutIcouldn'tpassupareallygood
deal.:)TheTek465/Borothersimilarmodelwillsufficeforallbutthemostdemanding(read:
RForhighspeeddigital)repairs.
Avideosignalsourcedependingonwhattypeofmonitoryouarerepairing,youmayneed
bothcomputerandtelevisionsignals.
ComputerMonitorsatestPCisusefulasavideosource.Ofcourse,itwillneedtosupport
whateverscanratesandvideotypesthemonitorisdesignedtoaccept.Softwareprogramsare

availabletodisplaypurity,convergence,focus,color,andothertestpatterns.Orcreateyour
owntestpatternsusingaprogramlikeWindowsPaint.Seethesection:UsingaPCasamonitor
testpatterngenerator.
StudiomonitorsabasebandvideosourcelikeaVCRorcamcorderisusefulinlieuofatest
patterngenerator.Thesewillallowyoutoyoutocontroltheprogrammaterial.Infact,making
sometesttapesusingacamcorderorvideocameratorecordstatictestpatternswillallowyou
fullcontrolofwhatisbeingdisplayedandforhowlong.
Colorbar/dot/crosshatchsignalgenerator.Thisisausefulpieceofequipmentifyouaredoinga
lotofTVorstudiomonitorrepairandneedtoperformCRTconvergenceandchroma
adjustments.However,therearealternativesthatarealmostasgood:aVHSrecordingofthese
testpatternswillworkforTVs.APCprogrammedtooutputasuitablesetoftestpatternswill
befineformonitors(andTVsifyoucansetupthevideocardtoproduceanNTSC/PALsignal.
ThiscanbeputthroughaVCRtogeneratetheRF(Channel3/4)inputtoyourTVifitdoesnot
havedirectvideoinputs(RCAjacks).
Sophisticated(andexpensive)universaltestpatterngeneratorsareavailablethatwillhandleany
possiblemonitorscanrate.

Incrediblyhandywidgets
Thesearethelittlegadgetsandhomemadetestersthatareusefulformanyrepairsituations.Hereare
justafewofthemostbasic:
SerieslightbulbforcurrentlimitingduringthetestingofTVs,monitors,switchingpower
supplies,audiopoweramplifiers,etc.Ibuiltadualoutletboxwiththeoutletswiredinseriesso
thatalampcanbepluggedintooneoutletandthedeviceundertestintotheother.Foradded
versatility,addaregularoutletand'kill'switchusingaquadboxinstead.Theuseofaseries
loadwillpreventyourexpensivereplacementpartlikeahorizontaloutputtransistorfrom
blowingifthereisstillsomefaultinthecircuityouhavefailedtolocate.
AVariac.Itdoesn'tneedtobelargea2AVariacmountedwithaswitch,outletandfusewill
sufficeformosttasks.However,a5amporlargerVariacisdesirable.Ifyouwillbe
troubleshooting220VACequipmentintheUS,thereareVariacsthatwilloutput0240VAC
froma115VACline(justmakesureyoudon'tforgetthatthiscaneasilyfryyour115VAC
equipment.)Byvaryingthelinevoltage,notonlycanyoubringupanewlyrepairedmonitor
graduallytomakesuretherearenoproblemsyoucanalsoevaluatebehavioratlowandhigh
linevoltage.Thiscangreatlyaidintroubleshootingpowersupplyproblems.Warning:aVariac
isnotanisolationtransformeranddoesnothelpwithrespecttosafety.Youneedanisolation
transformeraswell.
Isolationtransformer.Thisisveryimportantforsafelyworkingonlivechassisequipment.
Sincenearlyallmodernmonitorsutilizelineconnectedswitchmodepowersupplyorline
connecteddeflectioncircuits,itisessential.Youcanbuildonefromapairofsimilarpower
transformersbacktoback(withtheirhighestratedsecondariesconnectedtogether.Ibuiltmine
fromacoupleofsimilaroldtubetypeTVpowertransformersmountedonaboardwithan
outletboxincludingafuse.Theirhighvoltagewindingswereconnectedtogether.Theunused
lowvoltagewindingscanbeputinserieswiththeprimaryoroutputwindingstoadjustvoltage.
Alternatively,commerciallineisolationtransformerssuitableforTVtroubleshootingare
availableforlessthan$100wellwortheverypenny.
Variableisolationtransformer.Youdon'tneedtobuyafancycombinationunit.AVariaccanbe
followedbyanormalisolationtransformer.(Theoppositeorderalsoworks.Theremaybesome

subtledifferencesinloadcapacity.).
CAUTION:KeepanylargetransformerofthistypewellawayfromyourmonitororTV.The
magneticfielditproducesmaycausethepicturetowiggleorthecolorstobecomemessedupand
youtothinkthereisanadditionalproblem!
Degaussingcoil.Makeorbuy.TheinternaldegaussingcoilsalvagedfromadefunctcolorTV
ormonitordoubledovertohalfitoriginaldiametertoincreaseitsstrengthinserieswitha200
Wlightbulbforcurrentlimitingwillworkjustfine.Or,buyonefromaplacelikeMCM
Electronicsforabout$15$30thatwillbesuitableforallbutthelargestTVsandmonitors.
Also,seethesection:Degaussing(demagnetizing)aCRT.

SafedischargingofcapacitorsinTVsandvideomonitors
Itisessentialforyoursafetyandtopreventdamagetothedeviceundertestaswellasyourtest
equipmentthatlargeorhighvoltagecapacitorsbefullydischargedbeforemeasurementsaremade,
solderingisattempted,orthecircuitryistouchedinanyway.Someofthelargefiltercapacitors
commonlyfoundinlineoperatedequipmentstoreapotentiallylethalcharge.
Thisdoesn'tmeanthateveryoneofthe250capacitorsinyourTVneedtobedischargedeverytime
youpoweroffandwanttomakeameasurement.However,thelargemainfiltercapacitorsandother
capacitorsinthepowersuppliesshouldbecheckedanddischargedifanysignificantvoltageisfound
afterpoweringoff(orbeforeanytestingtheCRTcapacitanceinaTVorvideomonitor,forexample,
canretainadangerousoratleastpainfulchargefordaysorlonger!)
ThetechniqueIrecommendistouseahighwattageresistorofabout100ohms/Voftheworking
voltageofthecapacitor.Thiswillpreventthearcweldingassociatedwithscrewdriverdischargebut
willhaveashortenoughtimeconstantsothatthecapacitorwilldroptoalowvoltageinatmostafew
seconds(dependentofcourseontheRCtimeconstantanditsoriginalvoltage).
Thencheckwithavoltmetertobedoublesure.Betteryet,monitorwhiledischarging(notneededfor
theCRTdischargeisnearlyinstantaneousevenwithmultiMohmresistor).
Obviously,makesurethatyouarewellinsulated!
ForthemaincapacitorsinaTVormonitorpowersupplywhichmightbe400uFat200V,this
wouldmeana5K,10Wresistor.RC=2seconds.5RC=10seconds.Alowerwattageresistor
canbeusedsincethetotalenergyinnotthatgreat.Ifyouwanttobemorehightech,youcan
buildthecapacitordischargecircuitoutlinedinthecompaniondocument:CapacitorTesting,
SafeDischarging,andOtherRelatedInformation.Thisprovidesavisibleindicationof
remainingchargeandpolarity.
FortheCRT,useaseveralMohmresistorgoodfor30kVormore(orastringoflowervalue
resistorstoobtainthisvoltagerating).A1/4wattjobwilljustarcover!Dischargetothechassis
groundconnectedtotheoutsideoftheCRTNOTSIGNALGROUNDONTHEMAIN
BOARDasyoumaydamagesensitivecircuitry.Thetimeconstantisveryshortamsorso.
However,repeatafewtimestobesure,thenuseashortingclipasthesecapacitorshaveaway
ofrecoveringapainfulchargeifleftalonetherehavebeentoomanystoriesofpainful
experiencesfromchargedevelopingforwhateverreasonsreadytobitewhentheHVleadis
reconnected.
NotethatifyouaretouchingthelittleboardontheneckoftheCRT,youmaywanttodischarge
theHVevenifyouarenotdisconnectingthefatredwirethefocusandscreen(G2)voltages
onthatboardarederivedfromtheCRTHV.

WARNING:Mostcommonresistorseven5Wjobsareratedforonlyafewhundredvolts
andarenotsuitableforthe25kVormorefoundinmodernTVsandmonitors.Alternativestoa
longstringofregularresistorsareahighvoltageprobeoraknowngoodfocus/screendivider
network.However,notethatthedischargetimeconstantwiththesemaybeafewseconds.Also
seethesection:AdditionalinformationondischargingCRTs.
IfyouarenotgoingtoberemovingtheCRTanodeconnection,replacingtheflyback,orgoing
nearthecomponentsonthelittleboardontheneckoftheCRT,Iwouldjuststayawayfromthe
fatredwireandwhatitisconnectedtoincludingthefocusandscreenwires.Repeatedly
shovingascrewdriverundertheanodecaprisksscratchingtheCRTenvelopewhichis
somethingyoureallydonotwanttodo.
Again,alwaysdoublecheckwithareliablevoltmeter!
Reasonstousearesistorandnotascrewdrivertodischargecapacitors:
1.Itwillnotdestroyscrewdriversandcapacitorterminals.
2.Itwillnotdamagethecapacitor(duetothecurrentpulse).
3.Itwillreduceyourspouse'sstresslevelinnothavingtohearthosescarysnapsandcrackles.

AdditionalinformationondischargingCRTs
YoumayhearthatitisonlysafetodischargefromtheUltortotheDag.So,whatthe@#$%arethey
talkingabout?:).
(From:Asimov(mike.ross@juxta.mnet.pubnix.ten).)
'Dag'isshortforAquadag.Itisatypeofpaintmadeofagraphitepigmentwhichisconductive.Itis
paintedontotheinsideandoutsideofpicturetubestoformthe2platesofahighvoltagefilter
capacitorusingtheglassinbetweenasdielectric.Thiscapacitorisbetween.005uFand.01uFin
value.Thisseemslikeverylittlecapacitybutitcanstoreasubstantialchargewith25,000volts
applied.
Theoutside"Dag"isalwaysconnectedtothecircuitchassisgroundviaaseriesofsprings,clips,and
wiresaroundthepicturetube.Thehighvoltageor"Ultor"terminalmustbedischargedtochassis
groundbeforeworkingonthecircuitespeciallywitholderTV'swhichdidn'tuseavoltagedividerto
derivethefocuspotentialornewerTV'swithadefectiveopendivider.
(From:Sam)
CAUTION:TheDagcoating/springs/clips/etc.maynotbethesameassignalgroundonthe
mainboard.Dischargingtothatinsteadcouldresultinallsortsofexpensiveblowncomponents.
DischargingbetweentheCRTanodecapandDagshouldbelowriskthoughitisbesttouseaHV
probeorproperlyratedhighvalueresistor.
Formoredetails,seethedocument:TVandMonitorCRT(PictureTube)Information.

RemovingtheCRTHVconnector
WARNING:MakesuretheCRThasbeendischargedFIRST!
Therubberpartisusuallynotglueddownsoitcanbeliftedrathereasily.However,theremaybe
somesiliconetypegreasebetweentherubberboot(thatlookslikeasuctioncup)andtheCRTglassto

sealoutdust.
Ametalclipwithaspringkeepingitspreadoutattachesinsidethebutton.
Whilethereareavarietyoftypesofclipsactuallyused,pushingtheconnectortoonesideand/or
squeezingitintheappropriatedirection(peeluponesideoftherubbertoinspect)whilegentlylifting
upshouldfreeit.Probably:).
Theclip(whenremoved)andCRTbuttonlooksortoflikethis:
||=======HVCable
/\
Clip||
(Removed)_||_
(NoDAGcoatinginvicinityofHVconnector)
____________..___________
CRT____________|______|___________Glass
MetalButton

Replacementisdoneinreverseorder!
Thisisn'trocketscienceandexcessiveforceshouldnotbeneeded!:)

Theserieslightbulbtrick
Whenpoweringupamonitor(oranyothermodernelectronicdeviceswithexpensivepower
semiconductors)thathashadworkdoneonanypowercircuits,itisdesirabletominimizethechance
ofblowingyournewlyinstalledpartsshouldtherestillbeafault.Therearetwowaysofdoingthis:
useofaVariactobringuptheAClinevoltagegraduallyandtheuseofaseriesloadtolimitcurrentto
powersemiconductors.
ActuallyusingaseriesloadalightbulbisjustareadilyavailablecheaploadisbetterthanaVariac
(wellbothmightbebetterstill)sinceitwilllimitcurrentto(hopefully)nondestructivelevels.
Whatyouwanttodoislimitcurrenttothecriticalpartsusuallythehorizontaloutputtransistor
(HOT).MostofthetimeyouwillgetawaywithputtingitinserieswiththeACline.However,
sometimes,puttingalightbulbdirectlyintheB+circuitwillbeneededtoprovideadequate
protection.Inthatlocation,itwilllimitthecurrenttotheHOTfromthemainfiltercapacitorsofline
connectedpowersupplies.Thismayalsoberequiredwithsomeswitchmodepowersuppliesasthey
canstillsupplyburstsoffull(orexcessive)currentevenifthereisalightbulbinserieswiththeAC
line.
Actually,anactualpowerresistorisprobablybetterasitsresistanceisconstantasopposedtoalight
bulbwhichwillvaryby1:10fromcoldtohot.Thelightbulb,however,providesanicevisual
indicationofthecurrentdrawnbythecircuitundertest.Forexample:
Fullbrightness:shortcircuitorextremelyheavyloadafaultprobablyisstillpresent.
Initiallybrightbutthensettlesatreducedbrightness:filtercapacitorscharge,thenlowercurrent
torestofcircuit.Thisiswhatisexpectedwhentheequipmentisoperatingnormally.There
couldstillbeaproblemwiththepowercircuitsbutitwillprobablynotresultinanimmediate
catastrophicfailure.
Pulsating:powersupplyistryingtocomeupbutshuttingdownduetoovercurrentor
overvoltagecondition.Thiscouldbeduetoacontinuingfaultorthelightbulbmaybetoosmall

fortheequipment.
Note:foraTVormonitor,itmaybenecessary(anddesirable)tounplugthedegausscoilasthis
representsaheavyinitialloadwhichmaypreventtheunitfromstartingupwiththelightbulbinthe
circuit.
Thefollowingaresuggestedstartingwattages:
40WbulbforVCRorlaptopcomputerswitchingpowersupplies.
100Wbulbforsmall(i.e.,B/Wor13inchcolor)monitorsorTVs.
150200WbulbforlargecolormonitorsorprojectionTVs.
A50/100/150W(orsimilar)3waybulbinanappropriatesocketcomesinhandyforthisbutmarkthe
switchsothatyouknowwhichsettingiswhich!
Dependingonthepowerratingoftheequipment,thesewattagesmayneedtobeincreased.Ihavehad
togotoa300Wlightbulbforsomecomputermonitors.However,startlow.Ifthebulblightsatfull
brightness,youknowthereisstillamajorfault.IfitflickersortheTV(orotherdevice)doesnotquite
comefullyup,thenitshouldbesafetogotoalargerbulb.Resistthetemptationtoimmediately
removethebulbatthispointIhavebeenscrewedbydoingthis.Tryalargeronefirst.Thebehavior
shouldimprove.Ifitdoesnot,thereisstillafaultpresent.
NotethatsomeTVsandmonitorssimplywillnotpowerupatallwithanykindofseriesloadatleast
notwithonesmallenough(intermsofwattage)toprovideanyrealprotection.Themicrocontroller
apparentlysensesthedropinvoltageandshutstheunitdownorcontinuouslycyclespower.
Fortunately,theseseemtobetheexceptions.

Gettinginsideamonitor
Youwillvoidthewarrantyatleastinprinciple.Thereareusuallynowarrantysealsonamonitorso
unlessyoucausevisibledamageormanglethescrewsorplastic,itisunlikelythatthiswouldbe
detected.Youneedtodecide.Amonitorstillunderwarrantyshouldprobablybereturnedforwarranty
serviceforanycoveredproblemsexceptthosewiththemostobviousandeasysolutions.Another
advantageofusingwarrantyserviceisthatshouldyourproblemactuallybecoveredbyadesign
change,thiswillbeperformedfreeofcharge.And,youcannotgenerallyfixaproblemwhichisdueto
poordesign!
Gettingintoamonitorisusuallyquitesimplerequiringtheremovalof210Philipsor1/4"hexhead
screwsmostaroundtheedgeofthecabinetorunderneath,acoupleperhapsintherear.Disconnect
theinputandpowercablesfirstasittheystaywithcatchontherearcoveryouaredetaching.
Reconnectwhateverisneededfortestingafterthecoverisremoved.Setthescrewsasideandmake
notesiftheyarenotallofthesamelengthandthreadtypeputtingatoolongscrewinthewrong
placecanshortoutacircuitboardorbreaksomethingelse,forexample.Ascrewthatistooshortmay
notbesecure.
Onceallvisiblescrewsareout,trytoremovethecover.Therestillmaybehiddencatchesorsnaps
aroundtheedgesorseamorhiddenbeneathlittleplasticorrubbercosmeticcovers.Sometimes,the
tiltswivelbasewillneedtoberemovedfirst.Ifnosnapsorcatchesareinevidence,thecovermay
justneedabitofpersuasionintheformofacarefullyplacedscrewdriverblade(butbecarefulnotto
damagethesoftplastic).A'splitting'toolisactuallysoldforthispurpose.
Asyoupullthecoverstraightback(usually)andoff,makesurethatnootherwiresarestillattached.
Often,themaincircuitboardrestsonthebottomofthecoverinsomeslots.Goslowasthiscircuit
boardmaytrytocomealongwiththeback.Oncethebackisoff,youmayneedtopropthecircuit
boardupwithablockofwoodtopreventstressdamageandcontactwiththeworksurface.

Mostbutnotallmonitorscanbesafelyandstablypositionedeitherstillonthetiltswivelbaseor
onthebottomoftheframe.However,somewillrequirecareasthecircuitboardwillbevulnerable.
Largermonitorsarequiteheavyandbulky.Getsomeonetohelpandtakeprecautionsifyoursisone
oftheunstablevariety.Ifneedbe,themonitorcanusuallysafelybepositionedontheCRTfaceifitis
supportedbyfoamorafoldedblanket.
Oncethecoverisoff,youwillfindanywherefromnonetoafrustratinglylargenumberofsheetmetal
(perforatedorsolid)shields.Dependingonwhichcircuitboardsneedtobeaccessed,oneormoreof
theseshieldsmayneedtoberemoved.Makenotesofwhichscrewsgowhereandstoreinasafe
place.However,manufacturersoftenplaceholesatstrategiclocationsinordertoaccessadjustments
checkforthesebeforegoingtoalotofunnecessarybother.Note:sheetmetalusuallyhassharpedges.
Takecare.
SeeMajorPartsofTypicalSVGAMonitorwithCoverRemovedforwhatwillgreetyou.This
particularsamplehasashieldonlycoveringthevideodriverboardontheneckoftheCRT.
Reassembleinreverseorder.Gettingthecircuitboardtoslidesmoothlyintoitsslotsmaytakea
coupleofattemptsbutotherwisethereshouldbenosurprises.

SpecificconsiderationsbeforepokingaroundinsideaTVormonitor
Bothelectricalandmechanicaldangerslurk:
Mainfiltercapacitor(s).Thisisthemostdangerous(nottheHVasyouwouldexpect).
Fortunately,thesecapacitorswillnormallydischargeinafewminutesorlessespeciallyifthe
unitisbasicallyworkingastheloadwillnormallydischargethecapacitorsnearlyfullyas
poweristurnedoff.WithTVs,themainfiltercapacitorisnearlyalwaysonthemainboard.
Monitorsaremorelikelytohaveaseparatepowersupplymodule.
However,youshouldcheckacrossthiscapacitorusuallyonlyoneandbyfarthelargestinthe
unitwithavoltmeteranddischargeassuggestedinthesection:Safedischargingofcapacitors
inTVsandvideomonitorsifitholdsmorethanafewvolts(orwaitlonger)beforetouching
anything.
Someoftheseareaslargeas1,000uFchargedto160Vabout13wsorasimilaramountof
energyasthatstoredinanelectronicflash.Thisisenoughtobepotentiallylethalunderthe
wrongcircumstances.
HighVoltagecapacitorformedbytheenvelopeoftheCRT.Itisconnectedtotheflyback
transformerbythefat(usuallyred)wireatthesuctioncup(well,itlookslikeoneanyhow)
attachedtotheCRT.Thiscapacitorcanholdachargeforquiteawhileweeksinthecaseofan
oldtubetypeTV!
Ifyouwanttobedoublysure,dischargethisalso.However,unlessyouaregoingtobe
removingtheHVconnector/flyback,itshouldnotbotheryou.
Theenergystoredisabout1wsbutifyoutouchitorcomeneartoanexposedterminal,dueto
thehighvoltage,youwilllikelybehanded*all*theenergyandyou*will*feelit.Thedangeris
probablymoreinthecollateraldamagewhenyoujumprippingfleshandsmashingyourhead
againsttheceiling.
Somepeoplecalibratetheirjumpbasedonvoltageabout1inch/V.:).
TherewillbesomeHVonthebackofthecircuitboardontheneckoftheCRTbutalthough

youmightreceiveatinglebutaccidentallytouchingthefocusorscreen(G2)pins,itisnot
likelytobedangerous.
CRTimplosionrisk.Don'thammeronit.However,itismorelikelythatyouwillbreaktheneck
offthetubesincetheneckisrelativelyweak.ThiswillruinyourwholedayandtheTVor
monitorbutwilllikelynotresultinflyingglasseverywhere.Just,don'tgooutofyourwayto
findout.
Sharpsheetmetalandsoforth.Thisisnotinitselfdangerousbutareflexreactioncansend
yourfleshintoitwithnastyconsequences.

Dustingouttheinsideofamonitor
Thefirstthingyouwillnoticewhenyouremovethecoverishowsuperdustyeverythingis.
Complimentstothemaid.Youneverdreamedtherewasthatmuchdust,dirt,andgrime,intheentire
houseorofficebuilding!
Useasoftbrush(likeanewpaintbrush)andavacuumcleanertocarefullyremovethebuiltupdust.
Blowingoffthedustwilllikelynothurttheunitunlessitgetsredepositedinsidevariouscontrolsor
switchesbutwillbebadforyourlungsandwillspreaddirtallovertheroom.Don'tturnanything
manycriticaladjustmentsmasqueradeasscrewsthatjustbegtobetightened.Resisttheimpulsefor
beingneatandtidyuntilyouknowexactlywhatyouaredoing.Beespeciallycarefularoundthe
componentsontheneckoftheCRTpicturetubeassomeoftheseareeasilyshiftedinpositionand
controlthemostdreadedofadjustmentsforcolorpurityandconvergence.Inparticular,therewillbe
aseriesofadjustableringmagnets.Itisagoodideatomarktheirpositioninanycasewithsome
whitepaint,'whiteout',oraMagicMarkersothatiftheydogetmovedoryoumovethem
deliberately,youwillknowwhereyoustarted.

Troubleshootingamonitorwiththemainboarddisconnected
Therearetimeswhenitisdesirabletoremovethechassisormainboardandworkonitina
convenientlocationwithouthavingtoworryabouttheattachmentstotheCRTandcabinetcircuitry.
Myapproachisusuallytodoasmuchworkaspossiblewithoutremovingthemainboardandnot
attempttopoweritupwhendisconnectedsincetherearetoomanyunknowns.Professionalswillplug
thechassisintoapieceofequipmentwhichwillsimulatethecriticalfunctionsbutthisisrarelyan
optionforthedoityourselfer.
Notethatifyouhaveafailureofthepowersupplyblownfuse,startup,etc.,thenitshouldbefineto
disconnecttheCRTsincetheseproblemsareusuallytotallyunrelated.Testsshouldbevalid.
However,ifyoureallywanttodolivetestingwiththemainboardremoved,herearesome
considerations.ThereareusuallyseveralconnectionstotheCRTandcabinet:
Deflectionyokesincethehorizontalcoilsarepartofthehorizontalflybackcircuit,therecould
beproblemsrunningwithoutayoke.Thiscouldbeanythingfromitappearingtotallydeadtoan
overheatingorblownhorizontaloutputtransistor.Theremaybenoproblems.Verticalandany
convergencecoilsmayormaynotbeproblemsaswell.
CRTvideoDriverboardpullingthisshouldnotusuallyaffectanythingexceptpossiblyvideo
outputandbiasvoltages.
CRT2ndanodewithouttheCRT,therewillbenocapacitortofilterthehighvoltageandyou
wouldcertailywanttoinsulatetheHVconnector**real**well.Idonotknowwhetherthere

arecaseswheredamagetoflybackcouldresultfromrunninginthiemanner,however.
Frontpanelcontrolsdisconnectingthesemayresultininabilitytoeventurntheuniton,erratic
operation,andotherunexpectedbehavior.
Degaussyoujustwon'thavethisfunctionwhendisconnected.Butwhocaresyouarenot
goingtobelookingatthescreenanyhow.
RemotesensornoremotecontrolbutIdoubtthatthefloatingsignalswillcauseproblems.
Speakerstherewillbenoaudiobutthisshouldnotcausedamage.
Ifyoudodisconnecteverything,makesuretolabelanyconnectorswhoselocationor
orientationmaybeambiguous.Mostofthetime,thesewillonlyfitonewaybutnotalways.

Commentsonrepairingmoderncomputermonitors
(From:WildBill(kwag98@tcis.net).)
Withouteventakingintoconsiderationalloftheotherfeaturesofmostlatemodel(15"orlarger)
monitors,suchasthemultisyncandmultiresolutioncircuitry,manyoftheseunitsareverycomplex.
Theycombinealmosteveryexampleofpresentcircuitdesigntechnology.Avacuumdisplaytube,
digitaldata,HFswitching,alltypesofregulatorsandsensecircuitsandlinearpowerdevices.Funny
too,thattheendresultisjustdotsoflight.
Agood(perhapsthebest)firstactionistosearchtheUSENETnewsgroupsci.electronics.repairviaan
archivelikeGoogleGroupsforpreviouspostingsofquestionsonthesamemodelwithrelated
symptomsandreplies.Solderinthereplacementpart,andBINGO,it'srepaired.Restassuredthatit's
alwayssomethingsimple.Yeah,right.:)Timetochecksomearchiverepairsiteswithtechtips
databases.
Typically,foradeadunit,IgetaDMM,pencilandpaper....
Afterafairlythoroughoverallinspection,igenerallyresorttoasectionbysectioninvestigationfor
shorted/openpowerdevices,followedbyPNjunctionchecks,thenanoverallESRcheckSxS.In
circuitESRcheckingwillnearlyalwaysconvincemetoreplaceatleastacoupleofcaps.Butifya
don'treplace'em,yajustneverknow.Hehehe.
Bynow,I'matleastanhourintothispotentialresearchproject,iftheunit'soperationhasn'tyetbeen
restored.Thenextphaseisusuallydeterminedbywhateverifeellikedoingnext..imightgetacouple
ofdatasheets,tryaserieslamptechnique,ortestthemajorparts..flyback/IHVT,CRToryokes.Ifone
ofthesearefaulty,itwillhelpdeterminethecosteffectivenessofproceeding.Ifit'snotmymonitor,i
contacttheowner.
Barringanymajorpartsfailure,thereareseveralmoreoptionsforadirectiontoproceedin..making
senseofanyoftheavailablevoltagesorwaveforms,checkingtheHVsemisforleakage,orasalast
(butmaybenotfinal)resort..makingcircuitdiagramsofspecificsections.Iftherehasn'tbeenany
signofprogressbythispoint,theunitusuallyfindsit'swaytoashelfuntilmoreinspirationarrives..
thatremindsme,whendidiplacethatorder?

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

MonitorAdjustments

Theseincludebothcontrolsaccessibletotheuser(andoftennotunderstood)aswellasinternal
adjustmentsthatmayneedtobetouchedupduetotheagingofcomponentsorfollowingarepair.
Notethatmonitor(software)driversoftenhavethecapabilitytoprovidesomecontrolofpicturesize,
position,colorbalance,andotherparametersviathevideocard.Thereisalsothirdpartysoftwarefor
thispurpose.So,beforeblamingthemonitor,makesureyoursoftwaresettings(andmonitoruser
controls)havebeenresettotheirdefaults.Thenseeifthemonitorcontrolsand/orthedriver
adjustmentshaveenoughrangewiththeproceduresdescribedbelow.However,whereasudden
changeinbehavioroccurredwithoutanythingbeingdoneineitherhardwareorsoftware(e.g.,anew
videocardorOS/revision),tryingtoadjustoutsuchafaultislikeputtingaBandAidonabroken
bone.Thereislikelytobeahardwarefaultinthemonitorwhichwillneedtobeidentifiedand
repaired.

Userpictureadjustment
Forgeneralviewing,subduedlightingispreferred.Avoidbacklightinganddirectoverheadlightingif
possible.
Displayanimagewithavarietyofcolorsandthefullrangeofbrightnessfromdeepshadowstostrong
highlights.ForPCs,aWindowsdesktopisgenerallysatisfactory.Anoutdoorsceneonasunnydayis
excellentforstudiomonitors.Alternatively,useatestpatternspeciallydesignedforthispurpose.
TurntheBRIGHTNESSandCONTRASTcontrols(orusethebuttons)allthewaydown.
IncreasetheBRIGHTNESSuntilarasterisjustvisibleinthedarkest(shadow)areasofthepicture
andthenbackoffuntilit**just**disappears.
IncreasetheCONTRASTuntilthedesiredintensityofhighlightsisobtained.
SinceBRIGHTNESSandCONTRASTarenotalwaysindependent,gobackandforthuntilyouget
thebestpicture.
Onmonitorswithacolorbalanceadjustment,youmaywanttosetthisbutunlessyouaredoing
photorealisticwork,usingthemanufacturer'sdefaultswillbefineunlessyouneedtomatchthe
characteristicsofmultiplemonitorslocatedsidebyside.

Focusadjustment
Oneofthemostcommoncomplaintsisthatthemonitorisnotascrispasitusedtobeorjustnotas
sharpasexpected.
Assumingthatthefocushasjustbeengraduallygettingworseovertime,tweakingtheinternalfocus
controlmaybeallthatisneeded.
Somemonitorshavethefocusadjustmentaccessiblethrougha(possiblyunmarked)holeinthesideor
rearofthecase.Ifthereisasinglehole,itisalmostcertainlyforoverallfocus.Iftherearetwoholes,
onemaybethescreen(G2masterbrightness)orthetwoadjustmentsmaybefordifferentaspectsof
focus(e.g.,horizontalandvertical).Justcarefullyobservewhathappenswheneachadjustmentis
movedalittlesothatyoucanreturnittoitsoriginalsettingifyouturnedthewrongone.Useathin
insulatedscrewdriverpreferablywithaplasticblade.Asaextraprecaution,determineofthe
screwdriverwillmateeasilywiththeadjustmentwiththemonitor**off**(don'tturnanything,
however).
Wheretherearetwoadjustmentknobsontheflybacktransformer,thetoponeisgenerallyforfocus

andthebottomoneisforG2.
Mostinexpensivemonitorshaveonlywhatisknownasstaticfocusaconstantvoltagederivedfrom
theHVpowersupplyisappliedtothefocusgridoftheCRT.Thisdoesnotallowforoptimalfocus
acrossthescreenandanysettingisjustacompromisebetweencentralandedgesharpness.
BettermonitorswillhaveseparateHandVfocuscontrolsaswellasdynamicfocuscircuitrywhich
generatesfocuscorrectionsignalsthatareafunctionofscreenpositiontocompensateforchanging
distancetoelectrongunsattheedgesandcornersofthescreen.Theremaybesomeinteraction
betweenthestaticanddynamicadjustments.Ifeitherofthesecontrolshasnoeffectorinsufficient
range,thentheremaybeafaultinthecircuitryforthatparticularadjustmentafaultwiththedriver,
waveformsource,powersupply,etc.
Themostsophisticatedschemesuseamicroprocessor(oratleastdigitallogic)tospecifythe
waveformforeachsectionofthescreenwithamapofcorrectionvaluesstoredinnonvolatile
memory.Itwouldbevirtuallyimpossibletotroubleshootthesesystemswithoutdetailedservice
informationandanoscilloscopeandeventhenyoumightneedacustomadaptercableandPC
softwaretoadjustvalues!
Alsoseethesection:Aboutthequalityofmonitorfocus.
Ifyouneedtogoinsidetotweakfocuspots:
SAFETY:aslongasyoudonotgonearanythingelseinsidethemonitorwhileitisonANDkeepone
handinyoupocket,youshouldbeabletodothiswithoutashockingexperience.
Plugitin,turnitonandletitwarmupforahalfhourorso.SetyourPC(orothervideosource)to
displayintheresolutionyouusemostoften.Firstturntheuserbrightnessandcontrastfully
counterclockwise.Turnbrightnessupuntiltherasterlinesinatotallyblackareaappear,thenbacka
hairuntiltheydisappear.Then,turnthecontrastcontrolupuntilyougetafairlybrightpicture.Fullly
clockwiseisprobablyok.AdjustFOCUSforgenerallybestfocus.Youwillnotbeabletogetitrazor
sharpalloverthescreenstartatthecenterandthentrytogettheedgesandcornersasgoodasyou
canwithoutmessingupthecentertoomuch.DoublecheckthatthefocusisOKatyournormal
settingsofbrightnessandcontrastandatotherresolutionsthatyounormallyuse.
Thefocuspotisusuallylocatedontheflybacktransformeroronanauxiliarypanelnearby.Thefocus
wireusuallycomesfromtheflybackorthegeneralareaorfromaterminalonavoltagethemultiplier
module(ifused).ItisusuallyawirebyitselfgoingtothelittleboardontheneckoftheCRT.
TheSCREENcontroladjustsbackgroundbrightness.Ifthetwocontrolsarenotmarked,youwillnot
doanydamagebyturningthewrongoneitwillbeimmediatelyobviousasthebrightnesswill
changeratherthanfocusandyoucanthenreturnittoitsoriginalposition(orrefertothesectionon
brightnessadjustmentstooptimizeitssetting).
Onadecentmonitor,youshouldbeabletomakeouttheindividualscanninglinesatallresolutions
thoughitwillbetoughestatthehighestscanrates.Iftheylinesarefuzzy,especiallyinbrightareas,
thenfocusmayneedtobeadjustedortheremaybeanactualfaultinthefocuscircuitryoradefective
orjustmarginalCRT.

AdjustingMonitorswithDualFocusFlybacks
(From:AndyCuffe(baltimora@psu.edu).)
I'msurethereisanofficialprocedure,butthisalwaysworksforme.

First,figureoutwhichcontroliswhich.Onewillappearaffecttheoverallfocus.Thisisthevertical
focuscontrol.
Theotherwillmostlyaffectthewidthofverticallinesandhasthemosteffectattheleftandright
edgesofthescreen.Thisisthehorizontalfocus.
Startwithbothcontrolsnearthemiddleoftheirrange.Youneedtodisplaysomethingwithsharp
verticallinesattheedgesandsharphorizontallinesinthecenter(acrosshatchisbest).
First,adjustthehorizontalfocusforthesharpestverticallinesattheedges.Ignorethethicknessofthe
scanlinesfornow,justmaketheverticallinesareasthinaspossible.
Next,adjusttheverticalfocusforthethinnesthorizontalscanlinesinthedeadcenterofthescreen.
Alternatebetweenthetwoseveraltimesbecausetheyinteractwitheachotherheavily.
Ifyoudon'thaveanywaytodisplayacrosshatch,youcanuseacomputerifithasaTVoutput,or
eventheonscreenmenusofaVCR.
(From:RonKZ650(RonKZ650@aol.com).)
TheoldZenithswithdualfocushadaprocedureofputtingacrosshatchpatternonthescreen,adjust
onefocusforthethinnestverticalline,theotherforthethinnesthorizline.Thisworksformeonall
dualfocussets.Onceyouhaveacrosshatchpatternonthescreenitiseasytoseewhichcontrol
effectshorizandwhicheffectsvertical.Fromthereyouhavetogobackandforthbetweenthetwoa
fewtimestoeventuallygetbothatoptimum.Idon'tlikeum,butpartofthebusiness.

Brightnessandcolorbalanceadjustment
Amonitorwhichhasapicturethatistoodarkortoobrightandcannotbeadequatelysetwiththeuser
brightnessandcontrastcontrolsmayneedinternaladjustmentoftheSCREEN(theterm,screen,here
referstoaparticularelectrodeinsidetheCRT,notreallythebrightnessofthescreenyousee,thoughit
applieshere),MASTERBRIGHTNESS,orBACKGROUNDlevelcontrols.Ascomponentsage,
includingtheCRT,thebrightnesswillchange,usuallydecrease.Thefollowingprocedurewillnot
rejuvenateanoldCRTbutmaygetjustenoughbrightnessbacktoprovideusefulfunctionalityfora
fewmonthsorlonger.IftheproblemisnotwiththeageoftheCRT,thenitmayreturnthemonitorto
fullbrightness.Theassumptionhereisthatthereisapicturebutthedarkareasaretotallyblackand
thelightareasarenotbrightenoughevenwiththeuserbrightnesscontrolturnedallthewayup.
Notethatcircuitproblemscanalsocausesimilarsymptoms.Theseareparticularlylikelyifthe
brightnessdescresedsuddenlyCRTemissionproblemswillresultinagradualdecreaseinbrightness
overtime.
Inmostcases,thecoverwillneedtoberemoved.Thecontrolswearelookingformaybelocatedin
variousplaces.Rarely,therewillbeaccessholesonthebackorside.However,ifthereareunmarked
holes,thentheFOCUSandSCREENcontrolsarethemostlikelypossibilities.
Thecontrolsmaybelocatedonthe:
Flyback(LOPT)transformer.Usuallythereisamasterscreencontrolalongwithafocuscontrol
ontheflybacktransformer.
AlittleboardontheneckoftheCRT.Theremaybeamasterscreencontrol.amasterbrightness
control,amasterbackgroundlevelcontrol,orindividualcontrolsforred,green,andblue
backgroundlevel.Othervariationsarepossible.Theremayalsobeindividualgain/contrast
controls.

Mainvideoboardislesscommon,butthebackgroundlevelcontrolsmaybelocatedhere.
Displayablackandwhitepictureatthevideoresolutionyouconsidermostimportant.Selectonethat
hasbothfullblacksandfullwhitesannicesunnyoutdoorscenethathasbeenconvertedfromacolor
image,forexample.
Settheuserbrightnesscontroltoitsmidpointandtheusercontrastcontrolaslowasitwillgo
counterclockwise.
Letthemonitorwarmupforatleast15minutessothatcomponentscanstabilize.
IfthereisaMASTERBRIGHTNESSorBACKGROUNDlevelcontrol,usethistomaketheblack
areasofthepicturejustbarelydisappear.Them,increaseituntiltherasterlinesjustappear.(They
shouldbeaneutralgray.Ifthereisacolortintpresent,thentheindividualcolorbackgroundcontrols
willneedtobeadjustedtoobtainaneutralgray.)Ifthereisnosuchcontrol,usethemasterscreen
controlontheflyback.Ifitisunmarked,thentrybothofthecontrolsontheflybackonewillbethe
screencontrolandtheotherwillbefocustheeffectswillbeobvious.Ifyoudidtouchfocus,setitfor
bestoverallfocusandthengetbacktothesectiononfocusonceyouaredonehere.
Ifthereareindividualcontrolsforeachcolor,youmayusethesebutbecarefulasyouwillbe
effectingthecolorbalance.Adjustsothattherasterlinesinablackareaarejustvisibleanddark
neutralgray.
Ifthereisa'serviceswitch'youmayprefertomaketheadjustmentwiththisintheserviceposition.
Therasterwillcollapsetoasinglehorizontallineandthevideoinputwillbedisabledandforcedto
black.TheBACKGROUNDorSCREENcontrolcanthenbeadjustedasabove.
Nowforthegaincontrols.OnthelittleboardontheneckoftheCRToronthevideoormainboard
therewillbecontrolsforR,G,andBDRIVE(alsomaybecalledGAIN,orCONTRASTtheyare
thesame).Theknobsorslotsmayevenbecolorcodedastowhichprimary(R,G,B)itaffects.
Ifthereareonlytwothenthethirdcolorisfixedandifthecolorbalanceinthehighlightsofthe
picturewasok,thenthereisnothingmoreyoucandohere.
Settheusercontrastcontrolashighasitwillgoclockwise.
NowadjusteachinternalcolorDRIVEcontrolashighasyoucanwithoutthatparticularcolor
'blooming'atverybrightverticaledges.Bloomingmeansthatthefocusdeterioratesforthatcolorand
yougetabigblotchofcolortrailingofftotherightoftheedge.Youmayneedtogobackandforth
amongthe3DRIVEcontrolssincethecolorthatbloomsfirstwilllimittheamountthatyoucan
increasethecontrastsettings.Setthemsothatyougetthebrightestneutralwhitespossiblewithout
anysinglecolorblooming.
Notethatthisisignoringtheeffectsofanybeamcurrentorbrightnesslimitercircuitry.Any
recommendationsintheservicemanualshouldbefollowedtominimizethechanceofexcessXray
emissionsaswellastoavoidburninofthephosphorscreen.
Nowcheckouttherangeoftheusercontrolsandadjusttheappropriateinternalcontrolswhere
necessary.Youmayneedtotouchupthebackgroundlevelsorothersettings.Checkattheother
resolutionsandrefreshratesthatyounormallyuse.
Ifnoneofthisprovidesacceptablebrightness,theneitheryourCRTisinitstwilightyearsorthereis
somethingactuallybrokeninthemonitor.Ifthedecreaseinbrightnesshasbeenagradualprocess
overthecourseofyears,thenitismostlikelytheCRT.Asalastresortyoucantryincreasingthe
filamentcurrenttotheCRTthewayCRTboostersthatusedtobesoldforTVsworked.Seethe

section:BrighteninganoldCRT.

Optimalprocedureforsettingbrightness/backgroundandscreenadjustments
Forslighttweaks,thefollowingisnotnecessary.However,ifsomeoneturnedalltheinternalcontrols,
ifyouaremakingsignificantchangesthataffectG2(screen),oryouaresettingupanewor
replacementCRTforthefirsttime,thenfollowingtheprocedurebelowisdesirabletoachievebest
performanceandmaximizelifeoftheCRT.
Thetypicalusercontrolsbrightnessandcontrastcan,ofcourse,besetarbitrarily,dependingon
videocontentandambientlightingconditions.
Settheuserbrightnessandcontrastcontrolsinthemiddleforthefollowingadjustmentsandletthe
monitorwarmupfor20minutesorso.
(From:JeroenStessen(Jeroen.Stessen@philips.com).)
Nowthescreencontrol,that'sanothermatter.Itsetsthevoltageonthesecondgridoftheelectron
guns,typicallybetween+500and+1000V.Youwillwanttouseawellisolatedscrewdriverforthatif
itisanakedpotentiometer.Intheolddaysthereusedtobe3separatepotentiometersfor3G2s,now
thereisgenerallyonlyone.
Itspurposeistosetthecutoffvoltagefortheguns,i.e.thevoltagebetweenKandG1atwhichthe
beamisjustoff.ThehigheryousettheVG2,thehigherVKVG1mustbetocutoffthebeam.
IfyousetVG2toolowthenyourpicturewillbedark.Youcancompensateforthatwiththe
brightnesscontrol,whichineffectwilllowertheVKs.Adisadvantageisthatyouwillnotget
optimumsharpnessandpeakbrightnessfromyourpicturetube.
IfyousetVG2toohighthenyourpicturewillbebright.Youcancompensateforthatwiththe
brightnesscontrol,whichineffectwillraisetheVKs.Youmightevengetretracelineswhichcan
usuallynotbemadetodisappearwiththebrightnesscontrol.Anotherdisadvantageisthatyouwill
notgetoptimumLIFETIMEfromyourpicturetube.Withatoohighcutoffvoltagethecathode
(electronemittingsurface)willwearouttoosoon.
Youwillneedtoseethepicturetubespecifications(orpossiblytheservicemanualforthemonitor
sam)inordertofindthecorrectsettingforthecutoffvoltage.ThisismeasuredasVKVG1(foreach
channelRGB)andistypically130160Vmax.Therewillbespreadbetweenthe3channels,typically
thehighestofthe3measuredvalueswillbesetagainsttheupperlimit.
Theusualadjustmentprocedureisasfollows:
Useanylowleveladjustmentstosetablackpicturewithall3cathodevoltagesatthespecified
level(e.g.130V)abovetheVG1voltage(maybe0Vor12Vor20V?).(Thesearetypically
calledRGBbrightness,bias,orbackgroundlevelandareoftenonthelittleboardontheneckof
theCRTbutnotalwayssam).
AdjustVG2(screen)untilonecolourjuststartstoolightup,turnitbackdownuntilthescreen
isjustblackagain.(Occasionally,therearetwoG2controlsoneontheflybackandanotheron
theCRTneckboardorelsewhere.Ifso,theycontrolarebasicallyinseriesleavetheoneon
theflybackaloneiftheotheronehasenoughrange.)
Nowadjust2ofthe3lowlevelblackcontrolsuntiltheother2coloursjustlightup,andthen
backtoblackagain.

Selectawhitepictureanduse2lowlevelwhite(RGBdriveorgain,alsogenerallyontheneck
boardsam)controlstosetthepropercolourtemperatureforwhitetoyourowntaste.
Checkyourblackcalibrationagain,mayhavetoiterateabit.

Position,size,andlinearityadjustment
PositionandsizeareusuallyusercontrolsoncomputerandvideomonitorsbutnotonTVs.On
monitorswithdigitalcontrols,theymayusuallybesetforeachresolutionand(automatically)stored
innonvolatilememorysotheywillberetainedwhenthemonitoristurnedoff.Oncheapermonitors,
theremaybeaknobsonthefrontorbackpanelandmayneedtoreadjustedwheneverthescan
rate/resolutionischanged.Sometimes,therearelocatedinternally.Theremaybeseparateadjustments
foreachscanrangeandmayormaynotbeaccessiblethroughholesinthebackpanel.
Theremayalsobeanadjustmentcalled'horizontalphase'whichcontrolstherelativetimingofthe
horizontalsyncpulsewithrespecttoretrace.Itseffectissubtlydifferentthanhorizontalposition
whichactuallymovestheraster.Ifpossible,centertherasterandthenuseHPhasetocenterthe
picture.
Inmonochromemonitors(mostly),positionmaybesetviaapairofringsontheneckoftheCRT.
Sizecanbesettoyourpreferenceforeachscanrate(iftheyareindependent).Forcomputerwork,
slightunderscanisoftenpreferredasalloftheframebufferisvisible.However,anyslightgeometric
problemswiththerasterwillbealltoovisiblewhencomparedwiththestraightsidesoftheCRT
bezel.
Notethatresolutionslike640x480,800x600,and1024x768allhavea4:3aspectratio.Theedge
oftheimagewilllineupwiththebezelonmostifnotallmonitorssinceCRTsaremadetoa4:3
aspectratio.However,resolutionslike1280x1024and1600x1280havea5:4aspectratio.With
these,inordertoget(highlydesirable)squarepixels,thehorizontalsizemustbeadjustedslightly
smallerthanthatrequiredtofillthescreen.
Fornormalviewingofvideo(television)monitors,rastersizeshouldbesetsothatthereisabout10
15percentoverscanallaround.Thiswillallowamplemarginforpowerlinevoltagefluctuations,
componentaging,andthereductioninrastersizethatmayoccurwithsomeVCRspecialeffects(CUE
andREV)modes.However,forstudiouse,underscanisoftenpreferredoratleastanoptiontopermit
theentirerastertobeinspected.
Moderncolormonitorsmaynothaveanyhorizontallinearitycontrolbutyoumayfindthisonolder
models.Theremaybeaninternalverticallinearityadjustment.Iamnotawareofanythathaveuser
accessiblelinearitycontrols.Ifthereareinternalpotsorcoils,youwillneedtogobackandforth
betweensizeandlinearityastheseadjustmentsareusuallynotindependent.
Ofcourse,parameterscontrollingyourvideocardalsoaffectpositionandsize.Thereisnobest
approachtoreconcilingtheeffectsofmonitorandvideocardpositionadjustments.But,ingeneral,
startwiththemonitorcontrolscenteredwithintheirrangeorusethememorydefaultsasappropriate.
Then,usethevideocardsetupprogramtooptimizethesettings.Onlyifthesedonothaveenough
rangeshouldyouusethemonitorcontrols.

Commentsonlinearityorlackthereof
(From:JerryGreenberg(jerryg50@hotmail.com).)
Ifyoucangetagratingtestgeneratorthiswouldbetheproperwaytotestfornonlinearity.Usinga

cameraordeviceotherthanthatwouldnotbeanacceptablereferenceifyoucallanyengineerfrom
themanufacture.Ifyoumentionagratinggenerator,hewillcertainlylisten.
Youwouldneedtheservicemanualforthemodeltoknowthespecs.Someofthesesetscanhavea
nonlinearityofuptoabout2%neartotheedges.Onlyprofessionalbroadcastmonitorswillbedown
tothe0.5%andlesserrorfactorneartothecorners.
Ona27inchscreen2%canmeananerrorofcangiveavisiblenonlinearityof0.5inches.
Convergenceerrorscanbeasmuchas0.25or1/4inchatthecorners.Generallytheyaremore
accuratethanthesefigures.ThisistheworsecasethatisgenerallyacceptedonaconsumerTVbythe
manufactures.
IhavefoundthatonflatscreenconsumerTVsets,thelinearitysortofgetsabitstretchedtowardsthe
endsofthescan.Thisisbecauseofthebeamangle.Thereiscompensationforazimuthofbeamfocus
(dynamicfocus)andforthescanstoadegreethatkeepsthepriceoftheTVwithinconsumerrange.
Thescreensthatareabitmoresphericalorroundedwillhavelessofthiseffectbecauseitislowerin
costtocompensatefortheseerrors.Atrueaccuratescreenwouldbeonethatissphericalfollowing
exactlytothebeamangle.But,forviewingthiswouldnotbeverydesirable.

Pincushionadjustments
Horizontalpincushionreferstoanybowinginoroutontheverticalsidesoftheraster.Thereisnot
usuallyanyexplicitverticalpincushionadjustment.Adjustmentusuallyusestwocontrolsamplitude
andphase.Pincushionamplitudeasitsnameimplies,controlsthesizeofthecorrection.Pincushion
phaseaffectswhereonthesidesitisapplied.Don'texpectperfection.
Ifthecontrolshavenoeffect,thereisprobablyafaultinthepincushioncorrectioncircuitry.
Itisbesttomaketheseadjustmentswithacrosshatchordottestpattern

Geometryadjustment
Thisreferstoimperfectionsintheshapeofthepicturenothandledbythepincushionandsize
adjustments.Thesetypesofdefectsincludeatrapezoidalorkeystoneshapedrasterandjogsor
wigglesaroundtheperipheryoftheraster.Unfortunately,onewaythesearehandledatthefactoryis
togluelittlemagnetstostrategiclocationsontheCRTand/orrotatelittlemagnetsmountedonthe
yokeframe.Unlessyoureallycannotlivewiththewayitis(assumingthereisn'tsomethingactually
broken),leavethesealone!Youcanendupwithworseproblems.Inanycase,carefullymarkthe
positionANDorientationofeverymagnetsothatifthishappens,youcangetbacktowhereyou
started.Ifthemagnetsareonlittleswivels,someexperimentingwiththemoneatatimemayresultin
someimprovement.Ofcourseitisbesttoobtainaservicemanualandfollowitsinstructions.
However,thismaynotbepossibleatreasonablecostoratallformanycomputermonitors.

Whyistheconvergenceonmymonitorbadneartheedges
Verysimplenothingisquiteperfect.Perfectconvergenceisnotevennecessarilypossibleintheory
withthesetofadjustmentsavailableonatypicalmonitor.Itisallamatterofcompromises.Consider
whatyouaretryingtodo:getthreeelectronbeamswhichoriginatefromdifferentelectrongunsto
meetatasinglepointwithinafractionofammeverywhereonthescreen.Thiswhilethebeamsare
scanningatantypicaleffectivewritingrateof50,000mphacrossthefaceofa17"CRT(assumed
resolution:1024x768at75Hz)inavariablemagneticenvironmentmanufacturedatapriceyoucan
affordwithoutasecondmortgage!

Thespecificationsformisconvergencehavetwoparts:acentererrorandacornererror.The
acceptablecentererrorisalwaysthesmallerofthetwopossibly.1.2mm.comparedto.3.5mmin
thecorners.Veryoften,youwillfindthatwhatyouarecomplainingaboutiswellwithinthis
specification.

CRTpurityandconvergence
Purityassuresthateachofthebeamsforthe3primarycolorsR,G,B,red,green,andbluestrikes
onlytheproperphosphorforthatcolor.Atotallyredscenewillappearpureredandsoforth.
Symptomsofpoorpurityareblotchesofdiscolorationonthescreen.Objectswillchangeshadesof
colorwhenthemovefromonepartofthescreentoanother.Theremayevenbeexcessnonuniformity
ofpurewhiteorgrayimages.
Convergencereferstothecontroloftheinstantaneouspositionsofthered,green,andbluespotsas
theyscanacrossthefaceoftheCRTsothattheyareasnearlycoincidentaspossible.Symptomsof
poorconvergencearecoloredbordersonsolidobjectsorvisibleseparateR,G,andBimagesoffine
linesorimages,
Note:ItisprobablybesttofacethemonitorEastWest(fronttoback)whenperforminganypurity
andconvergenceadjustments.Sinceyouprobablydonotknowwhatorientationwilleventuallybe
used,thisisthebestcompromiseastheearth'smagneticfieldwillbealignedmostlyacrosstheCRT.
Thiswillminimizethepossiblerotationofthepicturewhentheunitismovedtoitsfinalpositionbut
theremaybeapositionshift.Neitheroftheseisthatsignificantsoitprobablydoesn'treallymatter
thatmuchunlessyouaresuperfussy.Ofcourse,ifyouknowthefinalorientationofthemonitoruse
thatinstead.Or,plantodothefinaltiltandpositionadjustmentsafterthemonitorisinpositionbut
thiswillprobablyrequireaccesstotheinside!
First,makesurenosourcesofstrongmagneticfieldsareinthevicinityofthemonitorloudspeakers,
refrigeratormagnets,MRIscanners,etc.AnearbylightningstrikeorEMPfromanuclearexplosion
canalsoaffectpuritysotrytoavoidthese.
CyclepoweracoupleoftimestodegausstheCRT(1minuteon,20minutesoff)seethesection:
Degaussing(demagnetizing)aCRT.Ifthebuiltindegaussingcircuitshavenoeffect,useanexternal
manualdegaussingcoiltobesurethatyourproblemsarenotsimplyduetoresidualmagnetism.
Assumingthisdoesn'thelp,youwillneedtosettheinternalpurityand/orconvergenceadjustmentson
theCRT.
First,markthepositionsofalladjustmentsusewhitepaint,'Whiteout',oraMagicMarkeronthe
ringmagnetsontheneckoftheCRT,thepositionandtiltofthedeflectionyoke,andanyother
controlsthatyoumaytouchdeliberatelyorbyaccident.
Note:ifyourmonitorisstillofthetypewithadrawerorpanelofknobsfortheseadjustments,don't
eventhinkaboutdoinganythingwithoutaservicemanualandfollowittotheletterunlessthe
functionsofalltheknobsisclearlymarked(somemanufacturersactuallydoaprettygoodjobofthis).

CRTpurityadjustment
PurityonmodernCRTsisusuallysetbyacombinationofasetofringmagnetsjustbehindthe
deflectionyokeontheneckoftheCRTandthepositionoftheyokeforeaft.Asalways,markthe
startingpositionofalltheringsandmakesureyouareadjustingthecorrectsetifrings!
Usethefollowingpurityadjustmentprocedureasageneralguideonly.Dependingontheparticular
modelmonitor,yourproceduremaysubstitutegreenforreddependingonthearrangementofgunsin

theCRT.Theproceduresfordotmask,slotmask,andTrinitron(aperturegrille)CRTswillvary
slightly.Seeyouservicemanual!
Obtainawhiteraster(sometimesthereisatestpointthatcanbegroundedtoforcethis).Then,turn
downthebiascontrolsforblueandgreensothatyouhaveapureredraster.Letthemonitorwarmup
foraminimumof15minutes.
Loosenthedeflectionyokeclampandmovetheyokeasfarbackasitwillgo,
Adjustthepuritymagnetstocentertheredverticalrasteronthescreen.
Now,movetheyokeforwarduntilyouhavethebestoverallredpurity.Tightentheclampsecurely
andreinstalltherubberwedges(ifyourCRThasthese)tostabilizetheyokeposition.Resetthevideo
adjustmentsyoutouchedtogetaredraster.

CRTconvergenceadjustment
Inthegoodolddayswhenmonitorsweremonitors(andnotjustamassproducedcommodityitem)
therewereliterallydrawersorpanelsfullofknobsforsettingconvergence.Onecouldspendhours
andstillendupwithalessthansatisfactorypicture.Asthetechnologyprogressed,thenumberof
electronicadjustmentswentdowndrasticallysothattodaythereareveryfewifany.However,some
highendmonitorsdohaveuseraccessiblecontrolsforminoradjustmentofstatic(center)
convergence.
Unlessyouwantalotoffrustration,Iwouldrecommendnotmessingwithconvergence.Youcould
endupalotworse.Ihavenoideawhatisusedforconvergenceonyoursetbutconvergence
adjustmentsareneverquiteindependentofoneanother.Youcouldfindanadjustmentthatfixesthe
problemyouthinkyouhaveonlytodiscoversomeotherareaofthescreenistotallyscrewed.In
addition,thereareadjustmentsforgeometryandpurityandmaybeothersthatyoumayaccidentally
movewithoutevenknowingituntilyouhavebuttoneduptheset.
Warning:Accuratelymarktheoriginalpositionssometimesyouwillchangesomethingthatwillnot
haveanobviouseffectbutwillbenoticeablelateron.Soitisextremelyimportanttobeabletoget
backtowhereyoustarted.Ifonlyred/greenverticallinesareoffset,thenitislikelythatonlyasingle
ringneedstobemovedandbyjustahair.But,youmayaccidentallymovesomethingelse!
Ifyoureallycannotlivewithit,makesureyoumarkeverythingverycarefullysoyoucangetbackto
yourcurrentstate.Aservicemanualisessential!
Convergenceissetusingawhitecrosshatchordottestpattern.ForPCs(asimilarapproachappliesto
workstations)Ifyoudonothaveatestpatterngenerator,useaprogramlikeWindowsPainttocreatea
facsimileofacrosshatchpatternandusethisforyourconvergenceadjustments.Forastudiovideo
monitor,anystaticscene(fromacamcorderorpreviouslyrecordedtape,forexample)withalotof
finedetailwillsuffice.
Staticconvergencesetsthebeamstobecoincidentintheexactcenterofthescreen.Thisisdoneusing
asetofringmagnetsbehindthepuritymagnetsontheCRTneck.(Setanyuserconvergencecontrols
totheircenterposition).
AdjustthecentersetofmagnetsontheCRTnecktoconvergebluetogreenatthecenterofthescreen.
Adjusttherearsetofmagnetstoconvergeredtogreenatthecenterofthescreen."Yourmonitormay
haveaslightlydifferentprocedure.
Dynamicconvergenceadjustsforcoincidenceattheedgesandcorners.

Onoldtube,hybrid,andearlysolidstatemonitors,dynamicconvergencewasaccomplishedwith
electronicadjustmentsofwhichtheremayhavebeenadozenormorethatwerenotindependent.With
modernmonitors,convergenceisdonewithmagnetringsontheneckoftheCRT,magnetsgluedto
theCRT,andbytiltingthedeflectionyoke.Theclampinconjunctionwithrubberwedgesorset
screwsassuresthattheyokeremainsinposition.
Removetherubberwedges.
Loosenthedeflectionyokeclampjustenoughsothatitcanbetiltedbutwillremainintheposition
youleaveit.Rocktheyokeupanddowntoconvergetherightandleftsidesofthescreen.Rockthe
yokefromsidetosidetoconvergethetopandbottomofthescreen.Therubberwedgescanbeused
aspivotstominimizetheinteractionbetweenthetwoaxesbutyoumayneedtogobackandforthto
optimizeconvergenceonallsides.ReinstallthewedgesfirmlyandtapethemtotheCRTsecurely.
Tightentheyokeclampenoughtopreventaccidentalmovement.
Somemonitorsmayuseaplasticframeandsetscrewsinsteadofjustaclampandrubberwedgesbut
theprocedureissimilar.
Refertoyourservicemanual.(Isthisbeginningtosoundrepetitious?)
Foradditionalcommentsonconvergenceadjustments,seethesection:Tony'snotesonsetting
convergenceonolderdeltagunCRTs.

Tiltedpicture
Youhavejustnoticedthatthepictureonyourfancy(orcheap)monitorisnotquitehorizontalnot
alignedwiththefrontbezel.Notethatoftenthereissomekeystoningorothergeometricdistortionas
wellwherethetopandbottomorleftandrightedgesofthepicturearenotquiteparallelwhichyou
mayneverhavenoticeduntilnow.Sincethismaynotbecorrectable(atleast,notwithoutalotof
hassle),adjustingtiltmayrepresentacompromiseatbestbetweentop/bottomorleft/rightalignment
ofthepictureedges.Youmayneversleepagainknowingthatyourmonitorpictureisnotperfect!
BTW,Icansympathizewithyourunhappiness.Fewthingsaremoreannoyingthanajustnoticeable
imperfectionsuchasthis.
Thisisprobablyonereasonwhyoldermonitorstendednottobeabletoexpandthepicturetototally
fillthescreenitiseasiertooverlookimperfectpicturegeometryifthereisblackspacebetweenthe
edgesofthepictureandthebezel!
Thereareseveralpossiblecausesforatiltedpicture:
1.Monitororientation.Thehorizontalcomponentoftheearth'smagneticfieldaffectsthisslightly.
Therefore,ifyourotatetheunityoumaybeabletocorrectthetilt.Ofcourse,itwillprobably
wanttofacethewall!
2.Otherexternalmagneticfieldscansometimescausearotationwithoutanyotherobviouseffects
haveyouchangedthemonitor'slocation?DidanMRIscannermoveinnextdoor?
3.Needfordegaussing.Mostofthetime,magnetizationoftheCRTwillresultincolorproblems
whichwillbefarmoreobviousthanaslightrotation.However,internalorexternalshieldsor
othermetalpartsinthemonitorcouldbecomemagnetizedresultingatilt.Moreextensive
treatmentthanprovidedbythebuiltindegaussingcoilmaybeneeded.Even,thenormal
manualdegaussingproceduremaynotbeenoughtogetcloseenoughtoalltheaffectedparts.
4.Youjustbecameawareofitbutnothinghaschanged.Don'tdismissthisoffhand.Itisamazing
howmuchweignoreunlessitisbroughttoourattention.Areyouaperfectionist?Didyour

friendjustvisitboastingabouthisP81000screamerandpointthetiltouttoyou?
5.Thereisanexternaltiltcontrolwhichmaybemisadjusted.NewerSonymonitorshavethis
(don'tknowaboutTVs)amostwonderfuladdition.Toobadaboutthestabilizingwireson
TrinitronCRTs.Adigitalcontrolmayhavelostitsmemoryaccidentally.Thecircuitrycould
haveaproblem.
Forexample,ontheSonyCPD1730,youpresstheleftarrowbuttonandblue'+'buttonatthe
sametime.Thenadjustthetiltwiththeredbuttons.
6.Thereisaninternaltiltcontrolthatismisadjustedornotfunctioning.Theexistenceofsucha
controlisbecomingmorecommon.
7.ThedeflectionyokeontheCRThasgottenrotatedorwasnotorientedcorrectlyatthetimeof
theset'smanufacture.Sometimes,theentireyokeisgluedinplaceinadditiontobeingclamped
addinganothercomplication.
Ifthemonitorwasrecentlybumpedorhandledroughly,theyokemayhavebeenknockedoutof
position.Butinmostcases,theamountofabuserequiredtodothiswiththeyokefirmly
clampedand/orgluedwouldhavetotallydestroyeditintheprocess.
Thereisarisk(inadditiontotheriskoffryingyourselfonthevariousvoltagespresentinside
anoperatingmonitor)ofmessinguptheconvergenceorpuritywhenfiddlingwiththeyokeor
anythingarounditsincetheyokepositionontheneckofthetubeanditstiltmayaffectpurity
andconvergence.Tapeanyrubberwedgesundertheyokesecurelyinplaceasthesewill
maintaintheproperpositionandtiltoftheyokewhileyouaremessingwithit.(Don'tassume
theexistingtapewillholdtheadhesiveisprobablydryandbrittle).
8.TheCRTmayhaverotatedslightlywithrespecttothefrontbezel.Irrespectiveofthecauseof
thetilt,sometimesitispossibletoloosenthe4(typical)CRTmountingscrewsandcorrectthe
tiltbyslightlyrotatingtheCRT.Thismaybeeasierthanrotatingtheyoke.Justmakesureto
takepropersafetyprecautionswhenreachinginside!

Monochromemonitorsize,position,andgeometryadjustments
ThesetendtobealotsimplerandlesscriticalthanforcolormonitorsorTVsets.
Onamonochrome(B/W)monitoryouwillprobablyseesomeofthefollowingadjustments:
1.PositionapairofringswithtabsontheneckoftheCRT.Theremaybeelectronicposition
adjustementsaswell.
2.Widthandheight(possiblylinearityaswell)controls.Theremaybesomeinteractionbetween
sizeandlinearityacrosshatchtestpatternisbestforthis.Verticaladjustmentsarealmost
alwayspotswhilehorizontal(iftheyexist)maybepotsand/orcoils.Wheredesired,setsizes
for510%overscantoaccountforlinevoltagefluctuationsandcomponentdrift.Confirm
aspectratiowithtestpatternwhichincludessquareboxes.
3.GeometrysomelittlemagnetseitheronswivelsaroundtheyokeorgluedtotheCRT.Ifthese
shifted,thetheedgesmayhavegottenmessedupwiggles,dips,concaveorconvexshapes.
Theremaybeadoxenormoreeachmostlyaffectingaregionaroundtheedgeoftheraster.
However,theywillnotbetotallyindependent.
Checkatextremesofbrightness/contrastastheremaybesomeslightchangesinsizeandpositiondue
toimperfectHVregulation.

Theremaybeothersaswellbutwithoutaservicemanual,thereisnowayofknowingforsure.
Justmarkeverythingcarefullybeforechangingthenyouwillbeabletogetbackwhereyoustarted.

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

LowVoltagePowerSupplyProblems
Lowvoltagepowersupplyfundamentals
Monitorsrequireavarietyofvoltages(atvariouspowerlevels)tofunction.Thefunctionofthelow
voltagepowersupplyistotaketheAClineinputofeither115VAC60Hz(220to240VAC50Hzor
otherACpowerinEuropeandelsewhere)andproducesomeoftheseDCvoltages.
Inallcases,thepowertothehorizontaloutputtransistor(HOT)ofthehorizontaldeflection
system(B+)isobtaineddirectlyfromthelowvoltagepowersupply.
Note:wewilloftenusetheterm'B+'todenotethemainDCvoltagethatpowersthehorizontal
deflectionsystemofmostmonitors.
Insomecases,someotherDCvoltagesarealsoderiveddirectlyfromtheAClineby
rectification,filtering,andpossiblyregulation.
Withsmallvideomonitorswhichoperateatafixedscanrate(e.g.,TVmonitors),manyormost
ofthelowvoltagesmaybederivedfromsecondarywindingsontheflyback(LOPT)
transformerofthehorizontaldeflectionsystem.
ThetypicalSVGAautoscanmonitorwilluseoneormoreswitchmodepowersupplies(SMPSs)
toprovidemostorallofthelowvoltagestheflybackisn'tusedforthispurpose.(Highvoltage
isobtainedfromaflybacktypesupplyoraseparateHVmoduleinwhichcasetheremaybeno
flybackatall!)
Therearealsovarious(andsometimesconvoluted)designsusingcombinationsofanyorallof
theabove.
TypicalSwitchmodePowerSupplyforSmallSVGAColorMonitorshowsthecompleteschematicfor
theSMPSfroma"Iguaranteeyouneverheardofthebrandname"monitor.
TheAClineinputanddegausscomponentsareattheupperleft,theSMPSchopper,itscontroller,and
feedbackoptoisolatorarelowerleft/middle,andthesecondariessomewithadditionalregulation
componentsoccupytheentirerightsideofthisdiagram.Evenforrelativelybasicapplicationsuchas
this,thecircuitryisquitecomplex.Therearemorethanahalfdozenseparateoutputsregulatedinat
least3differentways!
Forlargehighperformanceautoscanmonitors,itbecomesevenworseashighlystablevoltagesneed
tobeprogrammedbasedonawiderangeofscanrates.Severalcommondesignapproachesareused
togeneratetherequiredvariableregulatedB+voltage:
1.AseparateprogrammableSMPSgeneratestheB+.Thisisdonebyselectingitsreference
voltageorthefractionoftheoutputvoltagethatisfedbacktotheregulator.
2.AvoltagefromthemainSMPSisfedthroughanadditionalseriesswitchmodeorlinear
regulatorthatdropsitdowntotherequiredvalue.

3.Oneofseveralfixedpostregulatorsisselectedbasedonscanrate.
Technique(2)isusedbythepowersupplyisthediagram,above.Canyoulocatethecircuitry?Hint:
Lookintheupperrighthandcorneroftheschematic.
TheneedforavariableB+isoneareawhereatypicalPCmonitordepartssignificantlyindesign
comparedtoaTVorfixedscanratestudioorworkstationmonitor.Nearlyeverythingismademore
complexasaresultofthisrequirement.

Componentsofthelowvoltagepowersupply
Allmonitorlowvoltagepowersupplieswillhave:
1.Apowerswitch,relay,ortriactoenablemainpower.
2.Variouslinefilter,RFI,andsurgesuppressioncomponents(coupledinductors,LCLfilter
networks,MOVs,etc.).
3.AsetofrectifiersusuallyinabridgeordoublerconfigurationtoturntheACintoDC.
AdditionalsmallceramiccapacitorsarenormallyplacedacrossthediodestoreduceRF
interference.TheremaybeaninrushcurrentlimiterintheformofanNTC(Negative
TemperatureCoefficient)resistor.
4.OneormorelargefiltercapacitorstosmooththeunregulatedDC.Thisvoltageiseitheraround
300to320VDC(doubledfrom115VACorbridgerectifiedfrom230VAC)forcompatibility
withU.S.andforeignpoweror150to160VDCbridgerectifierfromthe115VACline.
Manymonitorspermittheinputvoltagetobeeither115or230VACdependingonaswitchor
jumper,orautomaticallyadapttotheseorarangeofinputvoltagesusually100to240VACor
DC.Thelatteraretermed'universal'powersupplies.
5.Adiscrete,hybrid,IC,orswitchmoderegulatortoprovideB+tothehorizontaldeflection.
6.SomemeansofgeneratingthevariousotherDCvoltagesrequiredbythemonitor'sanalogand
logiccircuitry.
Items(1)to(6)maybepartofaseparatelowvoltagepowersupplymoduleorlocatedonthe
mainboard.
7.Zeroormorevoltagedividersand/orregulatorstoproduceadditionalvoltagesdirectlyfromthe
linepower.Thisrelativelyrareexceptforstartupcircuits.THESEVOLTAGESWILLNOTBE
ISOLATEDFROMTHEACLINE!
8.AdegausscontrolcircuitusuallyincludingathermistororPosistor(acombinationofaheater
diskandPositiveTemperatureCoefficient(PTC)thermistorinasinglepackage).Monitors
havingmanualdegaussbuttonswillincludeadditionalcircuitry.
9.Astartupcircuitforbootingthehorizontaldeflectionifvariousvoltagestorunthemonitorare
derivedfromtheflyback.ThismaybeanIC,discretemultivibrator,orsomethingelserunning
offanonisolatedvoltageorthestandbypowersupply,oritmaybederivedfromthevideo
input.(Mostlysmallvideomonitors,notautoscantypes.)However,theSMPSitselfwillhavea
startupcircuit!
10.Astandbypowersupplyifthemonitordoesn'tusealatchingpowerswitch.Usually,thisisa
separatelowvoltagepowersupplyusingasmallpowertransformerforlineisolation.

Whatsymptomsarelikelytheresultofalowvoltagepowersupplyproblem?
Thereareanalmostunlimitednumberofpossibilitiesbutthefollowingprobablycoversthemost
likely:
Monitorisasdeadasaconcreteblocknopictureorraster,noLEDslit,nosoundsoflife(like
degauss)ofanykind.
Mostlikelycauses:NopoweratACoutletoroutletstrip,badorlooselinecord,badpower
switch,blownfuseduetointernalshortoroverload.
Nopicturebutunusualsoundslikeawhine,periodicclicks,tweets,orflubs,and/orpossibly
flickeringorflashingfrontpanelLEDs.
Mostlikelycauses:Excessiveloadorshortonoutputofpowersupply(shutdownorcyclingdue
toovercurrent)orlossofhorizontaldrive(cyclingfromovervoltageduetolackofload).
Unusualaromas,smoke,orsixfootflamescomingfrominsidethecase.
Mostlikelycauses:Failedpartsinlowvoltagepowersupply,deflection,orhighvoltage
sections.
Actually,whileburningsmellsandevensmokearen'tthatunusualwhenpartsoverheatasa
resultofashortcircuit,actualfireisquiteunlikelyduetoregulatorydesignrequirementsfor
materialsandprotectiondevicesUNLESSsafetysystemshavebeentamperedwithorthe
monitorhasbeenoperatedinanenvironmentwherethereislotsofflammabledust.
Jittering,vibrating,orunstablepicture.
Mostlikelycauses:Externalmagneticinterferenceorpowerlinenoise,huminvariouspower
supplyvoltagesresultingfromdriedupmainfiltercapacitor(s)orothercapacitors,resistorsout
oftoleranceallaffectingpowersupplyregulation.
Lossofvideo,deflection,geometryorsizeproblems,orsomeoralladjustmentshavenoeffect.
Mostlikelycauses:Failureofoneormorepowersupplyvoltages,selectioncircuitrynot
selectingproperly(autoscanmonitors),badconnections.
Monitordoesn'tpowerupimmediately.
Mostlikelycauses:Driedupelectrolyticcapacitorsinpowersupplyorbadconnections.
Interactionofadjustments.Forexample,turningupthebrightnessresultsinalossofsyncora
wavyraster.
Mostlikelycauses:Poorpowersupplyregulationduetobadcapacitor,resistor,regulator,or
othercomponentorbadconnections.
Notethattheunderlyingcausemaynotbeinthelowvoltagepowersupplyitselfbutmayactuallybe
elsewhereashortedhorizontaloutputtransistorordeflectionyoke,forexample.Thisresultsin
eitherthepowersupplyshuttingdown,becomingextremelyunhappy,blowingafuse,orjustplain
dying.Thus,wecannotreallylimitourinvestigationtoonlythepowersupply!Infact,withsomany
interconnectedsystemsinamonitor,particularlyahighperformanceSVGAmodelitcanrequirethe
servicesofamastersleuthSherlockHolmestypetoidentifytheperpetrator!
However,beforeyoubreakoutthesocketwrenchesandDMM(or10poundhammer!)orcall

ScotlandYard,doublecheckthat:
yourACoutletislive,thepowercordisintact(notchewedbythedog),isfirmlyseated,and
themonitorisswitchedon.
thatyouhaveavalidvideosignal,thevideocablesaresecurelyattachedtotheproper
connectors(e.g.,BNCs)and/ortherearenobentoverpins(e.g.,VGA/SVGAHD15orMac
DB15).
themonitorisn'tbeingcommandedtogointoapowersavingsmodebecauseyourcomputer
thinksitissmarterthanyou!
youhavethefrontpanelswitchesandcontrolssetproperlyandthevideosourceselectionis
correct.Resetittofactorydefaults.
Ifpossible,trythemonitorwithanotherknowngoodvideoinputthatiscompatiblewithitsscanrates
andsignallevelsorsubstituteaknowngoodmonitorforthesuspectunit.Inotherwords,trytorule
outexternalproblemsand'cockpiterror'.

Monitorpowersupplyproblems
WARNING:Alwaysuseanisolationtransformerwhenworkingonamonitorbutthisisespecially
importantforyoursafetywhendealingwiththenonisolatedlineoperatedpowersupplysection.
ReadandfollowthesafetyguidelinespresentedlastmonthandatmyWebsite.
Thefollowingcancausesymptomsofadeadormostlydeadmonitor:
1.ShortedHorizontaloutputtransistor(HOT).Thiswillusuallyblowafuseorfusableresistoras
welliffeddirectlyfromtheACline.However,whenfedbyaSMPS,theresultmayjustbea
softaudiblewhineorperiodictweetorflubpossiblyaccompaniedbyflashingfrontpanel
LEDs.Here,thefailureisnotinthepowersupplyitselfbutmayresultindamagetoitorother
componentsespeciallyifitcontinuestoruninthisstate.
2.Shortedoutputrectifierdiodescanloaddowntheoutputstothepointofshuttingdownor
resultinginthesameaudiblesymptomsas(1)above.
3.Flybacktransformercanhaveshortedwindingsorshortsinthefocus/screendividernetwork
whichloaddowntheoutput.
These(primaryshortsinparticular)maycausethehorizontaloutputtransistortofailaswell.
ThisisacommonproblemwitholderMacIntoshcomputersandvideoterminals.Some
secondaryfaultsmaynotbeinstantlydestructivebutresultinlittleornohighvoltageand
eventualoverheating.
4.SomeloadoreventheCRTcouldbeshortedleadingsimilarbehaviororblowingfusesor
fusableresistorswhichthenresultinnopowertothatcircuitry.
5.Failureinhorizontaldrivechainhorizontaloscillator,driver,ordrivertransformer.Newer
monitorsmayuseanICfortheoscillatorandthiscanfail.Withoutdrive,therewillbeno
deflectionandthiswilleitherresultinnohighvoltagedirectly(whenitisderivedfromthe
horizontaldeflection)orcauseittobeshutdowntopreventCRTscreenburn(fromastationary
spotorline).WhenpoweredbyanSMPS,theremaybeanaudibletickingfromtheSMPS
cyclingonovervoltageduetolackofload.Thisisalsonotafailureofthepowersupplyitself.
6.FailureofanSMPStostart.Therecanbeanynumberofcausesthoughdriedupelectrolytic

capacitorsandopenhighvaluestartupresistorsarehighonthelistifthechoppertransistoris
notblown.
7.Coldsolderjointsorotherbadconnectionsmonitorstendtohavetheseasaresultof
temperaturecyclingandwithalltoomanypoormanufacturingqualitycontrol.Itispossible
thatnopartshavebeendamagedatleastnotyet.Resolderingmaybeallthatisneeded.
IfthereisB+(typically60to150VDCdependingonthescanrate)attheoutputofthepowersupply
butnothingontheHOTcollector,anopenfusableresistor,blownfuse,orbadconnection,islikely.
IfthereisvoltageontheHOTcollector,thereisprobablyadriveproblem.

Troubleshootingtheswitchmodepowersupply
IftheSMPSisaseparatemodule,itmaybepossibletounplugitsoutputconnectorandtestitfor
properoperationindependentlyofthemonitorcircuitry.However,aminimumloadmaybeneededat
leastontheoutputthatisusedforregulationfeedbackandtherecouldbeotherinterlocksthatwill
complicateyourtesting.
ThemostcommonfailuresinmonitorSMPSsare:
Mainchoppertransistorinamonitor,thisisoftenanexpensivepowerMOSFET.
Othershortedsemiconductorsparticularlyhighspeedrectifiersonthesecondarysideofthe
highfrequencytransformer.
Driedupelectrolyticcapacitorsleadingtostartupandregulationproblems.
Openhighvaluestartupresistorsresultinginnoinitialdrivetochopper.
Badconnections(isthissoundingrepetitive?).
Seethedocument:NotesontheTroubleshootingandRepairofSmallSwitchmodePowerSuppliesfor
moreinformation.

Commonproblems
Herearejustafewofthosethatyoumaycomeacross:

Powerbuttononmonitorisflakey
Iftheon/off(orotherbutton)onthemonitoritselfbehaveserraticallythenthemostlikelycauseisthe
obviousthebuttonorswitchisdirtyorworn.Believeitornot,thisisn'tasunusualasyoumight
thinkOnamomentarypushbutton,ifyoucangetatit,somecontactcleanermayhelp.Replacement
withacommonpushbuttonortoggletypeswitch(asappropriate)availableatRadioShackmaybe
mucheasierthanattemptingtolocatetheoriginalpart!

Deadmonitor
Thismeansthatthereisabsolutelynoevidenceofanythinghappeningwhenthepowerswitchis
activated.
Themostlikecausesare:

Outletisn'tlive,powercordislooseordefective.Trysomethingelseintheoutlet,
inspect/replacethepowercord.
Badpowerswitch.Withplugpulled,checkforcontinuityintheonorpressedposition.
Blownfuseorfusableresistor(probablyfromshortedpartsinpowersupplyorelsewherelike
theHOT).Itusuallywon'thurttotryareplacementfusewithexactlythesameratingsbutdon't
besurprisedifitblows.
Badpowersupply(notstartinguporjustdead),badconnections.However,degausswould
likelystilloperateinthiscase.

Monitorblowsfuse
Ablownfuseisaverycommontypeoffaultduetopoordesignveryoftentriggeredbypowersurges
duetooutagesorlightningstorms.However,themostlikelypartstoshortareeasilytested,usuallyin
circuit,withanohmmeterandtheneasilyremovedtoconfirm.
Notethatit*maybe*usefultoreplaceafusethe*first*timeitblows(thoughitwouldbebettertodo
somebasicchecksforshortedcomponentsfirstasthereisasmallchancethathavingafuseblowthe
secondtimecouldresultinadditionaldamagewhichwouldfurthercomplicatethetroubleshooting
process).However,ifthenewoneblows,thereisarealproblemandtheonlyuseinfeedingtheTV
fuseswillbetokeepthefusemanufacturerinbusiness!
Sometimes,afusewilljustdieofoldageorbezappedbyapowersurgethatcausednodamagetothe
restofthemonitor.However,itmustbeanEXACTreplacement(includingsloblowifthatiswhat
wasthereoriginally).Else,therecouldbesafetyissues(e.g.,firehazardorequipmentdamagefrom
toolargeacurrentrating)oryoucouldbechasinganonexistentproblem(e.g.,ifthenewfuseisnot
sloblowandisblownbythedegausscircuitinrushcurrentbutnothingisactuallywrong).
Ifthefuseblowsabsolutelyinstantlywithnoindicationthatthecircuitsarefunctioning(nohigh
pitchedhorizontaldeflectionwhine(ifyourdoghidesunderthecouchwheneverthemonitoristurned
on,somethingisprobablyworking).)thenthispointstoashortsomewherequiteneartheACpower
input.However,ifthereisindicationoflifeforasecondortwo,orlonger,andthenthefuseblows,
thecauseislikelyanoverloadonthepowersupply.Seethesection:Deadmonitorwithaudible
whine,periodictweetorflub,andlowlowvoltagesincesimilarcausesapply.
Fortheinstantlyblownfusecase,themostcommonplacestolookwouldbe:
DegaussPosistor.ThisisacombinationofaheaterandPTCthermistorwhichcontrolscurrent
tothedegausscoiluponpoweron.Thesetendtoliketoturnintoshortcircuits.
ShortedpartsintheACinputlinefiltercapsandMOVs.
Diode(s)inmainbridge.
Mainfiltercapacitor(s).
SMPSchopper(usuallyaMOSFET)ifthereisalineoperatedSMPSorHOT(ifadeflection
derivedpowersupply).
Youshouldbeabletoeliminatetheseonebyoneusingamultimetertocheckforshortcircuits/low
resistance.Itisbesttoremoveatleastonesideofeachcomponentwhiletestingtoavoidsneakpaths
whichcanfoolyourmeter.

WARNING:Makesuretounplugthemonitoranddischargethemainfiltercapacitor(s)before
attemptinganyofthefollowingmeasuremente!
Unplugthedegausscoilasthiswillshowupasalowresistance.
Measureacrosstheinputtothemainpowerrectifierstheresistanceshouldnotbethatlow
(thoughitmaystartoutatzeroandclimbasthemainfiltercapacitorscharge).Areadingof
onlyafewohmsmaymeanashortedrectifierortwo,ashortedPosistor,orafriedMOV.
Testtheposistor(ifpresent).Tracebackfromthedegaussconnectoritwillprobablybe
nearby.Theposistorisalittlecubicalcomponent(about1/2"x3/4"x1")with3legs.It
includesalineoperatedheaterdisk(whichoftenshortsout)andaPTC(PositiveTemperature
Coefficient)thermistortocontrolcurrenttothedegausscoil.Theeasiestthingtodoitso
removetheposistorandtrypower.Ifthemonitornowworks,obtainareplacementbutinthe
meantimeyoujustwon'thavetheautomaticdegauss.
RemoveandtesttheHOTorchopperwithanohmmeter.Areadingoflessthan10ohms
betweenanycombinationofpinsmeansthedeviceisshorted.
ForeverythingbuttheHOTorchopper,replacingthebadpartsshouldbeallthatisneededthese
rarelyfailduetoOTHERpartsgoingbad.
However,iftheHOTorchoppertestsbad,itispossible(thoughnotalwaysthecase)thatsomething
downstreamiscausinganexcessiveloadwhichcausedtheparttofail.Therefore,don'tputthecover
backonjustyet!
WiththeHOTorchopperremoved,itshouldbepossibletopowerthemonitorwithyourserieslight
bulb.Ofcourse,notmuchwillworksurprise,surprise.:)Withthedeguasscoilunplugged,thelight
shouldflashonceasthemainfiltercapschargeandthenremaindark.
WARNING:Unplugthemonitoranddischargethemainfiltercapsaftertryingthisexperiment!
Installanewtransistorandpowerthemonitorusingyourserieslightbulb.
Ifthebulbnowflashesonceandthensettlesdowntoalowbrightnesslevel,themonitormaybe
fine.SeeifthereisanindicationofdeflectionandHVlookfortheglowoftheCRTfilaments
andturnupthebrightnesstoseeifthereisanyindicationofaraster.Withthelightbulb,not
everythingwillbenormalbutsomelifewouldbeagoodsign.Evenapulsatinglightbulbmay
justmeanthatthelightbulbistoosmallforthemonitorpowerrequirements.Itmaybesafeto
tryahigherwattagebulb.
However,ifthebulbglowsatclosetofullbrightness,thereisprobablystillsomefault
elsewhere.Don'tbetemptedtoremovethelightbulbjustyet.Thereisstillsomethingwrong.
Continuetosearchforshortedparts.
Seeifyoucanlocateanyotherlargepowertransistorsinmetal(TO3)cansorlargeplastic
(TOP3)cases.Theremaybeaseparatepowertransistorthatdoesthelowvoltageregulationor
aseparateregulatorICorhybrid.Asnoted,somemonitorshaveaswitchmodepowersupply
thatrunsoffadifferenttransistorthantheHOT.Thereisachancethatoneofthesemaybebad.
Ifitisasimpletransistor,thesameohmmetercheckshouldbeperformed.
Ifnoneofthisprovesfruitful,itmaybetimetotrytolocateaschematicoraservicecenter.

Internalfuseblewduringlightningstorm(orelephanthitpowerpole)

Powersurgesornearbylightningstrikescandestroyelectronicequipment.However,mostofthetime,
damageisminimaloratleasteasilyrepaired.Withadirecthit,youmaynotrecognizewhatisleftof
it!
Ideally,electronicequipmentshouldbeunplugged(bothAClineandphoneline!)duringelectrical
stormsifpossible.ModernTVs,VCRs,microwaveovens,andevenstereoequipmentisparticularly
susceptibletolightningandsurgedamagebecausesomepartsofthecircuitryarealwaysaliveand
thereforehaveaconnectiontotheACline.Telephones,modems,andfaxesaredirectlyconnectedto
thephonelines.Betterdesignsincludefilteringandsurgesuppressioncomponentsbuiltin.Witha
nearmiss,theonlythingthatmayhappenisfortheinternalfusetobloworforthemicrocontrollerto
gobonkersandjustrequirepowercycling.Thereisnopossibleprotectionagainstadirectstrike.
However,deviceswithpowerswitchesthattotallybreakthelineconnectionaremorerobustsinceit
takesmuchmorevoltagetojumpthegapintheswitchthantofryelectronicparts.MonitorsandTVs
mayalsohavetheirCRTsmagnetizedduetotheelectromagneticfieldsassociatedwithalightning
strikesimilarbutonasmallerscaletotheEMPofanucleardetonation.
Wasthemonitoroperatingoronstandbyatthetime?Ifitwasswitchedoffusinganactualpower
switch(notalogicpushbutton),theneitheracomponentinfrontoftheswitchhasblown,thesurge
wasenoughtojumpthegapbetweentheswitchcontacts,oritwasjustacoincidence(yeh,right).
Ifitwasoperatingoronstandbyorhasnoactualpowerswitch,thenanumberofpartscouldbefried.
MonitorsusuallyhavetheirowninternalsurgeprotectiondeviceslikeMOVs(MetalOxideVaristors)
afterthefuse.Soitispossiblethatallthatiswrongisthatthelinefusehasblown.Removethecase
(unplugitfirst!)andstartatthelineconnector.Ifyoufindablownfuse,removeitandmeasureacross
theinboardsideoffuseholderandtheother(shouldbetheneutral)sideoftheline.Theohmmeter
readingshouldbefairlyhighmorethan100ohmsinatleastonedirection.Youmayneedtounplug
thedegaussingcoiltogetareasonablereadingasitsresistancemaybelessthan30ohms.Ifthe
readingisreallylow,thereareotherproblems.Iftheresistancechecksout,replacethefuseandtry
poweringthemonitor.Therewillbethreepossibilities:
1.Itwillworkfine,problemsolved.
2.Itwillimmediatelyblowthefuse.Thismeansthereisatleastonecomponentshorted
possibilitiesincludeanMOV,linerectifiers,mainfiltercap,regulatortransistor,horizontal
outputtransistor,etc.Youwillneedtocheckwithyourohmmeterforshortedsemiconductors.
Removeanythataresuspectandseeofthefusenowsurvives(usetheserieslightbulbtocut
yourlossesseethesection:Theserieslightbulbtrick.
3.Itwillnotworkproperlyorappeardead.Thiscouldmeanthereareopenfusableresistorsother
defectivepartsinthepowersupplyorelsewhere.Inthiscasefurthertestingwillberequiredand
atsomepointyoumayneedtheschematic.
Ifthereadingisveryloworthefuseblowsagain,seethesection:Monitorblowsfuse.

Fusereplaced(doesn'tblow)butmonitorisstillnearlydead
Theremaybeaclickindicatingthatthepowerrelayisengaging(therecouldbebadcontactsthough
thisisn'tthatlikely)andthedegaussisprobablyworkingnow.
Sincethefusedoesn'tblownow(youdidreplaceitwithoneofthesameratings,right?),youneedto
checkfor:
Otherblownfuses.Occasionallytherearemorethanoneinamonitor.

Openfusableresistors.Theseareusuallylowvalues(afewohmsorless)andareinbig
rectangularceramicpowerresistorcasesorsmallerblueorgraycoloredcylindricalpower
resistors.TheyaresupposedtoprotectexpensivepartsliketheHOTbutoftenblowatthesame
timeortheexpensiveHOTorSMPSchoppersacrificesitselftosavethe25centresistor.
Ifanyofthesetestopen,theywillneedtobereplacedwithflameproofresistorsofthesameratings.
However,youcansubstituteanordinaryresistorfortestingpurposesONLYaslongasyoudon'tleave
themonitorunattended.
Ifyoufindonebadpart,stillcheckotherpowercomponentsforshortsoropensasmorethanonepart
mayfailandjustreplacingthatonemaycauseittofailagain.Theseinclude(dependingonyour
monitor):Rectifierdiodes,mainfiltercapacitor(s),fusesandfusableresistors,horizontaloutput
transistor,regulatorpassorchoppertransistor.
Assumingnothingtestsfaultysofar,clipavoltmetersetonits500Vorhigherscaleacrossthe
horizontaloutputtransistorandturnthepoweron.Warningnevermeasurethispointifthehorizontal
deflectionisoperating.ItisOKnowsincethemonitorisdead.Ifthevoltagehereis60to150V,then
thereisaprobleminthedrivetothehorizontaloutputcircuit.Ifitislowor0,thentherearestill
problemsinthepowersupply.

Nopicturebutindicationsofpower
Thescreenisblankwithnorasteratall.ThereareindicationsthatthepowerisalivethestatusLEDs
arelitandyoucanhearthenormalrelayclickingsoundswhenyouchangevideomodes.This
indicatesthatsomeofthelowvoltagesarepresentbutthesemaybederivedfromthestandbysupply.
AssumingthereisnodeflectionandnoHV,youeitherhavealowvoltagepowersupplyproblem,bad
startupcircuit,orbadhorizontaloutputtransistor(HOT)/badpartsinthehorizontaldeflection.
Checkforbadfuses.
(IfyouhaveHVasindicatedbystaticelectricityonthefrontofthescreenandyouhearthehigh
pitchedwhineofthehorizontaldeflectionwhenitisturnedon,thenthefollowingdoesnotapply).
1.UseanohmmetertotesttheHOTforshorts.Ifitisbad,lookforopenfusableresistorsorother
fusesyoudidnotcatch.
2.Assumingitisgood,measurethevoltageonthecollectoremitteroftheHOT(thisissafeif
thereisnodeflection).YoushouldseetheB+ofbetween60and150V(typical)dependingon
mode(foraautoscanmonitor).
3.Ifthereisnovoltage,youhavealowvoltagepowersupplyproblemand/oryouhavenotfound
allthebad/openparts.Theflybackprimarywindingmaybeopenaswell.
4.Ifthereisvoltageandnodeflection,youprobablyhaveastartupproblemallTVsandmost
monitorsneedsomekindofcircuittokickstartthehorizontaldeflectionuntiltheauxiliary
poweroutputsoftheflybackareavailable.Somedesignsuseasimplemultivibratorforthisa
coupleoftransistors.OtherspowerthehorizontaloscillatorICfromaspeciallinederived
voltage.
LookforpulsesattheHOTbase.Iftherearenone,tracebacktothedriverandoscillator.Most
likely:thepowerforstartupismissing.
Testthetransistorsifitisthattypewithanohmmeter.Ifoneisshorted,youhaveaproblem.
TheusualwayaTVservicepersonwouldtestforstartupproblemsistoinjectasignaltothe

baseoftheHOTofabout15.75kHz.IftheTVthenstartsandrunsoncethissignalisremoved,
thediagnosisisconfirmed.ThisisveryriskyformonitorsandIwouldnotrecommendityou
canalltooeasilyblowthingsupifnotcareful(includingyourself).
Ifyouhearthehighpitchedwhineofthedeflection(probablynotforworkstationorSVGAcomputer
monitorsunlessyouareabat)and/orfeelsomestaticonthescree,confirmthatthehorizontal
deflectionandhighvoltageareworkingbyadjustingtheSCREENcontrol(probablyontheflyback).
Ifyoucangetarasterthenyourproblemisprobablyinthevideo(orchroma)circuits,notthe
deflectionorhighvoltage.

Monitordeflectionderivedpowersupplyfaults
Thissectionappliestostudiovideomonitors,smallcomputerterminals,andmostTVs,whichderive
manyoftheirsupplyvoltagesfromauxilarywindingsontheflybacktransformer.
Thefollowingarecommonareasoffailure:
Horizontaloutputtransistor(usuallyaTO3metalorTOP3plasticcaseshortsout.Thiswill
usuallyblowafuseorfusableresistoraswell.
Horizontaldrivechainhorizontaloscillator,driver,ordrivertransformer.Newermonitorsmay
useanICfortheoscillatorandthiscanfail.
StartupTheremaybesomekindofstartupcircuitwhichgetsthewholethinggoinguntilthe
auxiliaryvoltagesareavailable.Thiscouldbeassimpleasamultivibratorortransistor
regulatortoprovideinitialvoltagetothehorizontaloscillatorchiporcircuit.
Outputrectifierdiodescanfailshortedandloaddowntheoutputstothepointofshuttingdown.
Someloadcouldbeshortedoracapacitorcouldbeshortedleadingtooverloadandshutdown.
Flybacktransformercanhaveshortedwindingswhichloaddowntheoutput.These(primary
shortsinparticular)maycausethehorizontaloutputtransistortofailaswell.Commonproblem
witholderMacIntoshcomputersandvideoterminals.Somesecondaryfaultsmaynotbe
instantlydestructivebutresultinlittleornohighvoltageandoverheating.
Coldsolderjointsorotherbadconnectionsmonitorstendtohavetheseasaresultof
temperaturecyclingandbadmanufacturing.(Isthissoundingrepetitiveyet?)
Sometimesthereisaseriesregulatorafterthefiltercapandthiscouldbebadaswell.
Withoutaschematic,Iwouldattempttotracethecircuitfromthemainfiltercaporoutputoftheline
operatedswitchmodepowersupplyassumingthathastheproper(approx.60120VDCdependingon
scanrange)voltage.
Ifyoucanlocatethehorizontaloutputtransistor,seeifthereisvoltageonitscollector,shouldbethe
same.Ifthereis,thenthereisprobablyadriveproblem.IfyouhaveanECGorsimilarsemicross
reference,thatwillhelpyouidentifytheICsandtransistorsandlocatetherelevantportionsofthe
circuitry.
Ifthereisnovoltageatthehorizontaloutputtransistor,thenthereisprobablyablownfuseorbad
connectionsomewhereorafaultinthelineoperatedSMPSifthereisone.However,thefusemay
haveblownduetoafaultintheSMPSorhorizontaldeflection.

Powerontickticktickorclickclickclickbutnootheraction

Avarietyofproblemscanresultinthisorsimilarbehavior.Thisappliestobothmonitorsusing
SMPSsandflybackderivedpowersupplies.Possibilitiesinclude:
Lackofhorizontaldrive.Themainregulatoriscyclingonovervoltageduetoverylittleload.
Excessiveloadorfaultypowersupplycyclingonitsovercurrentprotectioncircuit.Thesound
inthiscasemaybemorelikeatweettweettweetorflubflubflub,howeverseethesection:
Deadmonitorwithaudiblewhine,periodictweetorflub,andlowlowvoltage.
HVshutdown,orsomeothersystemdetectinganoutofregulationcondition.However,inthis
case,thereshouldbesomeindicationthatthedeflectionandHVisattemptingtocomeuplike
momentaryhighpitcheddeflectionwhine,staticonthescreen,etc.
Adriedupmainfiltercapacitororotherfiltercapacitorinthelowvoltagepowersupplythatis
producinganoutofregulationcondition
Aproblemwiththemicrocontroller,relayoritsdriver,orstandbypowersupply.
IfyouhaveaVariac,varythelinevoltageandobservethemonitor'sbehavior.Itmayworkfineatone
extreme(usuallylow)ortheother.Thismightgivecluesastowhatiswrong.

Deadmonitorwithaudiblewhine,periodictweetorflub,andlowlowvoltage
Amonitorwhichappearstobedeadexceptforanaudiblewhineoraonceasecondorsotweetor
flubcomingfromtheSMPSusuallyindicatesanoverloadfaultinthepowersupplyitselforashortin
oneofitsloadcircuits(usuallythemainB+).Inmostcases,thevoltages(includingB+)willbe
reducedtoafractionoftheirnormalvalue(and/orbepulsingalongwiththeanimalsounds)asaresult
oftheoverload.Thepower(orother)LEDmaybeweakorflashingaswell.Flybackderivedpower
suppliesarelesslikelytoexhibitthesesymptoms.
Note:usingtoosmallaserieslightbulbwhiletestingforthesizeofthemonitormayalsoresultinthis
condition.Ifyouhavefoundandreplacedabadpart,itincreasethewattageofthelightbulbandtry
again.Ifthefrequencyofthecyclingdecreasesi.e.,itstaysuplonger,itmaybesafetoremovethe
lightbulbentirely.
Summaryofpossiblecauses:
ShortedrectifiersorcapacitorsonsecondarysideofSMPS.
Otherproblemsinthepowersupplyoritscontrollerlikebadcaps.
ShortedHOT.
Flybackwithshortedturnsorbreakdowninfocus/screendividernetwork.
Shortorexcessiveloadonsecondarysuppliesfedfromflyback.
Shortinhorizontalyokewindings.
Badsolderconnections.
Notethatawhinemaybeperfectlynormalforyourmonitorifthereisnovideoinputconfirmthat
thereisasignalthatiscompatiblewiththemonitor'sscanrate(s)andtypeofsync(e.g.,separate,
composite,orsyncongreen).
However,whereaconfirmedgoodvideoinputispresent,thismayindicateanoverloadedlowvoltage

switchingpowersupply.
Thewhineiscausedbytheswitchingpowersupply'schopperfrequencydroppingdownduetothe
overload.TheperiodictweetorflubiscausedbytheSMPSattemptingtocomeup,sensingthe
excessiveload,andrestarting.
TesttheB+inputtotheflyback.
Ifitisnearzero,testtheHOTforshortsandreplaceifdefective,butcontinuetestingwithaseries
lightbulband/orVariac.TheremaybesomethingcausingtheHOTtogobadlikeashortedflybackor
baddamperdiodeorsnubbercap.
Ifthevoltageisnotzerobutislow(e.g.,itshouldbe120Vbutisonly60V)orfluctuatingintime
withthetweetorflub,theremaybeaproblemwith:
1.TheSMPS.Testwithasubstituteloadlikea40Wlightbulborpowerresistor.Ifthesupply
nowoutputsfullvoltage,itisprobablyfine.Forapowerresistor,selectavaluesuchthatthe
loadattheexpectedvoltagewillbeabout1/2to2/3ofthenameplatepowerratingofthe
monitor.
Onecommontypeoffailureareshortedrectifiersintheswitchingsupplyorsecondarysupplies
runningofftheflyback.TheHFR854s(onepopulartypeinmonitors)orotherhighspeedhigh
efficiencyrectifiersintheoutputsideoftheswitchingpowersupplyorflybackseemtoliketo
turnintoshortcircuits.(IhadacoupleofDOAmonitorswherethiswastheproblem.somuch
forqualitycontrol!)
WARNING:Unplugthemonitoranddischargethemainfiltercapsbeforeattemptingthe
followingtests!
Useanohmmetertocheckthevariousdiodesinthepowersupply.Thehigherpowerdiodes
appearcommonlyasblackcylindersabout3/8"longby1/4diameterkindoflike1N400Xson
steroids.Theresistanceofthediodesinatleastonedirectionshouldbegreaterthan50ohmsin
circuit.Ifyoufindonethatismuchless(like0or5ohms),thenitisprobablybad.Unsolder
andcheckagainitshouldtestinfinite(greaterthan1Mohms)inonedirection.Ifitnowtests
good,theremaybesomethingelsethatisshorted.
Replacementsareavailableforabout$0.25fromplaceslikeMCMElectronics.
2.Flyback(LOPT)transformershortedwindings.Seethedocument:TestingofFlyback(LOPT)
Transformers.
3.Deflectionyokeshortedturnsinthehorizontalorgeometrycorrectionwindings.Seethe
section:Deflectionyoketesting.
4.Excessloadononeoftheflyback'ssecondaries.Disconnectallsecondaryoutputpinsfromthe
flybackifpossibleandseeifyourB+returnstonormal.
5.ImproperdrivetoHOT.Inspectwithanoscilloscope.Thedriveshouldmatchthehorizontal
rateofthevideoinputwithahightime(at.7to1Vorso)typically75to95%ofthetotalline
time.

Monitorpowercyclingonandoff
Thepowerlightmaybeflashingorifyouareruningwithaserieslightbulbitmaybecyclingonand
offcontinuously.Theremaybeachirpingorclickingsoundfrominsidetheset.(Note:usingtoosmall

alightbulbforthesizeofthemonitormayalsoresultinthiscondition.)
Ifthereisalowvoltageregulatororseparateswitchingsupply,itcouldbecyclingonandoffifthe
horizontaloutput,flyback,oroneofitssecondaryloadsweredefective.
Thesesymptomsareslightlydifferentthanthosediscussedinthesection:Deadmonitorwithaudible
whine,periodictweetorflub,andlowlowvoltageinthatapicturemayactuallyappearforaninstant.
Verifythatthemainfiltercapacitorisdoingitsjob.Excessiverippleontherectifiedlinevoltagebus
cancausevariousformsofshutdownbehavior.Aneasytestistojumperacrossthecapacitorwithone
ofatleastequalvoltageratingandsimilarcapacitance(makeconnectionswithpoweroff!).
UseaVariac,ifpossible,tobringuptheinputvoltageslowlyandseeifthemonitorworksatany
pointwithoutshuttingdown.Ifitdoes,thiscouldbeanindicationofXrayprotectioncircuitkicking
in,thoughthiswillusuallylatchandkeepthesetshutoffifexcessiveHVweredetected.
Somethingcouldbebreakingdownlikeacapacitorortheflybackasthevoltagebuildsuptonormal
values

Startupproblemsnothinghappens,click,orticktickticksound
TVsandandsmallfixedscanratemonitors(e.g.,CCTVorTVmonitors,videodisplayterminals)
usuallyincorporatesomekindofstartupcircuittoprovidedrivetothehorizontaloutputtransistor
(HOT)untiltheflybackpowersupplyisrunning.Yes,TVsandmanymonitorsbootjustlike
computers.
Therearetwotypicalkindsofsymptoms:poweronclickbutnothingelsehappensoratickticktick
soundindicatingcyclingofthelowvoltage(lineregulator)butlackofstartuphorizontaldrive.
Checkthevoltageonthehorizontaloutputtransistor(HOT).Ifnovoltageispresent,theremaybea
blownfuseoropenfusableresistorandprobablyashortedHOT.
However,ifthevoltageisnormal(orhigh)usually60150Vdependingonscanrate(foranauto
scanmonitor),thenthereislikelyaproblemwiththestartupcircuitnotprovidinginitialbasedriveto
theHOT.
Thestartupcircuitsmaytakeseveralforms:
1.DiscretemultivibratororothersimpletransistorcircuittoprovidebasedrivetotheHOT.
2.ICwhichispartofdeflectionchainpoweredoffofavoltagedividerortransformer.
3.Othertypeofcircuitwhichoperatesoffofthelinewhichprovidessomekindofdrivetothe
HOT.
Thestartupcircuitmayoperateoffofthestandbypowersupplyorvoltagederivedfromnonisolated
input.Becarefulofcourse,useanisolationtransformerwheneverworkingonTVsandespecially
forpowersupplyproblems.
Notethatonecommonwayofverifyingthatthisisastartupproblemistoinjecta15kHzsignal
directlyintotheHOTbaseordrivercircuit(justforasecondortwo).IftheTVthenstartsupand
continuestorun,youknowthatitisastartupproblem.
Caution:becarefulifyoudothis.TheHOTcircuitmaybelineconnectedanditispossibletodestroy
theHOTandrelatedcomponentsifthisisnotdoneproperly.IoncemanagedtokillnotonlytheHOT

butthechoppertransistoraswellwhileworkinginthisarea.Anexpensivelesson.
Ihavealsoseenstartupcircuitsthatweredesignedtofail.TurningtheTVonandoffmultipletimes
wouldexceedthepowerratingsofthecomponentsinthestartupcircuit.SomeZenithmodelshave
this'feature'.
Whenthissituationexists,itcouldbethatthecircuitisnotprovidingtheproperdriveorthatdueto
someothercircuitcondition,thedriveisnotalwayssufficienttogetthesecondarysuppliesgoingto
thepointthatthenormalcircuitstakeover.
Iwouldstillcheckforbadconnectionsprodthecircuitboardwithaninsulatedstickwhenthe
problemreoccurs.

Reducedwidthpictureand/orhumbarsinpicture
Themostlikelycauseisadriedupmainfiltercapacitor.Oncetheeffectivecapacitancedropslow
enough,120Hz(or100Hzincountrieswith50Hzpower)ripplewillmakeitswayintotheregulated
DCsupply(assumingfullwaverectification).
Anotherlikelycauseofsimilarsymptomsisadefectivelowvoltageregulatorallowingexcessive
ripple.TheregulatorICcouldbebadorfiltercapacitorfollowingtheICcouldbedriedup.
Eitherofthesefaultsmaycause:
1.Apairofwigglesand/orhumbarsinthepicturewhichwillfloatupthescreen.ForNTSC
wherethepowerlineis60Hzbuttheframerateis59.94Hz,itwilltakeabout8secondsfor
eachbartopassagivenpointonthescreen.(Onsomesets,ahalfwaverecitifierisused
resultinginasinglewiggleorhumbar).
Forhighscanratecomputermonitors,thethismayresultinhorizontalhumbars,wiggles,or
otherdistortionsthatwilldriftupordownthescreenbasedonthedifferencefrequencybetween
thepowerlineandvideorefreshratebeingsuppliedbythePCorworkstation.Aconfirmation
canbeobtainedbyvaryingthescanrateandseeingiftherateofdriftchangespredictably.
2.PossibleregulationproblemsresultinginHVortotalshutdownorpowercyclingonandoff.
ThebestapproachtotestingthecapacitorsistoclipagoodcapacitorofapproximatelythesameuF
ratingandatleastthesamevoltageratingacrossthesuspectcapacitor(withthepoweroff).A
capacitormetercanalsobeusedbutthecapacitormayneedtoberemovedfromthecircuit.
Oncethecapacitorshavebeenconfirmedtobegood,voltagemeasurementsontheregulatorshould
beabletonarrowdowntheproblemtoabadICorothercomponent.

Wigglingorjigglingpicture
Dependingonthefrequencyoftheinstabilityrelativetothescanrateinuse,thesymptomsmaybe
thattheentirepictureisvibrating,thatripplesaremovingupordownthescreen,orsomethingelse.
Theremayalsobevariatonsinbrightnesshumbarsinthepicture.
Veryhighfrequencyoscillationswillresultinmultiplewavesorscallopededgesonthesidesof
therasterpossiblyextendingintothepictureitself.Thesepatternsmayormaynotremain
stationary.
Loworpowerlinefrequencyoscillationswillresultintheentirerastermovingbackandforth,
vibrating,or1or2wigglesalongthesidesoftherasterthatmoveupordownthescreen.The

actualbehaviorwilldependontherelativefrequenciesoftheoscilationsandtheverticalscan
rate.
Whentheverticalscanrateissetclosetothelocalpowerlinefrequency,effectsresultingfrompower
lineinterferenceorbadfiltercapacitorswillproduce1or2wigglesorbars,andthesewillremain
almoststationaryonthescreen.Thosecausedbyinternalpowersupplystabilityproblemsmayormay
notdothis.
First,eliminatethepossibilityofexternalmagneticinterference,powerlinenoise,oravideo
card/computerproblem.Trythemonitorinanotherlocationandonanothercomputerifpossible.Or,
tryanothersimilarmonitorinitsplace.
Oncethesecauseshavebeenruledout,themostlikelyonesare:
Driedupelectrolyticcapacitorsinthepowersupply.
AresistororothercomponenthaschangedvalueintheB+(orother)regulator.
Forexample,oneverycommonmonitortheGatewayCS1572FSusesa91K,1Wresistor
(R331)tosetits180VB+output.Invariablywithuseandage,itsresistanceincreasesinvalue
leadingtoavibratingrasterandeventualfailureofotherparts.
Badconnections.

Monitordoesn'tpowerupimmediately
Themonitormaydonothing,cycleonandoffforawhile,powerupandthenshutdowninanendless
cycleoratleastforawhile.Thenitcomesonandoperatesnormallyuntilitisturnedoff.
Acoupleofpossibilities:
1.Themainfiltercapacitororotherfiltercapacitorsinthelowvoltagepowersupplyisdriedup
andthiscancauseallkindsofregulationproblems.Otherregulatingcomponentsmaybe
marginal.Thismaybeallowingexcessivevoltagetoreachtheoutputofthepowersupplyand
thentheXrayprotectioncircuitryshutsyoudown.
TrypoweringthemonitoronaVariacwhencold.Bringupthevoltageslowlyandseeifthereis
somepointatwhichitwouldstayon.Ifthereis,thenaregulationproblemislikely.Ifthe
picturehasserioushumbarsinit,checkthemainfiltercapacitor(s)first.
2.Badconnectionsmaybepreventingthepowersupplyfromoperatingnormallyuntilthe
mainboardorcomponentsheatupabit.
Inspectthesoldersideofthemainboardforcrackedsolderconnections.Somegentlepoking
andproddingwithawellinsulatedstickmayrevealthelocationthoughaproblemthatgoes
awayoncetheunitheatsupcanbetoughtoidentify!.Theuseof'coldspray'mayhelp.Also,
cleanandreseatinternalconnectors.
Alsoseethesection:Oldmonitorrequireswarmupperiod.

Oldmonitorrequireswarmupperiod
So,whatelseisnew?Intheolddays,aTVormonitorwasexpectedtotakeafewminutes(atleast)to
warmup.Weareallspoiledtoday.Ofcourse,youusuallymaintainedafulltimetechnicianor
engineertofiddlewiththeconvergenceadjustments!

Ifitjusttakesawhileforthepicturetobecomeasbrightasyoulike,thisisprobablyjustaresultofan
oldtiredCRT(seethesection:MonitorMonitorlife,energyconservation,andlazinessand
BrighteninganoldCRT.If,however,nothinghappensforafewminutes,thensomecomponentneeds
tobepoweredforawhilebeforeitstartscooperatings.Thisisprobablyadriedupcapacitorinthe
powersupplysincethatisdriftingwithtemperatureandneedstobelocatedwithcoldsprayoraheat
gun.

Adjustmentorpictureinteractions
Thisdescribesproblemssuchasturningupthebrightnesscausesalossofsyncoradjustingheight
alsoaffectswidthorproducesawavyraster.Or,abrightpictureoropeningabrightwindowresultsin
asignificantchangeinpicturesizeorwigglyedges.Or,themonitorsimplydecidestoshutdown!
Thesemaybecausedbypoorregulationinoneormorelowvoltagepowersuppliesorandinteraction
betweenthehighvoltageandlowvoltagepowersuppliespossiblyadriedupcapacitorifitis
relativelyold,badconnections,oranotherfaultycomponent.MeasuretheB+tothehorizontal
deflection(totheflyback,notthehorizontaloutputtransistor).Ifitischangingwiththeproblem,then
aregulationproblemisconfirmed.Ifthisvoltageissolid,youwillneedtochecktheotherstosee
whichoneisactuallychanging.

ShortedComponents
Afailureofthehorizontaloutputtransistororpowersupplyswitchmodetransistorwillblowafuseor
fusableresistor.
Lookforblownfusesandtestforopenfusableresistorsinthepowercircuits.Ifyoufindone,thentest
theHOTand/orswitchmodetransistorforshorts.
Otherpossibilities:rectifierdiodesormainfiltercapacitor.
Whileyouareatit,checkforbadconnectionsprodthecircuitboardwithaninsulatedstickwhenthe
problemreoccursasthesecancausepartstofail.

Monitorturnsoffafterwarmingup
Ifyoucanturnitbackonwiththesmomentarykeyorpowerbutton:
Whenitshutsoff,doyouneedtopushthepowerbuttononceortwicetogetitbackon?Also,does
anythingelseaboutthepictureorsoundchangeasitwarmsup?
1.Ifonce,thenthecontrollerisshuttingtheTVdowneitherasaresultofa(thermallyinduced)
faultinthecontrolleroritsensingsomeotherproblem.Monitoringthevoltageontherelaycoil
(assumingtheseisone)couldhelpdeterminewhatishappening.Thecontrollerthinksitisin
charge.
2.Iftwice,thenthepowersupplyisshuttingdownasthecontrollerstillthinksitisonandyouare
resettingit.Acoupleofpossibilitiesherewouldbelowvoltageorhighvoltageregulationerror
(excessivehighvoltageissensedandcausesshutdowntopreventdangerousXrayemission).A
partiallydriedupmainfiltercapacitorcouldalsocauseashutdownbuttheremightbeother
symptomslikehumbarsinthepicturejustbeforethishappened.Clippingagoodcapacitor
acrossthesuspect(withpoweroff!)wouldconfirmoreliminatethispossibility.
Ifitusesahardon/offswitch,thenthismaybelikepullingtheplugandwouldresetanyabnormal
condition.

Monitorshutsdownwithbrightpictureorwhenbrightnessisturnedup
Thisisprobablyaprotectioncircuitkickinginespeciallyifturningpowerofforpullingtheplugis
requiredtorestoreoperation.
Thedetectioncircuitcouldbeinthepowersupplyorhorizontaldeflectionoutputcircuit.Itmaybe
defectiveorthecurrentmaybetoohighforsomeotherreason.Acoupleoftestscanbeperformedto
confirmthatitisduetobeamcurrent:
Determineifbehaviorissimilarwhenadjustingtheuserbrightnesscontrolandthescreen(G2)
pot(ontheflyback)ormasterbrightnesscontrol.Ifthemonitorquitsataboutthesame
brightnesslevel,overcurrentprotectionislikely.
DisconnectthefilamentstotheCRT(unsolderapinontheCRTsocket)andseeifitstillshuts
downunderthesameconditions.Ifitisovercurrentprotection,shutdownshouldnow*not*
takeplacesincethereisnobeamcurrent.

RelaysinthePowerCircuitryofmonitors
Whatexactlyisthepurposeofsucharelay?Whydoesn'tthepowerswitchonthemonitorjustapply
powerdirectlyinsteadofthrougharelay?
OnaTV,theusualreasonforarelayinsteadofaknobswitchistopermitaremotecontroltoturn
poweronandoff.IfyourTVdoesnothavearemote,thenitissimplythesamechassisminus24
centsworthofcircuitrytodotheremotefunction.Isn'tmarketingwonderful?
Onamonitorwithoutanyremotecontrol,therecanbetwolikelyreasons:
1.Reducetheneededcapacityoftheon/offswitch.Highresolutionmonitorsdoconsumeafair
amountofpower.Asofttouchbuttonmaybemoreelegantorcheaper.
2.Allowforautomaticpowersaving'green'operation.
Whenreplacingarelay,onlyunknownisthecoilvoltage.Itisprobablysomewhereinthe612volt
range.Youshouldbeabletomeasurethisonthecoilterminalsinoperation.ItwillbeaDCcoil.
However,therelaycontrolsthe125VAC(or220)whichyoushouldtreatwithrespectitisalot
moredangerousthanthe25kV+ontheCRT!
Almostcertainly,therelaywillhave4connections2forpowerand2forthecoil.Ifitisnotmarked
then,itshouldbeprettyeasytolocatethepowerconnection.OneendwillgotostuffneartheACline
andtheotherendwillgototherectifierormaybeafusableresistororsomethinglikethat.Thesewill
likelybebeefierthanthecoilconnectionswhichwillgobetweenatransistorandGNDorsomelow
voltage,ormaybedirectlyintoabigmicrocontrollerchip.
Ofcourse,thebestthingwouldbetogettheschematicbutwithmonitorsthismaynotbeeasy.
OnceyouaresureoftheACconnectionsmeasureacrossthemwhileitisoffandalsowhileitison.
Whileoff,youshouldget110125VAC.Whileonandworking0.Whileonandnotworkingeither
110125VACiftherelayisnotpullinginor0ifitisandtheproblemiselsewhere.Wecandealwith
thelattercaseifneededlateron.Notetheeveniftherelaycontactsarenotworking,theproblem
couldstillbeinthecontrolcircuitrynotprovidingthecorrectcoilvoltage/current,thoughnotlikely.
Itmaybeexpensiveand/ordifficulttoobtainanexactreplacement,buttheseareprettyvanilla
flavoredasrelaysgo.Anygoodelectronicsdistributorshouldbeabletosupplyasuitableelectrical

replacementthoughyoumayneedtobecreativeinmountingit.

Whatisaposistor?
AposistorisacombinationofaPTC(PositiveTemperatureCoefficient)resistorandanotherresistor
elementtoheatitupandkeepithot.Sometimes,thesewillgobythenameposistororthermistor.The
heaterisadiskshapedresistoracrossthepowerlineandthethemisterisadiskshapeddeviceinseries
withthedegausscoil.Theyareinclampedtogethertobeinclosecontactthermally.Youcanpryoff
thelidandseeforyourself.
Themostcommonfailuremodeisfortheparttoshortacrosstheline.
Itsfunctionistocontroldegauss,sotheonlythingyoulosewhenyouremoveoneoftheseisthe
degaussfunctiononpoweron.WhenyouturntheTVormonitoron,thePTCresistoriscoldandlow
resistance.Whenheated,itbecomesveryhighresistanceandturnsoffthedegausscoilbutgradually
thecurrentrampsdowntozeroratherthanbeingabruptlycutoff..
ComputerComponentSourcestocksawidevariety,Ibelievebutitmaybecheapertogodirecttothe
manufactureriftheywillsellyouone.

FlameproofResistors
FlameproofResistororFusableResistorareoftendesignatedbythesymbol'FR'.Theyarebasically
thesame.Thedesignation"Flameproof"meansthatiftheyfailduetoexcessivecurrent,therewillbe
nochanceof,well,themgoingupinflames.:)Theywillalsohaveapowerratingandthuscanactas
aprotectivedevice,thoughaspecificcircuitmaynotdependonaprecisefuserating,ratherthatthe
resistorwillopenwithmassivelyexcessivecurrent.
YoumayseetheseintheswitchmodepowersuppliesusedinTVsandmonitors.Theywilllooklike
powerresistorsbutwillbecoloredblueorgray,ormayberectangularceramicblocks.Theyshould
onlybereplacedwithflameproofresistorswithidenticalratings.Theyserveaveryimportantsafety
function.
Theseusuallyserveasfusesinadditiontoanyotherfusesthatmaybepresent(andinadditiontotheir
functionasaresistor,thoughthisisn'talwaysneeded).SinceyourFRhasblown,youprobablyhave
shortedsemiconductorsthatwillneedtobereplacedaswell.Iwouldcheckallthetransistorsand
diodesinthepowersupplywithanohmmeter.Youmayfindthatthemainswitchmodetransistorhas
decidedtoturnintoablobofsolderdeadshort.Checkeverythingoutevenifyoufindonebadpart
manycomponentscanfailorcauseothercomponentstofailifyoudon'tlocatethemall.Check
resistorsaswell,eveniftheylookok.
Sincetheyfunctionasfuses,flameproofresistorsshouldnotbereplacedwithhigherwattagetypes
unlessspecificallyallowedbythemanufacturer.Thesewouldnotblowatthesamelevelofoverload
possiblyresultingindamagetootherpartsofthecircuitryandincreasingtheriskoffire.
Then,withaloadontheoutputofthepowersupplyuseaVariactobringupthevoltageslowlyand
observewhathappens.At50VACorless,theswitchershouldkickinandproducesomeoutput
thoughcorrectregulationmaynotoccuruntil80VACormore.Theoutputsvoltagesmayevenbe
greaterthanspec'dwithasmallloadbeforeregulationiscorrect.

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

DeflectionProblems
Deflectionfundamentals
Note:thefollowingisjustabriefintroduction.Formoredetaileddeflectionsystemtheoryof
operationoandsamplecircuits,seethedocument:TVandMonitorDeflectionSystems.
TheelectronbeamsintheCRTneedtobescannedhorizontallyandverticallyinaveryprecise
mannertoproducearasterandapicture.
ForNTSCandPAL,thehorizontalscanratesare15,734and15,625Hzrespectively,theverticalscan
ratesare60and50Hz(approximately)respectively.
ForPCsandworkstationmonitors,awiderangeofscanratesareused.
Forexample:
StandardHorizontal,kHzVertical,Hz

MDA18.4350

CGA15.7560

EGA15.7521.8560

VGA31.46070

SVGA(800x600)35405075+

SVGA(1024x768)4352+4375+

SVGA(1280x1024)6472+6075+

Workstations64102+6076+

Eveninhighresolutionfixedfrequencymonitors,thesehighhorizontal(inparticular)scanrates
necessitatesomefancycircuitdesign.Allcomponentsarerunningunderstressfulconditionsanditis
amazingthatfailuresarenotmorecommon.
Withautoscanmonitors,thecomplexityofthecircuitsincreasesdramaticallytoaccommodatethe
widerangeofhorizontalscanrates.Relaysorelectronicswitchesareusedtoselectpowersupply
voltages,tuningcomponents,andtomakeotheralternationsinthedeflectioncircuitstohandleDOS
VGAoneminuteandAutocad1280x1024thenext.Itcomesasnosurprisethatthemoststressful
timeforamonitormaybewhenswitchingscanrates.
Unfortunately,successfullydiagnosingproblemsdealingwiththescanswitchinglogicandcircuitryis
virtuallyimpossiblewithoutaschematic.
Thedeflectionyokeincludessetsofcoilsforhorizontalandverticalscanningorientedat90degrees
withrespecttoeachother.Additionalcoilsareneededtocorrectforpincushionandothergeometric
defects.
Thedeflectioncircuitsmustbesynchronizedandphaselockedtotheincomingvideosignal.
Therefore,wehavethefollowingfunctions:
1.Syncseparatortoobtainhorizontalandverticalsynchronizationpulsesformonitorswith
compositevideoorsyncinputs.Inputsyncdetectorsandautopolarityswitchingcircuitsas
neededforseparatehorizontalandverticalsyncinputs.
2.Horizontaloscillatorwhichlockstohorizontalsyncpulses.
3.Horizontaldrivefollowedbyhorizontaloutputwhichfeedsdeflectionyoke(andflybackfor

HVandothervoltages),Yokerequiresasawtoothcurrentwaveformforlinearhorizontal
deflection.HorizontaloutputinallbutthesmallerTVsormonitorsisalargediscretepower
transistor,mostoftenanNPNbipolartype.
4.Verticaloscillatorwhichlockstoverticalsyncpulses.Yokerequiressawtoothwaveformfor
linearverticaldeflection.
5.Verticaldrive/outputwhichfeedsverticaldeflectionyoke.NewerTVsandmonitorsuseICsfor
verticaldriveandoutput.
6.Variousadditionaldeflectionsignalstocorrectfortheimperfectionsinthegeometryoflarge
angledeflectionCRTs.Thesemaybefedintothenormaldeflectioncoilsand/ortheremaybe
separatecoilsmountedontheneckoftheCRT.
7.Autoscandeflectioncontrolandselectioncircuitry(autoscanmonitorsonly),probably
controlledbyamicroprocessorwhichstoresscanparametersforeachscanrateand
automaticallydetectstheappropriatesettingstousebyanalyzingtheinputvideo.Forhorizontal
deflection,theusualwayofsizeconstantregardlessofscanrateistoscaletheB+totheHOT
withhorizontalfrequency.Thus,VGAresolutionmayus60VB+while1280x1024at75Hz
mayrequire150V.Variousothercomponentsmayneedtobeselectedbasedonscanrate.
Relaysareoftenusedforthisselectionsincetheyareeasytocontrolandcanhandlethe
voltagesandcurrentsinthevariousdeflectioncircuitsreliably.
SeeSymptomsofSomeCommonDeflectionProblemswhenreferringtothespecificdescriptions
below.

Monitordisplayisoffcenter
Thesesortsofproblemsusuallyrelatetothepictureshiftingwhenswitchingbetweenapplicationsor
betweenDOSandWindows.First,makesureyouareusingthecorrectmonitorsettingsandvideo
drivers.Notethatafractionofammoffsetmaybenormalandyouarejusttoofussy!
Ifyouhaveasetupprogramforyourvideocard:
1.Makesureyouarerunningwellwithintheacceptedscanratesforeachresolution.
2.Togglesyncpolarityandseeifthismakesanydifference.
3.AdjustHpositionorphaseandseewhatthisdoes.
Alsomakesureyourcablesaresecure.Whileabadconnectionwouldlikelymessedthingsupworse,
itwon'thurttocheck.Assumingnoneofthishelps,yourmonitormayhaveaproblemthoughitisnot
likelytobemajor(inarelativeway).Ifyoustilllikethemonitor,repairmaybeworththemoney.

Grossproblemsinsizeorpositionatcertainscanrates
First,makesureyouarenotspecifyingincorrectscanrateforyourmonitor.Checkyourvideocard
setupand/ormonitorselectioninWin95/98asabove.
Assumingyouarenotviolatingthescanratespecificationsbuthaveapicturethatistwicetheheight
ofthescreenandonehalfthewidth,forexample,thiscouldindicateafailureinthescanrate
switchingcircuitryofanautoscanmonitor.Eitherthelogicisfaultyandorderingthewrong
selectionsforpowersupplyvoltageandtuningcomponentsortherelaysortherelevantpartsare
faulty.Thiscouldbeduetobadconnectionsaswellquitelikelyinfact.Also,trytoresettheafflicted
parametersusingthedigitalcontrols(ifrelevant)andconfirmthatyourvideocardisputtingoutthe

correctscanratetryanothermonitororexaminethevideosignalswithanoscilloscope.
Tryproddingthecircuitboardswithaninsulatedstickthismayidentifybadconnectionsorunsticka
stickyrelay.
Aschematicswilllikelybeneededtoproceedfurtherwiththesesortsofproblems.

Reducedwidth
Complaintsaboutthepicturenotfillingthescreenwithcomputermonitorsarecommonbutmaynot
indicateproblems(exceptwithyourexpectations).Oldermonitors,inparticular,oftendidnotallowa
fullscreendisplayatcertainresolutions.Theremaybeunderscanmodes/switchesaswell.Keepin
mindthatadvertizingalargediagonalCRTdoesnotnecessarilyimplythatyoucanfillit!
However,ifthisproblemjusthappenedwithnochangestoyourcomputersystem(videocard,scan
rates,O/S),thenthefollowingarepossibilities:
TheB+tothehorizontaloutputislowerthannormal.Thewaywidthcontrolfunctionsisthatas
youincreasethehorizontalscanrate,theB+totheHOTmustincreasetokeepthewidth
constant.Itcouldbethatyoursislowtostartwithandnottrackingscanratechangeseither.
AbadcapacitormightalsoresultinreducedwidthbutIwouldexpectnonlinearityaswell.
Asnotedinthesection:Grossproblemsinsizeorpositionatcertainscanrates,therecouldbe
problemsinthescanrateswitchingcircuitryselectingincorrectcomponentsforcertainscan
rates.
Theremightbeabad(lowvalueorhighESR)decouplingcapacitor.Scopetherailafterthe
lowvaluedecouplingRforHratestuff.Thereshouldn'tbeanythingsignificant.Ifthereis,the
ESRofthedecouplingcapacitoristoohighoritsvalueistoolow.Seenitoftenwhereitalso
cooksthedecouplingR,becausetheefficiencyoftheHoutbecomespoor.
(gwoods@albany.net(GaryWoods).)
Amoreunlikelypossibilityisaopenyokewinding.Thehorizontaldeflectionyokeconsistsof
multiplewindingsinparallelsoitistheoreticallypossibleforoneormoreofthesetoopenup.I
don'tknowwhateffectstheassociateddetuningofthehorizontaloutputcircuitwouldhavein
thiscase.

Canincorrectormissingvideodamagemymonitor?
Theshortanswerisquitepossibly.Don'tpushyourluck.
Mostly,thereareproblemsatscanrateswhichexceedthemonitor'sspecifications(loworhigh).
However,somepoorlydesignedmonitorsorjustaparticularcombinationofeventscanblowa
monitorwithtoolowascanrateoranabsentorcorruptedsignalinput.Therewasonecasewherea
veryexpensivehighperformancemonitorwouldconsistentlyblowitshorizontaldeflectioncircuits
whendrivenbyaparticularATIvideocard.ItturnedoutthatduringthepoweronselftestoftheATI
BIOS,justthewrongvideotimingwasbeinggeneratedforafractionofasecondbutthatwas
enough.
Asfarasscanratelimits,thereisnowayofknowingitreallyalldependsonthequalityofthe
designofyourmonitor.Somewillhappilyruncontinuouslyat25%abovespecifications.Otherwill
blowouttotallyatthefirstexcuse.
Thespecificationthatislikelytobemorecriticalisthehorizontalrateasitprobablyputsmorestress

onthecomponentsthantheverticalrate.Ihavefoundthatasyouapproachtheupperlimits,thereisa
goodchancethatthegeometricaccuracyoftherasternearthetopofthescreenmaystartto
deteriorateduetolockinproblemsaswell.However,itwouldbefoolhardytodependonthissortof
behaviorasanindicationofgoingovertheedge.
Itwillbemuchtoolatewhenyoufindout.Ifthemanualsays75HzVand64kHzH,staybelow
**both**ofthese.Ifyouexceedthesaferatingsandthedesignisn'treallygood,thereisthe
possibilityofblowingcomponentsinthehorizontaldeflectionandhighvoltagesectionswhichwill
resultinexpensiverepairbills.Youwilllikelygetnowarningofimpendingfailure.Inaddition,even
ifthemonitordoesnotimmediatelyturnintoapileofsmokingsiliconandplastic,componentsmay
beundermorestressandrunningathigherlevelsofpowerdissipation.Totalfailuremaybejust
aroundthecorner.Moresubtledegradationinperformancemayoccurovertimeaswell.
Youwon'tseethedifferenceanyhowbeyond75Hzandyourprogramsmayrunslightlyfasterat
lowerrefreshratessincethevideoisnotusingasmuchbandwidth(however,thedifferenceheremay
beveryslightornonexistentdependingonyourboard,computer,applications,etc.).

Picturesqueezedinthendied
Youwerehappilyplaying'Doom'whenthesidesofthepicturesqueezedintwoinchesorsowhenthe
entiremonitorwentdeadhasremainedlikethissince.Thereisnoactivityatallfromthetube.Hasit
died?Howmuchtime,effort,andexpensetofix?
No,it'snotdead,atleastitcertainlyisnotthepicturetube.
Youprobablyshotthemonitorinsteadofthebadguys!
Isthereanyindicationoflightonthescreen?Anyindicationofthehorizontaldeflectionrunningatall
asevidencedbystaticonthescreen?
Inanycase,thereisaprobleminthehorizontaldeflectionandyouprobablyhavenohighvoltageas
wellassumingnolightonthescreen.
Thefactthatitsqueezedinfirstindicatesthatapartialshortorotherfaultmayhavedevelopedinthe
horizontaldeflectioncircuitspossiblythedeflectionyokeorflybacktransformer.Itcouldalsohave
beenabadconnectionlettingloose.Onceitfailedcompletely,thehorizontaloutputtransistormay
haveboughtthefarmorblownafuse.

Horizontaldeflectionshuttingdown
Confirmthatthehorizontaldeflectionisshuttingdownalongwiththehighvoltageifitisderived
fromhorizontaldeflection:listenforthehighpitcheddeflectionwhine(NTSC/PAL/CGA),testfor
staticonthescreen,seeiftheCRTfilamentsarelit,turnupthebrightnessand/orscreencontroltosee
ifyoucangetaraster.Somepossibilities:
Powerisfailingtothehorizontaloutputtransistorthiscouldbeduetoalowvoltagepower
supplyproblem,badconnection,etc.
Basedrivetothehorizontaloutputtransistorisfailingcouldbeafaultinthehorizontal
oscillatororbadconnection.
Problemwiththeflybacktransformeroritssecondaryloads(flybackmayprovideotherpower
voltages).
XrayprotectionisactivatingeitherduetoexcessHVorduetoafaultintheXrayprotection

circuitry.
Iftheproblemcomesandgoeserraticallyitsoundslikeabadconnection,especiallyifwhackinghas
aneffect.Ifitcomesandgoesperiodically,thenacomponentcouldbeheatingupandfailing,then
cooling,etc.

Horizontalsquashed
Averynarrowpicturemayindicateproblemswiththepowersupplytothehorizontaldeflection
circuits,incorrectscanrateselectionordefectivecomponents,faultydeflectionyoke,orbad
connections.
Ifthesizeiserraticand/orgentlywhackingthemonitormakesthewidthchange,badconnectionsare
likely.Seethesection:Monitormanufacturingqualityandcoldsolderjoints.
Confirmthatyourvideocardisrunningattheproperscanrateparticularlythatitisnotviolatingthe
monitor'sspecifications.Anexcessivehorizontalscanrateisacommoncauseofareducedwidth
raster.Tryitssoftwaresetupadjustmentsasthesemayhavebeenlost.
Beyondthis,aschematicwillprobablybeneededtoisolatethefault.

Monitornonlinearity
Mostmodernmonitorsarenearlyperfectwithrespecttolinearity.Therearealmostneveranyuser
adjustmentsandtheremaynotevenbeanyinternaladjustments.Seethesection:Position,size,and
linearityadjustment.
Asuddenchangeinlinearityoramonitorthatrequiresawarmupperiodbeforelinearitybecomes
acceptablemayhaveabadcomponentprobablyacapacitorinthehorizontaldeflectioncircuits.For
thelatter,trysomecoldsprayoraheatguntoseeifyoucanlocatethebadpart.
(From:helio(mmccann@usa.pipeline.com).)
YoushouldlikelybeginintheareaimmediatelyaroundtheHOT,perhapstheremightbeahigh
frequencyNP(nonpolarized)electrolyticjuststartingtogo.Somelargermonochromemonitors
actuallyhaveworkingHlinadjustmentcoils(believeitornot)especiallyiftheyareolderones.But
mostareglued/potteddownorfixedvalue.Ifyoulocateit(thecoil)theproblemshouldbenearby.

Picturesqueezedonbothleftandrightsideofscreen
"I'mtryingtorepairaTargetDN1564monitorwithaprobleminthehorizontal
deflection:onboththeleftandrightsideofthescreenthepicturegetssqueezedtogether,
regardlessofHwidthandothersettings.I'vecheckedmostsemiconductorsinthispart,
butIcan'tfindanythingwrongthere."
ThissoundslikeanScorrectioncapacitormayhavetoosmallavalueorfailedopen.Checkthe
capacitorsinthevicinityofthedeflectionyokeconnectorandHOT.Itcouldbeduetobad
connectionsaswell.
Scorrectionisneededtolinearizethehorizontalscan(andverticalaswellscanbutthatisaseparate
circuit).WithoutScorrection,thescancurrentwouldbenearlylinear.Thiswouldresultingreater
coverageinagiventimeneartheedgesofhighdeflectionangleCRTs.Thepicturewouldappear
stretchedneartheedgesInthiscase,thecorrectionappearsexcessive.

(From:DavidHenniker(david.henniker@cableinet.co.uk).)
Ihadasimilarproblemwithamonitor(hereinEdinburghScotland).TheScorrectioncapwasopen
circuitaltogether.Othercapsinparallelallowedthedistortedscan.IfithadbeenaTVtherewouldn't
havebeenothercapsinparallelandtheresultwouldhavebeennolinescan,maybeaverticalline
(linecollapse)ornothingatall.

Verticalsquashed
Thismeanstheverticalsizeisreducedwithorwithoutdistortion.
Beforeattackingthecircuitry,makesureyourverticalscanrateiswithinthemonitor'scapabilitiesand
thattheuserverticalsizecontrolisadjustedproperly.Ifthereisnodistortion,thisislikelyasmany
(butnotall)circuitproblemswouldresultinnonlinearityorcutoffofthetoporbottomportionsof
thepicture.Allyoumayneedtodoischangeyourcomputer'svideosettings!Swapthemonitoror
computertobesureitisnotaproblemwiththevideocard.
However,iffailurehappenedsuddenlyandtheverticalissquashedatallscanrates,thisislikelya
verticaldeflectionproblempossiblyabadcapacitor,badconnection,badflyback/pumpupdiode,or
othercomponent.Noneoftheseshouldbeveryexpensive(inarelativesortofway).
Ifthesymptomschangeparticularlyiftheybecomelesssevereastheunitwarmsup,adriedup
electrolyticcapacitorismostlikely.Iftheygetworse,itcouldbeabadsemiconductor.Freezespray
oraheatgunmaybeusefulinidentifyingthedefectivecomponent.
Itisofteneasiesttosubstituteagoodcapacitorforeachelectrolyticintheverticaloutputcircuit.Look
forbadconnections(particularlytothedeflectionyoke),thenconsiderreplacingtheverticaloutputIC
ortransistor(s).
Adefectivedeflectionyokeisalsopossibleorinrarecases,abadyokedampingresistor(e.g.,500
ohms,maybemountedontheyokeassemblyitself).
Wheretheentiretophalforbottonhalfofthepictureissquashedintointothecenter(i.g.,onlyhalf
thepictureshows),amissingpowersupplyvoltage,defectiveverticaloutputIC,oracomponent
associatedwithitislikelybad.Abadconnectionorblownfusableresistormaybethecauseofa
missingpowersupplyvoltage.
ThefollowingareNOTpossible:CRTorflyback(exceptpossiblywhereitisthesourceforamissing
powersupplyvoltagebutthisismorelikelyjustabadsolderconnectionataflybackpin).Iamjust
tryingtothinkofreallyexpensivepartsthatcannotpossiblybeatfault.:)

Keystoneshapedpicture
Thismeansthatthesizeofthepictureisnotconstantfromtoptobottom(widthchanges)orleftto
right(heightchanges).Notethatsomeslightamountofthisisprobablyjustwithinthemanufacturing
toleranceofthedeflectionyokeandfactorysetup(geometrymagnetplacement,ifany).Witha
monitor,suchdefectsaremorenoticeablethanwithaTVsincemuchofthedisplayisofrectangular
boxesi.e.,windows,linesoftext,graphics,etc.Furthermore,themonitorisusuallyrunjustbarely
underscannedtomaximizetheviewingareawithoutcuttinganythingoff.Anydeviationsfrom
perfectionshowupinrelationtotheCRTbezel.
However,asuddenincreasemayindicateaproblemwiththedeflectionyoke.
Anopenorshortinawinding(oranyassociatedcomponentsmountedontheyokeassembly)will

resultinthebeambeingdeflectedlessstronglyonthesidewherethatwindingislocated.However,
withahighscanratemonitor,theremaybemanyindividualwindingsconnectedinparallelinthe
yokesotheeffectofonlyoneopeningupmaynotbeasdramaticaswithaTVwheretheremayonly
beasinglepairofwindingsforthehorizontalandanotherforthevertical.
Asimpletestoftheyokeinthiscasecanbeperformedbysimplyswappingtheconnectionstothe
yokefortheaffecteddirection(i.e.,ifthewidthchangesfromtoptobottom,interchangethe
connectionstotheverticalwindings).
Ifthekeystoneshaperemainsthesame(butofcoursethepictureflips),itislikelytheyoke.The
badyokewindingistheonefortheotheraxis(thanwhatyouswappedifyoujustswappedthe
vertical,itisthehorizontalyokethathasashortoropen).
Ifthekeystoneshapeflips,itisacircuitproblem(seebelow).
Seethesection:Deflectionyoketesting.
Ifthemonitorhasbeendroppedoffa20storybuilding,theyokemayhaveshifteditspositiononthe
neck,oftheCRTresultinginallsortsofgeometryandconvergenceproblems(attheveryleast).
(From:JamesPoore(aw133@lafn.org).)
Ihaveseenthe'reversekeystoning'inseveralmonitorsandthefixisusuallythesame.Inthe
horizontallegofthepincushiontransformerare1ormoreelectrolyticstoground.Thecapshave+
goingtotransformerandtoground.Anywaywhentheystartloosingcapacitanceand/orbecome
leakythereversekeystoningeffectsbecomemorepronounced.

Picturesizechanging
Ifthepictureareaisexpandingorcontractingwithoutanychangestoyourvideocardsettingsorother
software.thenthereisaproblemwiththepowersuppliesinthemonitor.Thiswouldbeconfirmedif
thechangeis(1)gradualoverthecourseofsay,anhour,and/or(2)gentlywhackingthemonitorhas
someeffectindicatingbadinternalconnections.Softwareproblemswouldnotresultineitherofthese
characteristics.
Notethatifthechangeisverysmallsay,lessthan1or2%,thenitmaysimplybenormalforyour
monitorduetopoordesignortheuseofinferiorcomponentssomepartsassociatedwithpower
supplyregulationmaybechangingvalueasthemonitorswarmsup.
Awaytoconfirmthatsomethingisdriftingduetothermalproblemswouldbethemonitorfrom
anothercomputerandseeifthesamethinghappens.Justpoweringthemonitorbyitself(butnotin
anypowersavingmode)mightalsoworkforthistest.
Onepossiblecausecouldbethatthehighvoltageisdriftinggraduallyduetoafaultycomponent
increasingandmakingthebeam'stiffer'orviceversa.Ifthisisthecasetheremightalsobeagradual
changeinbrightnessaswell(decreasingimagesize>increaseinbrightness).Alternatively,theHV
maybestablebutthepowertobothHandVdeflectionisgraduallychanging.
ExcesshighvoltagecanincreasetheXrayemissionsandanykindofpowersupplyproblemsmay
ultimatelyresultintotalfailureandanexpensiverepair.Therefore,thesesymptomsshouldnotbe
ignored.Seethesectionsonlowvoltageandhighvoltagepowersupplyproblems.

Monitorwillnotsync
ForSVGAmonitors,checkthatthesyncpinsinthevideoconnectorarenotbrokenorbent.Onthe

VGAHD15connector,thesearepin13(H)and14(V).
FormonitorsusingBNCcables,firstmakesurethatthecableconnectionsarecorrectinterchangeof
HandVsyncorGwithoneoftheothervideosignals(syncongreesetups)canresultinallkindsof
weirdsyncproblems.
Thereareawidevarietyofcausesforamonitorthatwillnotdisplayastableorproperlyconfigured
image.Amongthesymptomsare:
Lackofsynchorizontaldriftssmoothlyhorizontally.Dependingonthedifferencebetweenthe
videohorizontalrateandthefreerunfrequencyofthehorizontaloscillator,thepicturemaybe
tornleftorright(asshowninSymptomsofSomeCommonDeflectionProblemsorhave
multipleimagessuperimposedhorizontally.Thesituationwherethepictureisneatlysplit
horizontally(whichiswhatyoumightexpect)isaspecialcasewherethefrequenciesare
virtuallythesame.ThekeysymptomcommontoalltheseisthatthereISverticallock(no
blankingbarvisible)ANDthereisnoevidencethatthedeflectionisevenattemptingtolock
horizontally.
Thismaymeanthatthehorizontalsyncsignalismissingduetoabent,pushedin,orbroken
connectorpin(pin13)orotherbadconnectionorafaultinthesyncprocessingcircuitry.
Incorrectlockhorizontaltornpicture(likeaTVwiththehorizontalholdcontrolmisadjusted
ifyourememberthese).Thismeansthatthesyncsignalisreachingthemonitorbutthatitis
havingproblemlockingtoit.Checktheratespecificationsyoumaybeexceedingthem.
Lackofsyncverticalrollssmoothlyvertically.Thismaymeanthattheverticalsyncsignalis
missingduetoabent,pushedin,orbrokenconnectorpin(pin14)orotherbadconnectionora
faultinthesyncprocessingcircuitry.
Locknotstableverticaljumpsorvibratesvertically.Thismaybeduetoscanrateproblemsor
afaultintheverticalsynccircuitryofthemonitor.
Multipleorrepeatedimageshorizontallyorvertically.Theremaybemultipleimagessideby
side,ontopofeachother,orinterleaved.Mostlikelycauseisdrivingthemonitorwithan
incorrectscanrate.However,faultycircuitrycouldalsobetoblame.
Additionalcommentsonsomeoftheseproblemsfollowinthenextfewsections.

Horizontallocklost
Amonitorwhichloseshorizontallockwhenchangingresolutions,momentarilylosingthesignal,or
switchinginputsmayhaveahorizontaloscillatorthatiswayoutofadjustmentorhasdriftedin
frequencyduetoagingcomponents.Alternatively,youmayberunningatscanratesthatarenot
supportedbyyourmonitor.Checkitsusermanual(yeh,right,likeyouhaveit!).Usethesetup
programthatcamewithyourvideocardtoadjustthedefaultscanratestomatchthemonitor.Notonly
willitlockbetter,youarelesslikelytodamagethemonitorbyfeedingitimproperscanrates.
Notethatthecharacteristicsofthisaredistinctlydifferentthanfortotallossofsync.Inthelattercase,
thepicturewilldriftsidewaysand/orupanddownwhilewithanofffrequencyoscillator,thetornup
picturewilltryatleasttoremainstationary.
Assumingyouarehaveyourvideocardsetupproperlydoublecheckanyhowthiscouldbea
capacitororothersimilarpart.Or,theoscillatorfrequencymayjustneedtobetweaked(particularly
witholdermonitors).Theremaybeaninternalhorizontalfrequencyadjustmenteitherapotoracoil
whichmayneedaslighttweak.Ifacoil,useaplasticalignmenttool,notmetaltoavoidcrackingthe

fragilecore.Theremaybeseveraladjustmentsforautoscanmonitorsoneforeachmajorscan
range.
Aschematicwillbeusefultolocatetheadjustmentifanyortoidentifypossibledefectiveparts.Ifitis
aheatrelatedproblemtrycoldsprayoraheatguninaneffortlocalizetheoffendingpart.

Insufficientwidth(withouthumbars)
Iftherearehumbarsorwigglesinthepicture,seethesection:Reducedwidthpictureand/orhumbars
inpicture.
Ifbothwidthandheightareaffected,thecauseislikelysomethingcommon:low,lowvoltagepower
supplyvoltagesorexcessivehighvoltage(resultingina'stiffer'beam).
(From:JerryG.(jerryg@total.net).)
Lackofwidthisusuallycausedbydefectivepowersupply,lowhorizontaldrivetotheyokeand
flyback,defectivecircuitsinthepincushioningamplifiersection,excessivehighvoltagecausedby
defectivevoltageregulation,andorexcessiveloadingonthesecondarysideoftheflyback.

Lossofhorizontalsync(alsoappliestovertical)afterwarmup
Theproblemlieseitherinthehorizontaloscillatororinthesyncsystem.Ifitreallyisaproblemwith
syncpulsesnotreachingtheoscillator,thepicturewillmovearoundhorizontallyandcanbebrought
toholdmomentarilywiththeholdcontrol.Ifthepicturebreaksupintostrips,thereisaprobleminthe
horizontaloscillator.Ifthereisanaccessibleholdcontroltryrotatingit:ifthefrequencyistoofaroff,
thepicturewillnotsettleintoplaceatanyadjustmentoftheholdcontrol.Lookaroundthehorizontal
oscillatorcircuit:alloftheoscillatorpartswillberightthere,orcheckonthehorizontaloscillator
module.Ifonlyoneresolutiononaautoscanmonitorisaffected,thetherecouldbeaseparate
oscillatorcircuitforeachrange.
(From:RandyFromme.)
Anadditionalcauseoflossofh.synccanbebadfiltercap(s)inthe6.3VDCSMPSoutput.This6.3is
droppedandpeggedat+5vdcbyazenerdiodeandpowersthe7486thatisacommonsyncinput
circuit(allowseitherpolaritysync).Interestingly,itdoesn'taffecttheverticalsync(eventhoughthe
same7486isusedforbothH&V)becausetheSMPSitselfissynchronisedtothehorizontal
frequencyandthustherippleisathorizontalfrequencyaswell.It'saninterestingfailurefromthat
standpoint.

Replicatedoroffsetmultipleimages
Multipleimagesonthescreenhorizontallyorverticallyindicatethatthescanrateiswayoff(bya
factorequaltothenumberofcompletepictures.)Thiscouldbeafaultinthemonitororyoucouldbe
runningwayoutsideofthemonitor'sspecifications.Evenslightlyexceedingtheseforthehorizontal
orverticalmayconfusethescanrateselectionlogicandresultinthemonitorsettingitselfwith
incorrectscanratesettings.
Asituationwheresuccessivesweepsalternatepositionslightlyresultingindoubleortripleimages
maybecausedbyaincorrectoroutofrangevideotiming,abadcomponent,orimpropersync
signals.
Checkthesettingsofthevideocardandanysyncterminationorselectiononthemonitor.Beyond
this,aschematicwillberequired.

Partofpicturecutoff
Thefollowingappliesifthepartofthepictureismissingbutnototherwisesquashedordistorted.For
example,85%ismissingbuttheportionstillvisibleisnormalsize.
Wow!That'saninterestingone,moresothanthetypicalrunofthemill"myTVjustupanddiedon
me".Or,"mypetorangutanjustputaholeintheCRT,whatshouldIdo"?
Withamonitor,thisismorelikelythanaTV.Butthecauseisprobablynotinthemonitor(thoughnot
impossible).Checkthatyourvideoparametersaresetupcorrectly(particularlyifyouhavefull
controlofthemaswithLinux).Youmayhavesettheactivetooshortorblankingtoolong.
IfyourvideoisconfirmedtobeOK(lookingatitwithanoscilloscopewouldbebest),thenwiththe
sizeofthepicturefragmentcorrectbut85%missing,checkwaveformsgoingintotheverticaloutput
stage.Thesupplyvoltageisprobablycorrectsincethatoftendeterminesthesize.Italmostsoundslike
thewaveformratherthanbeingmostlyon(activevideo)andofffortheshortblankingperiodis
somehowonlyonduringthelastpartoftheactivevideothusgivingyoujustthebottomofthe
picture.IfthereisaverticaloutputIC,itmaybedefectiveortheblankinginputtoitmaybe
corrupted.Theproblemmaybeasfarbackasthesyncseparator.Thenagainwhoknows,schematics
wouldbereallyhandy.

Brightordarkbarsonedgeofpicture(horizontalorvertical)
Thesemaybesharpedgedorblurry.Thelattercouldresultwhenaportionoftheactivevideois
unblankedduringretrace.
Wheretheentirepictureispresent,theproblemisoneofthevideoblankingnotoccurring
properlybeyondthepictureboundary.
Wherepartofthepictureiscutoffwithabrighthorizontalorverticallineatthatpoint,itis
eitheravideotimingproblemorafaultinthedeflectioncircuitrypreventingthebeamfrom
beingwhereitissupposedtoscaninenoughtime.
Youmaybeseeingpartoftheactivevideoduringretraceorasthebeamreversesdirectionat
thestartorendofretrace.Horizontaltimingproblemswouldproduceverticalbarsontheright
orleftedgeverticaltimingproblemswouldproducehorizontalbarsatthetoporbottomedge.
Ifyourvideocardpermitscontrolofvideotimingparameters,tryreducingtherelevantactive
timerelativetotheblankingperiod.Therelevantsoftwaresettingsmightbehorizontalposition,
phase,size,andsyncpolarity.Ifthisdoesnotwork,yourvideocardmaybeincompatiblewith
themonitor.
Iftheproblemjusthappenedwithoutanychangestothevideosource,themonitormayhavea
problem:
Deflectioncircuitscoilorcapacitor,apowersupplyfault,positionorsizesettingsor
control,ordeflectionyoke.
Videoamplifierordrive(CRTneckboard),orblankingcircuitschipdecoupling
capacitorsorfiltercapacitorsinscanderivedpowersupplies.Ifthebarsaresignificantly
colorednotjustshadesofgraythenavideoproblemislikely.
Anoscilloscopewouldhelpgreatlyinidentifyingthesourceoftheproblem.

SingleVerticalLine
CAUTION:TopreventdamagetotheCRTphosphors,immediatelyturndownthebrightnesssothe
lineisjustbarelyvisible.Iftheusercontrolsdonothaveenoughrange,youwillhavetolocateand
adjustthemasterbrightnessorscreen/G2pots.
Sinceyouhavehighvoltage,thehorizontaldeflectioncircuitsarealmostcertainlyworking(unless
thereisaseparatehighvoltagepowersupplyalmostunheardofinmodernTVsbutpossibleinsome
higherperformancemonitors).
Checkforbadsolderconnectionsbetweenthemainboardandthedeflectionyoke.Couldalsobea
badhorizontalcoilintheyoke,linearitycoil,etc.Thereisnotthatmuchtogobadbasedonthese
symptomsassumingthehighvoltageandthehorizontaldeflectionusethesameflyback.Itisalmost
certainlynotanICortransistorthatisbad.

SingleHorizontalLine
CAUTION:TopreventdamagetotheCRTphosphors,immediatelyturndownthebrightnesssothe
lineisjustbarelyvisible.Iftheusercontrolsdonothaveenoughrange,youwillhavetolocateand
adjustthemasterbrightnessorscreen/G2pots.
Asinglehorizontallinemeansthatyouhavelostverticaldeflection.Highvoltageismostlikelyfine
sincethereissomethingonthescreen.
Thiscouldbedueto:
1.Dirtyserviceswitchcontacts.Thereisoftenasmallswitchonthelocatedinsideonthemain
boardorperhapsaccessiblefromtheback.Thisisusedduringsetuptosetthecolorbackground
levels.Whenflippedtothe'service'position,itkillsverticaldeflectionandvideototheCRT.If
theswitchsomehowchangedpositionorgotdirtyorcorrodedcontacts,youwillhavethis
symptom.Fliptheswitchbackandforthacoupleoftimes.Ifthereissomechange,then
replace,clean,resolder,orevenbypassitasappropriate.
2.Badconnectiontodeflectionyokeorotherpartsinverticaloutputcircuit.Badconnectionsare
commoninTVsandmonitors.Checkaroundthepinsoflargecomponentsliketransformers,
powertransistorsandresistors,orconnectorsforhairlinecracksinthesolder.Reseatinternal
connectors.CheckparticularlyaroundtheconnectortothedeflectionyokeontheCRT.
3.BadverticaldeflectionICortransistor.Youwillprobablyneedtheservicemanualforthisand
thefollowing.However,iftheverticaldeflectionisdonewithanIC,theECGSemiconductor
MasterSubstitutionguidemayhaveitspinoutwhichmaybeenoughtotestitwithascope.
4.Otherbadpartsinverticaldeflectioncircuitthoughtherearenotthatmanypartsthatwouldkill
thedeflectionentirely.
5.Lossofpowertoverticaldeflectioncircuits.Checkforblownfusableresistors/fusesandbad
connections.
6.Lossofverticaloscillatororverticaldrivesignals.
Themostlikelypossibilitiesareinthedeflectionoutputstageorbadconnectionstotheyoke.To
locatetheverticaloutputcircuitrywithoutaservicemanual,tracebackfromthedeflectionyoke
connector.Theverticalcoilswillbetheoneswiththehigherresistanceiftheyarenotmarked.

Intermittentjumpingorjitteringofpictureorotherrandombehavior
ThishasalltheclassicsymptomsofalooseconnectioninternaltotheTVormonitorprobably
wherethedeflectionyokeplugsintothemainPCBoratthebaseoftheflybacktransformer.TVsand
monitorsarenotoriousforbothpoorqualitysolderingandbadconnectionsnearhighwattage
componentswhichjustdevelopovertimefromtemperaturecycling.Theproblemmayhappenany
timeormorewhencoldorhot.
Thefollowingisnotveryscientific,butitworks:Haveyoutriedwhackingthemonitorwhenthis
happenedanddidithaveanyeffect?Ifyes,thiswouldbefurtherconfirmationoflooseconnections.
WhatyouneedtodoisexaminethesolderconnectionsonthePCBsinthemonitor,particularlyinthe
areaofthedeflectioncircuitsandpowersupply.Lookforhairlinecracksbetweenthesolderandthe
componentpinsmostlythefatpinsoftransformers,connectors,andhighwattageresistors.Anythat
arefoundwillneedtobereflowedwithamediumwattage(like40W)ortemperaturecontrolled
solderingiron.
Itcouldalsobeacomponentmomentarilybreakingdowninthepowersupplyordeflectioncircuits.
Anotherpossibilityisthatthereisarcingorcoronaasaresultofhumidweather.Thiscouldtriggerthe
powersupplytoshutdownperhapswithasqueak,buttherewouldprobablybeadditionalsymptoms
includingpossiblypartiallossofbrightnessorfocusbeforeitshutdown.Youmayalsohearasizzling
soundaccompaniedbynoiseorsnowinthepicture,staticinthesounds,and/orasmellofozone.
IfyourACpowerfluctuates,aninexpensivemonitormaynotbewellenoughregulatedandmaypass
thefluctuationsonasjitter.Thevideocardisunlikelytobethecauseofthisjitterunlessitcorrelates
withcomputer(software)activity.

Horizontaloutputtransistorskeepblowing(orexcessivelyhot)
Unfortunately,thesesortsofproblemsareoftendifficulttodefinitivelydiagnoseandrepairandwill
ofteninvolveexpensivecomponentswapping.
Youhavejustreplacedanobviouslyblown(shorted)horizontaloutputtransistor(HOT)andanhour
(oraminute)laterthesamesymptomsappear.Or,younoticethatthenewHOTishotterthan
expected:
Wouldthenextlogicalstepbeanewflyback(LOPT)?Notnecessarily.
Ifthemonitorperformednormallyuntilitdied,thereareotherpossiblecauses.However,itcouldbe
theflybackfailingunderloadorwhenitwarmsup.Iwouldexpectsomewarningthoughlikethe
pictureshrinksforafewsecondsbeforethepoof.
Otherpossiblecauses:
1.Improperdrivetohorizontaloutputtransistor(HOT).AweakdrivemightcausetheHOTto
turnonor(morelikely)shutofftooslowly(greatlyincreasingheatdissipation.Checkdriver
andHOTbasecircuitcomponents.Driedupcapacitors,openresistorsorchokes,bad
connections,oradrivertransformerwithshortedwindingsoralooseorbrokencorecanall
affectdrivewaveforms.
2.ExcessivevoltageonHOTcollectorcheckLVregulator(andlinevoltageifthisisafield
repair),ifany.
3.DefectivesafetycapacitorsordamperdiodearoundHOT.(Thoughthisusuallyresultsininstant

destructionwithlittleheating).
4.Newtransistornotmountedproperlytoheatsinkprobablyneedsmicawasherandheatsink
compound.
5.Replacementtransistornotcorrectorinferiorcrossreference.Sometimes,thehorizontal
deflectionisdesignedbasedonthequirksofaparticulartransistor.Substitutesmaynotwork
reliably.
6.CRTshortinginternally.Ifthishappensonlyonceintwoweeks,itmaybediffuclttotrack
down:(.
TheHOTshouldnotrunhotifproperlymountedtotheheatsink(usingheatsinkcompound).It
shouldnotbetoohottotouch(CAREFULdon'ttouchwithpoweronitisatoverahundredvolts
withnastymultihundredvoltspikesandlineconnecteddischargepowersupplyfiltercapsfirstafter
unplugging).Ifitisscorchinghotafterafewminutes,thenyouneedtochecktheotherpossibilities.
However,itispossiblethatthedeflectioncircuitisjustpoorlydesignedinthefirstplaceandithas
alwaysrunhot(thoughitisunlikelytohavealwaysbeenscorchinghot).Thereisnowaytoknowfor
surewithoutacompleteanalysisofthecircuitnotsomethingthatisarealisticpossibility.Inthis
case,theadditionofasmallfanmaymakeabigdifferenceinHOTsurvival.Ifyouhaveitmounted
onthecaseblowingontheHOT,addafiltertominimizedustinfiltration.
Itisalsopossiblethatadefectiveflybackperhapsoneshortedturnwouldnotcauseanimmediate
failureandonlyaffectthepictureslightly.Thiswouldbeunusual,however.Seethesection:Testingof
flyback(LOPT)transformers.
NotethatrunningthemonitorwithaserieslightbulbmayallowtheHOTtosurvivelongenoughfor
youtogathersomeoftheinformationneededtoidentifythebadcomponent.

Horizontaloutputtransistorsblowingatrandomintervals
TheHOTmaylastafewminutes,days,monthsoryearsbutthenblowagain.
Theseareamongthehardestproblemstolocate.Itcouldevenbesomepeculiarcombinationofuser
cockpiterrorcustomerabusethatyouwillneveridentify.Yes,thisshouldnothappenwitha
properlydesignedmonitor.
However,acombinationofmodeswitching,lossofsyncduringbootup,runningontheedgeof
acceptablescanrates,andfrequentpowercycles,couldtestthemonitorinwaysneverdreamedofby
thedesigners.ItmaytakeonlyonescanlinethatistoolongtoblowtheHOT.Newerhorizontal
processorchipsarequitesmartaboutpreventingHOTkillingsignalsfromreachingthehorizontal
driverbuttheymaynotbeperfect.
Ontheotherhand,thecausemaybealongthelinesofthoselistedinthesection:Horizontaloutput
transistorskeepblowing(orexcessivelyhot)andjustnotasobviousblowinginafewdaysorweeks
insteadofafewsecondsbutinthiscase,theHOTwilllikelyberunningveryhotevenafteronlya
fewminutes.
AnotherpossiblecauseforrandomfailuresoftheHOTarebadsolderconnectionsinthevicinityof
theflybackandHOT(verycommonduetothelargehothighpowercomponents)aswellasthe
horizontaldriverandevenpossiblythesyncandhorizontaloscillatorcircuits,powersupply,or
elsewhere.

Steve'scommentsonHOTreplacement

(From:SteveBell(service@bellelectronics.freeserve.co.uk).)
AHOTcanfailonitsown,buttosavepossiblyhavingtochangeitagain,Ialwayscheckthe
following:
Ifthereisanelectrolyticcapacitorinthebasecircuit,checkitwithanESRmeter.Ifyoudon'thave
one,changeit,theyarecheap.CheckthetuningcapacitorontheHOTcollectorforlowvalueoropen
circuit.Thesearelowvalueandfairlycritical,acapacitancemeterisideal.Ifyoudon'thaveone,a
crudewaytocheckistouseananaloguemeteronx100ohmsandwatchtheneedlekickasthecap
chargesandcomparetoanothercapsamevalue.FollowtheHOTcollectortotheFBT,thenfromthe
FBTtoaB+regulatorcircuitifused.TheseoftenuseaT0220styleFETorpowertransistor,check
forshorts.LocatetheB+filtercaponthefeedfromtheregulatetotheFBT.Lookforbulgesand
checkwithESRmeter.Thesecapsaretypically22100uF,160or200V.AlsovisiblychecktheFBT
forbulgesorsplits.TheonlywaytobesuretheFBTisOKistocheckwithaFBTtester/ringeror
similartestequipment.GenerallyFBT'sinmonitorsarequitereliable.Thismightsoundlikealotto
do,butwhenfamiliarwiththecircuitryitdoesn'ttakelong.
YoucouldofcoursejustchangetheHOTandallwillbeOK.

Verticalfoldover
Thepictureissquashedverticallyandapartofitmaybeflippedoveranddistorted.
Thisusuallyindicatesafaultintheverticaloutputcircuit.IfitusesanICforthis,thenthechipcould
bebad.Itcouldalsobeabadcapacitororothercomponentinthiscircuit.Itisprobablycausedbya
faultintheflybackportionoftheverticaldeflectioncircuitachargepumpthatgeneratesahigh
voltagespiketoreturnthebeamtothetopofthescreen.
Testcomponentsintheverticaloutputstageorsubstituteforgoodones.

Jaggedorunevenverticalsweep
(From:MatthiasMeerwein(Matthias.Meerwein@rt.bosch.de).)
IrecentlyfixedtwoCRTdisplaydevicesthatbothdevelopedaverysimilarproblem:Thevertical
deflectionwasseverely"jagged"withunevenlinespacingandpartialverticalfoldover.Onepatient
wasanamelesselcheapo28inchTV(1988made),theotheronea14inchADISVGAmonitor
(1991vintage).
MyfirstsuspicionswerebadcontactsonthePCBoryokeconnectorsorisolation/connectivity
problemsinsidetheyoke.However,asthepicturedidn'tchangewithwarmuportapping,thosecauses
couldberuledout.Examiningtheverticaldeflectionwaveformwiththescopeshowedtheproblem
beingaparasitichighfrequencyoscillationaroundtheverticaloutputic.OntheTV,theoscillation
extendedovertheentirescanperiod,whilethemonitorexhibitedtheproblemonlynearthevertical
currentzerocross.
InbothcasesIfoundthecapacitoroftheRCdampingnetworkontheampoutputtobeatfault.
Replacingitfixedtheprobleminbothsets.Thisisnotthewellknowndriedupelectrolyticproblem
describedintheFAQ.Theculpritsweremylarcaps(.1and.47uF)lookingcompletelyunsuspicious.
Theywereprobablyabitunderratedvoltagewise(40volts)soIreplacedthemwith100voltsrated
ones.The2.2ohmsresistorinserieswiththecapwasfineinbothcases.

Excessivewidth/pincushioningproblems

Thiswouldmeanthattheleftandrightsidesofthepictureare'bowed'andthescreenlookssomething
likethediagrambelow(ortheoppositebarreldistortion).
However,theobvioussymptomsmayjustbeexcesswidthasthecurvedsidesmaybecutoffbythe
CRTbezel.
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Thisgeometryisthenaturalstateofaffairswithlinearscanwaveformsiftherewerenocorrection.
Normally,asignalfromtheverticaldeflectionthatlookssomethinglikearectifiedsinewaveisused
tomodifywidthbasedonverticalposition.Thereisusuallyacontroltoadjustthemagnitudeofthis
signalandalsooften,itsphase.Itwouldseemthatthiscircuithasceasedtofunction.
Ifyouhavetheschematics,checkthemfor'pincushion'adjustmentsandchecksignalsandvoltages.If
not,trytofindthe'pincushion'magnitudeandphaseadjustmentsandlookforbadpartsorbad
connectionsininthegeneralarea.Eveniftherearenoadjustmentpots,theremaystillbepincushion
correctioncircuitry.
Ifthepincushioncontrolshaveabsolutelynoeffect,thenthecircuitisfaulty.Withmoderndigital
setupadjustments,thenitiseventoughertodiagnosesincethesecontrolaD/Asomewherelinkedvia
amicroprocessor.
Pincushionadjustmentaddsasignaltothehorizontaldeflectiontocompensateforthegeometryofthe
CRT/deflectionyoke.Ifyouhaveknobs,thentracingthecircuitrymaybepossible.Withluck,you
haveabadpartthatcanbeidentifiedwithanohmmetershortedoropen.Forexample,ifthe
pincushioncorrectiondrivertransistorisshorted,itwillhavenoeffectandthepicturewillbetoo
wideanddistortedasshownabove.
However,withoutaschematiceventhiswillbedifficult.Iftheadjustmentsaredigitalthisis
especiallydifficulttodiagnosesinceyoudon'tevenhaveanyideaofwherethecircuitrywouldbe
located.
Faultycapacitorsinthehorizontaldeflectionpowersuppliesoftencauseasimilarsetofsymptoms.

Uncorrectablepincushiondistortionwithnewmonitor
"IjustboughtanewSony200SX17"monitorandIjustcan'tgetthepincushioncontrol
toworkright.IfIgettheouteredgesstraightthenanywindowaninchorsofromthe
edgewillcurvelikecrazy.TheonlywayaroundthisistoshrinkmyscreensizesoI'll
have3/4inorsoofblackspace.ThisisveryirritatingsinceIamnotgettingthe15.9"

viewablesizeasadvertised.Isthisnormal?"
(From:JeroenH.Stessen(Jeroen.Stessen@philips.com).)
Thedistortionthatyoudescribeiscalled'insidepincushion'.Normallyitcanbecorrectedbya
dynamicScorrectioncircuit.MaybeSonydidn'tdoatoogoodjobonthis,ornoneatall.Itmayalso
bethatthecorrectionisoptimizedforcertainhorizontalscanfrequenciesonly,asdynamicS
correctionisaresonantcircuit.Youmightwanttotestatanotherfrequency.
(From:markmtf@earthlink.net).)
Youmayhaveamonitorthatisattheedgeoftheacceptancetolerance,(whichisadefinedacceptable
variationforcostandproductionyieldreasons).Atypicalworsecasetolerancemaybeupto3mmof
adeviationfromastraightlinefortheedges.Thisappliesforallmonitorsandallmanufacturers.Of
coursesomecompaniesactuallycontrolthevariationbetterthanothers,(andsomejustsaytheydo).
Forreferencetryusingthe"Recall"functionwhichwillsettheadjustmentstotheoriginalfactory
settings.(Thisassumesthatyourvideotimingmatchesthepresettimingusedinthefactory).Check
theinfamoususermanual.

Deflectionyoketesting
Afaultydeflectionyokecanaffectthegeometry(sizeandshape)oftheraster,resultininsufficient
highvoltageand/orotherauxiliarypowerproblems,andblowvariouscomponentsinthelowvoltage
powersupplyorelsewhere.
Asimpletesttodetermineiftheyokeisatfaultforamajorgeometryproblem(e.g.,akeystone
shapedpicture)istointerchangetheconnectionstotheyokefortheaxisthatisnotaffected
(i.e.,theverticalcoilsifthewidthisvaryingfromtoptobottom).Iftheraster/pictureflips
(indicatingthatyouswappedtheproperconnections)buttheshapeoftherasterremainsthe
samethegeometryisunchanged,theproblemisalmostcertainlyinthedeflectionyoke.
Wherehighvoltage(andotherflybackderivedvoltages)arereducedandotherproblemshave
beenruledout,unpluggingthedeflectionyoke(assumingnointerlock)mayrevealwhetheritis
likelyatfault.Ifthisresultsinhighvoltageandarelativelycleandeflectionwaveformor
returnsthepowersupplyordeflectionchiploadtosomethingreasonable,adefectiveyokeis
quitepossible.
CAUTION:poweringaTVormonitorwithadisconnectedyokemustbedonewithcarefor
severalreasons:
TheCRTelectronbeam(s)willnotbedeflected.Ifitturnsoutthattheyokeisthe
problem,thismayresultinaverybrightspotinthecenterofthescreen(whichwillturn
intoaverydarkpermanentspotquitequickly):(.Disconnectingonlythewindingthatis
suspectisbetter.Then,theotherdirectionwillstillscanresultinginaverybrightline
insteadofasuperbrightspot.Inanycase,makesurethebrightnessisturnedalltheway
down(usingthescreen/G2controlontheflybackifnecessary).Keepaneyeonthefront
ofthescreenreadytokillpoweratthefirstsignofaspotorline.DisconnectingtheCRT
heaterasanaddedprecautionwouldbeevenbetterunlessyouneedtodetermineifthere
isabeam.
Removingtheyoke(whichiseffectivelyinparallelwiththeflyback)increasesthe
inductanceandthepeakflybackvoltageontheHOT.Intheextreme,thismayblowthe
HOTifrunatfulllinevoltage/normalB+.ItisbettertoperformthesetestsusingaVariac
atreducedlinevoltageifpossible.

Thedeflectionsystemwillbedetunedsincetheyokeinductanceplaysaverysignificant
roleinsettingtheresonancepointinmostdesigns.Don'texpecttoseetotallynormal
behaviorwithrespecttohighvoltage.However,itshouldbemuchbetterthanwiththe
faultyyoke.
Ifpossible,compareallmeasurementswithaknowngoodidenticaldeflectionyoke.Ofcourse,
ifyouhaveone,swappingisthefastestsuresttestofall!Inmanycases,evenanotquite
identicalyokewillbecloseenoughtoprovideusefulinformationfortesting.However,itmust
befromasimilarpieceofequipmentwithsimilarspecificationssizeandscanrange.Don't
expectacolorTVyoketoworkinahighperformanceSVGAmonitor!
Note:thesubstituteyokedoesn'thavetobemountedontheCRTwhichwoulddisturbpurity
andconvergenceadjustmentsbutseethecautionaboveaboutdrillingholesintheCRTface
plate!
Thedeflectionyokeconsistsofthehorizontalcoilsandverticalcoils(woundonaferritecore),and
mountingstructure.Littlemagnetsorrubber/ferritestripsmaybegluedinstrategiclocations.DO
NOTdisturbthem!Inrareinstances,theremaybeadditionalcoilsorothercomponentsmountedon
thesameassembly.Thefollowingdealsonlywiththeactualdeflectioncoilsthemselvestheother
components(ifany)canbetestedinasimilarmanner.
Wherethetestprocedurebelowrequiresremovaloftheyoke,seethesection:Removingand
replacingthedeflectionyokefirst.
Horizontalthehorizontalsectionconsistsofanevennumberofwindingshookedupin
parallel/interleavedwithhalfofthewindingsoneachofthetwoferritecorepieces.
Thehorizontalwindingswillbeorientedwiththecoil'saxisverticalandmountedontheinside
oftheyoke(againsttheCRTneck/funnel).Theymaybewoundwiththickerwirethanthatused
fortheverticalwindings.
ResistancecheckThismaybepossiblewithoutremovingtheyokefromtheCRTifthe
terminalblockisaccessible.Disconnecttheindividualwindingsfromeachotherand
determineiftheresistancesarenearlyequal.Checkforshortsbetweenwindingsand
betweenthehorizontalandverticalwindingsaswell.
Typicalresistanceoftheintactwindings(attheyokeconnectorassumingnoother
components):TVorNTSC/PALmonitorafewohms(3ohmstypical),SVGAmonitor
lessthananohm(.5ohmstypical).
InspectionLookforcharringorotherevidenceofinsulationbreakdownduetoarcingor
overheating.Forthehorizontalwindings,thiswillrequireremovingtheyokefromthe
CRTsincelittleifanyofthewindingsarevisiblefromtheoutside.However,eventhen,
mostofthewindingsarehiddenunderlayersofwireorbehindtheferritecore.
Ringtest.Seethedocument"TestingofFlyback(LOPT)Transformers".Thisdealswith
flybacktransformersbuttheprinciplesarethesame.Disconnectingthewindingsmay
helpisolatethelocationofafault.However,forwindingswoundonthesamecore,the
inductivecouplingwillresultinashortanywhereonthatcorereducingtheQ.
VerticalTheverticalsectionisusuallymanufacturedasapairofwindingswiredinparallel(or
maybeinseries)thoughforhighverticalscanratemonitors,multipleparallel/interleaved
windingsarealsopossible.
Theverticalwindingswillbeorientedwiththecoil'saxishorizontalandwoundontheoutside

oftheyoke.Thewireusedfortheverticalwindingsmaybethinnerthanthatusedforthe
horizontalwindings.
ResistancecheckThismaybepossiblewithoutremovingtheyokefromtheCRTifthe
terminalblockisaccessible.Disconnecttheindividualwindingsfromeachotherand
determineiftheresistancesarenearlyequal.Checkforshortsbetweenwindingsand
betweenthehorizontalandverticalwindingsaswell.
Typicalresistanceoftheintactwindings(attheyokeconnectorassumingnoother
components):TVorNTSC/PALmonitormorethan10ohms(15ohmstypical),SVGA
monitoratleastafewohms(5ohmstypical).
InspectionLookforcharringorotherevidenceofinsulationbreakdownduetoarcingor
overheating.Theaccessibleportionsoftheverticalwindingsaremostlyvisiblewithout
removingtheyokefromtheCRT.However,mostofthewindingsarehiddenunderlayers
ofwireorbehindtheferritecore.
RingtestSincetheverticalwindingshavesignificantresistanceandverylowQ,aring
testmaybeoflimitedvalue.

Deflectionyokerepair
Soyoufoundabigblackcharredareain/ononeoftheyokewindings.Whatcanbedone?Isit
possibletorepairit?Whataboutusingitfortestingtoconfirmthattherearenootherproblemsbefore
orderinganewyoke?
Ifthedamageisminoronlyafewwiresareinvolved,itmaybepossibletoseparatethemfromeach
otherandtherestofthewinding,thoroughlycleanthearea,andtheninsulatethewireswithhigh
temperaturevarnish.Then,checktheresistancesofeachoftheparallel/interleavedwindingstomake
surethatyoucaughtallthedamage.
Simpleplasticelectricaltapecanprobablybeusedforasinsulationfortestingpurposesithas
workedformebutwouldnotlikelysurviveverylongasapermanentrepairduetothepossiblehigh
temperaturesinvolved.Anewyokewillalmostcertainlybeneeded.

Testingofflyback(LOPT)transformers
Howandwhydoflybacktransformersfail?
Flybacksfailinseveralways:
1.Overheatingleadingtocracksintheplasticandexternalarcing.Thesecanoftenbefixedby
cleaningandcoatingwithmultiplelayersofhighvoltagesealer,coronadope,orevenplastic
electricaltape(asatemporaryrepairinapinch).
2.Crackedorotherwisedamagedcorewilleffecttheflybackcharacteristicstothepointwhereit
maynotworkcorrectlyorevenblowthehorizontaloutputtransistor.
3.InternalshortsintheFOCUS/SCREENdividernetwork,ifpresent.Onesignofthismaybe
arcoveroftheFOCUSorSCREENsparkgapsonthePCBontheneckoftheCRT.
4.Internalshortcircuitsinthewindings.
5.Openwindings.

Morethanoneofthesemayapplyinanygivencase.
First,performacarefulvisualinspectionwithpoweroff.Lookforcracks,bulgingormeltedplastic,
anddiscoloration,Lookforbadsolderconnectionsatthepinsoftheflybackaswell.IftheTVor
monitorcanbepoweredsafely,checkforarcingorcoronaaroundtheflybackandinitsvicinity,
Next,performohmmetertestsforobviousshortcircuitsbetweenwindings,muchreducedwinding
resistances,andopenwindings.
Forthelowvoltagewindings,servicemanualsmayprovidetheexpectedDCresistance(SAMs
PhotoFact,forexample).Sometimes,thiswillchangeenoughtobedetectedifyouhavean
ohmmeterwithalowenoughscale.Theseareusuallyafractionofanohm.Itisdifficultorimpossible
tomeasuretheDCresistanceoftheHVwindingsincetherectifiersareusuallybuiltin.Thevalueis
notpublishedeither.
Caution:makesureyouhavetheTVormonitorunpluggedandconfirmthatthemainfiltercapacitor
isdischargedbeforetouchinganything!IfyouaregoingtoremoveortouchtheCRTHV,focus,or
screenwires,dischargetheHVfirstusingawellinsulatedhighvalueresistor(e.g.,severalMohms,5
W)totheCRTgroundstrap(NOTsignalground.Seethesection:Safedischargingofcapacitorsin
TVsandvideomonitors.
Partiallyshortcircuitedwindings(perhaps,justacoupleofturns)andsometimesshortsinthe
focus/screendividerwilldrasticallylowertheQandincreasetheloadtheflybackputsonitsdriving
sourcewithnooutputsconnected.CommercialflybacktestersmeasuretheQbymonitoringthedecay
timeofaresonantcircuitformedbyacapacitorandawindingontheflybackundertestafteritis
excitedbyapulsewaveform.Itispossibletoeasilyconstructtestersthatperformawell.Seethe
companiondocument"TestingofFlyback(LOPT)Transformers"forfurtherinformation.

Picturesizesuddenlybecomeslarger(orsmaller)
Youareplayingyourfavoritegame(read:addiction)andsuddenly,thepicturesizeincreasesby20%
andthebrightnessmayhavechangedaswell.WhatpartshouldIreplace?Ionlyusedmyphaserson
the#3setting!
Unfortunately,Idonothaveacrystalball.Thereareanumberofpartsthatcouldbefaultyandno
wayofknowforyourmonitorandyoursymptomswhichitis.Sorry,youwillalmostcertainlyhaveto
haveitprofessionallyrepairedorreplaced.
Whatitsoundslikeishappeningisthatthecircuitrythatselectsinternalcomponentsdependingon
scanratehavefailedinsomeway.Theycouldbemakinganincorrectselectionorthepowersupply
couldbefaultyandapplyinganincorrectvoltagetothehorizontalandverticaldeflectioncircuits.The
brightnesschangessinceitisnotcompensatedforproperly.

Burningupofvarioussizeorcenteringresistors
Checkthecapacitorsthatcoupletheyoketotoground.Iftheybecomereducedinvalueordevelopa
highESR,thecurrentwillbedivertedtoothercomponentswithunfortunateandrapidconsequences.

Pictureshiftedhorizontally
Thefirstthingtodetermineisifthisisapositionorphaseproblem:
Afaultwithhorizontalpositionmeansthattheentirerasterisshiftedleftorright.Thisisalmost
certainlyamonitorproblem.Ifyouturnupthebrightnesscontrol,theedgesofthescanlines

willprobablybevisibleononeside.
Assumingthepositionorcenteringcontrolsdonotworkatororhaveinsufficientrange,
checkforadefectivecenteringpotandbadcenteringdiodesandothercomponentsin
theirvicinity.Ifdigitallycontrolled,youwillprobablyneedaschematictofindthecause.
Ifthemonitorwasdropped,theyokeorotherassemblyontheCRTneckmayhave
shifted(thoughtherewouldprobablybeothersymptomsaswell).
MonochromemonitorshavecenteringringsontheCRTneckwhichmayhavebe
knockedoutofadjustment.Colormonitorsadjustthecenteringelectronicallysince
magneticringswouldmessupthepurityand/orconvergence.
Afaultwithhorizontalphasemeansthattherasterisstillcenteredonthescreenbutthepicture
itselfisshifted(andmayhavesomewraparound)withintheraster.Thiscouldbeafaultinthe
monitororvideocardorincorrectsettingsinthesoftwaresetupforthevideocard.
Ifthishappenedwhiletryingoutthismonitoronadifferentormodifiedcomputer,just
afteryouhavedoneasoftwareupgrade,orjustaftersomethingstrangehappened(like
yourPC'sCMOSsettingsgotcorruptedmonitorsettingsaregenerallynotintheCMOS
setupbutmayhavebeenaffectedatthesametime),resetthemonitor'scontrolstotheir
defaultormiddlepositionandthenusethesoftwaresetuporinstallprogramthatcame
withyourvideocardtosetscanrates,size,position,andsyncpolarity.
Somemonitorshaveauseraccessiblehorizontalphasecontrolinadditiontohorizontal
position.Thisadjuststhedelayinthesynccircuitssocheckthatareaoftheelectronicsif
thecontroldoesn'tworkorhaveenoughrange.
TherecouldalsobeaproblemwithbasedrivetotheHOT.Thismayresultinposition,phase,
size,andlinearityerrorsasthescanbeinginitiatedtoosoonortoolate.
WeakdrivetotheHOTduetofaultycomponentsinthebasecircuitordriverstagemight
resultintheHOTcomingoutofsaturationearly.Thepicturewouldbeshiftedtotheright
andtheHOTmightrunexcessivelyhotandblow.
WARNING:ThecaseoftheHOThas>1,000VspikesandB+whenoffdon'ttouch
withpoweronoruntilyouconfirmnovoltageispresentafterpullingplug.
Ifmarginal,adriftofposition,phase,size,andlinearitywithwarmupisalsolikely.
Checkfordriedupelectrolyticcapacitorsandusecoldspraytoisolateotherbad
components.Ifthedrivebecomestooweak,theHOTmayblowafterafterbeingonfora
while.

Horizontalorverticalflippedpicture
Thepictureisflippedlefttorightorisupsidedownorboth.Thiscannothappenasaresultofa
failure.ForaCRTbasedTVormonitor,italmostcertainlymeansthatthewirestothehorizontalor
verticaldeflectionyokehavebeenswappedtoenablethepicturetoappearcorrectwhenviewedviaa
mirror(horizontalonly)oriftheunitweremountedbaseuptoaceiling(both).Theremedyissimply
toswapthetwowirestotherelevantdeflectionyoke(s).Theremayevenbeobvioussplicestoguide
you.Thereisusuallyaconnectorwith4relativelyfatwiresthatgotothedeflectionyokeontheCRT
neck(NOTthePCBattachedtothetubebase).Ifyoudon'thaveaschematic,tracetheseonthemain
PCBbacktotheirorigin.Thehorizontalwilloriginatesomewhereinthevicinityoftheflyback
transformer.Itmaybepossibletodisengagethewiresfromtheconnectorshellandswapthemthere.
Ifnot,cut,splice,andsolder.Adjustmentoftheappropriatecenteringcontrolsmaybeneeded.

Forflatpaneldisplays,itisevenmoreunlikelythiswouldhappenasaresultofahardwarefailure.
Mostlikely,thereisamodesettingintheoneofthesetupmenusfortheTVormonitoritself.Itcould
alsobeinthereceiverfortheTV,orthedriverorapplicationsoftwareofthePC.Ifthesourceisa
videoprojector,themenusettingislikelythere,toselectbetweenfrontandrearprojection
(horizontal)ortableorceilingmount(both).So,don'tbothertoopenuptheflatpanelTVormonitor.
Theproblemisnotthere!:)

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

HighVoltagePowerSupplyProblems
IdentifyingHVvoltageproblems
Inadditiontotheobvious"monitorscreenisasblackasacoalmine"symptom,problemsinthehigh
voltagepowersupplycanresultinavarietyofbrightness,rastergeometry,andotherpictureproblems
aswellasarcing,corona,orothersights,sounds,andsmellsnotnormallyassociatedwithaproperly
functioningmonitor.Thischapterdealswithsomeofthese.Othervideorelatedproblemswillbedealt
withinthechapter:"Raster,Color,andVideoProblems".

Highvoltagepowersupplyfundamentals
Most,monitorsderivethehighvoltagefortheCRTsecondanode(THEhighvoltage,focus,and
(sometimes)screen(G2)fromthehorizontaldeflectionsystem.Thistechniquewasdevelopedquite
earlyinthehistoryofcommercialTVandhasstuckforaverysimplereasonitisverycosteffective.
Asideeffectisthatifthehorizontaldeflectionfailsandthreatenstoburna(vertical)lineintotheCRT
phosphors,thehighvoltagediesaswell.Ofcourse,iftheverticaldeflectiondies....
Someautoscanmonitorsutilizeaseparatehighvoltagesupply.Onereasonforthisapproachisto
decouplethehorizontaldeflectionfromtheHVinautoscanmonitorsthussimplifyingthedesign.
Usuallyitisaselfcontainedinvertermodule.Itifcanbeopened,thenrepairmaybepossible.Witha
separateHVsupply,thereisnoneedforaHVflybacktransformeronthemainboard.Somedesigns
mayuseaseparateHVsupplyincludingaflybackwhichispartofthemainboardbutisselfcontained
andindependentofthehorizontaldeflectionsystem.
MostTVandmonitor(flyback)highvoltagesuppliesoperateasfollows:
1.Horizontaloutputtransistor(HOT)turnsonduringscan.Currentincreaseslinearlyinprimary
offlybacktransformersinceitappearsasaninductor.Magneticfieldalsoincreaseslinearly.
Note:flybackisconstructedwithairgapincore.Thismakesitbehavemorelikeaninductor
thantransformerasfarastheprimarydriveisconcerned.
2.HOTshutsoffatendofscan.Currentdecreasesrapidly.Magneticfieldcollapsesinductively
couplingtosecondaryandgeneratesHVpulse.Inductanceandcapacitanceofflyback,snubber
capacitors,andparasiticcapacitanceofcircuitryandyokeformaresonantcircuit.Ideally,
voltagewaveformacrossHOTduringflyback(retrace)periodwillbeasinglehalfcycleandis
clampedbydamperdiodeacrossHOTtopreventundershoot.
3.SecondaryofflybackiseitherasinglelargeHVwindingwithHVrectifiersbuiltin(most
often)oranintermediatevoltagewindingandavoltagemultiplier(seethesection:Whatisa
tripler?).TheoutputwillbeDCHVpulses.

4.ThecapacitanceoftheCRTenvelopeprovidestheneededfilteringtoadequatelysmooththe
HVpulsesintoaDCvoltage.SometimesthereisaseparateHVcapacitoraswell.
5.AhighresistancevoltagedividerprovidestheseveralkVfocusvoltageandsometimesthe
severalhundredvoltscreen(G2)voltageaswell.Often,theadjustmentsforthesevoltagesare
builtintotheflyback.Thefocusandscreenaregenerallythetopandbottomknobs,
respectively.Sometimestheyaremountedseparately.Thisorasimilardividermayalsoprovide
feedbacktocontrolhighvoltageregulation.

Whatisatripler?
InsomeTVsandmonitors,theflybacktransformeronlygeneratesabout610kVACwhichisthen
boostedbyacapacitordiodeladdertothe1830kVneededformoderncolorCRTs.Theunitthatdoes
thisiscommonlycalledatriplersinceitmultipliestheflybackoutputbyabout3times.SomeTVsuse
aquadruplerinstead.However,manyTVsandmonitorsgeneratetherequiredHVdirectlywitha
windingwiththerequirednumberofturnsinsidetheflybacktransformer.
Triplersuseadiodecapacitorladdertomultiplythe610kVACto1830kVDC.Manytriplersare
separateunits,roughlycubical,andarenotrepairable.Sometriplersarebuiltintotheflybackitis
probablycheapertomanufacturetheHVdiodesandcapacitorsthantowindadirecthighvoltage
secondaryontheflybackcore.Ineithercase,failurerequiresreplacementoftheentireunit.
Forexternalmultipliers,theterminalsaretypicallymarked:
INfromflyback(610kVAC).
OUTHVtoCRT(2030kVDC).
FfocustoCRT(28kV).
CTLfocuspot(manymegohmtoground).
G,GND,orCOMground.
Symptomsoftriplerfailureare:lackofhighvoltageorinsufficienthighvoltage,arcingatfocus
protectionsparkgap,incorrectfocusvoltage,otherarcing,overloadofHOTand/orflyback,orfocus
adjustmentaffectingbrightness(screen)settingorviceversa.Wherethereisoverloading,ifyou
disconnectthetriplerandeverythingelsecomesbacktolife(obviously,therewillbenoHVor
picture),thenitisverylikelybad.

HighvoltageshutdownduetoXrayprotectioncircuits
Amonitorthatrunsforawhileorstartstocomeonbutthenshutsdownmayhaveaproblemwiththe
Xrayprotectioncircuitrycorrectlyorincorrectlydeterminingthatthehighvoltage(HV)istoogreat
(riskingexcessiveXrayemission)andshuttingeverythingdown.
Asideeffectofactivationofthiscircuitryisthatresettingmayrequirepullingtheplugorturningoff
thereal(hard)powerswitch.
Wasthereanythingelseunusualaboutthepicturelatelythatwouldindicateanactualproblemwith
theHV?Forexample,hasitsuddenlygottenbrighterthannormalorhasthesizedecreased?Ifthisis
thecase,thentheremaybesomeproblemwiththeHVregulation.Ifnot,theshutdowncircuitmaybe
overlysensitiveoroneofitscomponentsmaybedefectiveabadconnectionofleakycap(orzener).
Ifthehorizontalfrequencyisnotcorrect(probablylow)duetoafaultyhorizontaloscillatororsync
circuitorbadhorizontalholdcontrol(shouldoneexist!),HVmayincreaseandtriggershutdown.Of
course,thepicturewon'tbeworthmucheither!Withamultiscanmonitor,thiscouldhappenifthe
modeswitchingisfaultyresultinginincorrectcomponentsettingsforagivenscanrate.Asymptom

mightbeHVshutdownwhenswitchingintoscanranges.
TheHVshutdowncircuitusuallymonitorsawindingoffoftheflybackforvoltageexceedingsome
referenceandthensetsaflipflopshuttingthehorizontaldriveoff.
OnsomeSonymodels,aHVresistivedividerperformsthisfunctionandthesedofailquiteoften.
Theredblockisoftencalleda'HVcapacitor'(butistechnicallythe'HSTAT'unitbecauseithasa
controlforhorizontalstaticconvergence)andisacommoncauseofimmediateordelayedshutdown
oncertainSonymonitorsandTVs.Withthesefailures,theHVdoesn'tbecomeexcessivebutthe
sensevoltagerisesduetoleakagewiththevoltagedivider.Seethesection:Apple/Sonymonitordies
aftervariablelengthoftime.

Excessivelowvoltagesupplymaytriggerhighvoltageshutdown
(From:RayChandos(rchandos@ivc.edu).)
Moderntelevisionreceiversandvideomonitorsareallequippedwithasafetycircuittoshutdownthe
highvoltagefeedingtheanodeofthepicturetubeifthathighvoltagebecomesexcessive.(Thisisto
preventdangerousxraysemittedwhenelectronswithtoomuchenergystrikethemetalshadowmask
justinsidetheTVscreen.)Unfortunately,highvoltageshutdownproblemscanbeverydifficultto
diagnosebecause,onceshutdownhasoccurred,thehorizontalpulsesusedtogeneratethehighvoltage
areturnedoff,andwiththemthehighvoltageitself.
InmanycasesIhaveencountered,thehighvoltageisnotexcessive,buttheshutdowncircuititselfhas
failedandfalselytriggers.Acommoncauseofthisisfailureofthecircuitrythatsamplesthehigh
voltageandfeedsaportionbacktotheinputoftheshutdowncircuit.Typically,atapfromtheflyback
transformerfeedsadiodeandafiltercapacitortoproduceasampleDCvoltageproportionaltothe
highvoltage.Asthehighvoltageincreases,sodoesthissample.Itisusuallyfurtherreducedbya
voltagedivider,thensentthroughaserieszenerdiodetothe"horizontalshutdown"inputofavideo
processorchip,sothat,ifthedivideddownvoltageexceedstheratingofthezenerdiode,thelatter
willconductandtriggertheshutdowninput,whichthenlatchesoffthehorizontalpulses.Nowifthe
bottomresistorinthevoltagedivideropens,orincreasesaboveitsnominalvalue(commonforhigh
valuecarbonresistors),thesampledvoltagewillincrease,possiblyenoughtofalselytripthe
shutdowninput.Checkitwithanohmmeter.
Incidentally,ifyoudon'thaveaschematic,youcanstillattempttodiagnoseandrepairyourshutdown
problem.StartwiththevideoprocessorIC,ahugechipthatcontrolsmostoftheTVfunctions.Get
thepinoutfromthiswebsite,theECGsemiconductorreplacementguide,ordatasheetarchivesonthe
Internet.Findthehorizontaloutputandhorizontalshutdownpins,andattachoscilloscopeprobesto
verifythatyouhaveashutdownproblem.Ifyoudo,youwillseehorizontalpulsesforabriefinstant
onpowerup,butsuddenlydisappearingastheshutdowninputvoltagegoesupandturnsthemoff.
(Thisisalatchingcircuit,sotheshutdownvoltagewillnormallystayhighuntilthepoweristurned
off.)
Nowtracetheshutdownsignalvoltagebackthroughthevoltagedivider,thefiltercapacitor,andthe
diodetotheflybackwinding.Testoutallthesepartsasyougo.
IftheshutdowncircuitryallseemsOK,itmaybedoingitsintendedjobofdetectinganddisabling
excessivelyhighvoltage.ToomuchhighvoltageoftenresultswhenthelowervoltageDCsupply
feedingthehighvoltagesupplycircuitrysomehowgetstoohigh.Thisvoltage,oftenaround+160
VDC,nowadayscomesfromtheTV'smainregulatedpowersupplyandisappliedtooneendofthe
flybacktransformerprimary.Theotherendconnectstothecollectorofthehorizontaloutput(alarge,
highvoltagepowertransistoronaheatsink),theemitterofwhichconnectstoground.Horizontal
drivepulsesoriginatinginthevideoprocessorcircuitdrivethebaseterminalofthistransistor,

switchingitonwhenthepulsesarehighandthussupplyingcurrenttotheflybacktransformer
primary.Thesecondarywinding,havingmanymoreturns,stepsupthe+160Voltsappliedtothe
primaryto2545kV,whichisrectified,filtered,andappliedtotheanodeofthepicturetube.Nowif
the+160Voltsincreases,sayto+200Volts,duetosomemalfunctioninthemainpowersupply
regulation,thenthesecondaryvoltagewillalsoincreasebythesamepercentage,andtripthehigh
voltageshutdowncircuit.
Fortunately,althoughthehighvoltagequicklyvanishesaftershutdown,preventingyoufrom
measuringit,thelowvoltageusuallystayson.Youcanmeasureit(carefully)fromthecollectorofthe
horizontaloutputtransistortoground.Ofcourse,ifyoulackaschematic,youwon'tknowifthis
voltageiscorrectornot,soagaintraceitbackfromtheflybacktransformerprimarytothemainTV
powersupply.Thereyoumayfindalabelprintedontheprintedcircuitboardtellingyouthenormal
voltage.Youcanalsogetacluebylookingatthevoltageratingofanyfiltercapacitorconnectedfrom
thisvoltagelinetoground.Forexample,ifthefiltercapacitorisratedat200Vandyouaremeasuring
220V,youknowyouhaveaproblem.Sometimesthevoltagewillcomefromalinearvoltage
regulatorICwhosepinoutandoutputvoltageyoucanlookupfromthechipnumber.Theselinear
regulatorscanshortfrominputtooutput,raisingtheoutputvoltageandleadingtotheshutdown
problem.
Ifthelowvoltagecomesinsteadfromaswitchingregulatedsupplyandyoucan'treadilydetermine
thenormaloutputvoltage,checkforabadfiltercapacitoronthefeedbackwinding.Mostsuchpower
suppliesputoutseveralregulatedvoltages,derivedfromseparatewindingsontheswitchingsupply
transformer,thenrectifiedandfiltered,foruseinvariousplacesintheset.Regulationofthese
voltagesisaccomplishedbysamplingtheoutputfromadedicatedfeedbackwinding,andthen
crankingupthetransistorswitchifthatvoltageistoolow,orcuttingbackthetransistorswitchifthe
voltageistoohigh.Theideaisthat,sincealloftheoutputvoltagescomefromthesametransformer,
withtheoutputvoltageofeachdeterminedbythenumberofturnsonitswindingofthetransformer,if
onevoltage(fromthefeedbackwinding)iscorrect,thentheyallwillbecorrect.Nowifthefilter
capacitoronthefeedbackwindingopens,loweringthesensedDCvoltagefromthatwinding,what
willthevoltageregulatorcircuitdo?Notrealizingthatthereducedfeedbackisduetoabadfilter
capacitor,itsimplycranksupthetransistorswitchtogetthevoltagebackupwhereitbelongs.But
thatraisesalltheotheroutputvoltagesaswell,makingthemhigherthantheyshouldbe,includingthe
onepoweringthehighvoltagesupply!Andthatwilltriptheshutdowncircuit.
Whenreplacingfiltercapacitors,besuretousegoodonesratedfor105(not85)degreesC,andable
towithstandthehighfrequencypulsestheyaregettinghammeredbyinthesecircuits.

Lowornohighvoltage
MostoftheseproblemsareduetofaultsinthehorizontaldeflectionsystemshortedHOT,shorted
windingsorHVrectifiersintheflyback,defectivetripler,orotherbadpartsontheprimarysideofthe
flyback.
Inaddition,withautoscanmonitors,theincorrectvoltageorothercomponentcouldbeselecteddue
toalogicfaultoraproblemwiththeselectionrelayorothercircuitry.
However,ifyoudiscoveraninchlayeroffilthinsidethemonitor,theHVcouldsimplybeshorting
outcleanitfirst.
Inmostcases,thesesortsoffaultswillputanexcessiveloadonthehorizontaloutputcircuitssothere
maybeexcessiveheatingoftheHOTorothercomponents.Youmayhearanaudiblearcingor
sizzlingsoundfrominternalshortsintheflybackortripler.Eitherofthesemaybethot,crack,bulge,
orexhibitvisibledamageifleftonwiththefaultpresent.

ManymodernmonitorsdonotregulateHVdirectlybutrathersetitviacontrolofthelowvoltage
powersupplytotheHOT(B+),bysnubbercapacitorsacrosstheHOT,andtheturnsratioofthe
flyback.TheHVisdirectlyrelatedtotheB+soifthisislow,theHVwillbelowaswell.Faulty
snubbercapacitorswillgenerallydotheoppositeincreasetheHVandtheXrayprotectioncircuits
maykickin.However,lowHVisalsoapossibility.Theonlywaytheturnsratiooftheflybackcan
changeisfromashortwhichwillmanifestitspresenceinotherwaysaswellexcessiveheatingand
loadonthehorizontaloutputcircuits.
WhileashortedsecondanodeconnectiontotheCRTistheoreticallypossible,thisisquiteunlikely
(except,asnoted,duetodirt).

Excessivehighvoltage
AnysignificantincreaseinHVshouldcausetheXrayprotectioncircuitstokickinandeithershut
downthesetormodifythedeflectioninsuchawayastorenderitharmless.
Symptomsincludearcing/sparkingofHV,smallerthannormalpicture,andundercertainscenarios,
possibleexcessivebrightness.
CausesoftheHVbeingtoohighare:
1.ExcessB+voltagetotheHOT.Thelikelycauseistoalowvoltageregulatorfailure.
2.OpensnubbercapacitorsacrosstheHOT.Theseareunderalotofstressandarelocatednear
hotcomponentssofailureispossible.
3.IncorrectexcessivelylongscandrivetoHOTcausedbyfailureofhorizontaloscillator/sync
circuits.However,otherthingsliketheHOTwillprobablyblowupfirst.Thepicturewill
definitelybemessedup.ThisismorelikelywithautoscanmonitorsthanTVssincewhatistoo
longforonescanrangemaybecorrectforanotherandtheselectioncircuitryisconfusedor
broken.
4.FailureofHVregulator.ActualHVregulatorsareuncommontodaybuttheHVmaycontrolled
byafeedbackvoltagefromadivider(focusorscreen,oritsown)orasecondarywindingonthe
flybacksettingtheB+ordrivetiming.Thismayresultinanunderscanned(smallerthan
normal)pictureifonlytheHVandnotthedeflectionvoltagesaswellarederivedfromthesame
supply.
Inoneexampleof(4),aarcingoftheHVinaConracstudiomonitorresultedinthedestructionofthe
HVswitchmodeinvertertransistor(thisusedaseparateHVsupply)andafusableresistor.Thecause
wasanopenHVfeedbackresistordividerallowingtheHVtoincreasedrastically.

Snaps,crackles,andotherHVbreakdown
Variousproblemscanresultinoccasionalorsustainedsparkingorarcingsoundsfrominsidethe
monitor.Notethatastaticelectricitybuildupiscommononthefrontofthescreen.Itisharmlessand
thereissnothingyoucandoaboutitanyhow.
Thefollowingmayresultinoccasionalorsustainedsoundsnotcommonlyassociatedwithaproperly
workingTVormonitor.Theremayormaynotbeflashesorblankingofthescreenatthesametimeas
theaudiblenoise.Seethesamenamedsectionsthatfollowfordetails.
Arcing,sparking,orcoronafromCRTHVanode(redwire/suctioncup).
ArcingatCRTsparkgaps.

Arcingfromflybackorvicinity.
ArcingduetobadconnectionstoordisconnectedCRTreturn.
FlashoversinsidetheCRT.

Arcing,sparking,orcoronafromCRTHVanode(redwire/suctioncup)
Symptomscouldincludeasizzlingcoronaormorelikely,anoccasionalorrapidseriesofsharpsnaps
possiblyquiteloudandquitevisiblefromtheanodecapontheCRTtothegroundedcoatingonthe
outsideoftheCRTorachassisgroundpoint(oranyotherconductornearby).Coronaisahigh
resistanceleakagethroughtheairwithouttotalbreakdown.Thesnappingiscausedbythesuddenand
nearlycompletedischargeoftheCRTanodecapacitancethroughalowresistanceionizedpathsimilar
tolightning.
Therearetwolikelycauses:
1.Dirt,dust,grime,aroundandunderthesuctioncupontheCRTareprovidingadischargepath.
Thismaybemoresevereinhumidweather.SafelydischargetheHVandthenremoveand
thoroughlycleantheHVsuctioncupandtheareaunderitandontheCRTforseveralinches
aroundtheHVconnection.Makesuretherearenoloosewiresorotherpossibleplacesforthe
HVtodischargetointhevicinity.
2.Thehighvoltagehasgonethroughtheroof.Usually,theXrayprotectioncircuitryshouldkick
inbutitcanfail.Ifcleaningdoesnothelp,thisisalikelypossibility.Seethesections:High
voltageshutdownduetoXrayprotectioncircuitsandExcessivehighvoltage.

ArcingatsparkgapsandgasdischargetubesonCRTneckboardorelsewhere
TheseareprotectivedevicesintendedtobreakdownanddivertexcessivevoltageawayfromtheCRT
(usually).
Thisisrarelyduetoadefectivesparkgaporgasdischargetubebutratherisasafetymechanismlikea
fusedesignedtoprotecttheinternalelectrodesoftheCRTifthefocusorscreenvoltageshould
becomeexcessive.ThesparkgapbreaksdownfirstandpreventsinternalarcingintheCRT.These
sparkgapsmaybebuiltintotheCRTsocketaswell.
Arcingatasparkgaporaglowingorflashingdischargetubemaybeaccompaniedbytotallossof
pictureorbadfocus,brightnessorfocusfluctuations,oranyofanumberofsimilarsymptoms.A
commoncauseisabreakdowninsidethefocusdivider(usuallypartoftheflybackortripler)but
couldalsobeduetoexcessiveuncontrolledhighvoltageduetoafailureoftheB+regulatororHOT
snubbercapacitor,or(ironically)evenashortinsidetheCRT.
Sparkgapsmaybeactualtwoorthreepindeviceswithseeminglynoinsides,partoftheCRT
socket,orprintedonthecircuitboarditself.
Gasdischargetubeslooklikesmallneonlamps(e.g.,NE2)butcouldbefilledwithsomeother
gasmixturetoprovideacontrolledhigherbreakdownvoltage.
Therefore,likeafuse,don'tjustreplaceordisablethesedevices,locateandcorrectunderlying
problem.TheCRTmakesanexpensivefuse!

SparkgapsandgasdischargebulbsonCRTneckboardorelsewhere
TheseareprotectivedevicesintendedtobreakdownanddivertexcessivevoltageawayfromtheCRT
(usually).

Sparkgapsmaybeactualtwoorthreepindeviceswithseeminglynoinsidesorprintedonthe
circuitboarditself.
Gasdischargebulbslooklikesmallneonlamps(e.g.,NE2)butcouldbefilledwithsomeother
gasmixturetoprovideacontrolledhigherbreakdownvoltage.
Arcingatasparkgaporaflashingorglowinggasdischargetubemayindicateexcessivehighvoltage,
ashortinthefocus/screendividernetworkoftheflyback,ashortintheCRT,orsomeotherfault
resultinginabnormallyhighvoltageonitsterminals.

Arcingfromflybackorvicinity
Arcingmaybevisibleoraudibleandresultinreadilydetectablelevelsofozone.Notethatveryslight
tracesofozonemaynotindicateanythingsignificantbutiftheTVsmellslikeanofficecopier,there
isprobablysomedischargetakingplace.
WARNING:Itispossibleforarcingtodevelopasaresultofexcessivehighvoltage.Symptomsmight
beasmallerthannormalexcessivelybrightpicturebutthismaynotbeabletobeconfirmeduntilthe
flybackisrepairedorreplaced.Seethesection:Excessivehighvoltage.
OntheHVoutput,itwillprobablybealoudsnappingsound(duetothecapacitanceofthe
CRT)withassociatedblue/whitesparksuptoaninchormoreinlength.Ifthearclengthisshort
enough,thismayturnintoanearlycontinuoussizzlingsoundwithyellow/orangearcand
melting/burningplastic.
PriortotheHVrectifier,itwilllikelybeacontinuoussizzlewithorange/yellow/whitearcand
melting/burningplasticorcircuitboardmaterial.
Internalarcingintheflybackmaybeaudibleandeventuallyresultinabulgingand/orcracked
case(ifsomeothercomponentdoesn'tfailfirstasthiswouldtakesometimetodevelop).
Acoronadischargewithoutactualsparksoravisiblewelldefinedarcisalsopossible.Thismay
bevisibleinatotallydarkroom,possiblymorelikelywhenthehumidityishigh.Athorough
cleaningtoremovealldustandgrimemaybeallthatisneededinthiscase.
Ifthearciscomingfromaspecificpointontheflybackacrackorpinholethismaybe
patchedwellenoughtoconfirmthattherestofthemonitorisoperationalandanewflybackis
worththemoney.Otherwise,thereisnowayofknowingifthearcingmayhavedamagedother
circuitryuntilareplacementflybackpossiblymoneywastedarrives.
Toattemptarepair,scrapeoffanydirtorcarbonthatispresentalongthepathofthearcingand
itsvicinity.Then,cleantheareathoroughlywithalcoholanddrycompletely.Otherwise,thedirt
andcarbonwilljustactasagoodconductorandthearcingwillcontinueunderyourrepair!
Severallayersofplasticelectricaltapemaybeadequatefortesting.Multiplecoatsofhigh
voltagesealerornoncorrodingRTVsilicone(ifitsmellslikevinegaraceticacidasitcures,
thismaygetinandaffectthewindings)wouldbebetteriftheobjectiveisanactualrepair.A
thicklayerofEpoxymaybeevenbetterandaffectedlessbypossibleHVcorona.Eitherof
thesemayprovetobeapermanentfixalthoughstartingthesearchforasourceforanew
flybackwouldnothurtjustincase.Thearcmostlikelydiddamagetheinsulationinternally
whichmayormaynotbeaprobleminthefuture.
Alsoseethesection:Dave'scompleteprocedureforrepairofanarcingflyback.
Insomecases,thepinholeorcrackisanindicationofamoreseriousproblemoverheatingdue
toshortedwindingsintheflybackorexcessivesecondaryload.

IfthearcisfromoneofthesparkgapsaroundtheCRT,theCRTsocket,ortheplastic'alignment
base'ontheCRTitself,thiscouldalsobeaflybackproblemindicatinginternalshortsinthe
focus/screennetwork.
IfthearcingisinsidetheCRT,thiscouldindicateabadCRToraproblemwiththeflyback
focus/screennetworkandnoorinadequatesparkgapprotection.
Whererepairseemspossible,first,cleantheareasaroundthearcthoroughlyandthentryseveral
layersofplasticelectricaltape.IftheTVworksnormallyforsay,anhour,thenthereisprobably
nothingelsewrongandyoucantryforapropersealingjoborhopethattapeholdsout(putafew
morelayersoneachisgoodforabout810kVtheoretically).
OnceIhadaTVwherethemainproblemwasacrackedflybackarcingbutthistookoutoneofthe
fusableresistorsforthepowersupplytothe*vertical*outputsothesymptomsincludedasingle
horizontalline.Don'taskmetoexplainreplacingthatresistorandtheflyback(theflybacktested
good,butthiswasforsomeoneelse)fixedtheTV.
Inanothercase,apinholedevelopedintheflybackcasingprobablyduetopoorplasticmoldingatthe
timeofmanufacture.Thisresultedinamostspectacularcaseofsparkingtoanearbybracket.Afew
layersofelectricaltapewasallthatwasneededtoaffectapermanentrepair.
However,replacementisreallythebestlongtermsolutionbothforreliabilityaswellasfirerisk.
(From:BertChristensen(rosewood@interlog.com).)
Itmaywelllastalongtime.Theinsulationbreakdownwasprobablyintheareaoftherectifiersection
ratherthantheflybacksection.IhaverepairedseveralunitsinthesamewaybutIhavegenerally
replacedtheflybackbeforesendingbacktothecustomer.Iamworriedthattherepairwillnothold
andthatafirecouldstart.Ihavenodesirewhatsoevertobesuedbysomefireinsurancecompany.
IamalwaysremindedbytheexperiencethatZenithhadwithitsSystem3chassisafewyearsago.
Theyburnedandcausedmanyhousefiresincludingoneinthegovernor'smansioninTexas.Zenith
spentmegabucksonthatone.Theyalsospentmegabucksontheir'safetycapacitor'messafewyears
beforethat.

Dave'scompleteprocedureforrepairofanarcingflyback
(From:DaveMoore(penguin@datastar.net).
FirstIcleantheafflictedareawithElectromotivesprayfromAutozone.It'sforcleaningalternators.
OnZlineIremovethefocuscontrolandwashwiththealternatorcleanerandatoothbrushuntilall
dirtandcarbondepositsareremoved.ThenItakeanxactoknifeandcarveoutthecarbonizedhole
wherethearcingbrokethrough.Thentakeyoursolderingironandclosetheholebymeltingadjacent
plasticintoit.(cleananysolderoffyourironwithsolderwickfirst).Thencutsomeplasticoffof
someotherpartofftheflybackwhereitwontbeneededandusethistoplasticweld(withyouriron)a
humpofapatchintoandoverthearchole.Smoothandsealwithiron.Nextapplyasthickalayerof
siliconerubberasyoucanandletdryovernight.

ArcingduetobadconnectionstoordisconnectedCRTreturn
TheAquadagcoatingontheoutsideoftheCRTisthenegativeplateoftheHVfiltercapacitor.Ifthis
isnotsolidlyconnectedtotheHVreturn,youwillhaveyour25kV+tryingtogowhereitshouldnot
be.ThereshouldbeawiresolidlyattachedtotheCRTneckboardorchassis.Withoutthis,voltage
willbuildupuntilitisabletotakesomeotherpathpossiblyresultingindamagetosensitivesolid

statecomponentsintheprocess.Therefore,isisimportanttorectifythesituation.
Warning:Ifyoufindthisdisconnected,don'tjustattachitanywhere.YoumayinstantlykillICsor
othersolidstatecomponents.ItmustbeconnectedtotheproperreturnpointontheCRTneckboard
orchassis.

FlashoversinsidetheCRT
Duetosharpedgesontheelectrongunelectrodes,impurities,andothermanufacturingdefects,there
canbeoccasionalarcinginternaltotheCRT.ProperlydesignedHV,deflection,andpowersupply
circuitscandealwiththesewithoutfailingbutnotallmonitorsaredesignedwell.
ThereisnothingyoucandoaboutflashoversassumingyourHVisnotexcessive(seethesection:
Excessivehighvoltage.Ifthesepersistand/orbecomemorefrequent,anewCRTornewmonitorwill
beneeded.

Ozonesmelland/orsmokefrommonitor
Smokingisjustasbadformonitorsasforpeopleandusuallymorequicklyterminal(nopun....).
Whiteacridsmokemayindicateafailedelectrolyticcapacitorinthepowersupplyprobablyin
conjunctionwithashortedrectifier.Needlesstosay,pulltheplugatonce.
Avisualinspectionshouldbeabletoeasilyconfirmthebadcapacitorasitwillprobablybebulging
andhavecondensedresiduenearby.Checktherectifierdiodesorbridgerectifierwithanohmmeter.
Resistanceacrossanypairofleadsshouldbemorethanafewohmsinatleastonedirection.Remove
fromthecircuittoconfirm.Boththefaultydiode(s)andcapacitorshouldbereplaced(thoughthe
capacitormayworkwellenoughtotestwithnewdiode(s).
Ifavisualinspectionfailstoidentifythesmokingpart,youcanprobablyplugthemonitorinforafew
secondsuntilthesourceofthesmokeisobviousbutbepreparedtopullthepluginarealhurry.
Ifthesmell/smokeiscomingfromtheflyback,thenithasprobablygonebellyup.Youmaybeableto
seeacrackorbulgeinthecase.Whiletheflybackwilldefinitelyneedtobereplaced,itislikelythat
nothingelseiswrong.However,itmightbeprudenttouseaVariacwhenperforminginitialtesting
withthereplacementjustincasethereisasecondaryshortcircuitorexcessHVproblem.

XrayandotherEMemissionfrommyTVormonitor?
Xrayradiationisproducedwhenahighvelocityelectronbeamstrikesatargetcontainingheavy
metals.InamodernTVormonitor,thiscanonlytakeplaceattheshadowmask/aperturegrilleand
phosphorscreenoftheCRT.
ForXrays,theamountofradiation(ifany)willbeproportionaltobrightness.Theenergy
(determinedbytheCRThighvoltage,calledkVPinthemedicalimagingfield)isnotaffected.Thisis
onereasonmanymonitorsandTVsaredesignedwithbrightnesslimitingcircuits.
Inanycase,therewillbevirtuallynoXrayemissionsfromthefrontoftheCRTastheglassisgreater
thananinchthickandprobablycontainssomeleadforaddedshielding.Alsoseethesection:ShouldI
beworriedaboutXrayexposurewhileservicingaTVormonitor?.
Electromagneticradiation(EM)isproducedmostlyfromthedeflectionyokeandtoalesserextent
fromsomeoftheothermagneticcomponentsliketransformersandinductors.Dependingonmonitor
design(somearespecificallydesignedtoreducethis),EMemissionscanvaryquiteabit.Frequencies

rangefromthe50/60HzofthepowerlineorverticalscanratetoseveralhundredkHzintheAM
broadcastband.Theintensityandspectraldistributionwillvarydependingonhorizontalandvertical
scanrate.
AtotallyblackscreenwillreduceXrayemissiontozero.ItwillnotaffectEMemissionssignificantly
asmostofthiscomesfromthemagneticparts,particularlythedeflectionyoke.
Thereisnomeasurablemicrowave,IR,orUVradiation.
Irefusetogetintothediscussionofwhat,ifany,healthproblemsresultfromlowlevelEMemissions.
Thereissimplynotenoughdata.

ShouldIbeworriedaboutXrayexposurewhileservicingaTVormonitor?
TheonlysourceofXraysinamodernTVormonitorisfromtheCRT.Xraysaregeneratedwhena
highvelocityelectronbeamstrikesaheavymetaltarget.Foranythingyouarelikelytoencounter,this
canonlyhappeninavacuumthusinsidetheCRT.Thehigherthevoltage,thegreaterthevelocity
andpotentialdanger.ReallyoldTVs(priortoaround1975)maystillhaveHVrectifierandregulator
tubesothersourcesofXrays.However,modernTVsandmonitorsimplementthesefunctionswith
solidstatecomponents.
ThethickfrontCRTfaceplateprotectsusersadequatelybuttheremaybesomeemissionfromthe
thinnersides.At2530kV(quitelowasXrayenergiesgo)Xrayswillbestoppedbyalmostany
metalsowhatyouhavetoworryaboutiswheretherearenoshields.Inaddition,theCRTglass
usuallycontainssomeleadcompoundstoblockXrayemissions.
Otherthanloweringthebrightness(orhighvoltage!),thereisn'tanythingyoucandotoreduceXray
emissionfromthefrontofthemonitor.Anysortofaddonscreen(groundedorotherwise)unlessitis
madeofthickleadedglass,willhavenosignificanteffectonXrays.Ifyouarestillconcerned,sit
fartheraway.
However,realistically,thereisverylittledanger.Iwouldnotworryaboutexposureunlessyouplanto
besittingforhoursonthesides,behind,orundertheTVormonitorwithapicture(therewillbe
noneifthescreenisblack).
Itisinterestingthateventhose1.5"Watchmanand.5"camcorderviewfinderCRTshaveXray
warninglabelseventhoughthehighvoltageusedwiththeseisn'tanywherenearhighenoughtobeof
anyconcern!

MoreonradiationfromTVsandmonitors
(From:JerryGreenberg(jerryg50@hotmail.com).)
YourstandardTVsetormonitorshouldnotexceedabout0.2mR/Hrofradiationfromadistanceof5
cmfromanypartofthecabinet.MostTVmonitorequipmentislessthanhalfofthisamount.
TheCRThasacoatingontheinnerwallofitsglassenvelope,andalsothereisametalshadowmask
oraperturegrillinthefront.Thereisalsoametalshroudarounditsparameter.
ThetypeofemissionfromtheCRTisknownassoftXRayemission.Thisisbecauseitislowpower,
andisinthelowerXRayregion.
TheXRayemissionisstrongestattherearoftheTVsetbecausethereissomeopenedareawherethe
electrongunislocated.But,thisisveryweakaswell.TheradiationfromaTVormonitorisnotbeing
focusedtoonepoint,andisalsobelowthethresholdlevelofbeingdangerous.

ThelongtermeffectofthetotalradiationfromnormaloperatingTVequipmentisnotfullyknown.
However,theeffectofXRayradiationisaccumulativeovertimeiftherearenobreaksinbetweenthe
exposures.AsforstandardfocusedXRaysliketheonesusedinamedicalorsecurityfacility,these
andmostoftheireffectsarewellknown.
AsfornormalworkingTVequipment,whenusednormally,thetotalradiationislessthatwhatyou
wouldgetwhenwalkingonthestreet.Therearemanysatellitesbeamingdownsignals,radioandTV
broadcaststations,communicationssystems,andthencellphones.
TheXRayradiationinaTVsetisemittedfromtheeffectoftheHighVoltagedrivegeneratingthe
electronbeam.IftheHighVoltageexceedsthedesignedsafetylimitfortheCRT,thenthereisconcern
thattheXRayradiationmayhavesomeeffectonanyonethatisincloseproximitytotheCRT.The
amountofbywhichthehighvoltageexceedsthedesignspecfificationswilldeterminethetotalXRay
emission.Sincethisemissionisnotfocusedintoafinearea,itsimmediatedangerisalsogreatly
reduced.
AllTVsetsbylawmusthaveintheirdesignsometypeofprotectiontoshuttheTVdownifthereis
excessiveHighVoltage,excessiveHighVoltagecurrentdrive,andanumberofothersafetycriterias.
Thereisalsotheconcernaboutelectromagneticradiation.Infactallradiofrequenciesarebasedon
electromagneticradiation(EMR).
TherewasagreatconcernaboutthelowfrequencyEMR.Thiswouldcomefromthepowersupply,
deflectionamplifierstages,andthenfromthedeflectionyokeandflybacktransformer.Theredifferent
typesofEMRfromTVsets.
ConcerningTV'sandmonitors,thisradiationworrycomesupfromtimetotime.Ifawomanis
pregnantitwouldbewiserforhertonotexposetheunbornbabybyworkingclosetoaterminalor
monitor.Thisnonexposureisagoodpolicytomakesurethateveryoneissaferatherthansufferany
typeofdamageorhealthrisks.
Asforasafetyconcernforamothertobe,orasmallbaby,theycanbeinfrontofaTVsetbutatleast
5to7feetaway.Fromthisdistancethereshouldnotbeanydangeratall.
Theaboveisfrommypersonalobservationsandisverygeneral.Ihavealsoreadvariouspublications
overtheyearsthatpertaintothissubject.
IhaveapersonalconcernabouttheradiationfromTVsetsandmonitorsbecauseIdoanextensive
amountofserviceonthese.Iamalsodoingalotofpicturetubechangesinmonitorequipment.Iam
thenexposedforafewhoursbecauseImustdothepurityandconvergencesetupsofthesesets.Ihave
somedayswhereIwork10to12hoursdoingTVandmonitorservicework.
IfyouwantaTVmonitorthatwillputoutnearzeroXRayradiation,andverylowelectromagnetic
radiation,thengoforoneofthenewLCDflatscreenmonitors.

Flybackgotwet
YouputyourcanofCokewhere????
WhosaystheseFAQscannotbefunny?
Needlesstosay,unplugthemonitorimmediately.Inspectaroundthetargetareaforobviouslyblown
ordamagedcomponents.Testfusesandfusableresistors.Removealltracesofliquidespecially
sugaryorcorrosiveliquid.Usewaterfirstandthenalcoholtopromotedrying.Repairburntsolder
connectionsandcircuitboardtraces.Oncethemonitorisentirelydriedout,powerituppreferably

throughaserieslightbulband/orVariacuntilyouaresurenothingelsewillletloose.Look,listen,and
smellforanyunusualbehavior.Ifitnowworks,thenconsideryourselflucky.Ifnot,theremaybe
damagetotransistors,ICs,orothercomponents.
AnothercauseofthisisusingspraycleaneroratoowetragonthefrontoftheCRT(otherpartsofthe
monitor,forthatmatter).Anyliquidwhichdripsinside(alltoolikely)mayshortoutcircuitryonthe
mainboardwithveryexpensiveconsequences.

Bloomingorbreathingproblems
Thereareseveralsymptomsthatarebasicallysimilar:
Bloomingisdefinedasanexpansionoftherasterorhorizontalsectionsoftherasterwithbright
material.Forexample,switchingbetweendarkandlightpicturecausesthesizeofthepictureto
expandby10%.Aslightchangeinsizeisunavoidablebutifitisgreaterthan1or2percent
fromatotallyblackimagetoafullwhiteone,thisiseitheranindicationofadefectivemonitor
oronethatisbadlydesigned.Thecauseispoorloworhighvoltageregulation.
ChecktheB+tothehorizontaldeflection.Thisisusuallywellregulated.Ifitisvaryingin
sympathytothesizechanges,tracebacktodeterminewhythelowvoltageregulatorisnot
doingitsjob.Thereasonforthesizechangeisthatthehighvoltageisdroppingandreducing
thestiffnessoftheelectronbeam.
Expansionoftherasterwidthinareasofbrightimageryisanindicationofshorttermregulation
problems.Thevideodrivemaybeinteractingwiththeotherpowersupplies.Checkforripple
thiswouldbeattheverticalscanrateinthevariousregulatedpowersupplies.Thecausemay
beadriedupelectrolyticcapacitoronceyoulocatetheoffendingvoltage,testorsubstitute
capacitorsinthatsupply.
Inboththesecases,ifthisjuststartedaftersomeworkwasdonetothemonitor,thebrightnesslimiter
and/orvideodrivemaysimplybesetsohighthatthemonitorcannotsupplyenoughcurrenttothe
highvoltage.Ifthebrightnessisacceptablewiththeseturneddownslightlyandstillhaveacceptable
brightness,thentheremaybenothingwrong.
Breathingisdefinedasaperiodicchangeinthesizeoftherasterwhichmaybeindependentof
whatisdisplayedoritsseverityorfrequencymayberelatedtothebrightnessordarknessofthe
image.Thisisanothertypeofregulationproblemandmaybecausedbybadelectrolytic
capacitorsorothercomponentsinthelowvoltagepowersupplies.
Ifthemonitorusesaswitchmodepowersupplyorlowvoltageregulatorseparatefromthe
horizontaldeflection,firstcheckitsoutput(s)foravariationinvoltageatthebreathingrate.Test
withalightbulborresistorloadtoconfirmthattheproblemishereandnotthedeflectionor
remainderofthemonitor.
Aconditionwithsomewhatsimilarsymptomsisbadfocusfuzzypicturebutonlywithbright
(highbeamcurrent)scenes.Thiscouldbejustamatterofadjustingthefocuscontrolbutmay
alsoindicatesuboptimalfilamentvoltageduetobadconnectionsorcomponentsinthefilament
circuit,oratiredwornCRT.Youwon'tgethighbeamcurrentwithoutsomeseriousspot
blooming(afatbeambecausetoomuchcathodeareaisused)andyouwillgetcathode
'poisoning'afterprolongeduse.
VisuallyinspecttheneckoftheCRTforthenormalorangeglowofthefilamentsandcheckfor
badconnectionsandbadparts.

Erraticfocusorscreen(G2)voltageand/orcontrolsonflyback
Symptomsmayincludefluctuatingfocusorbrightness.Inextremecases,theresultmaybeatoo
brightordarkpictureorotherbehaviorcausedbybreakdownintheFocus/Screen(G2)divider
network.
Usually,thiswillrequireflybackreplacementtorepairreliably.Sometimes,thesectionwiththe
controlscanbesnappedapartandcleanedbutthisisnotcommon.
First,justtryrotatingthescreen(G2)controlbackandforthafewtimes.Thismaycleanupthe
contactsandeliminatetheerraticbehavior.Possibly,positioningitabittoonesideoftheoriginal
locationwillhelp.Then,usetheindividualorothermasterbackground/biasadjustmentsto
compensatefortheimproperbrightness.
Ifpressinginontheerraticcontrolhelpstostabilizethesetting,youmighttryadjustingittothe
optimalpositionandthenputadabofhotmeltglue(orSuperglueifyoucanmanagenottostickyour
fingerstogether)ontheshafttoholditwithalittlemorecontactforce.
Ifnoneofthishelps,hereisa'wellit'sgoinginthedumpsteranyhow'proceduretotry:
AfterdischargingtheCRT(soyoudon'tgetzapped)drillatinyholeintheplasticcovernearthebad
control.Becarefulyoudon'tdamageanythinginsideyoujustwantaccesstothecontactsofthe
controls.Useahanddrillwith,say,a1/16"bit.Don'tdrillmorethanabout1/8"deepwhichshould
entertheairspace.Thenspraysomecontactcleanerthroughtheholeandworkthecontrols.Wait
sufficienttime(say,24hours)foreverythingtodryCOMPLETELYandseeifbehaviorchanges(orit
worksatall).
Thisisa'youhavegottobekidding'typeofrepairsonoguarantees:).
Ifbysomemiracleitdoeswork,filltheholewithadropofRTVorjustputacoupleoflayersof
electricaltapeoverit.

Focus/Screendividerbypasssurgery
Thisiskludgenumber41256butmaybethedifferencebetweenabitmorelifeandthedumpster.
Ifthepreviousextrememeasuresdon'thelp,thenitmaybepossibletosimplysubstituteagood
dividernetworkexternally.
Notethatifthereisevidenceofinternalbreakdowninthedivideroftheoriginalflyback(hissing,
cracks,overheating,bulgingcase,etc.),thiswillnotworkunlessyoucandisconnectitfromitsHV
connection.
Therearetwoissues:
1.Isthisastablesituation?Evenifyouprovideanexternalsubstitute,thepartsinsidetheflyback
maycontinuetodeteriorateeventuallyresultinginothermoretotalfailureoftheflybackor
worse.
2.Ifyouprovideanexternalfocus/screendivider,itmustbedoneissuchamanner(including
propermountingandsuperinsulation)suchthatitcannotbecalledintoquestionshouldtherebe
afirewherethemonitoriseventheslightestbitsuspect.
Varioussizeexternalfocus/screendividernetworkscanbepurchasedbutwhetherthisistrulyacost
effectivesolutionisnotobvious.

(From:LarrySabo(sabo@storm.ca).)
Ijustordereda'bleederresistor'fromDataDisplayLtd(CanadiansubofCCS)touseasacurefor
flybackswithflakyfocus/screenpots.Itcontainsfocusandscreenpots,andcostsCdn$16.99,which
isalotlessthanacompleteflyback,that'sforsure.Iexpectitwillbecompatiblewithquiteawide
rangeofflybacks.
Ihaveusedbleederresistorassembliesfromduffflybacksacoupleoftimeswithgoodsuccess.You
connecttheHVleadintotheHVcapoftheoriginalflyback,groundallpinsofthesubflyback,and
usethefocusandscreenleadsfromthesubbleederassemblyinplaceoftheoriginals.
Lookslikehellbutworksfine.Mounting(andsecuring)thesubstituteisachallengegiventhelimited
spaceavailable.Ionlyusethisapproachonwhatwouldotherwisebeuneconomicaltorepair,and
alwaysadvisetheownerorcustomerofthecobblingjob.Italsoenablesyoutoverifywhetheritisthe
flybackthatneedsreplacement,versustheCRT.

Decayingorerraticfocusorscreen(G2)voltages
ThefollowingappliestobothCRTfocusvoltage(whichshouldbeafewkV)andscreenorG2
voltage(whichshouldbeseveralhundredV).
"Thescreenvoltagewillcomeuptonormalaftersittingovernight,400Vorso.After
approximately5minutesorslightlylonger,Ihearaslightarcing.Fromthatpointon,the
screenvoltagewillwanderanywherefrom75Vuptomaybe150V.Adjustmentofthe
screencontrolontheflybackhasonlyasmalleffectandisnotpermanent.Removingthe
CRTpcbresultsinthescreenvoltagereturningtonormal."
ThisisverylikelyashortbetweenelectrodesinsidetheCRTunlessthereissomethingontheneck
boardthatisbreakingdownasaresultofsomeconnectiontotheCRT.Theflybackshouldlargelynot
knowthedifferencewiththesocketpluggedintotheCRT.However,onrareoccasions,thereis
contaminationwithinthe'plasticalignmentbase'ontheendoftheCRTneck.(Itispossibleto
*carefully*removetheplasticpieceandcleantheCRTglass/pins.Reinstalltheplasticpieceifitis
stillintactorleaveitoffjusttakecareinreplacingtheCRTneckboard.)
Onepossibilityisthatglueusedtoholdcomponentsdownonsomecircuitboardshasdeterioratedand
turnedconductive.CheckfortantobrownstuffshortingtracesontheCRTneckboard.Ifthisis
presentonthefocusorscreentracesorwires,itmayjustbeyourproblem.Scrapeoffalloftheold
glueandthencleanthoroughly.Repairanydamagedtraces.
WhathappenstotheHV?AHVbreakdownpossiblyinsidetheCRTwouldresultinallthevoltages
beingdraggeddown.
Whathappenstothepicture?
IfyouconnectachargedHVcapacitor(guessingacouplehundredvolts,acouplemicrofarads)
betweenG2andG1orfocus,you**will**knowiftappingtheneckresultsinamomentaryshort!I
cannotpredictwhetherthiswillbeatemporarycureorpermanentkiller.Seethesection:Rescuinga
shortedCRTRescuingashortedCRT.
Hereisanotherthingtotry:puta100MohmorsoresistorbetweenSCREENandtheCRTsocket.
Thisshouldnotaffectthebehaviormuchuntilthefailureoccurs.Then,checkthevoltageonboth
sideswithahighimpedancevoltmeter(1000M).IftheCRTisarcing,itwillbemuchloweronthe
CRTsideandwillprobablyfluctuate.Youcanplaysimilargameswithfocusvoltage.

Disconnectingflybackwire(s)fromCRTdriverboard
Insomecases,theremaybeoneormoreseparatewiresrunningtodirectlytotheCRTsocket.These
aretypicallyforfocuswhichhasarelativelyhighvoltagesobetterinsulationisneededbuttheremay
benoobviousmeansofremovalshouldflybackreplacementbeneeded.
Onealternativeissimplytocutthewire(s)inalocationthatiswellawayfromanyplacetoshortout,
solder,andthendoamostexcellentjobofinsulatingthesplice.Ifthereismorethanonewire,make
suretolabelthemfirstiftheyaren'tcolorcoded.
However,youmayfindthatthecapontheCRTsocketsnapsoffusingathinknifebladeor
screwdriver.Thewiremaybesolderedorjustpressedinplaceinsuchawaythatpullingitoutis
difficultorimpossiblewithoutremovingthecover.Ifthereismorethanonewire,labelthembefore
removalunlessthelocationsareclearlymarked.Sometimesthecolorisstampedontheplasticbut
theremayjustbeadesignationlike"A"and"B".
(From:RaymondCarlsen(rrcc@u.washington.edu).)
ThelastoneIworkedonpuzzledmeforafewmoments.Seeifyoucanseeaspacebetweenthelittle
cup(wherethewireentersthesocket)andthesocketitself.Pryuponthecapwithaknifeandit
shouldpoprightoff.Thewireissolderedtoapinunderit.Don'tapplyheatforverylong...youmay
meltthesocket.

FocusorscreenvoltagedriftsafterwarmuponlywhenCRTisconnected
"Ihavea35yroldmonitorthatlosesscreenvoltage.Ibelievethattheproblemis
specifictotheCRTortheflyback,eitheroneisaguessI'dratherbesureofpriorto
orderingapart.
Thescreenvoltagewillcomeuptonormalaftersittingovernight,400Vorso.After
approximately5minutesorslightlylonger,Ihearaslightarcing.Fromthatpointon,the
screenvoltagewillwanderanywherefrom75Vuptomaybe150V.Adjustmentofthe
screencontrolontheflybackhasonlyasmalleffectandisnotpermanent.Removingthe
CRTpcbresultsinthescreenvoltagereturningtonormal.
Icannotfindthesourceofthearcing,asithappensquicklyandIhavealwaysbeenonthe
othersideofthesetwhenithappens.Ihavereplacedthecrtsocket,thinkingthespark
gapwasarcing.IhavecheckedtheCRTforG1andHKshortsonasencorecrtchecker,it
checksgood,butIamawarethatsinceitisanintermittentproblem,thatthechecker
probablywillnotcatchit."
ThisisverylikelyashortbetweenelectrodesinsidetheCRTunlessthereissomethingontheneck
boardthatisbreakingdownasaresultofsomeconnectiontotheCRT.Theflybackshouldlargelynot
knowthedifferencewiththesocketpluggedintotheCRT.However,onrareoccasions,thereis
contaminationwithinthe'plasticalignmentbase'ontheendoftheCRTneck.(Itispossibleto
*carefully*removetheplasticpieceandcleantheCRTglass/pins.Reinstalltheplasticpieceifitis
stillintactorleaveitoffjusttakecareinreplacingtheCRTneckboard.)
Onepossibilityisthatglueusedtoholdcomponentsdownonsomecircuitboardshasdeterioratedand
turnedconductive.CheckfortantobrownstuffshortingtracesontheCRTneckboard.Ifthisis
presentonthefocusorscreentracesorwires,itmayjustbeyourproblem.Scrapeoffalloftheold
glueandthencleanthoroughly.Repairanydamagedtraces.
WhathappenstotheHV?AHVbreakdownpossiblyinsidetheCRTwouldresultinallthevoltages

beingdraggeddown.
Whathappenstothepicture?
IfyouconnectachargedHVcapacitor(guessingacouplehundredvolts,acouplemicrofarads)
betweenG2andG1orfocus,you**will**knowiftappingtheneckresultsinamomentaryshort!I
cannotpredictwhetherthiswillbeatemporarycureorpermanentkiller.
Hereisanotherthingtotry:puta100MohmorsoresistorbetweenSCREEN(orFOCUS)andthe
CRTsocket.Thisshouldnotaffectthebehaviormuchuntilthefailureoccurs.Then,checkthevoltage
onbothsideswithahighimpedancevoltmeter(>1000M).IftheCRTisarcing,itwillbemuchlower
ontheCRTside.

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

Raster,Color,andVideoProblems
Blankpicture,powerlighton,digitalcontrols(ifany)active
Does'blankpicture'meansatotallyblackscreenwiththebrightnessandcontrastcontrolshavingno
effectwhatsoever?Or,isthereisnopicturebutthereisarasterlightonthescreen?Thedirectionin
whichtroubleshootingshouldproceeddiffersignificantlydependingtheanswer.
Verifythatyoucomputerhasnotsimplyenteredpowersavingmodeandblankedthescreenorshut
offthemonitorvideoandpowercircuitsentirely.
Confirmthatthevideosourceisnotdefectiveorblanktryanotherone.
Herearesomequestions:
1.Isthereanylightonthescreenatanysettingsofthebrightnessandcontrastcontrols,and/or
whenswitchingchannels.Canyouseeanyrasterscanninglines?
2.Canyouobtainarasterofanykindbyadjustingthescreen(G2)control(probablyonthe
flyback)ormasterbackgroundorbrightness?
3.Lookinginthebackofthemonitor,canyouseetheglowoftheCRTfilaments?
4.Doyougetthatstaticonthefrontofthetubethatwouldindicatethatthereishighvoltage?
Iftheanswertoalloftheseis'no',thenyouhaveapowersupplyand/ordeflectionproblem.Referthe
thesection:Nopicturebutindicationsofpower.
Possiblecausesofnoraster:
Noorlowhighvoltage(lowvoltage,deflection,orhighvoltagepowersupplyfailure).
FaultwithothervoltageslikeG1orscreen(G2)toCRT.
FilamenttoCRTnotgettingpowered.
DrivetoCRTbad/shutoffasaresultoffaultelsewhere.Forexample,failureofthevertical
deflectionmaydisableHVorblankthescreemtoprotecttheCRTfromburninduetothevery

brighthorizontallinethatwouldresult.Withsomemonitors,itispossiblethattheXray
protectioncircuitrywillblankthescreen.
Possiblecausesofnovideo:probleminvideoinput,videoamplifiers,videooutput,cutoffdueto
otherfault.
Itcouldbeassimpleasabadconnectiontrygentlyproddingtheboardswithaninsulatedstickwhile
watchingthescreen.Checkforlooseconnectorsandreseatallinternalconnectors.

Brightnesscontrolhasnoeffect
Thefollowingassumesthatthepictureisfinebutthebrightnessisfixedprobablyattoohighalevel.
However,therecouldbeseveralinterrelatedproblemsifacommonsupplyvoltageweremissing,for
example.
Ifitisaknob,thenitshouldbevaryingthecontrolgrid(G1)voltagesrelativetothecathodes(K)of
theCRT.Thisisnotlikelytobeaverycomplexcircuit.Ifyoudonothaveaschematic,startby
tracingfromthecontrol,checkcontinuityandsolderconnections.Checkthecontrolitselfforproper
operationwithanohmmeter.Apowersupplygoingtoonesideofthecontrol(negativeprobably)may
bemissing.TbecontrolgridvoltagewillenduponthelittleboardontheneckoftheCRTcheck
thereaswellforbadsolderconnectionsoropenresistors.
Ifbrightnessisadigitalcontrol,thenyouwillneedaschematicunlessthereisanobviousbad
connection.

Nocolorblackandwhitepicture
Thismeansabsolutelynocolorequivalenttoablackandwhitepicture.Notevenahintofcolor.
Ifyouareusingacompositevideoinput,troubleshootthechromacircuitrylikeyouwouldaTVsee
thedocument:NotesontheTroubleshootingandRepairofTelevisionSets.
Thisisanextremelyunlikelyfailuremodeforacomputermonitorunlessyouareusingacomposite
videoinput.Itismostlikelytoasoftwaredriverorprogramproblem.Sometimes,thePCwillthink
thatthemonitoryouhaveconnectedisnotcapableofcolorandcertainprogramswillthendisplayin
B/Wnomatterwhat.Thismaybeduetoaninitializationproblempossiblyaraceconditionduring
thebootprocessespeciallylikelyifyouareusinganoldervideocardwithanewfastprocessor.
First,confirmthatthesourceisactuallyincolortrythemonitoronanothercomputerorviceversa.
Checkthesettingsofanymodeswitchesinrarecasesthereisacolor/monoswitchorbutton.
Notethattotheaverageperson,theobviousquestionbecomes:ismycolorpicturetubebad?The
answerisadefinitiveNO.ItisvirtuallyimpossibleforadefectiveCRTtocauseatotallossofcolor.
AdefectiveCRTcancausealackofaprimarycolorR,G,or,Bwhichwillmessupthecolorbutis
notlikelytoresultinablackandwhitepicture.

Onecoloristooweakortoostrong
Iftheproblemisslightand/orhasgraduallygottenworse,thismayjustrequireanadjustmentofthe
colorbrightness/background/biasand/orcolorgain/drivecontrolsinsidethemonitor.Seethesection:
Brightnessandcolorbalanceadjustment.
Evenifitappearsasthoughthereisanexcess,thismayactuallybeareductioninoneoftheprimary

colors.Forexample,amagentatingeisrepresentsareductioninthestrengthofthegreensignal.
Toohighanintensityforoneofthecolorchannelswillresultinatintofoneoftheprimaries:
red,greenorblue.
Toolowanintensityforoneofthecolorchannelswillresultinatintofthecomplementofone
oftheprimaries:yellow,cyan,ormagenta.
Problemsmainlyintheshadowsordarkareasofthepictureusuallyrepresentafaultwith
brightness/bias/background.
Problemsmainlyinthehighlightsorbrightareasofthepictureusuallyrepresentafaultwiththe
gain/drive.
Acolorthatthatisnowsuddenlybrighterordarkerthannormalresultinginincorrectcolorbalanceor
atintinthebackgroundcouldbeduetoanumberofcauses:
Badcableorpinbentoncableconnector.
BadconnectionsorbadcomponentinvideoamplifieroronCRTneckboardforthatcolor.
WeakguninCRT(reducedcolor).
Badvideocardorincorrectsoftwarecolormapsettings.
Formonitorswithsyncongreencapability,themonitormaythinkyouareusingsyncongreen
wheninfactyouhaveseparatesync.Inparticular,thismayresultinaproblemwithexcessive
green:
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Somemonitorsprovideauserselectablesetupoptionfor"syncongreen"vs.separatesyncs.
Sometimes,thisdoesn'treallychangewherethesyncitselfiscomingfrom.Inthosecases,it's
automaticallydetectedbut*does*changewherethereferencelevelforthevideoisexpectedto
be.Youmighttrycheckingthissetting,ifyouhaveit,andchangingitbackandforthtocheck
theeffect.It'snotlikelytobetheprobleminaseparatesyncsystemlikeaPC,butweirder
thingshavehappenedandit'seasyandcheaptocheckout.

Psychodeliccolor
Themeanscolorsthatarenotnormalandthatadjustmentoftheusercontrolsisnotabletocorrectit
sothatallcolorsofthepictureareproperlydisplayedatthesametime.Forexample,youareunable
togetanyyellowsorbluesinpicturethatshouldhavethesecolors.
Ifyouareusingacompositevideoinput,troubleshootthechromacircuitryasyouwouldaTV
seethedocument:NotesontheTroubleshootingandRepairofTelevisionSets.
Confirmthattheinputisnotaweirdcolorvideotryanothersoftwareprogramorvideosource.
WehaveadraftspersonwhoalwayssetsuphisWindowscolorschemeinthismannerwekeep
wishingitisthemonitoras**that**couldbefixed!
VerifythatthisisnotamissingcolorproblemoneoftheprimaryR,G,orB,hasdisappeared.
Ifso,refertothesection:Intermittent,flickering,ormissingcolors.
IfthisisamonitorwithBNCconnectorsandyouareusingthem,makesureyouhadthevideo

terminationswitchessetcorrectly(75ohmsifthisistheonlymonitororthelastmonitorina
daisychainHiZifanintermediatemonitorinadaisychain.)Averycommoncauseof
unbalancedorbloomingcolorsassumingthemonitoritselfisgoodisincorrectsettingsofthe
termination.
Abadconnection,badcomponent,orshortcircuitinthevideocircuitryorCRTneckboard
couldalsoresultinstrangecolors.

Monitormanufacturingqualityandcoldsolderjoints
Anyintermittentproblemswithmonitorsthatcauserandomsuddenchangesinthepicturebrightness,
color,size,orpositionareoftenaresultofbadconnections.Strategicallyplacedbadconnectionscan
alsocausepartstoblow.Forexample,abadconnectiontotheSCRanodeinaphasecontrolledpower
supplycanresultinallthecurrentpassingthroughthestartupresistor,blowingitaswellasother
components.IhadaTVlikethistherealproblemwasabadsolderjointatapinontheflyback.
Thus,erraticproblems,especiallywheretheyarepowerordeflectionrelated,shouldnotbeignored!
Badsolderjointsareverycommoninmonitorsduebothtopoorqualitymanufacturingaswellasto
deteriorationofthesolderbondafternumerousthermalcyclesandcomponentsrunningathigh
temperature.Withoutknowinganythingaboutthecircuitry,itisusuallypossibletocurethese
problemsbylocatingallbadsolderconnectionsandcleaningandreseatinginternalconnectors.The
term'coldsolderjoint'strictlyreferstoasolderconnectionthatwaseithernotheatedenoughduring
manufacturing,wascooledtooquickly,orwherepartpinsweremovedbeforethesolderhadachance
tosolidify.Asimilarsituationcandevelopovertimewiththermalcyclingwherepartsarenot
properlyfastenedandareessentiallybeingheldinbythesolderalone.Bothsituationsaremost
commonwiththepinsoflargecomponentsliketransformers,powertransistorsandpowerresistors,
andlargeconnectors.Thepinsofthecomponentshavealargethermalmassandmaynotgethot
enoughduringmanufacturing.Also,theyarerelativelymassiveandmayflextheconnectiondueto
vibrationorthermalexpansionandcontraction.
TheseproblemsareparticularlycommonwithTVsandmonitorsespeciallycheapermonitors.
Tolocatecoldsolderjoints,useastronglightandmagnifierandexaminethepinsoflarge
componentsforhairlinecracksinthesolderaroundthepin.Gentlywigglethecomponentifpossible
(withthepoweroff).Anydetectablemovementatthejointindicatesaproblem.Withthepoweron,
gentlyprodthecircuitboardandsuspectcomponentswithaninsulatedtooltoseeiftheproblemcan
beeffected.
Whenindoubt,resolderanysuspiciousconnections.Somemonitorsmayusedoublesidedcircuit
boardswhichdonothaveplatedthroughholes.Inthesecases,solderbothtopandbottomtobesure
thattheconnectionsaresolid.Usealargeenoughsolderingirontoassurethatyoursolderconnection
issolid.Putabitofnewsolderwithfluxoneveryconnectionyoutouchupeveniftherewasplentyof
soldertherebefore.However,removeanyobviousexcess.Inspectforsolderbridges,sliver,splashes,
etc.beforeapplyingpower.

Whycan'tmonitormanufacturerslearntosolderproperly?
Icanthinkofseveralpotentialreasonsallsolvablebutathighermanufacturingcost.
1.Massoflargecomponentleads(likeshields)doesnotgetadequatelyheatedduringmanufacture
leadingtolatentcoldsolderjoints.Whiletheymaylookok,thesolderneveractually'wetted'
theheavypinsandthereforedidnotformagoodmechanicalorelectricalbond.
2.Thermalcyclesanddifferentialthermalcoefficientsofcircuitboards,traces,andsolder.While

itisnoteasytodoanythingaboutthematerialproperties,usingplatedthroughholesora
similarmechanicalviawouldgreatlyincreasethesurfaceareaofthejointandpreventthe
formationofcracks.
3.Vibration.Thisisalsodirectlyrelatedtothesinglesidedcircuitboardswithoutplatedthrough
holestostrengthenthejoints.
4.Lackofadquatemechanicalsupport(singlesidedcircuitboardswithoutplatedthroughholes
(vias).
Ibelievethatthesinglemostsignificantimprovementwouldcomeaboutbyusingplatedtrhough
holesbutthiswouldaddtothecostandapparentlytheconsumerisnotwillingtopaymoreforbetter
qualityandreliability!Somedesignshaveusedrivletsmechanicalviasinsteadofplatedones.While
thisisgoodinprinciple,theexecutionhasoftenbeenflawedwherecoldsolderjointsresulted
betweentherivletsandthecircuitboardtracesduetolackofadequateprocesscontrol.
Monitors,duetotheirgenerallyhighercostcomparedtoTVsets,shouldbebetterconstructedbutnot
always.

Intermittent,flickering,ormissingcolors
Thisisacatchallforsomeofthemostcommonmonitorproblems.Mostofthecausesboildownto
badconnectionsofoneformoranother.However,defectivecomponentslikebiasresistorsonthe
CRTdriverboardorinthevideocircuitrycouldalsobeatfault.
NotethatduetotheadditivecolorschemeusedinallemissivecolordisplayslikeCRTorflatpanel
TVsetsandvideomonitors,asinglemissingprimarycolor(red,green,orblue)willresultinthe
followingappearance(forawhitescreen):
MissingColorAppearance

RedCyan(bluegreen)
GreenMagenta(reddishpurple)
BlueYellow

Thismaybestbeobservedwithatestpatternacoloronscreendisplayforwhichyourecalltheproper
colors.
Doeswhackingthemonitorhaveanyeffect?Ifso,thenbadconnectionsareconfirmed.Ifthe
color(s)comeandgosuddenly,thenitismostlikely*not*aCRTproblem.Thebad
connectionscouldbeattheVGAcable,videodriverboardontheneckoftheCRT,or
elsewhere(seebelow).
Ifthecolorfadesinandoutwithadelayofabout1015seconds,itisprobablyintermittent
powertotheCRTfilamentforthatcolorandprobablymeansabadCRTsincethethree
filamentsarewiredinparallelinsidetheCRT.Oneoftheinternalconnectionshascomeloose.
LookintheneckoftheCRTtomakesureallthreefilamentsareglowingorange.Ifoneisout
orgoesonandoff,tossthemonitor.ReplacingtheCRTisprobablynotworthit.However,if
theyallgoonandofftogether(allcolorswouldbefadinginandoutthoughperhapsnotquitein
unison),thenbadconnectionsfortheCRTfilamentsontheCRTneckboardareindicated.
Possiblecausesofintermittentormissingcolors:
VGAorothervideoinputcable.Sometimesthesedevelopintermittentproblemsatthe
connectortotheVGAboard.Thesemaybeinternaltothecableinwhichcaseitwillneedtobe

replacedorifyouarehandyandhaveinfinitepatience,youcanreplacejusttheVGAconnector.
Alternatively,themalepinsofthecablemaynotbemakinggoodcontactwiththefemaleVGA
socket.Firsttrycontactcleaner.Ifthisdoesnotwork,gentlysquishingthemalepinswithapair
ofneedlenosepliersmayprovidetemporaryorpermanentreliefifthepinsareatadtoosmall.
However,ifyougotoofar,youcandamageorbreakthepinsorcausethefemalesocketto
becomeenlargedandloosefittingforanyothermonitoryoumayuse.
Ifthisjusthappenedafterreconfiguringyoursystemandreconnectingthemonitororinstalling
anewmonitor,checkyourvideoconnectoryoumayhavebentoverorpushedinpins1,2,or
3theR,G,andBvideosignalsrespectively.
Ifyoufindabentpin,***carefully***straightenitwithapairofneedlenosepliers.Ifitis
pushedin,trytograbontoitandpullitoutthenputadropofEpoxyorotheradhesiveatits
base(don'tgetanyonthepartofthepinthatmakescontact)topreventitfrombeingpushedin
again.
TheremaybecoldsolderjointsontheVGAboarditselfattheVGAconnector.Thesecanbe
resoldered.
PrintedcircuitboardontheCRTneck.Thisisacommonlocationforcoldsolderjoints.Check
withabrightlightandmagnifyingglassforhairlinecracksaroundthepinsoflargerparts.Prod
andtapwithaninsulatedtooltoseeiftheproblemiseffected.Resolderifnecessary.
Coldsolderjointselsewhereinmonitorusuallyaroundthepinsoflargepartssuchas
transformers,powertransistorsandresistors,andinternalconnectors.Inspectwithastronglight
andmagnifierifnecessary.
Internalconnectorsthatneedtobecleanedandreseated.Remove,cleanwithcontactcleaner,
burnish,andreplace.
BadfilamentconnectionsinsidetheCRT(gradualfadeinandoutoronefilamentnotlit).
ReplaceCRTormonitor.
Tonarrowdowntheproblem:
LocatetheoutputforthebadcoloronthevideodriverboardontheneckoftheCRT.Thiswill
probablyreadasignificantlyhighervoltagethanthecorrespondingpinsforthegoodcolors.A
circuitproblemislikelyprobablyonthisboardbutitcouldbeinotherpartsofthevideo
circuitry.
Testcomponentsonthisboardforthegoodandbadcolorchannels.Ashortedtransistororopen
resistorcankillonechannel.Swappartsbetweengoodandbadcolorstoconfirm.
GentlypulltheCRTneckboardoffoftheCRTandreplaceit.Thiswilltendtocleanthe
contacts.
Connectanoutputofthevideocircuit/chipthatisworking(i.e.,acolorthatappearsonthe
screen)to*all*threecolordriversontheCRTneckboard.
Ifyounowgetamoreorlessblackandwhitepicture(theremaybeamoderatecolortint
astherelativeintensitiesofR,G,Bmaynotbebalanced),theproblemislikelywiththe
circuitryonthemainboard.
Note:thepicturewillbetheintensityofonlyonecolorchannelsoitwillnotbequite
*normal*inanycase.

Ifyoustillhavemissingormessedupcolors,theproblemisontheCRTneckboardor
withtheCRT.

SomecommentaryonmonitorandTVwhacking
Anytimethatintermittentsymptomsareexperienced,Irecommendgentlywhackingthepatientto
determineifmechanicalshockorvibrationaffectsthebehavior.Hereareacoupleofresponsestothis
suggestion.
(FromMarcGelfond(71363.1700@CompuServe.COM).)
Ijustlovethebitabout"whackingit".ItbringstomindanepisodefromtheoldAndyGriffithshow,
whereanewfangledpieceofelectronicsgear,wasbroghtintoEmmetsrepairshop.Aftermanylong
hoursoffruitlesstroubleshooting,outoffrustrationEmmetgavethethingawhack,andsureenoughit
fixedtheproblem.
AswesayintheTelephonybusiness,it"CCWT"orCameClearWhileTesting.Anothersayingisthat
it"CCBFM"CameClearByFMagic!!
(TowhichGavinAdams(gaa@hopi.com)comments):
Inthevideoindustrywehadasayingconcerningmalfunctioninggear:
"Ifit'sbroke,hititwithahammer"
"Ifthatdoesn'tfixit,paintitandsellit"
MyDEC16"monitoriscaseinpoint.Eveyonceinawhileitwouldlosesync,andsmackingitwould
bringitback(sometimesafewsmacks).Recentlyitgaveuptheghostcompletely,andafterthelocal
DECofficegavemeaquoteof$900tofixit(Bermuda),IorderedanewViewsonic17"forthesame
price.
IrippedthegutsoutoftheDECbeast,painteditwithamarblefinish,putplantsinit,andsoldit!:>

Ghosts,shadows,orstreaksinpictureadjacenttoverticaledges
Complaintsaboutthesekindsofproblemsareverycommonespeciallyasthescreenresolutionand
necessaryvideobandwidthkeepsincreasing.Mostareduetocableandvideoterminationdeficiencies
andnotactualmonitordefects.
Thevideosignalsforred,green,andblue(orjustasinglesignalformonochrome)aresentover
cableswhicharegenerally75ohmtransmissionlines.Thesearecoaxialcablesthatmaybecombined
insideasinglesheathforVGA,SVGA,MACs,andmanyworkstationsbutmaybeseparatecoaxes
withBNC(orother)connectorsforothervideoapplications.
Withoutgoingintotransmissionlinetheory,sufficeittosaythattoobtaingoodqualityvideo,the
followingconditionsmustbemet:
Agoodqualityofcablemustbeused.Thismeansoneinwhichthecharacteristicimpedanceis
closetotheoptimum75ohms,onewhichhaslowlosses,andonewhichhasgoodshielding.
ForinstallationsusingBNCconnectors,agoodqualityof100%shieldedRG59Uisoftenused.
TheBNCconnectorsmustbeproperlyinstalledortheywillcontributetomismatchproblems.
Wheremultiplemonitorsaretobeconnectedtoasinglevideosource,allwiringisdoneina
daisychainfashion.Theonlytapspermittedaretheminimumnecessarytoconnecteach
monitortothechain.ThisusuallymeansaBNCTconnectororapairofconnectorsonthe

monitorforeachvideosignal.Tconnectionswithcablemustbeavoided.(BNCcablesonly
SVGAmonitorscannotbedaisychainedwithoutadditionalhardware.)
Onlythelastmonitorinthechainshouldbeterminatedin75ohms.Alloftheothersmustbeset
toHiZ.MonitorswithBNCconnectorswillusuallyhaveoneswitchoraswitchforeachcolor
toselecttermination.
MonitorsforPCs,MACs,andmanyworkstationsusuallyhavebuiltinterminationanddonotoffer
thechoiceofHiZ.Thismeansthatwithoutavideodistributionamplifier,itisnotpossibletoconnect
multiplemonitorsofthistypetoasinglevideosourcewithanyexpectationofagoodqualitydisplay.
EvenaddingashortextensioncableorusinganABmonitorselectboxmayresultinunacceptable
imagedegradationespeciallyathigherscanrates.
Failuretofollowtheseruleswillresultinvideoringing,ghosts,shadows,andotherunsightly
blemishesinthepicture.Itisoftennotpossibletocontrolallaspectsofthevideosetup.Thecableis
oftenapartofthemonitorandcannoteasilybesubstitutedforabetterone.Themonitormaynothave
properlydesignedcircuitrysuchthatitdegradesthevideoregardlessofthecableanddisplayboard
quality.Thedisplaycarditselfmaynothaveproperdriversorsourcetermination.
Ironically,thebetterthevideocard,themorelikelythattherewillbevisibleproblemsdueto
termination.Thisisduetotheveryhighbandwidthandassociatedsignaledgerates.
Someexamplesofcommonterminationproblems:
Overlybrightpicturewithtrailsfollowingverticaledges,perhapswithperiodicringing.Thisis
duetoamissingtermination.CheckifthemonitorissetforHiZinsteadof75ohms.Ifthereis
noswitch,thentheterminationmaybefaultyorthemonitormayneedanexternalresistor.For
BNCconnectors,plugonterminationsareavailable.
Brightghostimagesadjacenttoverticallines.Thismayindicatethattheterminatingresistoris
greaterthantheimpedanceofthecable.YoumaybeusingEthernetThinnetcablebyaccident
whichisRG58withanimpedanceof50ohms.
Darkpictureandghostimagesadjacenttoverticallines.Thismayindicatethattheterminating
resistoristoolowmultiplemonitorsonachainallsetfor75ohmsinsteadofjustthelastone.
Or,animpropertypeofcablesuchasaudiopatchcord.
Fuzzyverticaledges.Thismayindicateapoorqualitycableorarunwhichisjusttoolong.For
highresolutionssuchas1280x1024,themaximumcablelengthmaybeasshortas25feetor
lessforpoorqualitycable.Bettercableorfiberopticrepeatersmaybenecessary.
Othersimilarproblemscheckcablesfordefectiveorimproperlyinstalledconnectors.Thisis
especiallyapplicabletocableswithBNCorUHFtypeconnectorswhichrequireakindof
artistictalenttoassemblyproperlyandconsistently.Throwoutthoseextensioncablesand
switchboxes!
Ifonly1or2colors(oftheR,G,andB)areeffected,thenlookforimproperswitchsettingsorbad
connections(badcableconnectorsarereallycommon)ontheproblemcolorcables.

Generalstreaksorlinestotherightofbrightordarkareas
Theproblemisthatonawhitebackgroundthevariousobjectsleaveashadowtotheirright.Nota
duplicateimagebutmorelikehorizontaldarkstreaksonthewhitebackground.Alsoitseemsthat
highintensitycolorsdisplayverybrightbutlowintensitycolorsareoverlydark(almostblack).The

contrastandbrightnessadjustmentsmaymakenodifference.
ThiscouldbeanumberofthingsbuttheyareallinthevideoamplifierandprobablynottheCRT
driverboardthoughthisispossible.Driedupfiltercapacitorscouldresultinvideodependentripple
onthepowersupplylines.Badcouplingcapacitorscouldresultinsimilarsymptomsbutprobablyfor
onlyonecolor,notallofthem.
Sinceallcolorsareeffected,lookforsomethingcommonlikeabadpowersupply.Withascope,this
wouldprobablyberathereasyevenwithoutschematics.Ifthebrightnessandcontrastcontrolsdo
nothing,thiswouldsuggestsomefaultintheirgeneralareaortheICortransistorstheycontrolinthe
videoampsandthatthisisnotaCRTproblem.LocatethevideoampICifitusesoneandlocatea
pinoutthisshouldbeenoughtodeterminewhichsignalsarefaulty.
First,docheckcarefullyforbadconnectionsandotherobviousfailures.
ThiscouldalsobeasymptomofabadCRTbutthiswouldbeunusualwithanotancientmonitor(and
notifthebrightnessandcontrastcontrolshavenoeffect).

Washedoutpicture
Ifyoucanobtainafullintensityrasterbyvaryingthebrightnessorscreencontrol,thenyourproblem
ismostlikelyinthevideoamplifiersorpowerforthevideoamplifiers.
If,however,thescreencontrolvariesthebrightnessbutwillnotgetabrightraster,youprobablyhave
problemseitherwiththeHVpowersupplyorthefilamentsupplyfortheCRTistherethenormal
brightorangeglowatthebaseoftheCRT?Ifitisdimorveryreddish,theremaybeamarginal
connectionorbadcomponentinthefilamentcircuitry.

Retracelinesinpicture
Duringthetimetheelectronbeamisreturningfromrighttoleftattheendofalineandbottomtotop
(overthecourseofmultiplelines),itissupposedtoberesultinnovisiblelightonthescreen.
However,anumberoffaultscanresultinvisibleretracelines.
Theappearancewilllikelybeageneralreductionincontrastfromthevisiblehorizontalretraceon
everyscanlineandtwodozenorsodiagonallineslines(lowerlefttoupperright)resultingfromthe
verticalretrace.
Theretracelinesmaybeeitherwhiteorgray(possiblywithaslightcolortintduetounequalsettings
ofthecoloradjustments)oraprimarycolorred,green,orblue.Anythinginbetweenisalsopossible
butlesslikely.

White/grayretracelines
Whereallcolorsareinvolvedthelinesareessentiallywhiteorgray(orwithaslighttintduetoslight
unequalsettingsofthecoloradjustments),lookforsomethingcommonlikeanincorrectlyadjusted
screen(G2)ormasterbrightness/background/biascontroloraprobleminoneofthesecircuits,a
defectivepowersupplyoraproblemintheblankingcircuitry:
Screen(G2)ormasterbrightness/background/biascontrolmarksettingandthenseeifaslight
adjustmentremovestheretracelines.Seethechapter:"MonitorAdjustments".Ofcourse,ifthis
happenedsuddenly,theproblemisnotduetoamisadjustedcontrolthoughadirtypotis
possibleturnitbackandforththismightcleanitandrestorenormaloperation.

PowersupplyorconnectiontoCRTneckboardinsufficientvoltagewillresultintheCRT
nevertotallyblanking.Check(usuallyscanderived)powersupplycomponents(fromflyback).
GeneralpowersupplycheckB+forcorrectvalueandripple.Amainpowersupplyfaultmight
resultinthesesymptoms(andusuallymanyothers).
Blankingcircuitthismaybeapartofthevideo/chromachiporseparate.Checkwaveformsto
determineiftheblankingpulsesaremakingittothevideooutput.

Red,green,orblueretracelines
Whereonlyonecolorisshowing,suspectanincorrectlyadjustedindividualbackground/biascontrol
orbadpartontheCRTneckboardforthatcolor.
Individualbrightness/background/biascontrol(s)marksettingofpotfortheproblemcolorand
thenseeifaslightadjustmentremovestheretracelines.Seethechapter:"Monitor
Adjustments".Ofcourse,ifthishappenedsuddenly,theproblemisnotduetoamisadjusted
controlthoughadirtypotispossibleturnitbackandforththismightcleanitandrestore
normaloperation.
ComponentorconnectiononCRTneckboardinsufficientvoltagetoorincorrectbiasingof
thevideodriverforthiscolorcanresultintheCRTnevertotallyblanking.Comparevoltages
andsignals,andswapcomponentsbetweengoodandbadchannelstoconfirm.
Blankingcircuitthismaybeapartofthevideo/chromachiporseparate.Checkandcompare
waveformsofgoodandbadcolorstodetermineiftheblankingpulsesaremakingittothevideo
output.
ThereisaslightpossibilitythatabadCRTmayresultinvisibleretracelines.Toeliminatethis
possibility:
Disconnectthefilamentallevidenceofapicture,raster,andretracelinesshoulddisappear
oncethefilaments/cathodeshavecooled(15secondsorso.Iftherearestillvisibleretracelines,
theCRTissufferingfromcoldorfieldemissionfromsomeplace(maynotevenbethecathode).
Turndownthescreen(G2)controlontheflyback(usually).Ifonecolorremainsnomatterhow
yousetthecontrol,againthereissomekindofweirdemissionfromtheCRT.However,if
white/grayretracelinesremain,theproblemmaybeinthescreensupply.
Seethesection:BadCRTcausingretracelines.

BadCRTcausingretracelines
(From:JeroenH.Stessen(Jeroen.Stessen@philips.com).)
TheTVwhichIboughtlaststarteddevelopingretracelinesafteramonthorsoofuse.Itookitback
tothelabforwarranty(specialdeal)andhaditexaminedbytherealexperts.Theyfoundthateven
withthefilamentsupplydisconnectedandVG2at0Vthescreenwouldstilllightup.Theycouldeven
seethattheelectronsweren'tevencomingfromthecathode.Thatwaswithonlythepicturetubeina
testrig.Sointhiscasetheobviousconclusionhadtobethatthetubewasbad,anditwasreplaced
(32"16:9SF,very$$).Ithadsomethingtodowithprocessingproblemsduringmanufacturingofthe
electronguns.
Soevenifthiswasararecase,it*can*happenthatretracelinesareduetoabadpicturetube.It's
moreusualtosuspecttheVG2(screenvoltage)oradefectsomewhereintheRGBvideopath.

Red,green,orbluefullonfogoverpicture
Thiscouldbeaheatercathode(HK)shortintheCRT,afailureofacomponentinthechromacircuits
orvideooutput(driverboard),orbadconnectionsthereorelsewhere.
Don'tpanicheatercathodeshortsinCRTscanoftenbeworkedaround.
Note:beforeproceeding,itisagoodideatomakesurethatthescreenisdegaussedelseyoucouldbe
attemptingtotrackdownproblemswiththewrongcolor!
Somesimpletestscanconfirmorruleoutotherpossibilities.
ComparethevoltagesforthevideodrivesignalstotheCRTonthelittleboardontheneckof
theCRTwiththeCRTbothconnectedandunplugged.Aschematicwillhelpgreatlyinlocating
thesesignals.
Ifthereisasignificantdifferenceespeciallyonthebadcolor,thentheCRTisalikely
candidate.TrytappingtheneckoftheCRTGENTLY(withitpluggedinandwhile
viewingapicture)toseeifitisanintermittentproblem.
Ifthereisnosignificantdifference,youmayhaveabaddriveroraprobleminthe
chromacircuits.
Lookforbadconnection/coldsolderjoints,probablyonthelittleboardontheneckoftheCRT.
Useaninsulatedsticktogentlyprodtheboardanditscomponentsinanefforttoinduce/cure
theproblem.Lookcarefullyforhairlinecracksaroundthecomponentleads.
Youcanswapcomponentsbetweentwocolorsand/ortestwithanohmmeteronthatdriver
boardtodeterminewhatisbad.ThenicethingaboutcolormonitorsandTVsisthattherethree
copiesofeachofthesecomponents.Swappingand/orcomparisonsbetweentheseisan
excellentdiagnostictechnique.
Anothersimpletest:Disconnectthecathodeforthefulloncolorfromitsdrive.Ifitisstillfull
on,thereisprobablyanHKshortintheCRTsincetheonlywaytogeteachcoloronthescreen
isviathecathodeconnectiontotheCRTneckboard.Ifitisremovedandthereisstillthatcolor,
thecurrentmustbetakinganotherpathinsidetheCRT.
Alternatively,interchangetheoutputsofthebadcolorwithagoodonebyjumperingonthe
videodriverboard(ontheCRTneck).Ifthebadcolorchanges,thentheproblemisinthe
circuitryandnottheCRT.
Hereistheprocedureinmoredetail(exampleforredfullon):
(From:J.K.Emerine(jkemerine@aol.com).)
Toidentifyifthefaultisinthecrtoracontrolproblemtrythis(WITHSETOFF):
OntheCRTboard,lifttheoutputendofthegreencathodefinalresistor.Dothesamewiththe
offendingredcathode'sresistor.Useshortinsulatedjumpersto'swap'drivesignalsdrivethe
redcathodewiththegreendriveandthegreencathodewithreddrive.(Notethatifthisproblem
onlyoccursafterawarmupperiod,coloratturnonwillbewellwierd,butitisjustatest.)
Ifthesymptomreturns='goesred'theCRTisshorting.(Seethesection:Providing
isolationforaCRTHKshort.Sam.)

Ifinsteadthesymptombecomes'goesgreen'thenthereddriveleghasthefaultandthe
CRTisprobablygood.(Inthiscase,theremaybebadconnectionsorabadcomponenton
theCRTdriveboardorfurtherbackinthechromacircuitry.sam)

Totallywhitescreen(probablywithretracelines)
Theremayormaynotbeanyindicationofapicture.Thismaybeaprobleminthehighvoltagepower
supply(SCREEN,G2),lossofpowerorafaultinthevideooutputdrivers,othervideoampproblems,
orabad(shorted)CRT.
Isfocusstillreasonablysharp?Ifnot,tryadjustingit(usuallyontheflybackoraseparatelittlepanel).
Ifchangingfocusaffectsbrightnesssignificantly,thereisashortbetweenthetwosupplieseitherin
theHVpowersupplyorCRT.Seethesection:Badfocusandadjustmentchangesbrightness.Inthis
case,changingSCREEN(G2,alsoontheflyback)mayalsoaffectfocusormaynotdoanything.
TryadjustingSCREEN.Ifithasnoaffect,aprobleminitspowersupplyfromtheflybackispossible.
Ifyouhaveahighimpedancevoltmeter(notjustaDMM,theresistanceofthevoltagedivider
supplyingSCREENishundredsofMohms),checkitwhilechangingtheSCREENcontrol.Ifitdoes
notchange,youhavefoundadefiniteproblem.
AssumingthatadjustingFOCUSandSCREENresultinnormalbehavioranddonotstronglyinteract,
theproblemislikelyinthevideocircuitryoroutputdrivers.
CheckthepowertotheCRTvideooutputdriversonthelittleboardontheneckoftheCRT.Ifthis
failed,allthreevideooutputswillbefullon.Ifyouhaveascope,lookatthevideooutputsthey
shouldbevaryingbetweenover100Vandalowvalue.Iftheyaremissingorverylowallthetime,
thereisaproblemfurtherbackinthevideochain.
Seetheothersectionsrelatingtobrightnessandhighvoltageproblemsaswell.

ShortsinaCRT
Occasionally,smallconductiveflakesorwhiskerspresentsincethedayofmanufacturemanageto
maketheirwayintoalocationwheretheyshortoutadjacentelementsintheCRTelectronguns.
SymptomsmaybeintermittentoronlyshowupwhentheTVormonitoriscoldorwarmorin
between.Somepossiblelocationsarelistedbelow:
Heatertocathode(HK).Thecathodefortheaffectedgunwillbepulledtotheheater(filament)
biasvoltagemostoften0V(signalground).Inthiscase,onecolorwillbefullonwithretrace
lines.Wheretheheaterisbiasedatsomeothervoltage,othersymptomsarepossiblelike
reducedbrightnessand/orcontrastforthatcolor.Thisisprobablythemostcommonlocationfor
ashorttooccur.
Cathodetocontrolgrid(KG1).SincetheG1electrodesforallthegunsareconnectedtogether,
thiswillaffectnotonlythecoloroftheguiltycathodebuttheothersaswell.Theresultmaybe
averybrightoverloaded*negative*picturewithlittle,none,ormessedupcolors.
Controlgridtoscreen(G1G2).Dependingoncircuitrycanresultinanydegreeofwashedout
ordarkpicture.
Screentofocus(G2F).Screen(G2)andfocusvoltagewillbethesameandthecontrolsonthe
flybackwillinteract.Resultwillbeafuzzywhiterasterwithretracelinesandlittleorverylow
contrastpicture.Symptomswillbesimilartothoseofaflybackwithbreakdowninthe
focus/screendividernetwork.

Focustohighvoltage(FHV).Highvoltagewillbepulleddownprobablyarcingatthefocus
sparkgaps/otherprotectivedevices.Linefuseand/orHOTmayblow.Ahighimpedanceshort
mayonlyresultinincreasedfocusvoltagebutthisisprobablyunusual.
Otherlocationsbetweenelectrongunelementsasfeedwires.
Exceptforthehighvoltagetootherplaces,theshortmayactuallybelocatedintheCRT*socket*or
evenontheCRTneckboard,probablyinthesparkgap(s)fortheproblempins.Removethesocket
andtestbetweenthesuspectpinsontheCRTitself.IftheCRTitselfisfine,thesparkgapsshouldbe
inspectedandcleaned/repairedand/orcomponentsreplaced.Atthispoint,thecausemaystillbe
presentashortinsidetheflybackforexampleresultinginexcessivevoltageononeormorepins.
Assumingthisisnotthecase,replacingtheCRTmaybethebestsolutionbutthereareavarietyof
'techniques'thatcanoftenbeusedtosalvageamonitorthatwouldotherwiseendupinthedumpsince
replacingaCRTisrarelycosteffective:
1.IsolationthiswillusuallyworkforHKshortsaslongasonlyonegunisinvolved.However,
withhighvideobandwidthmonitors,theremaybesomesmearingoftheaffectedcolordueto
theaddedcapacitanceofthetransformerandfilamentsnowconnectedtoitsvideosignal.
2.Blowingouttheshortwithacapacitordependingonwhatiscausingtheshort,thismaybe
successfulbutwillrequiresomeexperimentation.
3.PlacingtheCRT(TVormonitor)facedownonasoftblanketand*gently*tappingtheneckto
dislodgethecontamination.Dependingonthelocationoftheshort,onesideortheothermight
bebetteraswell.Sometimes,thiscanbedoneinplacewhilewatchingthepicture.
Acombinationof(2)and(3)mayberequiredforintermittentshortswhichdon'tappearuntilunder
power.Seethesectionsbelowforadditionaldetails.However,forshortsinvolvingthefocusandhigh
voltageelements,evenasharpedgecanresultinarcingevenifthereisnoactualshort.Thereisno
remedyforthesetypesoffaults.

ProvidingisolationforaCRTHKshort
Thisprocedurewillsubstituteawindingofyourownfortheonethatisbuiltintotheflybackto
isolatetheshortedfilamentfromthegroundorvoltagereference.Notethatifyouhaveaschematic
andcandeterminewheretodisconnectthegroundorvoltagereferenceconnectiontothefilament
winding,trythatinstead.
Theflybackisthethingwiththefatredwirecomingoutofit(andperhapsacoupleofothersgoingto
theCRTboardoritisnearthiscomponentifyoursethasaseparatetripler)andmayhaveacoupleof
controlsforfocusandscreen.Itshouldhavesomeexposedpartswithaferritecoreabout1/23/4"
diameter.
ThefilamentoftheCRTistheinternalheaterforeachgunitiswhatglowsorangewhenthesetis
on.Whathashappenedisthatapartofthefinewireofthebadcolor'sfilament(assumingthisis
indeedyourproblem)hasshortedtothecathodethepartthatactuallyemitstheelectrons.Normally,
theheatercircuitisgroundedortiedtoareferencevoltagesowhenitshortstothecathode,the
cathodevoltagelevelispulledtogroundorthisreference.
Youwillneedsomewellinsulatedwire,fairlythick(say#1822).Findaspotontheflybackwhere
youcanstickthisaroundthecore.WraptwoturnsaroundthecoreandsoldertotheCRTfilament
pinsaftercuttingtheconnectionstotheoriginalfilamentsource(scribethetracesontheboardto
breakthem).Makesureyoudonotaccidentallydisconnectanythingelse.

Thiswindingshouldcausethefilamentstoglowataboutthesamebrightnessasbeforebutnow
isolatedfromground.Iftheyaretoodim,putanotherturnontheflybacktoboostthevoltageaslow
filamenttemperaturewillresultinreducedemission,blooming,andpossibledamagetothecathodes
afterawhile.(Don'tgooverboardasyoumayblowthefilamenttotallyifyouputtoomanyturnson
thecoreyouthentossthemonitor.)
Routethewiressothatthereisnochanceofthemgettingnearthehighvoltageoranysharpmetal
edgesetc.Yourpicturequalitymaybeatadlowerthanitwasbeforebecauseoftheaddedstray
capacitanceofthefilamentwiringbeingattachedtothethe(formerlybad)videosignal,buthey,
somethingisbetterthannothing.

RescuingashortedCRT
Iftheshortisfilamentcathode(HK),youdon'twanttousethefollowingapproachsinceyoumay
blowoutthefilamentintheprocess.Ifthisisthecase,youmaybeabletofloatthefilamentandlive
withtheshort(seethesectionon:"Red,green,orbluefullonfogoverpicture".
ShortsintheCRTthatarebetweendirectlyaccessibleelectrodescanbedealtwithinamoredirect
waythanforHKshorts.Atthispointyouhavenothingtoloose.AshortedCRTisnotterriblyuseful.
Iftheshortisbetweentwodirectlyaccessibleelectrodeslikecathodegrid,thenasalastresort,you
mighttryzappingitwithachargedcapacitor.
UnplugtheCRTsocket!
StartwitharelativelysmallcapacitorsayafewuFatacouplehundredvolts.Checktoseeifthe
shortisblownaftereachzapfewmaybeneeded.Increasethecapacitanceifyoufeelluckybuthave
hadlittlesuccesswiththesmallcapacitor.
Ifthefaultisintermittent,youwill,ofcourse,needtocatchtheCRTwiththesocketdisconnectedand
theshortstillpresent.Trysomegentletappingifnecessary.Ifyoudothiswiththechargedcapacitor
acrossthesuspectelectrode,you**will**knowwhentheshortoccurs!
Alsoseethesection:Highvoltagetofocusshort.

Highvoltagetofocusshort
Symptomswouldbe(withtheunitpoweredandhighvoltagepresent):
WiththeCRTneckboardpluggedintotheCRT,thefocussparkgapislikelyarcing.
Withthesocketunplugged,puttinganythingconnectedtoground(oranyothercircuitry)near
thefocuspinwouldresultinajuicysparkorarc.WARNING:RemovingtheCRTsocketand
poweringtheunitmaydestroytheCRTonsomemodels.Seethesection:Warningabout
disconnectingCRTneckboard.
IftheCRTisgassyoruptoair,forgetititmightmakeadecentfishtank:).Inthiscase,there
wouldbevisiblearcingINSIDEtheCRTprobablynotconfinedtoasinglelocation.
However,ifthereisjustametalwhiskerbetweentheFandHV,thatmightbeabletobeclearedby
carefultappingorachargedcapacitor.Youmayevenbeabletoseeitifyouweretoremovetheyoke
thegapisprettylarge,about12mmthelastgapbetweenelectrodesbeforethestartoftheinternal
(Dag)coating.
Seethesection:RescuingashortedCRT.

Notethatotherdamagemayhavebeendoneas
Othercomponentsincludingtheflyback,HOT,andpartsontheCRTneckboardandbeyond,may
havebeendamagedasaresultoftheshort.ZappingtheCRTmaybejustthebeginningofwhatis
requiredtorepairitall.

Darkpicture
AmonitorwithapicturethatistoodarkmayhaveafaultortheCRTmayjustbeneartheendofits
usefullife.
First,confirmthatyourvideosourcecomputer,camera,etc.isproducingapropersignal.
Isthebrightnessatallerratic?Doeswhackingthemonitorhaveanyeffect?Ifso,thenyoumayhave
badconnectionsontheCRTdrivercardorelsewhere.Ifthebrightnesstendstofadeinandoutovera
10to20secondperiod,abadfilamentconnectionislikely.Checkforthenormalorangeglowofthe
filamentsintheneckoftheCRT.Thereshouldbe3orangeglows.Iftheyareexcessivelyreddish,
verydim,orfadeinandout,youhavelocatedaproblem.Seethesection:Picturefadesinandout.
Commoncausesofbrightnessproblems:
1.DirtyCRTfaceplateorsafetyglass.Don'tlaugh.Itsoundsobvious,buthaveyoutriedcleaning
thescreenwithsuitablescreencleaner?Itisamazinghowdirtyscreenscangetafterafewyears
especiallyaroundsmokers!
(From:A.R.Duell(ard12@eng.cam.ac.uk).)
"IoncespentamorningbattlingwithaDECVT105terminalwithaverydimand
washedoutpicture,andonlyaftercheckingeverythingonthevideoboarddidI
wipeoverthescreen.Thatcuredit.It'samazinghowdirtyscreenscangetaftera
fewyearsuse."
Wipegentlywithaslightlydampenedclothnotsoakingoryoumayendupwith
realproblemswhenthewaterdripsdowninsideandhitstheelectronics!
2.OldCRT.ThebrightnessoftheCRTdeteriorateswithfilamentontime.Itdoesn'tmattermuch
whatyouaredoingorifyouuseascreensaver.
AnindicationofaweakCRTwouldbethatturninguptheSCREEN(G2)ormasterbrightness
controlonlyresultsinanotterriblybrightgrayrasterbeforetheretracelinesshowup.There
maybeindicationsofpoorfocusandsilveryhighlightsaswell.ACRTbrightenermayhelp.
Seethesections:BrighteningaoldCRTandMonitorlife,energyconservation,andlaziness.
3.Badcomponentinfilamentcircuitorbadconnectionreducingfilamentvoltage.Thisshouldbe
easytocheckthereareonlyafewpartsinvolved.Ifitiserratic,badconnectionsarelikely.
4.Brightnesscontrolfaultybadpot,badconnections,orproblemwithitspowersupply.
Dependingonspecificproblem,controlmayormaynothaveanyeffect.Ifdigitallyadjusted,
therecouldbeaproblemwiththelogicorcontrolchip.Ifthebuttonormenuitemhasnoeffect
atall,thenalogicorcontrolproblemislikely.
5.ImproperlysetSCREEN(G2)voltage(usuallyonflyback)orfaultydividernetwork.Seethe
section:Brightnessandcolorbalanceadjustment.
6.Improperlysetvideobias(background)levelsorfaultinvideodrivecircuitry.Seethesections

startingwith:"Optimalprocedureforsettingbrightness/backgroundandscreenadjustments".
7.Faultinvideoamplifiers.Withallthreecoloraffectedequally,thiswouldmostlikelybea
powersupplyproblem.AvideoamplifierproblemislikelyifturninguptheSCREEN(G2)or
masterbrightnesscontrolresultsinaverybrightrasterbeforetheretracelinesappear.Cheack
signalsoutofthevideo/chromaIC.
8.Faultinbeamorbrightnesslimiter.ManyTVsandmonitorsmeasurethebeamcurrent
(possiblyindirectly)andlimitthemaximumtoasafevalue.Thepurposeofthismaybeto
protecttheCRTphosphors,and/ortoassurethatthepowersupplydoesnotgooutofregulation,
and/ortolimitXrayemission.Ifthiscircuitscrewsup,adarkpicturemayresult.Checkingthe
signalsandvoltagesattheCRTsocketshoulddetermineifthisistheproblem.
9.Highvoltageislow.However,thiswouldlikelyresultinothersymptomsaswellwithfocus,
size,andgeometry.

BrighteninganoldCRT
Ifperformingadjustmentsoftheinternalbackgroundand/orscreencontrolsstillresultsinadark
pictureevenafteralongwarmupperiod(andthecontrolsarehavinganeffecttheyarenotfaulty),
theCRTmaysimplybeneartheendofitsusefullife.IntheolddaysofTVswithshortlivedCRTs,
theCRTbrightenerwasacommonitem(soldineverycornerdrugstore,itseemed!).
Firstconfirmthatthefilamentsarerunningatthecorrectvoltagetherecouldbeamarginal
connectionorbadresistororcapacitorinthefilamentpowersupply.Sincethisisusuallyderivedfrom
theflyback,itmaynotbepossibletomeasurethe(pulsedhighfrequency)voltagewithaDMMbuta
servicemanualwillprobablyhaveawaveformorothertest.Avisualexaminationisnotabadwayto
determineifthefilamentsarehotenough.Theyshouldbeafairlybrightorangetoyellowcolor.A
dimredoralmostdarkfilamentisprobablynotgettingitsquotaofelectrons.ItisnotbetheCRT
sinceallthreefilamentsarewiredinparallelandforallthreetobedefectiveisveryunlikely.
Ifpossible,confirmthatthevideooutputlevelsarecorrect.ForcathodedrivenCRTs,toohighabias
voltagewillresultinadarkerthannormalpicture.
CRTbrightenersareavailablefrompartssupplierslikeMCMElectronics.Someofthesearedesigned
asisolationtransformersaswelltodealwithheatertocathodeshorts.
Youcantryamakingabrightener.Caution:thismayshortenthelifeoftheCRTpossiblyquite
dramatically(likeitwillblowinacoupleofsecondsorminutes).However,ifthemonitororTVis
otherwisedestinedforthescrapheap,itisworthatry.
Theapproachissimple:youaregoingtoincreasethevoltagetothefilamentsoftheelectronguns
makingthemrunhotter.Hopefully,justhotterenoughtoincreasethebrightnesswithoutblowingthem
out.
VoltagefortheCRTfilamentisusuallyobtainedfromacoupleofturnsontheflybacktransformer.
Addinganextraturnwillincreasethevoltageandthusthecurrentmakingthefilamentsrunhotter.
ThiswillalsoshortentheCRTlifeperhapsratherdrastically.However,ifthemonitorwasheaded
forthedumpsteranyhow,youhavenothingtolose.Youcanjustaddaturntoanexistingwindingor
makeyourownseparatefilamentwindingasoutlinedinthesection:ProvidingisolationforaCRTH
Kshort.
Insomemonitors,thereisaseparatefilamentsupplyonthemainboardthisshouldbeobviousonce
youtracethefilamentwiresfromthevideodriverboard).Inthiscase,itstillmaybepossibleto
increasethisoutputorsubstituteanothersupplybutaschematicwillberequired.

TherearealsocommercialCRTrejuvenatorsthatsupposedlyzapthecathodesoftheelectronguns.A
TVormonitorservicecentermaybeabletoprovidethisservice,thoughitis,atbest,ashorttermfix.

Colorbalancechangesacrossscreenfromlefttoright
Thecharacteristicsarethatasolidwhitescreenwilltendtobebluetintedononesideandredtinted
ontheother.Thisisusuallyasubtleeffectandmaybeunavoidablewithsomedesigns.
Thereareseveralpossibilities:
1.Puritythismeansthebeamsarelandingonthewrongphosphordots.Thisiswhatwouldbe
affectedbymovingfromonelocationtoanotherorevenrotatingtheTVonitsbasewithout
degaussing.Iftheproblemjustappeared,degaussingmaybeneeded.
WhatdoyouhaveneartheTVormonitor?Loudspeakersorotherdeviceswhichgenerate
magneticfieldscaneasilycauseallsortsofcolorpurityproblems.Relocatetheoffending
device(s)ortheTVormonitorandthendegaussit.
Seethesection:Degaussing(demagnetizing)aCRT.
Iftheproblemstillpersists,purityadjustmentmaybeneeded.However,thisisn'tlikelytohave
changedsolookforothercausesbeforetacklingtheseadjustments.
2.Unequalelectronguntoshadowmask/screendistancetheelectronbeamsfortheredandblue
videotravelslightlydifferentdistancesontheleftandrightsidesofthescreensotheirintensity
(duetofocusnotbeingoptimalandotherfactors)ineachcasemaydifferslightlyaffecting
colorbalance.
3.DomingThiswouldonlyhappeninverybrightareasandcausestheshadowmasktoexpand
anddistort.(DomingshouldnotbeaproblemwithTrinitronCRTswhichusetensionedwiresin
theiraperturegrill.)Thiswouldalsonotreallyaffectleftrightcolorbalanceinparticular.
Idon'treallyknowhowmuchofaproblem(2)isinpracticeorwhethersomemanufacturers
compensateforit.

Bleedinghighlights
Onverybrightareasofthepicture,oneormorecolorsmaybleedtotherightresultinginatrailof
thosecolors.Thedifferencebetweenthisproblemandthesection:Trailinglinesinoneormorecolors
isthatinthiscase,onlyhighlightsareaffected.
Onecauseofthisisthatthecolorgain,contrast,orintensitycontrols(whatevertheyarecalledon
yourmonitor)aresettoohigh.Seethesectionon:"Brightnessandcolorbalanceadjustment".Check
thesettingsofanybrightnesslimitercontrolsaswell.

Trailinglinesinoneormorecolors
Assumingthisisnotaformofghostingresultingfromcablingand/oruseofswitchboxes,etc,thenit
couldbeanyofthefollowing:
PoordecouplinginthepowersuppliesforthevideodrivecircuitsprobablyontheCRTneck
board.Checkforbad(lowuForhighESR)filtercapacitors(electrolyticmostly)onthisboard
orthepowersuppliesfeedingit.

InsufficientCRTfilamentvoltage.Thiscouldbearesultofbadconnectionsorabad
componentinthefilamentpowersupply(probablyfromtheflyback).Checktoseeifthe
filamentsareglowingbrightorangeandcheckthevoltageifpossible(thoughthiscanbetricky
sinceitisoftenfedfromawindingontheflybackandisapulsewaveform,notDCora
sinusoid.Theservicemanualwillprobablyhaveinfoandwaveforms.
BadCRT(morelikelyifonlyonecolorisaffected).Aweakelectronguncanresultinthis
behavior.Swapitwithonethatworkproperly.Ifthesamecolorisstillbad,thatCRTgunis
weak.TheCRTwillneedrejuvenationorneedtobereplaced(morelikely,theentiremonitor
willbetossedintothedumpster).

Purityproblemswithbrightpictures
Settingthebrightnessexcessivelyhighmayresultinenoughheatingoftheshadowmasktodistortit.
IFsevereenough,thepositionsoftheholeswillshiftenoughtoresultinvisiblepurityproblems.This
islessofaproblemwithtubesusinganInVarshadow/slotmask.Itshouldalsobelessofaproblem
forTrinitronaperturegrilleCRTs.
Theonlysolutionistoreducethebrightness.

Whydoestheintensityappearsononuniforminbrightareas?
Actually,theintensityvariationislikelytobeevenworsethanyoumightthinkpossiblyasmuchas
2:1fromthecentertothecorners.Inmostcasesyoudonotnoticeit.Withlargedeflectionangle
tubes,fewerelectronsmakeittophosphordotsneartheedgeofthescreen.Itissimplegeometry.
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
ItisextremelydifficultforanyCRTdisplaytomaintainperfectbrightnessandcoloruniformityacross
theentireimage.Justthegeometryofthethingthechangedistancefromtheguntothescreenasthe
beamisscanned,thechangingspotsizeandshape,etc.makesthisnearlyimpossible,andtherecan
alsobevariationsinthephosphorscreen,thethicknessofthefaceplate,etc..Typicalbrightness
uniformityspecsarethatthebrightnesswon'tdroptolessthan70%orsoofthecentervalue(usually
thebrightestspotonthescreen).
Oncolortubes,thelackofperfectbrightnessuniformityisaggravatedbythelackofperfectCOLOR
uniformityandpurity.Whatappeartobe"darkspots"onasolidgrayimagemayactuallybebeam
mislanding(colorpurity)problems,whichmaytosomedegreeberemediedbydegaussingthe
monitor.
Again,*some*variationisnormalifyouthinkyou'reseeingtoomuch,youcantrydegaussingthe
thingandseeingifthathelps.Ifitdoesn't,thenthequestioniswhetherornottheproductmeetsits
publishedspecs,andthat'ssomethingyou'llhavetodiscusswiththemanufacturerordistributor.

Brightnesschangesfromlefttorightacrossscreen
SlightvariationsinbrightnessacrossthefaceoftheCRTarenotunusual.Infact,ifyouuseda
photometertoactuallymeasurethebrightness,youmightbeamazedattheactualvarianceevenwith
thebestmonitororTVyoujustdon'tnoticeit.However,amajorvariationusuallyadecayfrom
lefttorightbutcouldbetheotherwayindicateacomponentfailure.Ofcourse,makesurethefaceof
thescreenisclean!
Afaultinthepowersuppliestothevideoamplifierand/orvideooutputcircuits.Mostlikely,an
electrolyticcapacitorhasdriedupandisnotadequatelyfilteringthepowerderivedfromthe

flybackwhichthenhasrippleatthehorizontalscanrateandthuslockedtothescreen.The
voltagedecaysfromlefttorightbetweenhorizontalflybackpulses.
Themostlikelylocationforthesecapacitorsisinthevicinityoftheflybacktransformeronthe
mainboardorontheCRTneckboard.CheckthecapacitorswithcapacitortesterorESRmeter
and/ortakealookatthepowerrightatthevideoamplifierandvideooutputdrivers.
Horizontallinearityisbadthismayactuallybeahorizontalgeometryproblemandnota
brightnessproblem.
Seeifobjectsonleftsideofthescreenarestretchedcomparedtothoseontheright(orvice
versa).Iftheyare,theproblemisinthehorizontaldeflectioncircuitspossiblyabad(orinthe
caseofamultiscanmonitor,correctlyselected)Scorrectioncapacitororlinearitycoil.
Inoperativedegausscircuit,monitormovedorrotatedwithoutdegaussing,ormagneticfield
fromsomeotherdevice(likeapermanentmagnet)isaffectingCRTslightamountsof
magnetizationmayreducebrightness(bymovingthebeamsintotheblackspacebetween
phosphordots)beforeaffectingcolorpurity(wherethebeamslandonthewrongphosphor
dots).
Seeifthedegaussbutton,ifpresent,doesanything.Trydeguassingmanually.Seethesection:
Degaussing(demagnetizing)aCRT.

Picturefadesinandout
Ifthepicturefadedawayontheorderof1020seconds(andifitcomesback,alsocomesuptofull
brightnessinsametimeframepossiblywiththepersuasionofsomecarefulwhacking)ANDwith
NOothersignificantchangessuchassize,focus,etc.,thentakealookinthebackofthetubeforthe
filamentstobelittheorangeglowneartheCRTsocket.Iftheglowiscomingandgoingaswell,
thenyouprobablyhaveabadsolderconnectiononthecircuitboardontheneckoftheCRT.Lookfor
finecracksaroundpinsonthatboard.Tryproddingitwithaninsulatingsticktoseeifthepicture
comesback.Resolderifnecessary.ItisprobablynotabadCRTasthefilamentsareusuallywiredin
parallelandallwouldnotgobadatthesametime.
However,ifonlyasinglecolorfadesinandout,thenabadconnectioninsidetheCRTisadistinct
possibilitylookforonlyoneofthefilament'sglowtobecomingandgoing.Thisisprobablynot
worthfixingsinceitwillrequireCRTreplacement.
Ifthepicturefadedawaywithothersymptoms,thenthereisprobablyafaultinthevideo
amplifier/outputoneofitspowersuppliesstillprobablyalooseconnectionifyouareabletogetit
backbywhacking.

Occasionalbrightnessflashes
Thesemaylastonlyafractionofascanlineormuchmuchlonger.
Makesureitisnotthevideosourcetryanotherone.
ThiscouldmeananintermittentfaultinavarietyofplacesincludingthevideocircuitryandSCREEN
powersupply:
BrightnesscircuitrySCREEN,masterbackgroundoritspowersupply.Couldbeinoraround
flybackorfocus/screendivider.CouldperhapsbeintheCRT,butprobablylesslikely.
Videoampbeforeoratchromademodulator(ifcompositeinput)sinceafterthispoint,you

wouldmostlikelygetcoloredflashessinceonlyoneoftheRGBsignalswouldlikelybe
effected.However,abadpowerconnectiontothevideocircuitrycouldcauseallthecolorstobe
affected.
Ifyoustillgetflashes,itshouldbequiteeasytomonitoreitherthevideooutputsorSCREENsupply
(withaHVdivideronyourscope)fornoise.Thentracebacktopowerornoisesource.

Occasionalstatic,lines,spots,orotherunsightlyblemishes
First,confirmthatthesearenotvideosourcePCrelated.Trythemonitoronanothercomputer.This
maybeaproblemwiththehardwareordriver(software)forthevideocard,theO/S,ormemoryor
busspeed.
Ifitisnotcomputerrelated,thenitcouldbearcing,corona,badconnections,orsomeelectronic
componentbreakingdown.Seetheappropriatesectionsfortheseproblems.
Notethatproblemsinabsolutelyfixedlocationsorwithanextentrelatedtopixelsizesinthevideo
cardarenearlyalwayscomputer/videocardrelatedandnotduetoafaultymonitor.

Flickeringmonitor
First,makesureyourscanrateissethighenough(butnotbeyondthecapabilitiesofthemonitor).A
scanratelessthan60Hzislikelytoresultinannoyingflickerespeciallyathighbrightnesslevels.
Seeiftheflickeringcorrelateswithanyprocessorordiskactivityindicatingasoftwaredriverorvideo
cardproblem.
Assumingneitheroftheseappliesandyouarenotdoingyourworkbycandlelight,aflickeringimage
isprobablyduetoanintermittentarcorshort,probablyinthehighvoltagesectionnearoratthe
flybacktransformer.However,itisalsopossiblethatitisduetoasimplebadconnectionelsewhere.
Sothefirstthingtodowillbetoremovethecoverandwithouttouchinganything,carefullyexamine
foranyobvioussignsofbadconnections,arcing,orburnedareas.Inparticularlookfor:
hairlinecracksaroundthepinsoflargecomponentslikepowertransistors,powerresistors,
transformers,andconnectors.
anydiscoloration,cracking,otherunusualsignsontheflyback.Theflybackalsoprovides,viaa
highresistancedividernetwork,theseveralkVforfocusandseveralhundredVfortheG2
(screen)CRTelectrode.Thesearethevoltagesthatmaybeintermittentlychangingand
resultinginflicker.
Now,withthemonitorpoweredinadarkenedroomwithanormalpicture(usethehighestresolution
atwhichyourmonitorwillworkasthisshouldputthemoststressonit,maybe).
LookforanyarcingorcoronaaroundtheareaoftheflybackortheneckoftheCRTfirst,then
justanywhere.
Useawellinsulatedstick(woodorplastic)togentlyprodthecircuitsboard,components,
wires,etc.toseeifyoucaninducetheproblem.
Therewillprobablybeapairofadjustmentsontheflybackitself.OneoftheseisFOCUSandthe
otherisSCREENessentiallyamasterbrightness.
Now,withonehandinyourbackpocket,tryturningeachoftheseafractionofaturnineach

direction.Don'tworry,youcannothurtanythingbydoingthis.TheFOCUSshouldonlychange
thesharpnessofthepicture.TheSCREENshouldonlychangethebrightness.Inbothcases,
thisshouldbeasmootheffect.Sometimes,thesecontrolswillsimplygetdirtyandcausethe
problemsyouhaveseen.Inthiscase,justmovingthembackandforthmaycleanthem.Ifone
affectstheotherifturningfocusaltersbrightnessorviceversa,thereisashortbetweenthe
focusandscreenvoltages,probablyinsidetheflybackbutitcouldbeelsewhere.
Itislikelythatalloftheabovetestswillcomeoutnegativeasyoumayhaveanintermittentshort
internaltotheflybackwhichcanonlybefixedbyreplacement.However,eliminatetheeasyfixes
first.

Excessivebrightnessand/orwashedoutpicture
Thereareanumberofpossibilitiesincludingincorrectscreen(G2)orbias(G1)voltages,oraproblem
inthevideoorblankingcircuitry.Anyofthesecouldbetheresultofbadconnectionsaswell.Ashort
intheCRTcanalsoresultinthesesymptoms.
Excessivebrightness/washedoutpictureisoftenanindicationofaproblemwiththescreen
(G2)supplytotheCRT.Maybeabadcapacitororresistordivideroftenintheflyback
transformerassemblyorontheboardontheneckoftheCRT.
Iftheexcessivebrightnessjustdevelopedovertime,thenasimpleadjustmentofthescreenor
backgroundbrightnesscontrolsmaykeepit(andyou)happyforalongtime.
Whengood,atypicalvaluewouldbeinthe200to600VDCattheCRT.Thescreen(itmay
alsobecalledmasterbrightness,bias,orbackground)controlshouldvarythisvoltage.
However,itmaybedifficulttomeasureastheresistorsinthevoltagedividernetworkmaybe
quitelargehundredsofMohms.Ifyourunithasanexternalscreencontrol(lesslikelythese
days)andithasnoeffect,traceoutthecircuitryintheimmediatevicinityandcheckthe
resistorsandpotentiometerforopens,lookforbadconnections,etc.Ifitisbuiltintotheflyback
transformerandissealed,theentireflybackwillneedtobereplacedunlesstheactualproblem
turnsouttobeabadconnectionorbadcomponentexternaltotheflyback.
Wherethebrightnesscontrolhasnoeffect,suspectamissingbiassupplytotheG1(control
grid)electrodesoftheCRT.Thisisusuallyderivedfromtheflybackwithasimple
rectifier/filtercapacitorpowersupply.Partsmayhavefailed(thoughnotlikelytheflyback
itself).Adjustingtheuserbrightnesscontrolshouldvarythisvoltageoveratypicalrangeof0to
50Vwithrespecttosignalground.
Itcouldalsobeaproblemwithbiasingofthevideooutputtransistors.Theremayindividual
controlsforbackgroundbrightnessonthelittleboardontheneckoftheCRT.However,weare
lookingforacommonproblemsinceallcolorsarewronginthesameway.Thisislikelytobea
missingvoltagefromasecondarysupplyfromtheflyback.
AshortbetweenelectrodesinsidetheCRTcanresultinbrightnessproblems.Itmaybepossible
tocheckthiswithanohmmeterwiththepoweroffandtheCRTsocketremoved.Testbetween
G1,G2,andFwhereallcolorsareaffectedthoughashortbetweenFandG2willresultinthe
focuscontrolchangingbrightnessandviceversaaclassicsymptom.
However,insomecases,itonlyshowsupwhenoperatingandonemustdeducethepresense
andlocationoftheshortfromitsaffectonvoltagesandbiaslevels.
Seethesection:RescuingashortedCRTandotherrelatedtopics.
First,checkforbadconnections/coldsolderjointsbygentlyproddingwithaninsulatingstick.Check

voltagesandbiaslevels.

Focusproblems
Slightdeteriorationinfocuscanbecorrectedbyadjustingthefocuscontrolusuallylocatedonthe
flybacktransformer.Sometimes,thisisaccessibleexternallybutusuallynot.Onmonochrome
monitors,thefocuscontrol,ifany,maybelocatedonthemainboard.
Don'texpecttohaveperfectfocuseverywhereonthescreen.Usuallytherewillbesomedegradation
inthecorners.Acompromisecangenerallybestruckbetweenperfectfocusinthecenterand
acceptablefocusinthecorners.
Iftheadjustmentshavenoeffect,thenthereisprobablyafaultinthefocuspowersupply.
FormostcolorTVsandmonitors,thecorrectfocusvoltagewillbeinthe4to8kVDCrangesoyou
willneedameterthatcangothathighorsomebigresistorstoextenditsrangeoraHVprobe.You
mustuseahighimpedancemeterasthecurrentavailabilityfromthefocuspowersupplyisverylow.
Thepotsintheflybackaresometimesaccessiblebyremovingtheircover,whichmaysnapon.
However,atypicalfocuscircuitwillhavealargevalueresistorpottedinsidetheflyback(like200
Megohms).
Trytomeasurethefocusincircuit.Ifthevalueyoureadisverylow(assumingyourmeterhasahigh
enoughimpedancenottoloadthecircuitappreciably),thendisconnectthewire(fromthePCBonthe
neckoftheCRTorwherever)andmeasureagainandobserveanychangeinpicture.
Ifstilllow,thenalmostcertainlythereisaproblemwiththepotortheflyback.Seeifyoucan
openitenoughtomeasureand/ordisconnectthepot.Iftheproblemisinsidethepottedpartof
theflyback,theonlyalternativeisanewflybackoranexternaldividerifyouaresoinclined.
However,oncethefocusnetworkgoesbadinsidetheflyback,thereisanincreasedchanceother
partswillfailatsomepointinthefuture.
IfthevoltagescheckoutwiththeCRTdisconnected,thereisachanceofabadCRTorofa
shortedcomponentonthePCBontheneckoftheCRT.Lookforshortedcapacitorsorburntor
damagedtraces.
MeasurethevoltageonthefocuspinoftheCRT.WARNING:Ifthereisaninternalshort,you
couldhavethefull25kV+atthislocation!Ifyougetareading,thiswouldbeanindicationof
aninternalshortintheCRT.Seethesection"ShortsinaCRT".

Badfocus(fuzzypicture)
FocusvoltageontheCRTisusuallyintherangeof28kVDCandshouldbecontrollableovera
fairlywiderangebythefocuspotusuallylocatedontheflybackoralittlepanelinitsvicinity:
Ifadjustingthepotresultsinapositionofacceptablefocus,youmaybedone.Itisnotunusual
forthefocussettingtodriftaovertime.
Ifthesettingisalreadyasgoodaspossiblebutnotreallygoodenough,theCRTmaybetired.
Alternatively,thefilamentvoltagemaybetoolow.Checkforbadconnectionsinthefilament
circuit.
Iftheoptimalsettingisoutofrangeofthefocuspot,theproblemislikelyleakageinthefocus
dividerintheflybackoroneofthecomponentsontheCRTneckboard.

Alsoseethesections:FocusadjustmentandFocusdriftswithwarmup.
Thefocuswireusuallycomesfromtheflybackorifthegeneralareaorfromaterminalonavoltage
multipliermoduleinsomecases.Itisusuallyawirebyitselfgoingtothelittleboardontheneckof
theCRT.
Ifasparkgap(alittle2terminaldevicewitha1/8"gapinthemiddle)isarcingwithpoweron,then
theresistivedividerhasshortedinsidetheflyback,focusboard,orHVmultiplierwhateveryouTV
hasandthethisunitwillneedtobereplaced.DittoiftheSCREENcontrolaffectsfocusand/orvice
versa.
Usingasuitablehighvoltagemeter(rangeatleast10kVDC,1000Mohmorgreaterinput
impedance),youshouldbeabletomeasureitconnectedanddisconnected.Thegroundreturnwillbe
theoutsidecoatingoftheCRTwhichmayormaynotbethesameasthemetalchassisparts.Ifthe
voltageisverylow(lessthan2kV)andthepothaslittleeffect:
WhenmeasuredrightoffofthesourcedisconnectedfromtheCRTneckboard,thenthe
problemisprobablyinthefocusnetworkintheflyback(orwhereveritoriginates).Sometimes
thesecanbedisassembledandcleanedorrepairedbutusuallyrequiresreplacementoftheentire
flybackorvoltagemultiplier.Note:youmayneedtoaddaHV(10kV)capacitorbetweenthe
focuswireandDAGgroundtoprovidefilteringsoyougetaDClevelforyourmeter.
WhenmeasuredwiththefocuswireattachedtotheCRTneckboardwiththeCRTconnected
butreasonablewiththeCRTunplugged,thereisprobablyashortbetweenthefocusandanother
electrodeinsidetheCRT.Seethesection:RescuingashortedCRT.
WhenmeasuredwiththefocuswireattachedtotheCRTneckboardwiththeCRTunplugged,
thereislikelyacomponentontheCRTneckboardthatisleakyorbreakingdown.Also,check
fordecayed(tanorbrown)gluewhichmayturnleakywithage.

Focusdriftwithwarmup
Thiscouldbeduetoaproblemwiththefocusvoltagepowersupply,componentsontheCRTneck
board,oratiredwornCRT.
Focusiscontrolledbyavoltageof28kVDCusuallyderivedfromtheflybacktransformerand
includessomeresistorsandcapacitors.Oneofthesecouldbechangingvalueasitwarmsup.
(assumingnothingelsechangessignificantlyastheunitwarmsupe.g.,thebrightnessdoesnot
decrease.)
Focusvoltageisderivedfromasubsetofthehighvoltagewindingontheflybackusingaresistive
voltagedividerwhichincludesthefocuspot.Theseareextremelyhighvalueresistors200Mohmis
commonandsoleakageofanykindcanreduceorincreasethefocusvoltage.Allotherthingsbeing
OKi.e.,thepictureisotherwisefineIwouldsuspectthistypeoffailureratherthantheCRT.
TheconnectiontotheCRTisusuallyaseparatewirerunningfromtheflybackoritsneighborhoodto
theCRTneckboard.Lookforcomponentsinthisgeneralarea.Usecoldsprayoraheatguntoisolate
theonethatisdrifting.Ifyouhaveaccesstoahighvoltagemeter,youshouldbeabletoseethe
voltagechangeastheTVormonitorwarmsupandwhenyoucoolthefaultypart.Ifitisinthe
flyback,thensometimesthepartwiththeadjustmentsclipsoffandcanberepairedorcleaned.Most
often,youwillneedtoreplacetheflybackasaunit.
Iftheoptimaladjustmentpointofthefocuscontroldoesn'tchangethatmuchbutthebestfocus
issimplynotasgoodasitshouldbe,theCRTisprobablytheproblem.However,iftheoptimal
pointproducesacceptablefocusbutitchanges(andpossiblymovesoffofoneendofthe

adjustmentknobrange)astheunitwarmsup,theflybackoroneofthecomponentsontheCRT
neckboardarelikelydrifting.
Ifyouhaveahighvoltagemeter,youcanmeasurethefocusvoltagetodetermineifitisbeing
changedbythefocuspotandifitisintheballpark(28kVtypical).Sometimes,thepartofthe
flybackwiththefocuspotcanbesnappedoffandcleanedorpartsreplacedbutusuallyyou
needtoreplacethewholeunit.TheremayacapacitorortwoonthePCBontheneckofthe
CRTthatcouldhaveincreasedleakageaswellthusreducingthefocusvoltage.
TodetermineiftheCRTistheproblem,forsharpfocusaftertheunithaswarmedup.Poweroff
foranhourorsoandcarefullypulltheCRTneckboardoffoftheCRT.Then,powerupthe
unit.Letitrunlongenoughsuchthattherewouldhavebeenadetectablefocusdrift.Now,
powerdown,plugtheCRTneckboardbackin,andpowerup.Watchtheimageasitappearson
thescreen:
Ifthefocusstartsoutfuzzyandsharpensupastheimageappearsandgraduallybecomes
sharperastheCRTwarmsuptheCRTislikelytired.
TheonlycatchhereisthatpluggingtheCRTneckboardintotheCRTresultsinan
additionalloadontheflybackduetothepicturebeamcurrentwhichheatsitmoreas
well.Thus,iftheproblemtakesafewminutestoappear,keepthebrightnessturneddown
excepttochecktheappearanceofthepicturefromtimetotime.
Youcansetthefocuscontrolforoptimumwhenwarmedupandjustturnthemonitoron
inadvanceofwhenyouwillbeneedingitoraddauserfocusadjustmentbydrillinga
holeintheplasticcaseforan*insulated*screwdriverorflybackfocusknobextender:).
TheCRTmaycontinuetofunctionforquiteawhilesothisisnotimpendingdoom.
Ifthefocusisrelativelystableastheimageappearsandincreasesinbrightness*and*is
aboutassharpasitwouldbewiththemonitorwarmedup,theproblemismostlikelyin
theflyback.However,alsocheckforbadcomponentsordecayed(tanorbrown)glueon
theCRTneckboard.Adriftingflybackwillneedtobereplacedasitwillprobablyget
worseandfailcompletely.CleanthesurfaceofthecircuitboardandCRTsocketinthe
vicinityofthefocusandscreenterminalsandtraces.Contaminationorjustdirtandgrime
caneasilycauseproblemsespeciallyonhumiddayssincetheresistanceofthesecircuits
isextremelyhigh(100sofMohms).
Ifthefocusisrelativelystableastheimageappearsandincreasesinbrightness*and*is
similartowhatitwouldbewiththemonitorcold,youhaveaverystrangesituationwhere
someloadonthehighvoltagepowersupply,perhaps,iscausingathermalproblem.This
wouldberare.

Aboutthequalityofmonitorfocus
Question:Ihave2identicalmonitors.Oneisrazorsharpfromedgetoedge.Theotherisblurredatthe
cornersnotfromconvergenceproblems,butjustplainoutoffocus.Inthismonitor,thefocus
adjustmentontheflybackcanimprovethefocusattheedges,butthenthecenterofthescreen
becomesworse..Myquestionis:Isthisaproblemintheelectronicsandpresumablyafixableflawor
isitcausedbyvarianceinthepicturetubeitselfandnotcorrectable?Orisitsomeotherissue?
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Theadjustmentontheflybacksetsthe"static"focusvoltage,whichisaDCvoltageappliedtothe
focuselectrodeintheCRT.However,asinglefixedfocusvoltagewillnotgiveyouthebestfocus
acrossthewholeCRTscreen,forthesimplereasonthatthedistancefromtheguntothescreenis

differentatthescreencenterthanitisinthecorners.(ThebeamSHAPEisbasicallydifferentinthe
corners,too,sincethebeamstrikesthescreenatananglethere,butthat'sanotherstory.)To
compensateforthis,mostmonitorsincludeatleastsomeformof"dynamic"focus,whichvariesthe
focusvoltageastheimageisscanned.Thecontrolsforthedynamicfocusadjustmentwillbelocated
elsewhereinthemonitor,andwillprobablyhaveatLEASTthreeadjustmentswhichmaytosome
degreeinteractwithoneanother.Yourbestbet,shortofhavingaservicetechadjustitforyou,would
betogettheservicemanualfortheunitinquestion.
Itisalsopossiblethatthedynamicfocuscircuitryhasfailed,leavingonlythestaticfocusadjust.
Asalways,DONOTattemptanyservicingofaCRTdisplayunlessyouarefamiliarwiththecorrect
proceduresforSAFELYworkingonhighvoltageequipment.ThevoltagesineventhesmallestCRT
monitorcanbelethal.

Badfocusandadjustmentchangesbrightness
Thisistheclassicsymptomofashortbetweenthefocusandscreensuppliesprobablyin
focus/screendividerwhichispartoftheflybackortripler.However,itcouldalsobeintheCRT.If
youhaveahighvoltagemeter,measuringthefocusvoltagewillshowthat(1)itislowand(2)itis
affectedbytheSCREENcontrolSimilarly,theSCREENvoltagewillbeaffectedbytheFOCUS
control(whichiswhatischangingthebrightness.
TodetermineiftheproblemisintheCRT,measuretheFOCUSandSCREENvoltagewithahigh
voltagemeter.IftheyareidenticalpulltheplugontheCRT.Iftheyarenowtheirnormalvalues,then
ashortedCRTisadistinctpossibilityseethesection:RescuingashortedCRT.

Charlie'scommentsonfocusproblems
(From:CharlesGodard(cgodard@iamerica.net).)
MosttruefocusproblemsthatIhaveencountered(whentheIHVTisok)arerelatedtoleaksor
resistanceonthefocusoutput.Thedimingofthescreenwhenthefocuspotisadjustedleadsmeto
thinkintermsofaleakysocket.I'dremovethegroundfromthecrtsockettothetubedagandseeifit
sparks.Ifsotheremaybealeakinthesockettoground.Itcouldalsobeleakingtoanotherpin,such
asthescreengrid.Arhetoricalquestion:Whathappenstothescreenvoltagewhenthefocuspotis
adjusted?
Ihaveseensocketsthathadnoarchingorothertelltalesigns,leakthroughtheplastichousingto
groundoutthefocusvoltage.
Lookcloselyatthescreen.Iftheblurringisintheformofsmallcircles,thenyouhaveanopenorhi
resistancefocuselectrodeinsidethetube.Thecirclesmayvaryinvisibilitywithbrightness.
Ifyoustillhaven'tfoundtheproblem,trytoconfirmthatthisistrulyafocusproblem.Removethecrt
socketandobservethehivoltage.Ifitclimbsmorethanabout1k,sayallthewayupto25kv,then
youmayhaveabeamcurrentproblemratherthanafocusproblem.Inthatcaserecheckallcrtboard
voltages.WARNING:RemovingtheCRTsocketandpoweringtheunitmaydestroytheCRTonsome
models.Seethesection:WarningaboutdisconnectingCRTneckboard.
Ifyouhavedonealloftheaboveandremovingthesocketmakesnochangeinthehivoltage,thentry
todeterminewhythehivoltageislow.
Watchthescreenasthebrightness,contrast,orscreencontrolareadjusted.Seeifyoucanobserveany
signsofblooming.WhentheIHVTdoesn'tprovideenoughcurrenttosatisfythedemandsofthetube

forcurrent,thethepicturetendstoappeartoexpandlikeaballoon.i.e.,bloom.Thiscanbecausedby
notenoughdrivetotheIHVT.Carefullymonitortheb+tothehorizontaldrivestagestoseethatisis
stableandcorrect.

Purplebloborworse
Haveyoutrieddemagnetizingit?Trypoweringitoffforahalfhour,thenon.Repeatacoupleof
times.Thisshouldactivatetheinternaldegausser.Seethesection:Degaussing(demagnetizing)a
CRT.
Isthereanychancethatsomeonewavedamagnethearthetube?Removeitand/ormoveanyitems
likemonsterspeakersawayfromtheset.
WasyourkidexperimentingwithnuclearexplosivesanEMPwouldmagnetizetheCRT.Nearby
lightningstrikesmayhaveasimilareffect.
Ifdemagnetizingdoesnothelp,thenitispossiblethatsomethingshiftedontheCRTtherearea
varietyoflittlemagnetsthatarestuckonatthetimeofmanufacturetoadjustpurity.Therearealso
serviceadjustmentsbutitisunlikely(thoughnotimpossible)thatthesewouldhaveshiftedsuddenly.
Thismaybeataskforaserviceshopbutyoucantryyourhandatitifyougettheservicemanual
don'tattemptpurityadjustmentswithoutone.
Ifthemonitorwasdropped,thenitisevenpossiblethattheinternalshadowmaskoftheCRThas
becomedistortedandyounowhaveaseventyfivepoundboatanchor.:(Ifthediscolorationisslight,
somecarefullyplaced'refrigerator'magnetsaroundtheperipheryofthetubemighthelp.Seethe
section:Magnetfixforpurityproblemsifducttapeworks,useit!
Itisevenpossiblethatthisisa'feature'complementsofthemanufacturer.Ifcertaincomponentslike
transformersareofinferiordesignand/orarelocatedtooclosetotheCRT,theycouldhaveaneffect
onpurity.Evenifyoudidnotnoticetheproblemwhenthemonitorwasnew,itmightalwayshave
beenmarginalandnowadiscolorationisvisibleduetoslightchangesormovementofcomponents
overtime.

Colorringsbullseyepattern
Thisprobablymeansthedegaussingcircuitryisterminatingsuddenlyinsteadofgraduallyasit
should.Themostlikelycauseisabadsolderconnectiontothedegaussthermistororposistoror
somethingfeedingit.
YoucanconfirmthisbymanuallydegaussingthescreenwiththeTVormonitorturnedon.Ifthe
problemdisappears,theabovediagnosisisprobablyvalid.Checkforbadsolderconnectionsinthe
vicinityofthedegausscomponentsandAClineinput.

Magnetfixforpurityproblemsifducttapeworks,useit!
Theapproachbelowwillworkforslightdiscolorationthatcannotbeeliminatedthroughdegaussing.
However,performingthestandardpurityadjustmentswouldbethepreferredsolution.Ontheother
hand,themagnetsmaybequickandeasy.And,whereCRThassufferedinternaldistortionor
dislocationoftheshadowmask,adjustmentsmaynotbeenough.
Inanycase,first,relocatethosemegablasterloudspeakersandthatMRIscannerwiththe
superconductingmagnets.
Theadditionofsomemoderatestrengthmagnetscarefullyplacedtoreduceoreliminatepurity

problemsduetoadistortedordislocatedshadowmaskmaybeenoughtomakethemonitorusable
thoughitwillprobablynotbeperfect.Thetypeofmagnetsyouwantaresoldas'refrigeratormagnets'
andthelikeforstickingupnotesonsteelsurfaces.Thesewillbemadeofferritematerial(withoutany
steel)andwillbedisksorrectangles.Experimentwithplacementusingmaskingtapetoholdthemin
placetemporarily.Degaussperiodicallytoevaluatethestatusofyourefforts.Then,makethe'repair'
permanentusingducttapeorsiliconesealerorotherhouseholdadhesive.
Dependingontheseverityofthepurityproblem,youmayneedquiteafewmagnets!However,don't
getcarriedawayanduseBIGspeakerormagnetronmagnetsyouwillmaketheproblemsworse.
AlsonotethatunlessthemagnetsareplacednearthefrontoftheCRT,verysignificantgeometric
distortionofthepicturewilloccurwhichmaybeacureworsethanthedisease.
WARNING:Don'tgetcarriedawaywhilepositioningthemagnetsyouwillbenearsomepretty
nastyvoltages!
(From:Mr.Caldwell(jcaldwel@iquest.net).)
Iendedupwiththeold'stuckonadesertislandtrick':
Iducktaped2RadioShackmagnetsonthecase,insuchawayastopullthebeamback.!!!!
A$2solutiontoa$200problem.Myfriendishappyasheck.
RCAsellsmagnetstocorrectcornerconvergence,theyareshapedlikechevronsandyoustickthemin
the'right'spotontherearoftheCRT.
(From:TomSedlemyer(wesvid@gte.net).)
Firstsetpurityasbestyoucan.
Obtainsomepiecesofrefrigeratordoormagnetstripsfromanappliancerepairshop(theyusually
havesomelyingaround).
Cutthestripsinto1inchpieces.Placeastripasonthebellofthepicturetubeasclosetotheyokeas
possibleandinlinewiththecornerthathasthepurityerror.Rotatethemagnetuntilyoucorrectthe
purityerrorandtapeitinplace.Multiplemagnetstripscanbeusedandyoumayexperimentwiththe
sizeofthestripsforbesteffect.Itisveryimportantthatthestripsarepositionedclosetotheyokeor
theeffectwillnothold.Theonlydrawbacktothismethodissomeveryslightdistortionofthe
geometryoftheraster,butitbeatshelloutofpayingforanewCRT.

Colormonitoronlydisplaysonecolor
Iassumethatnowyouhavenoothercolorsatallnopictureandnoraster.LetussayitisredR.
ItisprobablynottheCRT.Doyouhaveascope?CheckfortheR,G,andBvideosignalsattheCRT.
Youwillprobablyfindnosignalsforthedefectivecolors.
ThisisalmostcertainlyachromacircuitproblemasanyfailureoftheCRToravideodriverwould
causeittoloseasinglecolortheothertwowouldbeok.Therefore,itisprobablyNOTtheCRTora
driveronthelittleboardontheneckoftheCRT.
TryturninguptheSCREENcontroltoseeifyoucangetaGandBrasterjusttoconfirmthattheCRT
isok.

Locatethevideodrivefromthemainboardforthegoodandabadcolor.Interchangethemandseeif
theproblemmoves.Ifso,thenthereisavideosignalproblem.Ifnot,itisonthelittleCRTboard.
ItcouldbeadefectivechromaICorsomethingelseinthechromadecoder.

DisappearingRed(orothercolor)
Problem:IhavebeengivenanoldcolourTV.Thereceptionisgood,butveryoften,whenthecontrast
andbrightnessoftheTVimageislow(e.g.whenanightsceneisshown),theredcolourslowly
disappears,leavingbehindthegreenandblueimageandmanyredlines.
TheremainingredretracearethegiveawaythatthisismostlikelynotaCRTproblem.
(Iftherewerenoredlines,itcouldbethefilamentfortheredgunoftheCRTgoingonandoffdueto
abadconnectioninsidetheCRTbadnews.)
Howisablackandwhitepicture?(Turndownthecolorcontrol).
IfB/Wpictureisgood,thentheproblemissomewherebackinthechromadecodercircuitry.
CheckthevideoinputtotheCRTvideodriverboardandsignalsonthatboard.IfB/Wpictureisalso
bad,thenyoucancompareredandgreensignalstodeterminewheretheyarebecomingdifferent.The
redlinesinyourdescriptionsoundsliketheredvideooutputcircuitisdriftingandmessingupthe
backgroundlevel,blanking,screen,orothersetting.Couldbeacapacitororothercomponent.

Interferenceresultinginjigglingorwiggling
Note:similarsymptomscanbetheresultofamonitordefectorrunningthemonitoratscanrate
beyondsitscapabilities.However,magneticinterferencefromelectricalwiring,otherequipmentis
verycommonandsometimesoverlookedwhenlookingforacomplex,expensive,andobscure
explanationforamisbehavingmonitor(orTV).
Also,ifyouroutletisnotgrounded,Ihaveheardofsimilarsymptomsundercertainconditions.
GroundingISessentialforsafetyshouldashortcircuitfaultdevelopinthePCaswellastogetthe
mostbenefitfromasurgesuppressorsonowisagoodtimetoupgrade!

Interferencefromelectricalwiring
Ifthewiringofnormaloutletsisdonecorrectlyevenwithoutasafetyground,thecurrentsshouldbe
balancedandyouwillnotexperienceaproblem.However,manycircuits,particularlythoseinvolving
setupslike3wayswitchesorswitchedoutletsandwiringinolderbuildingscanhaveunbalanced
currentswhenactive.Ifyourmonitorsarecloseenoughtothewiring,therecanbeinterferencewhich
willtaketheformofaflickeringorpulsatingdisplay.
Otherthanrecommendingmovingthemonitors,thereisnoeasysolution.Theycanbeshieldedwith
MuMetalbutthatisexpensive.Oryoucouldrunalldisplaysata60Hzverticalrate(or50Hz
dependingonwhereyoulive).However,thisisinconvenientandwillneverbequiteperfect.
Ifyouhaveflexibilityduringconstructionorrenovation,therearewaystominimizethechanceof
unexpectedbehaviorlater:
Thinkofitthisway:Ifthesumofthecurrentsinthecablearezero,therewillbenomagneticfieldto
worryabout.Thiswillbethecasefornormal110VACbranchcircuits.

Somesourcesformagneticinterference:
Three(ormore)waycircuitslampsorfixturescontrolledfrommorethanonelocationwhich
usea'traveler'.Inthiscase,asingleenergizedwirerunsbetweenswitchesand/ortheswitches
andtheload.
Circuitswhichdonothavetheirreturninthesamecable.Forexample,ceilingfixtures
controlledfromawallswitchbutwheretheHotcomesfromanotherlocation.Or,astringof
baseboardheatersfedfromoppositeends.
CircuitswhichshareaNeutralbutwhereoneormoreoftheHotsarenotinthesamecable.
Thisismorelikelytobefoundinoldconstructionusingknobandtubewiringwherecircuits
werejustconnectedinthemostconvenientway.
LoopsinNeutralandGroundconductors.Thewaycircuitsaresupposedtobewired(U.S.A.at
least)isnearlyalwaysinastarsortofconfigurationwheretheNeutralandGroundconductors
neverconnectattheendsofthe'star'.However,duetopoorwiringpractices,itisquitepossible
forNeutralstobeconnectedtootherNeutralsorGroundstobeconnectedtootherGroundsor
forthemtobecrossconnectedatvariouslocationsallwithoutanyothersymptoms.Thiscan
evenhappenbetweenbuildings.Seethesection:Interferencefromcrossconnectedbuildings.
However,thelikelihoodofthissortoffaultisn'tthatgreat.
Firstconfirmthattheproblemisduetoinsidewiringshutoffallpowertothebuilding(ifpossible)
oratleastswitchoffeachcircuitinturntoseeiftheproblemdisappears(runthemonitorfromaUPS
oraremoteoutlet).
Ifthesymptomspersist,checkforexternalsourcesofinterference(althoughtherecouldstillbe
aGroundNeutralloopformedbytheconnectionbetweenGandNattheservicepanelorto
otherbuildings.Inthiscase,theeffectwouldlikelybestrongestneartheservicepanel.).Seethe
section:Interferencefrompowerlines.
Ifthesymptomsaregone,trytonarrowdownthecircuitorcircuitsthatareresponsibleby
switchingeachoneonindividually.
Inallcases,runningtheHotsandNeutralsforthecircuitinthesamecable(oratleastinclose
proximity)willavoidthisproblemasthetotalcurrentwillsumtozero.
Realistically,youwouldhavetobeveryunluckytohaveanoticeableprobleminresidentialwiring
exceptneartheservicepanelorhighpowerapplianceslikebaseboardheaters,equipmentwithlarge
motorsortransformers,etc.

Interferencefrompowerlines
Powerlines(anysizefromlocaldistributiontolargeintercontinentaltransmissionlines)nearbycan
resultinnoticeableeffectstomonitorsasaresultofthemagneticfieldssurroundingtheindividual
wiressimilartothatfromunbalancedinsidewiring(seethesection:Interferencefromelectrical
wiring.TVsmaynotbeaffected,atleastnotasmuch,sincetheywillberunningataverticalrate
almostthesameasthepowerlinefrequency).
Theseverityoftheeffectswillvarydependingontheloaddistributiononthethree(probably)phases,
distance,orientationwithrespecttothemonitor,etc.Movingthemonitorasfarfromtheoffending
powerlinesaspossible,experimentingwithitsorientation,andseeingifyoucanlivewithavertical
scanrateequaltothepowerlinefrequency,aretheonlyrealisticoptionsotherthanconstructingan
expensivemumetalboxforit.CheckoutMuShieldspecificallyunder"MonitorEnclosures"ifyou're
curious.LessEMF,Inc.sellsMumetalfoilbythefootbutwhattheyhavelistedisratherthinIdon't

knowhowwellitwouldworkformonitorCRTshielding.

Interferencefromcrossconnectedbuildings
Hereisararecasewheretheneighborwasreallyatfault(inahistoricalsortofway).
(From:TuyenTran(ttran@ziplink.net).)
Getthis:myhouseandmyneighbor'shouseweregroundedtogether,soweconnectedtothepower
company'sneutralintwoplaces.ThewayIunderstandit,thiscausedagroundloopbetweenourtwo
panels.Myneighborsusedtoownthisplace.Whentheybuiltasmallhousenextdoor,insteadof
diggingaseparatewell,theyjustrana3/4inchcopperpipebetweenmywatertankandtheirnew
place.(Thisplaceusedtobeadairyfarm,soithadplentyofwatercapacity.)Whentheyinstalled
theirpanel,theelectricianofcoursebondedtheirwaterpipestothepanel,whichthenconnectedour
twogroundstogether.Whentheysoldtheplace,theyputintheirownwell,butnobodybothertocut
theoriginalpipelinkingthetwohousestogether.It'sbeenlikethisforatleast40yearsI'mthethird
owner!
SoItookapipecuttertothething,andnomoreinterference.

Interferencefromotherequipment
Anytypeofequipmentwhichusesorgeneratesstrongmagneticfieldscaninterferewithamonitor.
OthercomputermonitorsorTVs,equipmentwithpowertransformers,andelectricmotorswillcause
apulsatingorflickeringdisplay.Loudspeakersorotherequipmentwithstaticmagneticfieldswill
causecolorpurityand/orgeometricdistortionproblemswhichdegausswillnotcure.
Theeasiestwaytoconfirmthatinterferenceisyourproblemistomovethemonitororsuspect
equipmenttoadifferentlocation.Theonlyrealsolutionistoseparatethemonitorandinterfering
device.
Notethatwithscanratesthatarenotevennearthepowerlinefrequencyanymore,avarietyof
symptomsarepossibleincludingshimmering,wiggling,undulating(howmanymoreadjectivescan
youcomeupwith?).Therateofthemovementwillberelatedtothedifferencebetweenthemonitor
scanrateandthefrequencyofinterference.

Mymonitorispossessed!
Problemsarethatallgraphicsapplicationsfadetoblack,losetheircoloronpartsofthescreen,and
therearestrangepincushionproblemsontherightsideofthemonitor?Thisallcameupsuddenly,
withnoapparentchangesyourmypart.
Youtriedchangingvideodrivers,modes,cleaningconnectionsoncablesandvideocard,evenpulled
thecardandcleanedtheedgeconnector.
Aftercleaningup,thingsseemedtowork(stillhadpincushionproblem),butnexttimeitwaspowered
on,sameweirdproblems.
Voodoomightberequiredbutmoredowntoearthcausesarelikely:
Areyousurenothingchangedinthebuilding(likeyouinstalledamedicalMRIunitwitha2Tmagnet
inthesameroom)?
Allmonitorshaveabuiltindegausscircuitwhichoperateswhenpoweristurnedonafterbeingofffor

atleast15minutesorso.Thiscouldhavefaileditisswitchingoffsuddenlyinsteadoframpingdown
asitshouldandismakingtheproblemworseoryoucouldhaveapowersupplyfailureinsidethe
monitor.
Gradualvariationsincolororbrightnessonthescreenorovertimearealmostalwaysmonitor
problems,notvideocard,software,orcables.
Itwon'thurttotrymanualdegausswiththemonitorpowered,seebelow.Ifthisclearsituppossibly
untilyouturnthepoweroffandonagain,thenitmaybetheinternaldegausscircuitry.

Shimmeringimageduetovibrations
IfyourmonitorusesaTrinitronorcloneCRT,thenthismaybenormal.Evenwiththe13unsightly
stabilizingwiresrunningacrossthescreen,theverticalaperturegrillewiresinaTrinitrontypeCRT
canwiggleasaresultofmechanicalshocksorvibration.Anymovementresultsinmomentary
changesincolorpurity,colorbalance,brightness.Gentlytaponthesideofthemonitorandyoumay
seethesameeffect.

Wiringtransmittedinterference
Thepowerthatcomesfromthewalloutletissupposedtobeanicesinusoidat60Hz(intheU.S.)and
itprobablyiscomingoutofthepowerplant.However,equipmentusingelectricmotors(e.g.,vacuum
cleaners),fluorescentlamps,lampdimmersormotorspeedcontrols(shoptools),andotherhigh
powerdevices,mayresultinavarietyofeffects.
Whilemonitorsnormallyincludesomelinefiltering,thenoiseimmunityvaries.Therefore,ifthe
waveformisdistortedenough,someeffectsmayshowupevenonahighqualitymonitor.
Symptomsmightincludebarsofnoiseordistortionmovingslowlyorrapidlyupordownthescreen
ordiagonally.Thisnoisemaybebarelyvisibleasacoupleofjigglingscanlinesorbebroadbarsof
saltandpeppernoise,snow,ordistortedvideo.
Thesourceisprobablylocalinyourhouseandprobablyonthesamebranchcircuitbutcouldalso
beseveralmilesaway.
OnewaytodetermineiftheproblemislikelytoberelatedtoACpoweristoswitchyour
verticalscanratetomatchthepowerlinefrequency:60HzintheU.S.,50HzinmostEuropean
countries,etc.Ifthepatternofnoiseordistortionisnowstationary(oratmostslowlydrifting
upordownthescreen),theinterferenceislikelypowerlinerelated:
Asinglebarwouldindicateinterferenceatthepowerlinefrequency.
Apairofbarswouldindicateinterferenceattwicethepowerlinefrequency.
Eitherofthesearepossible.
Trytolocatetheproblemdevicebyturningoffallsuspectequipmenttoseeiftheproblem
disappears.
Thebestsolutionistoreplaceorrepairtheoffendingdevice.Inthecaseofalightdimmer,for
example,modelsareavailablethatdoabetterjobofsuppressinginterferencethanthetypical
$3homecenterspecial.Appliancesaresupposedtoincludeadequatenoisesuppressionbutthis
isnotalwaysthecase.
Ifthesourceisinthenextcounty,thisoptionpresentssomesignificantdifficulties:).

Pluggingthemonitorintoanotheroutletmayisolateitfromtheoffendingdeviceenoughto
eliminateorgreatlyreducetheinterference.
Theuseofalinefiltermayhelp.AsurgesuppressorisNOTalinefilter.
Similarsymptomscouldalsobeproducedbyadefectivepowersupplyinthemonitororother
fault.Thesurestwayofeliminatingthispossibilityistotrythemonitoratanotherlocation.

JitteringorflickeringduetoproblemswithACpower
Ifyouhaveeliminatedotherpossibilitiessuchaselectromagneticinterferencefromnearbyequipment
orelectricwiringorafaultyvideocardorcableorsoftwarethennoisyorfluctuatingACpower
maybeapossibility.However,modernmonitorsusuallyhavewellregulatedpowersuppliessothisis
lesscommonthanitusedtobe.Thenagain,yourmonitormayjustbeoverlysensitive.Itisalso
possiblethatsomefaultinitspowersupplyregulatorhasresultedinitbecomingmoresensitiveto
minorpowerlinefluctuationsthatareunavoidable.
OnewaytodetermineiftheproblemislikelytoberelatedtoACpoweristorunthemonitoronclean
powerinthesamelocationonthesamecomputer.Forexample,runningitonanUninterruptible
PowerSource(UPS)withthelinecordpulledfromthewallsocketwouldbeanexcellenttest.The
outputoftheUPS'sinvertershouldbefreeofanypowerlinenoise.Ifthemonitor'simagehasnow
settleddown:
1.Largeapplianceslikeairconditioners,refrigerator,orwashingmachinesonthesamecircuit
mightcausesignificantpowerdipsandspikesastheycycle.
Pluggingatablelampintothesameoutletmaypermityoutoseeanyobviousfluctuationsin
power.Whatelseisonthesamecircuit?Dependingonhowyourhouseorapartmentiswired,
thesamefeedfromtheservicepanelmaybesupplyingpowertowidelyseparatedareas.
2.Forsomeunfathomablereason,yourmonitormayjustbemoresensitivetosomethingaboutthe
powerfromthecircuitinthatroom.Theremaybenothingactuallywrong,justdifferent.While
unlikely,alightdimmeronthesamecircuitcouldbeproducinglineconductedinterference.
Ifyouhaveamultimeter,youcouldatleastcomparethevoltagesbetweenthelocationwhereit
hasproblemsandtheonewhereitishappy.Perhaps,themonitorissensitivetobeingona
slightlydifferentvoltage.Thismightonlybeaproblemifsomecircuitryinthemonitoris
marginalinsomerespecttobeginwith,however.
3.Therecouldbeabadconnectionsomewhereonthecircuit.IfyourhousehasAluminumwiring,
thisisadefinitepossibility.
Tryatablelampsinceitsbrightnessshouldfluctuateaswell.Thisshouldbecheckedoutbya
competentelectricianasitrepresentsarealfirehazard.
Anelectricianmaybeabletopinpointthecausebutmanydonothavethetrainingorexperienceto
dealwithproblemsofthissort.Certainly,ifyoufindanypowerlinefluctuationsnotaccountedforby
majorappliances,onthesamecircuitthisshouldbecheckedbyanelectrician.

Mymonitorhastheshakes
Youturnonyourmonitorand510secondslater,thedisplayisshakingorvibratingforasecondor
so.Itusedtoonlyoccurwhenfirstturnedon,butnow,theproblemoccurs3timesin30seconds.Of
course,manyvariationsonthisgeneralthemearepossible.

Somepossibilities:
1.Defectivedegausscircuitthiswouldnormallycauseashakingorvibrationwhenyoufirstturn
itonbutyounormallydonotnoticeitsincetheCRTisnotwarmedup.Thedegausscircuitmay
havedevelopedamindofitsown.
2.Otherdefectivecircuitryinmonitorpowersupplyregulation,deflection,orbadinternal
connections.
3.Externalinterferencedidyouchangeanythingormoveyoursetuprecently?Seethesections
on:"Interferencefromotherequipment","Interferencefromelectricalwiring",and
"Interferencefrompowerlines".
4.Defectivevideocable(unlikely).WiggletheVGAcabletobeseeifyoucaninducethe
problem.
5.Loosetrimmagnetsofothermagneticcomponentsonorneardeflectionyoke.Thisis
somewhatrarebutiftheadhesivecomesapart,themagneticfieldsfromthedeflectioncurrent
cancausethepartstovibratewhichwillresultinajitterormovementofthepicture.Theremay
evenbeaudiblecracklingorsnappingsoundsassociatedwiththisvibration.

Fred'scommentsonmonitorinterferenceproblems
(From:FredNoble)Fred_Noble@msn.com).)
Monitorsareverysusceptibletoelectromagneticfields.Ifanyofthefollowingis"yes"itmaypointto
an'electrical'causeoftheMonitorproblem.
Doyouhaveaceilingfaninthesameroomturnedon?
Doyouhaveawirelesstelephoneintheroom?
DoyougetsimilareffectsonyourTV?
Areyounearalargetransformer,substation,orhighvoltageoverheadwires?
Isyourcomputerlocatedclosetothemeterontheothersideofthewall?
Doyouhavespeakersnexttothemonitor?Aretheyshielded?
Doyouhaveaphoneorotherdevicewithamagnetinitnearthemonitor?
Isthecablingroutedtoonearaprintercable?
Doyouhaveasurge/powerstriporUPSnearyourmonitor?
Repositionthemonitorormoveittoadifferentlocation.Alsomakesurethatyouareturningthe
monitoronfirstandthenthesystemtoensurethatthevideocardisproperlyrecognizingthemonitor.
Checkcableconnections(makesurenoothercablesarecrossingthemonitorcable.Ifyouhavean
extensiononthemonitoroutputcablethenremoveitaswell.
Tryswappingoutthemonitortoverifyifitreallyisthemonitorortakeyourmonitortoanother
systemandseehowitrespondsthere.
Ifyouarepluggingthemonitorintoasurgestrip,removeitfromthereandplugthemonitordirectly
inthewalloutlet.
Discussion:
TheremightbeanambientRFI/EMIelectricalormagneticfieldpresentaroundyourcomputer
location.SomeoftheelectricalfieldortheconductedRFI/EMIelectrical"noise"causesare
consideredhere.

Roughsummaryofexcessivemagnetic&electricfields:
Cause:Electricalwiringerrors.
ElectricalwiringerrorssuchasinappropriateornonNECcodeneutraltogroundbondsinthe
facility(notatthecommonbusinthemains),andothernonNECCodewiringthatresultsin
theHOTwirefieldsnotbeingOFFSETbytheneutralwirefields.
Incorrectwiringwillbeaggravated(andwillbenoticedfirst)onacircuitwherethereisanAir
Conditioner,copier,laserprinter.
Correction:Thisisanelectricalproblemthathasresultedina*netcurrent*flowinginthe
facilityandisalsoashockhazard.
Don'tusedevicesthatdumpcurrentontotheneutralline,andhaveanelectriciancorrectthe
wiringtoNECcode.
Cause:Magneticfluxlinkages.
Itisnormalfortransformerstousemagneticfluxlinkages(tocoupleprimarytothesecondary).
Correction:Keeptransformerbasedequipmentawayfromsensitiveequipment.
Thereareothercorrectivemeasuresherethatcanbediscussedonthedesignlevelandonthe
applicationlevel.
Ifthetransformerisusedtopowera"noisy"load(highharmonics)perhapsagoodharmonic
filtercanbeusedbetweenthetransformerandtheload(exampleagoodUL1283noisefilteror
SurgesuppressorwithUL1283filter).
Cause:Motorsalsousemagneticfluxlinkagesinnormalusage.
Correction:Keeplarge,active,motorsawayfromsensitiveequipment(andtrytokeepthemon
adifferentcircuitifpossible).
Theuseofagoodharmonicfilteronthatcircuitwillhelpreducetheharmonics(forexample,a
goodsurgesuppressorwithaUL1283RFI/EMIfilter,oraLineConditioner).
Cause:UPSs,especiallywhenoninverter(duringbrownoutorblackout)createmagnetic&
electricfields.
Correction:Keepthemawayfromsensitiveloads,andadvisemanufacturerofproblems
encounteredwiththeUPS.
TheUPSmayhaveafaultyinvertercircuitorpart,ormaybeinneedofaredesign.

Lossofcolorafterwarmup
Ifthereisagenerallossofpicturebutthereislightonthescreenifthebrightnessisturnedalltheway
up,thenthisisavideoinput,videoamplifier,RGBdriver,orpowersupplyproblem.
Ifitrecoversafterbeingoffforawhile,thenyouneedtotryacoldsprayinthevideo/controllerto
identifythecomponentthatisfailing.Takeappropriatesafetyprecautionswhileworkinginthere!
Ifitstaysbroken,thenmostlikelysomecomponentinthevideocircuitry,controller,oritspower
supplyasfailed.Thereisagoodchancethatitisabadcolderconnectionthetrickistolocateit!

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

MiscellaneousProblems
ContourlinesonhighresolutionmonitorsMoire
Thesefallintothecategoryofwaveylines,contourlines,orlightanddarkbandseveninareasof
constantbrightness.(Somepeoplemayrefertothisphenomenonas"focusorNewton'srings".)These
maybealmostasfineasthedotpitchontheCRTor1or2cmorlargerandchangingacrossthe
screen.Iftheyaremoreorlessfixedonthescreenandstable,thentheyarenotlikelytobeoutside
interferenceorinternalpowersupplyproblems.(However,ifthepatternsarelockedtotheimage,then
therecouldbeaproblemwiththevideoboard.)
Onecauseoftheselinesismoire(interferenceorbeatpatterns)betweentherasterorpixelsandthe
dotstructureoftheCRT.Ironically,thebetterthefocusonthetube,theworsethisislikelytobe.If
theindividualpixelsdonotcoverenoughphosphordots,thentheactualcolorandbrightness
displayedwon'tmatchwhatthevideocardisgeneratingandthiswilldependontheactuallocationof
thepixelrelativetothephosphordots.Trinitrons,whichdonothaveaverticaldotstructureshouldbe
immunetointerferenceofthissortfromtherasterlines(butnotfromthehorizontalpixelstructure).
SlotmaskCRTs(notthatcommononmonitors)alsohavefewerproblemswithverticalmoire.
Youcantestformoirebyslowlyadjustingthepicturesize.Ifitismoire,youshouldseethepattern
changeinlocationandspatialfrequencyasslightchangesaremadetosize.Changestopositionwill
movethepatternsalongwiththepicturewithoutalteringtheircharacterandstructuresignificantly
(thoughfinedetailwillchange).
Iftheyareduetotherasterlinestructureyourfocusistoogoodthepatternswillremainessentially
fixedinpositiononthefaceoftheCRTforhorizontalsizeandpositionadjustmentsthepatternswill
remainfixedunderthechangingimage.
Howtoeliminateit?Ifmoireisyourproblem,thentheremaybenoeasyanswer.Foragiven
resolutionandsize,itwilleitherbeaproblemornot.Youcantrychangingsizeandresolutionmoire
isafunctionofgeometry.Ironically,Ihaveamonitorwhichisnicerinthisrespectat1024x768
interlacedthanat800x600noninterlaced.
Somemonitorshavea'MoireReductionMode'switch,control,ormode.Thismayormaynotbeof
help.Onewaytodothisisyouguesseditistoreducethesharpnessofthebeamspotandmakethe
picturefuzzier!Anotherapproachaddsahighfrequencydithertothebeamspotpositionwhichmay
resultinaheadache!Youmightfindthesecurestobeworsethanthedisease.
Anothercauseofsimilarproblemsisbadvideocableterminationcreatingreflectionsandghosting
whichundercertainconditionscanbesosevereastomimicMoireeffects.Thisisunlikelytooccurin
allcolorswithaVGAdisplaysincetheterminationisinternaltothemonitorandindividualresistors
areusedforeachcolor(RGB).
Ithinkitisironicthatsomepeoplewillendupreturningotherwisesuperbmonitorsbecauseofmoire
wheninmanycasesthisisanindicationofmostexcellentfocussomethingmanypeoplestrivefor!
Youcanalwaysgetridofittheconverseisnotnecessarilytrue!

Moireandshadowmaskdotpitch
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)

Thedensityoftheholesintheshadowmasksetanupperlimitontheresolutionsupportedbythat
monitor.Lowerresolutionsworkjustfinethereisnoneedtohavethelogicalpixelsintheimageline
upwiththephysicalholesinthemask(noristhereanymechanismtomakethishappen),andsoyou
canthinkofthisasthe"largerpixels"ofthelowerresimagesimplycoveringmorethanoneholeor
slotinthemask.
Astheeffectivesizeofthepixelsintheimageapproachthespacingofthemaskholes,individual
pixelsarenolongerguaranteedtocoverenoughphosphordotsonthescreentoensurethattheyare
constantcolororconstantluminance,butanimagewillstillbedisplayedwhichONAVERAGE(over
areasonablylargearea)looksOK.Actually,thespecified"topend"format("resolution")formost
monitorsusuallyisatorslightlybeyondthispointtheeffectivepixelsizeissomewhatUNDERthe
dotpitch.

Sourcesofexternalinterferencethatcanaffectthemonitordisplay
Thefollowinglistisjustsomeofthewaysyourpicturecangetscrewedupthroughnofaultofthe
monitor.It'ssortofamazingtheyworkaswellastheydo!Mostofthesearediscussedingreaterdetail
insubsequentsections.
Static/DCmagneticfields:
Unshielded/inadequatelyshieldedmultimediaspeakers
Stereoloudspeakers
MRIscannernextdoor.
Transientmagneticfields:
Kid's(oradults)playingwithmagnets
ElectroMagneticPulse(EMP)fromnearbylightningstrikeornuclearblast
Changingmonitorlocationororientationwithoutdegaussing.
ShiftinEarth'smagneticfieldevery1020Kyears.:)
ACmagneticfields(usuallyatpowerlinefrequency):
ACorDCwalladapters/transformers
Fluorescentlamps(magneticballast)
Laserprinterandotherperipherals
TV,VCR,DVD,orotherA/Vequipment
Additionalcomputermonitor(s)tooclose
Largeappliancesincludingfurnace,A/C,fridge,microwave
Wiringinwalls(unbalancedload/sharedNeutral)
Wiringinelectricalservicepanel
Outsidewiringandpowerdistributionequipment
RadioFrequencyInterference:
Highpowerradiotransmitternearby(broadcast,military,amateur)
PowerLineTransmittedInterference:
Lightingondimmers(incandescent/halogenlamps/fixtures)
Motorspeedcontrols(ceilingfans)
Fluorescentlamps(alltypes)
Vacuumcleaners/shopequipment/otherbrushtypemotors

Equipmentusingswitchmodepowersupplies
Heavyindustrydownthestreet
Interferenceaffectingvideosignal:
Lackofearth/safetyground(linefilterineffective)
GroundloopcausedbyPCandmonitorpluggedintodifferentcircuits
Crossconnectedbuildingsresultingingroundloop

InterferencebetweenmonitorandVCRorTV
"I'vegotadesktopcomputerwithaVGAmonitoraboveit.Totheleftofit(afewinches
away),IhaveaVCRwithaCommodorecompositemonitoraboveit(1084model).I
don'thaveCableTVoranythingspecial,justasimpleantennaconnectedtotheVCRto
pickupthetwolocalTVstations.
Thereceptionisprettygoodwiththecomputeroff,buttheproblemariseswhenIturnthe
computeron.TheVCRisalreadypluggedintoadifferentoutletthanthecomputer.Since
Iamintovideoproduction,Ineedthissetupasitislaidout(closetogether).
So,howcanIshieldtheVCRfromtheinterferencefromthecomputer?CanIdo
somethingwiththeantennatomakethesignalstronger,orcanIplacesomekindof
materialbetweentheVCRandcomputer?"
YourPCisaseriousRFemitter.Areasofleakageincludethecaseaswellasthepossiblythemonitor
andcable.Turnoffthemonitorand/orunplugthevideocabletoseeifitisthelatter.
YouPC'scasemaynothaveadequateshielding.BettercaseshavegroundingfingersandproperRF
shieldingthroughoutthatisonereasontheyaremoreexpensive.Thismaybeanoption.
TheVCRmaybepickinguptheinterferenceinternallyorviaitsantenna.
Theremaybesomeoptionsbutyoufirstneedtodeterminewheretheinterferenceiscomingfromand
whereitisbeingpickedup.

Cableinstalledupsidedownnowmonitordoesnotsynccorrectly
"IhaveanoldvgamonitorthatIscrewedup.Ipluggeditintothevgacardupsidedown.
NowIknowthatseemsimpossible,butbelieveme,itisn't.
Nowtheverticalisfine,butthehorizontalisallscrewy.(isthataword?screwy?)It's
about8"wideandcan'tbeadjustedtonormalsize.
Theresultisavery,um,interestingimage.IsitpossiblethatIdidsomeminordamage
likeblowingacap,diode,orhorizontaltransistor?"
I'llgiveyou100:1oddsthatyoubenttheHsyncpinanditisnowbentoverandnotinsertedinits
hole.Removetheconnector,andexaminethepinsifthisisthecase,takeapairofneedlenosepliers
and**verycarefully**straightenitout.Ifitwaspushedin,grabholdandpullitouttothesame
lengthoftheotherpinsandifnecessary,putadropofadhesiveatitsbasetopreventitfrombeing
pushedinagain.Ifitbreaksofforisunreachable,youwillneedtoreplacetheconnector(unlessthe
shellcomesapartwhichisusuallyimpossibleoratleastnoteasyonnewermonitors).

Isolatedspotsondisplay

Thesecouldbeaproblemwiththevideosourcebadpixelsinthevideocard'sframebufferorbad
spotsonacamcorder'sCCD,forexample.Or,theycouldbedirtordeadphosphorareasintheCRT.
Exceptforproblemswiththeonscreencharactergenerator,itisunlikelythatthemonitor'scircuitry
wouldbegeneratingisolatedspots.
YoucaneasilydistinguishbetweenvideoproblemsandCRTproblemsmissingpixelsduetothe
videosourcewillmoveonthescreenasyouchangerasterposition.CRTdefectswillremain
stationaryrelativetothescreenandwillgenerallybemuchmoresharplydelineatedaswell.
ThereisaspecificationforthenumberandsizeofacceptableCRTblemishessoyoumayhaveto
whineabittoconvincethevendortoprovideareplacementmonitorunderwarranty.

Powersavingproblems
Modernmonitorsareusuallydesignedtopermitsoftwaretocontrolvariouslevelsofpowersaving
('green')featuresfromblankingthescreentototallyshuttingdown.Problemscanoccurifthe
softwaretocontrolthesefeaturesisnotcompatiblewiththemonitorornotsetupcorrectlyoris
attemptingtocontrolamonitorthatlackspowersavingmodesorisdefectiveorincompatible.
Amonitorthatbehavesnormallyundermostconditionsbutemitsahighpitchedwhinewhenthe
computerattemptstodirectitintopowersavingmodeisprobablynotunderstandingthecommandsor
doesnothavetheappropriatepowersavingfeatures.Itprobablybehavesaboutthesameasifthereis
novideosignalwhichindeedmaybethecaseasfarasitisconcerned.
Manymonitorsnotreceivingpropersyncsignalsareperfectlyhappydrivingeveryoneintheoffice
insanewiththathighpitchedwhine.Otherswillblowupeventually.
Recommendation:Don'tusepowersavinguntilyouhavethepropersoftwareandyouknowwhat
yourmonitorsupports.Ofcourse,yourmonitorcouldbedefectiveandyourcurrentsoftwareis
actuallyfine.Checkyourusermanualstodeterminecompatibilityandsetupparameters.Alsoseethe
sections:Monitorlife,energyconservation,andlazinessandImplicationsofpowersavingmodes.

Monitordrift?
Problem:Ihavea17"monitorthathasanimagethatEVERSOSLIGHTLYdriftstotheleft(and
stops)afteralongday'swork(heat,Isuppose).Also,theverticalheightshrinksalittlebit.Isthisat
allnormal/acceptable?
Howmuchis'eversoslightly'?Thereareafairnumberofcomponentswhosevaluescouldalterthe
position/sizeofamonitorimage.Idonotfinditatallsurprisingthatthereshouldbeasmallshiftdue
toheat.Itreallydependsonmanyfactorsincludingthebasicdesign,qualityofcomponents,
ventilation/cooling,etc.Ofcourse,itispossibletohaveamonitorthathasacomponentthatisworse
withrespecttotemperature.Couldalsoberelatedtolinevoltagedependingontheregulationofyour
monitor'spowersupplies.
Ingeneral,myfeelingisthatifitisnotobjectionable(a1/2"shiftwouldbeobjectionable)ANDit's
severityisnotchangingwithtime,youcanignoreit.
Manymonitorsdothis.TVsdothisbutyouarenotawareofitsincetheyarealready510%
overscannedforjustthisreason,aswellascompensatingforcomponentagingandlinevoltage
fluctuations.
Acanofcoldsprayoraheatgunwillbeusefultotrackdownthebadcomponentbutitcouldbea
frustratingsearch.

Monitorshutsdownorgoesblankatcertainscanrates
Itcouldbethemonitor'scomponentshavedriftedandarenowmarginalatyouroneormoreofyour
scanrates.However,firstcheckwithanoscilloscopeifpossibletoconfirmthatyourhorizontaland
verticaltimingareindeedasexpected.
Somevideocardsmodifyhorizontalandverticalfrequencyaspartoftheirsoftwaresizeadjustmentin
theirSetupprogram.Forexample,withATIcards,eventhoughthegeneralresolutionoptioninthe
DOSInstallprogrammaybe800x600at75Hz,adjustingthehorizontalsizecanactuallyvarythe
horizontalfrequencyoveragreaterthan10%range.Asimilarvariationispossiblewiththevertical
rate.
Doesjustthepicturegoawayordoespowerdietothemonitor?IfyoucanseetheneckoftheCRT,
thefilamentsgloworangewhenitisoperating.Doesthisglowdisappearindicatingthatthe
deflection/HVisshuttingdown?
Therecouldbeanumberofpossibilitiesnowayofknowingifitwillbeeasyorinexpensiveto
repairwithouttesting.Itcouldbepowersupply,HVsupply,Xrayprotection,etc.

Monitorflickerswhendiskaccessed
Thisisalmostcertainlyasoftwareproblem.First,trymovingthemonitorawayfromthePCasfaras
thecablewillstretch.Ifitstilloccurs,thenitisprobablynotthemonitor.Couldhavetodowith
powersaving(justaguess)orsomeotherincompatibility.NothingthePCdoesshouldaffectthe
monitorinanywayoncetherefreshrateisset.

Buzzingmonitor
Doyouactuallymeanbuzzlowfrequencyasin50120Hz?Or,doyoureallymeanhighpitched
whine.Ifthelatter,seethesection:Highpitchedwhineorsquealfrommonitorwithnoother
symptoms.
Ifitisfrominsidethemonitormakesureitisnotyourmultimediaspeakersorsoundcard
pickingupinterferenceitisinthedeflection(probablyvertical)orpowersupply.Eitherof
thesecanvaryinseveritywithpicturecontentduetothedifferingcurrentrequirementsbased
onbrightness.Itcouldbeapowersupplytransformer,deflectionyoke,orothermagnetic
component.Evenferritebeadshavebeencaughtbuzzingwhennoonewaslooking.:)Anyof
thesepartscouldvibrateifnotanchoredsecurelyorastheyloosenupwithage.
Somehotmeltglue,RTVsilicone,orevenastrategicallywedgedtoothpickmayhelp.Anew
partmayormaynotquietitdownthereplacementcouldbeworse!Foryokenoise,seethe
section:Reducing/eliminatingyokenoise.
ThereisaslightpossibilitythattheACpowerinyourhomeorofficehassomeharmonic
contentthewaveformisnotsinusoidal.Thismightbethecaseifyoutrytorunonthesame
circuitasanactivedimmerorsomethingelsewiththyristorcontrol.Proximitytoheavy
industrycouldalsocausethis.
Relocatingtheoffendingdevicetoanotherbranchcircuitmayhelp.Youcouldalsotryaline
conditioner(notjustsurgesuppressor)whichincludesfiltering.Else,petitiontohavethatpaper
manufacturermoveoutoftheneighborhood:).
Sometimes,itissimplyadesignormanufacturingdefectandtheonlyalternativeisa
replacementpossiblyadifferentbrand.Itmaybemoredifficulttoquietdownabuzzthana

highpitchedwhine.
Somemonitorssaresimplypoorlydesigned.Youcannotinfertheseverityofthisannoyance
fromanyspecificationsavailabletotheconsumer.Itisstrictlyadesign(e.g.cost)issue.The
sizeofthemonitorisnotastrongindicatoroftheseverityoftheproblembuttherewillbesome
relationshipasthepowerlevelsarehigherforlargerunits.Thebestyoucandoisaudition
variousmonitorsverycarefullytofindonethatyouaresatisfiedwith.
Onethoseraremonitorsthathaveacoolingfan,itsbearingsmaybewornorinneedofcleaning
andlubrication,orablademaybehittingsomething.

Highpitchedwhineorsquealfrommonitorwithnoothersymptoms
Sometimesthisiscontinuous.Inothercases,itcomesandgoesalmostasthoughthereisan
intelligenceatworkattemptingtodriveyoucrazy.Allthemoresosinceatechnicianmaynotevenbe
abletohearwhatyouarecomplainingaboutiftheirhearingisnotassharpathighfrequenciesas
yours.Evenhighresolutioncomputermonitorsrunningathighhorizontalscanrates(beyondhuman
hearing)canhavetheseproblemsduetotheswitchingpowersuppliesaswellassubharmonicsofthe
horizontalscanrateexcitingmechanicalresonancesinthemagneticcomponentsorevenaportionof
thesheetmetalusedforshieldingifincloseproximitytoamagneticcomponent.
Ifitisanewmonitorandyouthinkthesoundswilldriveyouinsane,returningitforarefundor
replacementmaybebestalternative.However,youmaygetusedtoitintime.
Note:ifthewhineonlyoccurswhenthemonitorisunpluggedfromthecomputerorthecomputeris
turnedoff,thisisprobablynormal.Withoutvalidsyncsignalsthemonitordefaultstoahorizontalrate
whichiswithintheaudiblerange(lessthan20kHz).Anyvibratingcomponentswillbereadilyheard.
Itisusuallynotasignofimpendingfailure.
Inmostcases,thissound,whileannoying,doesnotindicateanimpendingfailure(atleastnottothe
monitorperhapstoyourmentalhealth)orsignifyanythingabouttheexpectedreliabilityoftheunit
thoughthisisnotalwaysthecase.Intermittentorpoorconnectionsinthedeflectionorpowersupply
subsystemscanalsoresultinsimilarsounds.However,itismorelikelythatsomepartisjustvibrating
inresponsetoahighfrequencyelectriccurrent.
Thereareseveralpartsinsidethemonitorthatcanpotentiallymakethisnoisethehorizontalflyback
transformerandtoalesserextent,thedeflectionyokeandassociatedgeometrycorrectioncoilswould
bemyfirstcandidates.Inaddition,transformersorchokesintheswitchingpowersupplyifthisis
distinctfromthehorizontaldeflectioncircuitry.
Youhaveseveraloptionsbeforeresortingtoa12poundhammer:
Confirmthatthehorizontalscanratebeingusedbythevideocardiswellwithintherange
supportedbythemonitor.Ifitisn't,changeittobeaonethatisinadditiontopossible
whining,thisisstressfulonthedeflectionandpowersupplyandmayresultinanexpensive
repairinaveryshorttime.Evenifthescanrateissupposedtobefine,changingitslightly(e.g.,
5percent)mighthelpjustbecauseitshiftsthedeflectionfrequencyawayfromamechanical
resonance.However,thismaynotbealongtermsolution.
Asmuchasyouwouldliketodunkthemonitorinsounddeadeninginsulation,thisshouldbe
avoidedasitwillinterferewithwithpropercooling.However,theinteriorofthecomputer
desk/cabinetcanbelinedwithanonflammablesoundabsorbingmaterial,perhapsacoustic
ceilingtiles.Hopefully,notalotofsoundenergyiscomingfromthefrontofthemonitor.
Movethemonitoroutofacornerifthatiswhereitislocatedthecornerwillfocussound

energyintotheroom.
Anythingsoftlikecarpeting,drapes,etc.willdoagoodjobofabsorbingsoundenergyinthis
band.HereisyourjustificationforpurchasingthoseantiquePersianrugsyoualwayswantedfor
yourcomputerroom:).
Ifyouaredesperateandwanttochecktheinsideofthemonitor:
Usingappropriatesafetyprecautions,youcantryproddingthevarioussuspectparts(flyback,
deflectionyoke,othertransformers,ferritebeads)withaninsulatedtoolsuchasadrywooden
stick.Listenthroughacardboardtubetotrytolocalizingthesource.Ifthesoundschanges,you
knowwhatparttogoafter.Sometimesareplacementflybackwillcuretheproblemunlessitisa
designflaw.Youdonotwanttoreplacetheyokeasconvergenceandotheradjustmentswould
needtobeperformed.Othertransformerscanbereplaced.
Sometimes,tighteningsomemountingscrewsorwedgingatoothpickbetweenthecoreandthe
mountingorcoilswillhelp.Coatingtheoffendingpartwithsealersuitableforelectronic
equipmentmayquietitdownbuttoomuchmayleadtooverheating.Adabofhotmeltglueor
RTVsiliconemayhelp.Evenreplacementisnoguaranteeasthenewpartmaybeworse.For
yokenoise,seethesection:Reducing/eliminatingyokenoise.
Afewmonitorshaveinternalcoolingfans.Thewhinemaybeduetowornordrybearings.If
thisisthecase,thefanmustbeservicedasitisnotlikelydoingitjobanddamagedueto
excessivetemperaturesmayeventuallybetheresult.
Notethatthepitchofthewhinethefrequencymaynotevenbeaudibletoatechnicianassignedto
addressyourcomplaint.Thecutofffrequencyforourhearingdropsaswegetolder.Someoneover40
(menmoresothanwomen),youmaynotbeabletohearthewhineatall(atleastyoucanlook
forwardtosilenceinthefuture!).So,evensendingthemonitorbackforrepairmaybehopelessifthe
techniciancannothearwhatyouarecomplainingaboutandyouarenottheretoinsisttheygeta
secondopinion!

Monitorwhinesinpowersaving(standby)mode
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Instandby,themonitorisnotbeingsuppliedwithhorizontalsync,andsothehorizontaldeflection
circuitsarefreerunning.(Ifthey'restillpoweredupinagivenmonitordesignwheninstandbymode,
thatistherearenostandardsgoverningwhatactuallygetsshutdowninthevariouspowersaving
states.)It'slikelythatinthiscase,thehorizontalisfreerunningatafrequencywhichisaudible,and
you'rehearingawhinefromavibratingtransformercore(forexample,theflyback).ThiswillNOT
haveanythingtodowiththetimingusedwhenthemonitorisonandrunningnormally,soit'sno
surprisethatchangingtherefreshratedidn'taffectthis.
Youcaneitherhaveatechniciantrytotrackdowntheoffendingcomponentandtrytokeepitfrom
makingthenoise(usuallybyaddingsome"goop"topreventoratleastreducetheaudibleeffectsof
thevibration),oryoumighttry(ifyoursystempermitsit)usingoneoftheotherpowermanagement
statesinsteadofstandby.RemovingBOTHthehorizontalandverticalsyncsignalsplacesthemonitor
inthe"off"condition(I'massumingcompliancetotheVESADPMSstandardthroughoutthis
discussion),inwhichjustabouteverythingshouldbeshutdown.However,sincethiswillremovethe
heatersupplyfromtheCRTaswell,itWILLtakelongertorecoverfromtheoffstate.

Reducing/eliminatingyokenoise

(From:TerryDeWick(dewickt@esper.com).)
Carefullylookunderverticalcorenexttoplasticliner,ontopandbottomisaplatecalledthe
astigmatismshunt,ithascomeloose.WorkRTV,epoxy,orservicecementontoittoglueitdownand
noiseshouldquit.
(From:TVman(tvman@newwave.net).)
Ihavefixedatotalof27ofthesesetswithnoisyyokesbyremovingtheyokesandusingmotor
armaturespraysealant.
IfyoucarefullymarktheEXACTpositionofeverything(yoke,puritymagnets),andslidetheyoke
offtheCRT,thenoncetheyokehasbeensealedwithmotorarmaturespraysealantandhasdried
thoroughly,puttheyokebackEXACTLYwhereitwas,thereshouldbenoproblems.
TheonlythingIhavehadtodowassetthepurityononeset,butitwasoffalittletobeginwith.

Monitorwasrainedon
Wasthemonitorpluggedinwhentheleakstarted?Anypieceofequipmentwithremotepoweron
capabilityhassomeportionsliveatalltimeswhenpluggedinandsotheremayhavebeendamage
duetoshortcircuitsetc.Substantialdamagecouldhavealreadybeendone.
Otherwise,youmayjustneedtogiveitmoretimetodryout.Ihavehaddeviceswithkeypadsgetting
wetthatrequiredmorethanaweekbutthenwerefine.Thereareallkindsofplacesforwatertobe
trappedandtakealongtimetoevaporate.
Ifthemonitorgotwetwhileunpluggedorithasamechanical(hard)on/offswitch,thengiveitalotof
timetodryoutcompletely.Assumingallvisiblewaterisdrained,aweekrepresentsaminimumsafe
timetowait.Don'trushit.
Generally,somemoisturewillnotdoanypermanentdamageunlesstheunitwasoninwhichcaseyou
willsimplyhavetotroubleshootittheoldfashionedwayoneproblematatime.
Youmaybetemptedtouseahairdrierorheatguntospeedtheprocessalong.But,beextracareful
nottododamagetotheequipment.Slightlymeltedlaptopkeyboardisanexampleofabitofoverkill.
AsfarasIknow,thiswasduetoashortexposuretoaproperlyfunctioningblowdrier.Theowner
swearsthattheblowdrierisnotoverheatingandthatshehasn'tbeenabletosetherhaironfire.Ican
justimaginewhatwouldhavehappenedwitharealheatgun.Theyjustdon'tmakethosekeystheway
theyusedto!:)

Monitorwasdropped
IfyourworkareaismaintainedlikethatofNedrieinthemovie"JurassicPark",youmightnoteven
noticeifoneofyourmonitorsfelloffthetable!Thisisnowaytotreatamonitor.
However,mishapsdohappen.
AssumingitsurvivedmostlyintacttheCRTdidn'timplode,youcouldstillhaveavarietyof
problems.Immediatelyunplugthemonitor!
Ifyoutakeitinforservice,theestimateyougetmaymakethenationaldebtlooklikepocketchange
incomparison.Attemptingtorepairanythingthathasbeendroppedisaveryuncertainchallenge
andsincetimeismoneyforaprofessional,spendinganunknownamountoftimeonasinglerepairis
veryrisky.Thereisnoharmisgettinganestimate(thoughmanyshopschargeforjustagreeingthat

whatyouareholdingwasonceamonitor,orwasitafishtank?)
Thisdoesn'tmeanyoushouldnottackleityourself.Theremaybenothingwrongorveryminor
problemsthatcaneasilyberemedied.Thefollowingarelikelypossibilities:
1.Crackedcircuitboards.Thesecanberepairedsincemonitorsusuallyhavefairlywideopen
singleortwosidedboards.
2.Brokencircuitcomponents.Thesewillneedtobereplaced.
3.Brokensolderconnectionsparticularlytolargeheavycomponentsonsinglesidedboards.
Reflowthesolder.Ifthetraceiscrackedorlifted,repairasin(1).
4.Brokenmountingbrackets.Theseareusuallymadeofcheapplasticandoftendon'tsurvivevery
well.Becreative.Obtaininganexactreplacementisprobablynotworththetroubleand
expense.
5.ComponentsknockedoutoflineontheCRTenvelopeorneckdeflectionyoke,purity
magnets,convergencemagnetsandcoils,geometrycorrectionmagnets.Thesewillneedtobe
reattachedand/orrealigned.SomeCRTsuselittlemagnetsgluedtothefunnelportionofthe
CRTenvelope.Ifanyofthesehavecomeloose,itcouldbequiteatreattofigureoutwherethey
wentandinwhatorientation.
6.InternaldamagetotheCRTpoppedordistortedshadowmask,misalignedelectronguns.
Unfortunately,youwillprobablyhavenowayofidentifyingthesesinceyoucannotseeinside
theCRT.TheywillnotbeapparentuntilallotherfaultshavebeenremediedandtheTVsetis
completelyrealigned.Atthatpoint,extremelyseverepurityorconvergenceproblemsthatdo
notrespondtothenormaladjustmentprocedurewouldbeoneindicationofinternaldamage.
GivetheTVanicefuneral.
Ifyoustillwanttotacklearestoration:
Asnoted,unplugthemonitorevenifitlooksfine.Untilyoudoathoroughinternalinspection,thereis
notellingwhatmayhavebeenknockedoutofwhackorbroken.Electricalpartsmaybeshortingdue
toabrokencircuitboardoronethathasjustpoppedfree.Don'tbetemptedtoapplypowerevenif
therearenoobvioussignsofdamageturningitonmayblowsomethingduetoashortingcircuit
board.
Then,inspecttheexteriorforcracking,chipping,ordents.Inadditiontoidentifyingcosmetic
problems,thiswillhelptolocatepossibleareastocheckforinternaldamageoncethecoversare
removed.
(Atthispoint,mostpeoplewillassumethereisnointeriordamageandplugthesetbackinandturnit
on.Myrecommendationistoresistthistemptationsinceasnoted,thiscouldresultinfurtherdamage
makingtherepairmoreexpensiveiftherearecircuitproblems.However,iftheunitwasonatthetime
ofthe"incident"oryouarereallydeterminedtogettotheconclusionandwouldjustthrowthething
inthetrashifitdoesn'tworkorblowsup,goforit!But,ifyou'rethemorecautioustype,continue
withthesystematicdiagnosisandrepairprocedurethatfollows.)
Next,removethecover.Confirmthatthemainfiltercapacitorsarefullydischargedbeforetouching
anything.Checkformechanicalproblemslikeabentordeformedbrackets,crackedplasticparts,and
anythingthatmayhaveshiftedpositionorjumpedfromitsmountings.Inspectforloosepartsor
piecesofpartssavethemallassomecriticalmagnets,forexample,arejustgluedtotheCRTand
mayhavepoppedoff.

Carefullystraightenanybentmetalparts.Replacepartsthatwereknockedloose,glueandpossibly
reinforcecrackedorbrokenplastic.Plastics,inparticular,aretroublesomebecausemostglueseven
plasticcementdonotworkverywell.Usingasplint(medicalterm)orsistering(constructionterm)
toreinforceabrokenplasticpartisoftenagoodidea.UsemultiplelayersofDucoCementorclear
windshieldsealerandscrews(sheetmetalormachinescrewsmaybebestdependingonthethickness
andtypeofplastic).WoodglueandEpoxydonotworkwellonplastic.Somebrandsofsuperglue,
PVCpipecement,orplastichobbycementmayworkdependingonthetypeofplastic.
Inspectforanybrokenelectroniccomponentsthesewillneedtobereplaced.Checkforblownfuses
theinitialimpactmayhaveshortedsomethingmomentarilywhichthenblewafuse.
Thereisalwaysariskthattheinitialimpacthasalreadyfriedelectronicpartsasaresultofa
momentaryshortorfrombrokencircuittracesandtherewillstillbeproblemsevenafterrepairingthe
visibledamageand/orreplacingthebrokencomponents.Thisismostlikelyifthemonitorwas
actuallyonbutsomemodernmonitorshavecircuitrythatisenergizedatalltimes.(Ifpoweris
controlledbyatinytinypushbuttonthisisthecase.)
Examinethecircuitboardsforanyvisiblebreaksorcracks.Thesewillbeespeciallylikelyatthe
cornerswherethestressmayhavebeengreatest.Ifyoufind**any**cracks,nomatterhowsmallin
thecircuitboard,youwillneedtocarefullyinspecttodetermineifanycircuittracesrunacrossthese
cracks.Iftheydo,thentherearecertainlybreaksinthecircuitrywhichwillneedtoberepaired.
Circuitboardsinconsumerequipmentarealmostnevermorethantwolayerssorepairispossiblebut
ifanysubstantialnumberoftracesarebroken,itwilltaketimeandpatience.Donotjustrunover
themwithsolderasthiswillnotlast.Useafinetippedlowwattagesolderingironandrun#2226
gaugeinsulatedwiresbetweenconvenientendpointsthesedon'tneedtobedirectlyoneithersideof
thebreak.Doublecheckeachconnectionaftersolderingforcorrectwiringandthattherearenoshorts
beforeproceedingtothenext.
Ifthecircuitboardisbeyondhopeoryoudonotfeelyouwouldbeabletorepairitinfinitetime,
replacementsmaybeavailablebuttheircostislikelytobemorethantheequipmentisworth.
Locatingajunkunitofthesamemodeltocannibalizeforpartsmaybeamorerealisticoption.
DegaussthemonitorasanyimpactmaymagnetizetheCRT.Powercyclingmayworkbutamanual
degaussingisbest.
Onceallvisibledamagehasbeenrepairedandbrokenpartshavebeenreplaced,poweritupandsee
whathappens.Bepreparedtopulltheplugifthereareseriousproblems(billowingsmokeor
fireworkswouldqualify).
Performanypurity,convergence,orotherrealignmentasneeded.
Thenproceedtoaddressanyremainingproblemsoneatatime.

Reallycleaningamonitorinsideandout
(From:Dr.LudwigSteininger(drsteininger@tonline.de).)
OftenIgetdefectivemonitors,whicharemorethan5yearsold,andhavebeenruninofficesfor8to
10hours/day.So,theircaseandpcbsusuallyareverydirtyanddusty.
WhatdoIdo(it'snojoke!):AfterremovingthecaseIcarefullyputtheminabath(onaflexiblelayer)
andletthemhaveaintensiveshowerofpurecoldwater(for1to2minutes).Additionally,thecaseis
cleanedwithsoaporadetergentcontainingliquid(beingcareful,nottospilltomuchofitontothe
PCBs).Afterrinsingwithfreshclearwater,dustandotherkindsofdirtareremovedandthemonitors
looknewagain.ThenIallowalldropsofwatertorunoff.Thiscaneffectivelybesupportedby

turningthemonitoronanothersidefromtimetotime(duration:approximately1hour).Before
turningonACagain,Iletthewetmonitordryinambientairforabout2days(inthesunshinethiscan
befinishedin1dayonly).
Thisprocedurehasbeenappliedformanymonitors.I'veneverhadanybadexperiences(it'svery
importanttowait,untilthepcbsarereallydry!).Consideringthisexperience,Ijustcan'timagine,that
itmightnotbepossible,to"save"aTVsetorcomputermonitor,whichhasbeendrownedorsome
liquidhasbeenspilled,andAChasbeenpluggedoffASAP(althoughI'veneverhadsuchacase).I
think,thatinsuchacase,it'simportanttohavearapidshowerinordertopreventcorrosionand
deposits.
Bytheway:IknowaGermancompany,whichuseswaterfromcleaningPCBsofcomputerhardware
forcleaningthemafterbeingcontaminatedbysmokefromafire.
So,incaseofspillage,onehasnothingtoloose.JusttrytoshoweryourmonitororTVset!

Setupmenuswillnotgoawayorhieroglyphicsonscreen
Boththeseproblemscouldbecausedbyafaultymicrocontrolleroritsassociatedcircuitry.However,
badconnectionsinthevicinityofthecontrollerlogiccouldalsobeatfault.
Unlessyouseesomethingobvious,youwillneedschematics.

SetupAdjustmentsLost
ManymodernmonitorshaveRAM,somewhatliketheCMOSSETUPmemoryinyourPC,thatstore
allfactoryadjustments.Whenpowerislost,thereispowersurge,lightningstrikenearby,nuclear
detonationorEMP,itmayhaveputbadinformationintotheramandthrownitoutofadjustment.
Thereisawaytogetintotheservicemode(depressandholdasecretbuttondownandturnseton,
specialcombinationofbuttonsontheremote,etc.)andthenusetheremotetoreinitializeandadjust
theproblemsout.
HOWEVER,IFYOUDON'TKNOWWHATYOUDOINGYOUCOULDGIVEYOURSELF
WORSEPROBLEMS.YOUCOULDEVENBLOWTHINGSOUTWITHSOMEMONITORS!
Theservicemanualwillbeessentialtohaveanychanceofsuccessfullyreinitializingeverything
withoutcausingdamageduetoincorrectsettings.
Ifit'snotanadjustmentproblemyouprobablyhaveabadpartsomewhere.
Ifyoudomanagetogetintothesetupmenuandarewillingtotaketheriskwithoutservice
information,trynottomakeanyunnecessarychangesanddocumenteverychangeyoumake!!!That
wayyoucangobackifyoudoanythingwrong(hopefully).

Monitordoesn'tworkafterbeinginstorage
Sothemonitoryoucarefullystuffedinacornerofthegarageisnowtotallydead.Youswearitwas
workingperfectlyayearagoandjusthavetogetthatstateoftheartCommodore64upandrunning!
Assumingtherewasabsolutelynoactionwhenyouturnediton,thishasalltheclassicsymptomsofa
badconnection.Thesecouldbecold/crackedsolderjointsatlargecomponentsliketransformers,
powerresistors,orconnectorsandconnectorsthatneedtobecleanedorreseated.By'noaction'I
meannotevenatweet,bleep,orcracklefromanything.

Tonarrowitdownfurther,ifcarefulproddingofthecircuitboard(s)andvariouslargecomponents
withawellinsulatedstickdoesnotinducethesettocomeon,evenmomentarily,checkthefollowing:
1.Locatethehorizontaloutputtransistor.ItwillbeinaTO3metal(mostlikelyonanolderset)or
TOP3plasticpackageonaheatsink.Withthesetunplugged,confirmthatthereisnovoltage
acrossCtoEandthenmeasurebetweenthemwithanohmmeter.Inatleastonedirectionit
shouldbefairlyhigh1Kormore.ThisconfirmsthattheHOTisprobablygood.
(Thereisalsoaslightchancethatthereisalowvoltageregulatorinadditiontothehorizontal
output,sodon'tgetthemconfused.Thehorizontaloutputtransistorwillbeneartheflyback
transformerandyokeconnector.)
2.TracebackfromtheHOTcollectortotheflybackandthroughtheflybacktotheB+feedfrom
thepowersupply.ClipavoltmeterbetweenthispointandtheHOTemitter.Makesuretheleads
arewellinsulatedandcan'taccidentallyshorttoanything.(ThistestcanbeperformedacrossC
toEoftheHOTbutifthehorizontaldeflectionweretostartupunexpectadly,themetercould
bedamagedbythehighvoltagepulsesontheHOTcollector.Butifyoucan'tfindtheB+
source,itmaybeworththerisk.)Plugitinandturniton.
Iftheproblemisinthelowvoltage(line)powersupply,therewillbenosubstantial
voltageacrossCE.
Youshouldbeabletotracefromthepowerlineforwardtofindthebadpartthougha
schematicwillhelpgreatly.
Iftheproblemisinthestartupcircuitorhorizontaloscillator/driver,thentherewillbe
somethingontheorderof100to160VacrossCE.
Inthiscase,aschematicmaybeessential.
Note:don'tassumethatthemetalpartsofthechassisaregroundtheymaybefloatingatsomelineor
B+potential.Also,theHOTemittermaynotbeconnecteddirectlytoground.

Cheapmonitorswithmultipleintermittentproblems
Ifthemonitorisanonnameorthecompanyhassincegonebellyup(nosurprise,right?)youmay
haveamonitorwithoneofthosecircuitboardsbestdescribedasbadsolderjointsheldtogetherwitha
littlecopper.Inthiscase,proddingwithaninsulatedstickandtheuseofafewselect4letterwords
maygetitgoing.Thecircuitboardsmaybedoublesidedwithwhatwerecalled'rivlets'forvias.The
rivletswererelativelymassiveliterallylittlecopperrivetsandtheywerenotadequatelyheatedor
tinnedduringassemblysotherewerebucketloadsofcoldsolderjointsthatshowupduringmiddle
age.Irepairedoneofthesebyliterallyresolderingtopandbottomofeveryoneofthedarnthingswith
ahighwattageiron.Or,thesolderingjustmaybeplain,well,horrible.Carefullygoingoverevery
connectionistheonlysolution.Sometimes,removingthesolderfromsuspectjoints,cleaningboththe
componentleadandtrace,andthenresolderingwillbeneededifcorrosionhassetin.

Monitorhasburningsmell
Assumingtherearenoothersymptoms:
Ifthisappearsafterextendedoperationanhourormoreitmayjustbeabuildupofdust,dirt,and
grimeovertheyears.Afterunderstandingthesafetyinfo,somecarefulvacuuminginsidemayhelp.
Justdon'tbetemptedtoturnanyscrewsoradjustments!

DustisattractedtothehighvoltagesectioninparticulareventhefrontfaceplateoftheCRTcollects
alotandshouldbewipedwithadampclothfromtimetotime.
Ifthesymptomsdevelopquicklyinafewminutesorless,thentherecouldstillbeadustproblema
powerresistormaybeheatingawadofitbutotherpossibilitiesneedtobeconsidered.
Ifnotdust,thenprobablyinthepowersupplybutrealizethatTVsdon'thaveanicemetalcaselabeled
'powersupply'.Itisjustabunchofstuffscatteredaroundthemainboard.Withoutidentifyingthepart
thatisheating,adiagnosisistoughespeciallyifthesetreallydoesworkfineotherwise.However,ifa
seriesregulatorwerefaultyandputtingouttoomuchvoltage,thesetcouldappeartoworkproperly
butinfacthaveexcessivepowerdissipationincertaincomponents.Ifcleaningthedustdoesnotsolve
theproblem,youwillprobablyneedaschematictoidentifythecorrectvoltages.

Staticdischargenoiseandpicturetubequality
ThisquestioncameupwithrespecttoalargescreenTVbutmayapplytolargescreenmonitorsas
well.
"Iboughta29"TVacoupleofweeksagoandIhavenoticedthatafterbeingswitchedon
for>about15/20minutes,wheneverthepicturechangesfroma"light"scenetoadarker
scene,thesetmakesacracklingnoise.Itsoundsasthoughtherehasbeenabuildupof
staticanditisbeingdischarged.IhavenevernoticedthisinaTVbeforeandIwas
wonderingifthisisnormalandacceptablebehaviourforalargescreenTV?"
Itprobablyisnormal.Whetheritisacceptableisapersonalmatter.Insomegeographicareasno
countermeasuresaretakenatall...
Whenthescenechangesfrombrighttodark,thebeamcurrentisreducedtopracticallyzero.Asa
result,thehighvoltagerises.(Thehighvoltagesupplyhasarelativelyhighinternalimpedance.)The
highvoltageisconnectedtotheinsidelayerofthepicturetube.Avoltagechangeontheinsidewill
alsocauseavoltagechangeonuncoveredpartsoftheoutside,especiallyonthepartofthepicture
tubethatishiddenunderthedeflectioncoils.Thiscauseslittlesparksbetweenthepicturetubesurface
andtheinsideofthedeflectioncoilsandthisisaccompaniedbyacracklingsound.
Onthebetterpicturetubes,adark"anticracklecoating"ispaintedonthepicturetubenearthe
deflectioncoil.Thisisaveryhighimpedancecoating,darkblack,muchdarkerthantheusual
aquadagcoatingovertherestofthepicturetube.Youshouldbeabletoseethedifference.
If,ontheotherhand,theoutsideofthepicturetubenearthedeflectioncoilisnotcoatedthenyou
haveaproblem.Thenyouwillhearstrongcracklingalsoatswitchonandswitchoff.Normallyyou
shouldn'tseesucha'cheap'picturetubeontheEuropeanmarket...
Theareaofthepicturetubearoundtheanodeconnectorisalsonotcoated,forobviousreasons.
Normallythatshouldnotcauseanysignificantsound.Samegoesforthefrontofthescreenand
neithershouldtheanodecablecrackle.
Inadarkroomyoushouldbeabletoseefromthetinyblueflasheswherethesoundcomesfrom.This
isperhapsbestobservedatswitchonandswitchoff(withablackpictureonthescreen).Tryandkeep
thebackcovermounted!

Loudspeakersandmonitors
Loudspeakersincorporatepowerfulmagnetsthelargerthespeaker,thelargerthemagnet.However,
anyonewhogoesballisticwhenthementionismadeofaloudspeakernearaTVormonitor,should

taketheirValium.
Thefringefieldsoutsidethespeakerboxwillnotbethatgreat.Theymayaffectthepictureperhapsto
thepointofrequiringdegauss.Thenormaldegaussactivatedatpoweronwillusuallyclearupany
colorpurityproblems(assumingtheloudspeakershavebeenmovedaway).Atworst,manualdegauss
willbeneeded.TheCRTwillnotbedamaged.Themaximumfieldinaccessibleatthevoicecoilis
quitestrong.However,evenfornonshieldedloudspeakers,themagneticfielddecaysrapidlywith
distanceespeciallysincethecorestructureisdesignedtoconcentrateasmuchofthefieldaspossible
inthegapwherethevoicecoiltravels.
Speakersspecificallydesignedforusewithmultimediacomputershave(orshouldhave)specially
shieldedmagnetstructuresoranadditionalmagnetwithitsfieldsetuptocancelthemainmagnet's
fringefieldwhichwillminimizetheseeffects.Nonetheless,ifyouseeanyindicationofdiscoloration,
movethemtoagreaterdistance.
However,keepingunshielded(e.g.,megawattstereo)speakersawayfromCRTsisagoodidea.
Now,youreallyshouldkeepyoursuperconductingmagneticresonanceimagermagnetatleastinthe
nextroom.....

ShouldIreplacealltheelectrolyticcapacitorsifIfindabadone?
Whenabadcapacitorisfoundinamonitor,thequestionofcoursearisesastothelikelihoodofother
capacitorsgoingbadinshortorder.Itmightbeworthchecking(other)capsinthepowersupplyorhot
(temperature)areasbutyoucouldspendyouwholelifereplacing**all**theelectrolyticsinyour
olderequipment!

Blackpowderbeinggeneratedinsidemonitor?
Youhavejustnoticedablackpowderspontaneouslyappearingfrominsideyourcomputermonitor.
Whatisit?Themonitorseemshappyasaclam.
Well,itisprobablyjustairborndustthatiscollectingthereduetotheairflowinyourareaandhigh
voltagestaticfields.Themonitorisactinglikeanelectrostaticdustprecipitator.Iftherewerereally
blackpowderbeinggeneratedinside,Iwouldexpectyouwouldsmellsomethingreallyreallybadand
themonitorwouldnotcontinuetobehappy.

SweetlittleoldladiesandTVsfromattic
ThefollowingstoryisspecificallyforaTVbutthesameappliestoanyelectronicservicing.Always
confirmthecustomer'scomplaintsfirst!!
Thenverifythateverythingelseworksoryouwillneverknowifyoureffortshaveaffectedsomething
unrelated.
(Originalrequestfromrogerj@apex.com):
"AsweetlittleoldladyhasdupedmeintorepairingheroldG.E.13"colorTV.Wanted
mefixbadvolumepot....."ohithassuchagoodpicture"...shesays.
Stupidlyw/oeventurningiton,(bigmistake)Ibegintoopentheset.After1520min.of
travail,Idiscoverthataprevious"repairman"hasgluedthecaseshut!
Noww/setopen,IturnitonandthispictureisLOUSY.Badcolor,andverypoor

convergence.ButIdon'tknowifI'mtoblameforbangingitaroundtryingtoopenitup.
Also,nohor.orvert.hold.(fixedthatw/afewcaps)Thisthingsprobablybeensitting
aroundforafewyears."
Well,youcertainlydidnotkillthecaps.Anythingthatsitsforafewyearsprobablyinadamp
unheatedatticissuspect.
Didyoufindtheadjustmentsontheyokeassemblytight?Ifso,youprobablydidnotmoveanything
verymucheither.Shemayrememberthegoodpictureitproducedbeforebeingstuffedawayinthe
attic.
"Anywayaftergoingthroughalltheadjustments,theconvergenceatthesidesisstillbad
andthehorizontalsizeisatadinsufficient(w/noadjustmentavailable)"
Couldbethattheconvergence(includingpincushion)circuitsarestillfaultynotjustmisadjusted.
Otherthingsthatcaneffecthorizontalsizewhilestillgivingyouacompletepicture:
1.Voltagetohorizontaloutputtransistorlow.Isthereavoltageregulatorinyourset?TheoneI
havehasnone.Iassumeyourlinevoltageisok.
2.Increasedresistanceorinductanceoftheyokewindings.Forallyouknow,theyokemayhave
beenreplacedwiththewrongpart.
3.Yokeimproperlypositionedontubeneck.
4.ExcessivehighVoltage.Thisisusuallynotadjustable.
Ibetthethinghasn'tworkedproperlyin10years.

Disposingofdeadmonitors(CRTsandchargedHVcapacitors)
Idon'tknowwhatthelawsays,butforsafety,hereismyrecommendation:
TreattheCRTwithrespecttheimplosionhazardshouldnotbeminimized.AlargeCRTwillhave
over10tonsofairpressureattemptingtocrushit.Weareyeprotectionwheneverdealingwiththe
CRT.HandletheCRTbythefrontnottheneckorthinfunnelshapedenvelope.Don'tjusttossitin
thegarbageitisasignificanthazard.Thevacuumcanbesafelyreleased(Letout?Suckedin?What
doesonedowithanunwantedvacuum?)withoutspectaculareffectsbybreakingtheglasssealinthe
centeroftheCRTsocket(maybehiddenbytheindexingplasticofthesocket).CovertheentireCRT
withaheavyblanketwhendoingthisforadditionalprotection.Oncethevacuumisgone,itisjusta
bigglassbottlethoughtheremaybesomemoderatelyhazardousmaterialsinthephosphorcoatings
andofcourse,theglassandshadowmaskwillhavemanysharpedgesifitisbroken.
Inaddition,therecouldbeanicesurpriseawaitinganyonedisconnectingthehighvoltagewirethat
CRTcapacitancecanholdachargeforquiteawhile.Sinceitisbeingscrapped,ascrewdriverunder
thesuctioncapHVconnectorshouldsuffice.
Themainpowersupplyfiltercapsshouldhavedischargedontheirownafteranyreasonablelengthof
time(measuredintermsofminutes,notdaysoryears).
Ofcoursearoundhere,TVsandmonitors(well,wishfulthinkingasIhaveyettoseeadecentmonitor
onthecurb)arejusttossedintactwhichisfortunateforscavengerslikemewhowouldnotbehappy
atallwithpresafedequipmentofthistype!

Apple/Sonymonitordiesaftervariablelengthoftime
ThefollowingdiscussionrelatestofailuresoftheXrayprotectiontaponaSonypartaffectionately
knownasthe'bigredcap'ortheHSTATblockinsomeSonymanufacturedmonitors.
"Thisisa(Apple)Sony13"monitor,4yearsold.Afterbeingturnedonfor30minutes,
thedisplaygoescompletelyblankandthefrontLEDgoesoff.Ifthepowerisshutofffor
10minutesorso,itwillcomebackonforanother15minutesorso,thengoblankagain,
etc.The+120vand+65vfromthepowermoduleisstillpresentwhenitblanksout,but
noothervoltages(+12,+960,etc)arepresentonthemaincircuitboard.I'vebeentoldit
mightbetheHVcapacitorisbadwouldliketoheara2ndor3rdopinionbeforebuyinga
newcapacitor."
Thatisthesamediagnosisafriendofminegotforhermonitorwiththatidenticalproblem.Replacing
thecapacitordidfixtheproblem.
That'bigredcapacitor'isaSonypartwhichincludessomekindoflowvoltagesenseconnectionas
well.ItisusedtoshutthemonitororTVdownshouldtheHVincreaseresultinginincreasedriskof
Xraygeneration.Unfortunately,theresistorsinsideoftengobadcausingtheunittoshutoff
erroneously.Theguyattheplacewhereshegotitrepairedsaidthatthecapacitorisoneofthemost
commonproblemswiththosemonitors.$70forthepart+$50forlabor,ouch!
TheseusedtobeonlyavailablefromSony.Whycan'tSonydesignmonitorslikeeveryoneelse?Sure,
Iknow,theirsarebetter(well,exceptfortheunsightlystabilizingwiresonTrinitrons!).Now,
however,lessexpensivereplacementscanbehadatplaceslikeComputerComponentSource.
Fortesting,itmaybepossibletodisconnectthesenseoutput.Withshutdowndisabled,themonitor
shouldcontinuetorunBUTWITHNOXRAYPROTECTION.Therefore,thisshouldonlybeused
fortestingareplacementwillberequired.
Note:Onsomemodels,thesensewiresneedtobeconnectedduringstartuporelseitwillnevercome
on.
CAUTION:Onsomemodels(liketheSonyCPD1302),thesensesignalmaybeusedforactualHV
regulation.Thus,ifthesensewireisdisconnected,(orthedividerinsidetheHstatblockfailsopen)
thereisnofeedbackanditispossibleforthehighvoltage(andprobablyB+)toincreaseuntilthe
HOT(andpossibleothercomponents)blow.
(From:DukeBeattie(beattie@wsu.edu).)
Thelowvoltageconnectionofthe'bigredcap'ispartofthe"Xrayprotection"circuit.Ifthehigh
voltagetothecrtgoestohighitissupposedtoshutdownthewholething.Unfortunatelythesensor
insidegoesbadandputsoutthewrongvoltageandthatshutsdowntheworld.Thepartisavailableat
"ComputerComponentSource"forabout$30,itisa"M041"(Sony/Applepartnumber"Thesethings
gooutwithgreatregularity.SoifyourApplemonitorshutsdownthisisprobablytheculprit.
(From:A.R.Duell(ard12@eng.cam.ac.uk).)
OnsomeoftheolderTrinitrons(certainlyonthe13"TrinitronmonitorIhave),theHSTATpotis
connectedasapotentialdividerontheEHTsupply.Thesliderofthepotisconnectedtothestatic
convergenceelectrode,butataponthelowerendofthepotgoestotheprotectioncircuit.Something
likethis:
StaticConvElectrode
o

|
V
EHT/\/\/\\/\/\+\/\/\+
||
o_|_
Protection///

IftheEHTrisestoohigh,thenthevoltageattheprotectionpointalsorises,andashutdownsignalis
senttothescanprocessor.
AllthoseresistorsareencapsulatedintheHSTATblockwhichhasanEHTinputfromtheflyback,a
CoaxialEHToutput(EHTandHstatelectrode)totheCRT,anearthwire,anda2corecable(earth
andProtection)thatgoestothescanboard.
Unfortunately,ifthoseresistorschangeinvalue,thentheprotectioncircuitmayoperateevenatthe
normalEHTvoltage.Andasthey'reallpottedinoneblock,youhavetochangethecompleteunit.
(From:Neilbrown(nbrown@whispa.co.nz).)
Whenyourmonitorworksdoyouseefaintdiagonalwhitelineonit?
Ifsothecutoffneedadjustinganditwillcausethesymptomsyoudescribeexactly,Ifitdoesn'tcome
onaftera"rest"thenyesitmaybeabadcapbutIhaverealignedalotmorethanIhavereplacedHV
caps!
Alsoontheadjustmentboardthereisaresisterthatgoesandpushesthecutoffuphigh,frommemory
itisa1Mresisteranditdriftsuphigh.

MoreontheApple/Sony'bigredcapacitorthing'
(FromTerryL.Wright(terryl@wolfenet.com).)
Thebigredthinghasbeencalledacapacitor,avoltagetriplerandadiodeassemblynottomention
otherlesspolitenames.Itisinfactattherootofthefailureinthismonitorbutdoesnotnecessarily
needtobereplaced.Youwillfindalowvoltageshieldedwirecomesfromtheredblock.Itgoestoa
fourleadjackandplugwhichconnectstothemainboard.Thetwopinsthattheshieldedcablegoesto
aremarkedgroundandHref,shortforhighvoltagereference.Ifthesetwopinsareshortedtogether
theunitwillnolongershutoffbyitself.
Whydoesthiswork?Becausetheredblockcontainsavoltagedivider,theoutputofwhichtellsthe
mainboardifthe25Kilovoltsupplytothecrtgoestoohigh.Whentheredblockagestherelative
valuesoftheinternalresistorschangesandtheblockoutputincreases.Themainboardinterpretsthis
asexcessivehighvoltageandshutsthehorizontaloutputdowntoprotectthecircuitandostensiblyto
protectfromXrays.Byshortingtheoutputyoucanforcethemainboardtoassumethatthevoltageis
nottoohigh.Notethatyouhavealsodisabledanyprotectionthatthecircuitmayhaveprovidedfrom
Xraysorhighvoltages.PersonallyIdonotcareaboutthisasIhaveneverseenthismonitorfailinany
waytocauseexcessivesecondanodevoltage.
Editor'snote:failure(open)ofasnubbercapacitoracrosstheHOTisonefailurethatcanresultin
excesshighvoltage.Thus,Iwouldconsiderthisatemporary'fortesting'solutionunlessyouaddsome
othermechanismfordetectingexcesshighvoltage.Firstconfirmwithahighvoltageprobethatthe
monitorisn'tshuttingdownproperlyduetoexcesshighvoltage!Inaddition,theoriginalproblem
maygetworseandeventuallyaffecttheconvergenceandotherfunctionsoftheHstatunit.sam
(From:DavidJ.Pittella(ddc_pitt@ix.netcom.com).)

Ispent8yearsworkingforaverylargeAppleauthorizedserviceprovider.
Theoriginal13"ModelMO401(nottheMO401LL/B)actuallyhadabadrunofthesehighvoltage
capacitors.Appledidhaveawarrantyextensiononspecificdaterangesoftheseparts,Iwoulddoubt
thisisstillineffect...butyoucouldcheck.
The'bigred'highvoltagecapacitorisAppleP/N9100058,itismountedtothebottomofthechassis
onthisdisplay.ThispartconnectsbetweentheflybackandtheanodeconnectorontheCRT,thereis
alsosmallgreycablefromthisdevicetothe"D"(main)board.
The"C"board(ontheneckofthecrt)isnotoriousforcoldsolderjointsontheCRTconnector.I
wouldalwaysresolderthesewheneverIworkedonthisdisplay.

CTXmonitorintermittentorblowsfuse
Initialsymptomsareerraticstartuporshutdownsensitivetotemperatureorvibration.Eventually,the
monitorwillgototallydeadiftheoriginalproblemsarenotdealtwith.
Lookforaverticallymounteddaughterboard.ThisboardcontainsanICUT3842whichisthepulse
widthmodulatorICfortheswitchersupply.ECGmakesareplacementalthoughIdon'thavethe
numberhandy.Makesureyoucheckassociatedpartsonthiscardfordamage,asthiscircuitusually
friesprettywell.
Theentirecauseoftheseproblemsisgenerallybadsolderjointsonthebacksideofthatdaughter
board.Unsolderitfromthemainboard,andfixthosefirst.Whereaconnectorisused(P104)resolder
thisaswell.ThenreplaceQ101,the18Vzenernexttoit(ZD101),andthe.39ohmresistorif
necessary.Note:Thezenerisforprotectiononly.Thereforeitsexactvoltageratingisnotcritical
anythingoverabout6Vwillwork.
(From:KeithScott(kscott@news.HiWAAY.net).)
Exactly!Every14or15"CTXI'veworkedonhadtheMOSFET,zenerandthelowohmresistor
toasted.BTW,theyusethelowohmresistorasafusetokeepthemcatchingonfirewhentheother
stuffshortsout.
(Fromtheeditor).
Oncethefuseblows,severalpartshavegonebellyupandwillneedtobereplacedinadditiontothe
solderingofthedaughterboard.
(From:BillRothanburg(william.rothanburg@worldnet.att.net).)
Replacingthefusewillnotfixthemonitor.Theoddsareratheroverwhelmingthatyouhavebeenbit
bytheinfamousCTX'daughterboardwithbadsolderjoint'flaw.Ifyouhavetheabilitytohandlea
solderingiron,ordertherepairkitfromCCS(18003561227).Thiswillcontainallofthepartsand
instructionsonfixingthisproblem.IMPORTANT!!!Removethedaughterboard,resolderallofthe
jointsontheconnector,andreinstallthedaughterboard.
CCSsellsakitfor$13.99,includes2SK955,1N524818Vzener,.39R,andfuse.#071512800356
1227Theyalsowarnofsolderbreaksonplugofdaughterboard.Theservicemanualisavailablefrom
CTXfor$15,8008882120(comparedto$50fromCCS!!).

GatewayCrystalscanandMAGmonitorproblems
ThefollowingappliestoseveralGatewaymonitorsincludingtheCS1572FS(verycommon)and

CS1776LE,aswellassimilarmodelsfromMAG(whoistheactualmanufactureroftheseGateway
monitors).
"IhaveaGatewayCS1572FSmonitor.Recently,ahighpitchedwhineaccompaniedby
faintdarklinesscrollingfromtoptobottomappeared.Initiallytheproblemdisappeared
afterawarmupperiod,butnowitisconstant.Cananyonegivemeinfoon:solving
similarproblem,orasourceforschematicsonthistypeofmonitor.Gatewaywantsmeto
sendittoMAG,butthatsoundslikebig$$$."
Otherrelatedsymptoms:Wigglingraster,possiblyonlyathigherscanrates.
R331isacommonfailureinthepowersuppliesofGatewayCS1572monitors.Apparently,anumber
ofothermodelsalsousethisdesign,andgotthesamebatchofbadresistors:).
Itissupposedtobe91K.1Wbutgraduallyincreasesinvalueuntilregulationiscompromised.While
itismarked1%,handselectinga5%metalfilmresistorthatiswithintolerancewillworkfineand
eventhismaynotbeneededasthevoltageadjustmentpotisinserieswithR331.Therefore,ifyou
havetheadjustmentprocedure,a1%resistorisunnecessaryinanycase.Then,adjusttheB+tothe
valuemarked.
Note:ItisprobablyagoodideatoreplaceR331forthesesymptomsevenifittestsgood.Insome
cases,itwouldappearthattheseresistorsfailatfullvoltagebutnotwhentestedwithamultimeter.
Ifsymptomspersist,checkZD302(12.2V?).
Whileyouareinthere,checkforbadsolderconnectionsordamagetoR302andQ105(swivelbase
hitsthese).

Allergiesfrommonitors?
Asidefromeye,back,orfingerstrain,theremaybetwopossiblesourcesofactualchemical/gaseous
emissions:
1.Thematerialsusedinsomeoftheelectroniccomponentsaswellastheplasticsofthecasecan
outgaspossiblyforquitesometimeaftermanufacture.Thisismadeworseduetotheheat
inside.
2.Ozoneproduction.Thisiscausedbyelectricaldischargescoronafromvarioushighvoltage
terminals.Ozonereallyshouldn'tbeaproblemwithamonitoringoodconditionbutitis
possible.And,asamonitoragesandcollectsallsortsofdirtanddust,itismorelikely.

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

ItemsofInterest
Websiteswithmonitorspecifications
OfthehalfdozenorsoWebsitesthatIusedtohaveforextensivemonitorinformation,only
MonitorworldhassurvivedasfarasIcantell:Theystillhavetheimportantspecificationsforawide
varietyofmonitorsindexedbymanuracturerandmodel:
MonitorWorld

Iamonlyrecommendingthissitefortheinformationonmonitorspecifications,notnecessarillyfor
otherproductsorservicessinceIhaven'tevaulatedthem.Notethatsincethisdatacomesfrom
undeterminedsources,itisn'talwaystobeaccurate.SorryforthelackofadditionsWebsitesbut
believeitornot,Iamnotusuallyinformedwhenanyparticularcompanygoesbellyuportheir
Marketingdepartmentdecidesthatfluffismoreimportantthansubstanceandtheypulltheplugon
thepageswithusefulinformation.:(

Howdomultiscanmonitorsdetermineandstorethescanparameters?
WithmodernSVGAmultiscanmonitors,onceaparticularresolutionandscanrateissetup,thereis
rarelyaneedtoreadjustsize,position,andotherparameters.Howisthisaccomplished?
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
It'sdifferentfordifferentdesigns,ofcourse,butingeneraltoday's'digitallycontrolled'monitors
recognizevarioustimingmodesbycountingthehorizontalandverticalsyncpulsestodeterminethe
linescanandverticalrefreshrates.Anyinputwithinacertaintoleranceofarecognizedpairof
frequencieshereisassumedtobethattiming,andasetofstorednumberscorrespondingtothat
timingarethenreadfromamemoryandusedtosetuptheadjustments.Inmostofthesemonitors,the
variousadjustableparameterssize,centering,etc.,arecontrolledbyvoltagescomingfromasetof
D/Aconverters,sothestoredinformationisbasicallyjustatableofnumbersthatgetsenttotheD/As
whenthattimingisrecognized.
Thenumberofbothfactoryanduserpresetsavailablevariesfromproducttoproduct,ofcourse,but
there'susuallysomewherebetween815ofeach.Theexactnumberisgoingtodependonhowmuch
memoryisavailable,andhowmanydifferentparametersneedtobecontrolledforeachrecognized
timing.
Unlesstheoutputofthegraphicscontrollerisanexactmatchforthetimingusedatthefactorywhen
thepresetinformationwasgenerated,theremaystillbeslighterrors,forobviousreasons.Fortunately,
thewidespreadacceptanceoftimingstandards(suchasthoseproducedbyVESA)arereducingthe
severityofthisproblem.

MonitorreliabilitywithSVGA
TherearepartsinthemonitorwhichmaygethotterwithSVGAbutifitisdesignedforSVGA
resolution,thereshouldbenoproblem(assumingyouarenotrunninginanexcessivelyhotroomor
withtheventilationholescovered).
Agoodqualityautoscanmonitorshouldnotmindswitchingscreenresolutionsfrequently(though
doingiteveryfewsecondscontinuouslymaystretchthisabit).
Newerautoscanmonitorsshouldalsobesmartenoughnottoblowupifyoufeedthenascanrate
whichexceedstheircapabilities.However,therearealotofpoorlydesignedmonitorsoutthere.
IfitissupposedtorunSVGA,useitatSVGA.Ifitblowsup,switchtoadifferentbrand.Therearea
lotofcrappymonitorsbeingsoldontheirownandbundledwithPCs.

HowhigharefreshrateshouldIuse?
Itistheverticalrefreshratethatimpactsdisplayappearance.Thevisualeffectoftoolowavertical
scanrateisexcessiveflicker.
Uptoapoint,higherisbetter.Everyoneagreesthatappearanceimprovesuptoatleast7075Hz

(vertical)noninterlacedbutbeyondthispointisahotlydebatedissue(andatopicforaneverending
discussiononyourfavoriteInternetnewsgroup).Theuseofinterlacedscanningcanreduceapparent
flickerforagivenscanratefortypicalgrayscaleorcolorimagesbutmayresultinannoying
flickeringorjumpingoffinehorizontallinesingraphicsandtextdisplays.
Inanycase,youmustnotexceedthemaximumscanratespecsofyourmonitor.Seethesection:Web
siteswithmonitorspecificationsifindoubt.Also,veryhighrefreshratesmayresultindecreased
graphicsperformanceparticularlywithDRAMbasedvideocardsduetobuscontentionbetweenthe
PCmemoryaccessesandthevideoreadouttotheRAMDAC.
And,ahorizontalscanratebelowthespecifiedlimitsmayblowtheHOTinstantly.
Forthediscussionbelow,thekeywordsare"welldesigned".Therearealotofmediocremonitorsout
there!
(From:JeroenH.Stessen(Jeroen.Stessen@philips.com).)
Thedissipationinthedeflectioncoilsrisessharplywiththehorizontalscanfrequency.Thehorizontal
scanfrequencyisofcoursehigherathigherresolutionandhigherverticalrefreshrates.Butthe
monitorwillhavebeendesignedtohandlethat,unlessyoudon'tpermitadequateventilation.
Componentfailureoccursoftenduringmodeswitching,notduetokeepingthemonitorinonemode
oranother.
Itisapopularmyththata(welldesigned)monitorcouldbedamagedbyconnectingittoasignal
sourcewithfrequenciesthatareoutofrange.Thesewillbe(shouldbe)automaticallyblockedbythe
synccircuitryandyouwillsimplynotgetastablepicture.Therewillbenodamage,andifthere
wouldbe(mostlikelyfromatooLOWlinefrequency)thenitwouldbedoneimmediately.Noneedto
rushsettingthingsright.
Somyadvicewouldbetogoahead,usewhateverresolutionyoulike.Theaccelerationofthewear
willbeinsignificant,you'llprobablywantabettermonitorlongbeforeitistechnicallywornout.If
youwanttobekindtoyourmonitor,thenkeepthecontrastbelowmaximum,useablackscreen
screensaverandkeepthedustandsmokeandmoistureandgreaseaway.

Numberofcolorsandmonitortype
"IhaveaCTXCVP5468thatwillnotdomorethan16colorsinwindows.Itisbeing
drivenbyanOrchidKelvin64VLBboard,buthadthesameproblemwithanATIcard.
Whenusingitinlinuxunderxwindowsthesamethingandmorethanvgaanditgoes
blurryandverypixelated."
Itisreallynotpossibleforthistobeamonitorproblemasthesignalsareanalogcontinuousthe
monitordisplayswhateveritisgivenanddoesnotevenknowthecolordepthexcepttotheextentthat
cardsareoftensetupviasoftwaretousedifferentscanratesfordifferentcolordepths(bits/pixel)
oftenduetohardwarememory/bandwidthlimitations.
FortheATIinparticular,IknowthatyoucanuseATI'sDOSInstallprogramtosetitupforeach
resolutionandmodetrythis.Ibetyourmonitorisfine.

Variousvideostandards
Hereisalink:
Standardsforanalogcomponentvideo

Monitors,humans,andflicker
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
TheflickerfusionfrequencyforemissivedisplayssuchasCRTscannotbegivenasasinglenumber
applicabletoallpeople,alldisplays,andallambientconditions.Itisdependentontheparticular
individual,thesizeandbrightnessofthedisplay(andthecharacteristicsofthephosphor,ifaCRT),
theviewingdistance,andtheambientlightingconditions.
ForatypicalcolorCRTcomputermonitor,attypicalbrightnesslevelsandviewingdistances,the
imagewillappear"flickerfree"to90%ofthepopulationbythetimetherefreshratehasreachedthe
upper70Hzrangeintothelow80Hzrange,andyoucover95%ofthepopulation.Giventhe
statistics,thereareprobablyafewpeoplewhocouldstillseeflickerbythetimeyougotabove90Hz,
buttheresurearen'tmanyof'em.
Theeffectsofthescreenrefreshrateonperceivedmotionhavemoretodowiththerelationship
betweenthatrateandtheORIGINALsamplingrate(i.e.,~60Hzforstandardvideo),andhigher
refreshratesaredefinitelyNOTalwaysbetterinthisregard.Dependsontheartifactinquestion.

Isfluorescentlightingasignificantsourceofflicker?
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Actually,thisisamyth.Ambientlightflickerisatbestasecondordereffectindeterminingperceived
flickerlevels,andthenonlythroughmodulatingthedisplay'scontrastratio.(Ambientlightflicker
isn'tevenconsideredintheflickercalculationsofthevariousergonomicstandards,althoughthe
ambientlight*level*isaconcern.)
Thenotionthatfluorescentlampsflickerandthatthissomehowproducesa"beat"withthescreen
refreshissimpletodisprove.First,ifthiswereso,75HzscreenrefreshwouldappearWORSEthan
60Hz,sinceit'sfartherremovedfromthelinerate.Inreality,thereverseistrueandifyouREALLY
wanttomaximizeperceivedflicker,turnOFFallthelights.Thedisplaywillthenappeartoflicker
MUCHworse,asonedeterminingfactorinflickeristheAPPARENTbrightnessofthescreen(how
brightthescreenisinrelationtoitssurroundings).Lastly,peopledon'trealizethatfluorescents
DON'Tflickeratthelineratebeingessentiallyplasmadisplayswhereintheplasmaemissionsexicte
aphosphor,thesetubesflickeratTWICEthelineratetoohightobeperceived.Fluorescentsshowa
flickeringappearancewhenthey'refailing,butthat'sadifferentkettleoffishaltogether.
(Alsonotethatalargepercentageoffluorescentlightingthesedaysuseselectronicratherthan
magneticballasts.Mostofthesedonotsufferfromsignificantpowerlineflicker(100/120Hz)flicker
astheyaredrivenat10sofkHzbywhatareessentiallyswitchingpowersupplies.Anyvariationin
intensityisattoohighafrequencytomatter.Thisistrueofmostcompactfluorescentlamps,many
cheapfixtures,aswellaslarge(newer)officeinstallationsorretrofits.sam)

Interlacedvs.noninterlacedmonitors
Thedifferencebetweeninterlacedandnoninterlaceddisplaysisinthevideotiming.Nearlyall
monitorscanhandleeither.Monitorsarespecifiedasnoninterlacedbecauseforagivenscreen
resolutionandverticalrefreshrate,thisisthetougher(higher)horizontal(H)scanrateanditis
desirabletominimizeflickerinagraphicaldisplay(Finehorizontallineswilltendtoflickeronan
interlaceddisplay).TheHscanrateisdoubletheinterlacedHscanratesinceallscanlinesratherthan
justtheevenoroddlinesarebeingdisplayedforeveryverticalscan.

Digitalversusanalogcontrolsonmonitorsandpicturequality
"Couldsomeonetellmeifthere'sanoticeabledifferenceinpicturequalitybetween
analoganddigitalmonitors?Isdigitalworththeextramoney?"
Thereisnoinherentreasonforadigitalmonitortohaveabetterpicturebutasapracticalmatter,I
wouldexpectthistobethecaseinthevastmajorityofmonitorsespeciallymodelsfromthesame
manufacturer.Thedigitalmonitorswillbetheonesthatthedesignersconcentrateon.Digitalcontrols
(boththoseyoucanaccessandthoseusedonlyduringsetupatthetimeofmanufacturingorservicing)
permitmoreflexibilityinsettingparametersandautomatedmoreconsistentadjustmentsonthe
assemblyline(atleastthisispossibleinprinciple).
FortheaveragenotterriblyfussyPCuser,themajordifferenceisintheconvenienceofnothavingto
adjustsizeandpositionwheneverthescanratechanges.Inmyopinion,whilethepricedifference
betweenmonitorshavinganalogordigitalcontrolsbutwiththesamescreensize,resolution,andscan
rangespecificationsmayseemexcessive,theaddedconvenienceofdigitalcontrolsandscanrate
parametermemorymakestheaddedcostwellworthwhile.

ShouldIbeconcernedaboutveryfrequentscanrateswitching
ThisquestionarisesinaPCsoftwaredevelopmentenvironmentwheretheprogrammerneedstogo
backandforthbetweenaWindowsdisplayandaDOSdebugger,forexample.
Obviously,withoutknowingtheprecisedesignofyourmonitor,therecanbenodefinitiveanswer.It
istruethatsomeoldermonitorsblewupifyoulookedatthemthewrongway.Newermonitorsfrom
wellknownmanufacturerslikeNokia,NEC,andmanyothersaredesignedwithamoderateamountof
scanswitchinginmind.Howeverthisisstressfulforthemonitor'spowersupplyanddeflection
circuitry.Iwouldsuggestthatyouuseadedicatedmonomonitorfordebuggingifyoureallyare
switchingmultipletimesperminute.Ifyoucannotaffordthespace,youcanprobablyassumethatif
thefirstfewdaysofthiskindoftreatmenthavenotinducedafailure,themonitorisrobustenoughto
withstanditindefinitely.Ifyoureallyareswitchingmanytimesperminute8hoursormoreaday,
thenwhatmaywearoutaretheinternalrelays(theclicksyouheararefromthese).Youarestill
talkingaboutyears,however.Theyareratedin100softhousandsormillionsofoperationswhenused
withintheirratings.
Or,justgoforthepeaceofmindofanextendedwarrantyorservicecontract.

Whatismonitorvideobandwidthandwhyisitimportant?
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Videobandwidthisanindicationofthefrequencyrangeoverwhichthemonitor'svideoamplifiersare
capableofdoingtheirjob,whichistotranslatethevideosignalatthemonitorinputs(about0.7volt,
peaktopeak)tosomethinglike3540VpeaktopeakattheCRTcathodes.HigherbandwidthsARE
better,UPTOAPOINT.
ThebandwidthrequiredisNOTgivenbymultiplyingthenumbersintheformat(whatmostcallthe
"resolution")bytherefreshrateevenallowingfortherequiredblankingtime,whatTHATgivesyou
isthepixelrateor"pixelclock".Asthefastestthingthathappensinavideosignalisonedoton
followedbyonedotoff,thefastestFUNDAMENTALfrequencyinthevideosignalishalfthepixel
clock.Normally,youmightthinkyou'dwanttocoversomeoftheharmonisto"sharpenup"thepixel
edge,butthat'sactuallylessimportantthanyoumightthink(inpartduetothefactthattheCRT
screenitself,beingmadeupofdiscretedotsofcolor,alreadyhastheeffectof"sharpeningup"the
imageANDlimitinghowsharpit'sgoingtoget,anyway).

There'salsotheproblemof"bandwidth"notbeingmeasuredorspecedconsistentlybyall
manufacturers,makingitdifficulttocompareoneproducttoanother.Somesimplygivea"max.video
ratesupported"number,whichisaboutasuselessaspecasonecanimagine.(It'sjusttellingyouthe
pixelrateofthefastesttimingsupportedbutsaysnothingabouttheimagequalityatthattiming!)
Still,aclaimedbandwidthofabout2/3to3/4ofthefastestpixelratetobeusedshouldindicate
adequateperformancebeyondthat,youneedtocompareproductswiththegoodol'MarkIeyeball.
Usingthisruleofthumb,amonitorintendedforuseat1280x1024,75Hz(a135MHzpixelrate)
needsaspecedampbandwidthofaround100MHz.(Butjusttoshowhowfaryoucantrustthis
particularnumber,Iknowofaproductwhichdoesaverynicejobofdisplaying1600x1200at75Hz
slightlymorethana200MHzpixelratebutwhichhasavideoampbandwidthofonlyabout100
MHz,ifmeasuredpercertaindefinitions!)
Ifindtheriseandfalltimeofafullscale(whitetoblackorblacktowhite)videosignal,asmeasured
atthecathode,tobeamuchbetterspec,andherewouldlookforsomethingnotslowerthan2/3ofthe
pixelperiodforthetimingofinterest.Butthesenumbersarerarelyquotedinconsumerorientedspec
sheets,andeventhesetakesomecareinapplying.

Whyagoodmonitormayproduceafuzzypicture
Theultimatesharpnessofthepictureonyourmonitordependsonmanyfactorsincludingbutnot
limitedto:
1.Focusoftheelectronbeamspot(s)atthefaceoftheCRT.
Affectedby:qualityoftheCRTanditssupportingcircuitryandadjustmentoffocuscontrol(s).
2.ConvergenceoftheRGBelectronbeamsateachpointonthefaceoftheCRT.
Affectedby:qualityoftheCRT,deflectioncomponents,andhowcarefullytheconvergence
adjustmentsweredoneduringmanufacture(orrepair).Inmanycases,itisthislastitemthatis
mostcritical.Badqualitycontrolduringfinalsetupcanruinamonitormanufacturer'sreputation
andhas.
3.Moirereduction(ifanyorifenabled)reducestheeffectivesharpnessoftheelectronbeam
eitherthroughactualdefocusingorahighfrequencydither.IMO,theneteffectisalmostalways
bad.
Affectedby:enablingandmagnitudeofmoirereduction.
Items(1)through(3)aresomewhatindependent(thoughnotentirely)ofscanrate.Thenewesthigh
endmonitorshaveafairlycomprehensivesetofdigital(onscreen)adjustmentsforthesebutmaystill
notproduceacceptableresultsforeverymonitor.
4.Bandwidthofthevideoamplifiersinthemonitoressentiallyhowquicklytheintensitycanbe
alteredbythevideosignal.
Affectedby:designofvideoamplifiercircuitryandcircuitboardlayout.Thisusedtobemuch
moreofanartthanitistoday.Integratedcircuitshavereplacedmanyofthediscrete
componentsusedinthepastresultinginsimpledesignswithcleancircuitboardlayouts.
5.Bandwidthofthedigitaltoanalogconverter(D/A,DAC,orRAMDAC)ofthevideocard.
Affectedby:DACorRAMDACchipused,supportingcircuitry,andvideocardboardlayout.
Aswith(3),thesearelargelycookbookdesignsthesedays.

6.Dispersioninthevideocablehowsmearedoutthevideosignalbecomestravelingthroughthe
cable.
Affectedby:qualityandlengthofvideocable.Sincecablesoftencomeattachedtothemonitor
nowadays,youdon'thavemuchcontrolofthis.Justdon'taddproblemssuchasswitchboxes.
7.ReflectionsfromanyimpedancediscontinuitiesinthecablevideocardDAC,videocard
connector,monitorconnector,monitorvideoamplifierinput,monitortermination.Allofthese
willintroducejustabitofmismatchorperhapsmuchmorewhichwilladduptoeither
barelydetectablefuzzinessortotallyunacceptableghostingorringingatverticaledges.
Affectedby:connectorsandcircuitboardlayoutsofbothvideocardandmonitorinputaswell
asanyadditionalconnectorsoraswitchbox.
Items(4)through(7)areheavilydependentonscanratesincehigherscanratestranslateintohigher
videobandwidth.Anydegradationoftheedgesofthevideosignaltransitionsfromblacktowhite,
forexamplewillbemuchmorevisibleatthehigherscanratestheywillbespreadoutresultingin
pronouncedblurring,ghosting,orringing.
Thus,itiscriticaltousethehighestqualitycomponentswhereverpossible.Whileyoudon'thave
controloverwhatisonyourvideocardandinsideyourmonitor,selectingahighqualityvideocard
andmonitorshouldhelp.IfyouhavetheoptiontouseaBNCcable(atleastyourmonitorhasBNC
jacksontheback),tryoutahighqualityBNCcableyoumaybepleasantlysurprisedatthe
improvementinedgedefinitionandoverallsharpness.

Ghostscardormonitor?
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Thisisn'tassimpleasitmayappear.'Ghosts'arecausedbyreflectionsofthevideosignaledges,
causedbyimpedancemismatchesbetweenthedriver(graphicscard),thevideocable,andthemonitor
videoinputs.Addintheproblemscausedbythevideoconnectors,andyouwinduphavingtosaythat
thisisreally(mostoften)asystemproblem,andallthepartsgetsomeoftheblame.
Withthatsaid,thepracticalansweristhatyoushouldavoidusinganythingotherthanasingle,
reasonablygoodqualityvideocable,withdecentconnectors,betweenyourPCandmonitor,this
beingthepartthatyouhavethemostcontrolover.Themorebreaksinthecableaddingextension
cables,switchboxes,etc.themorechancesyouhaveforamismatchintheline.BNCconnectors(or
thenewVESAEVCconnector)areMUCHbetterinthisregardthanthe15pinD"VGA"connector
(althoughifyou'regettinggoodresultswiththeDconnector,don'tworryaboutit).Also,doNOT
makethemistakeofusinganythingotherthan75ohmcoaxforyourvideocables.Justtomentionone
commonmistake,LANcableis*50*ohms,soit'sNOTgoingtoworkhere!
Ifyou'vedoneallyoucanwiththecable,thenextplacetogoisthemonitoritselfthere'sprobably
somethingwrongwiththevideoinputtermination.Bytheway,asimplewaytoconfirmthatwhat
you'reseeingISaghosting(reflections)sortofproblemistouseaDIFFERENTLENGTHofthe
videocable.SincetheghostistheresultofareflectiongoingfromthemonitorbacktothePCand
thenbackuptheline,thelengthofthecableaffectswheretheghostappearsrelativetheedgewhich
causedit.Insertingalongercablemovestheghostout(totheright),whileashorteronewillmoveit
closerin(totheleft).Ifyouchangecablelengthsandtheghostdoesn'tmove,youmostlikelyhavea
problemwithinthemonitoritself,pastthevideoinputs.
BTW,longercablesmayalsomaketheghostlessdistinct,duetotheincreasedattenuationofthe
signalbythecable.Unfortunately,thelongercablealsomeansmoreattenuationofthevideosignals
thatyouWANT,inaddition

Extensioncablesandmonitorghosting
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Withanextensioncable,thereisthechancethatthisghostisbeingcausedbyanimpedancemismatch
ATTHECONNECTOROFTHEEXTENSIONunlessthecableiscompletelythewrongimpedance,
itisunlikelythatthecableitself(meaningtheactual"wire")istheculprit.Butanybreakinthecable
(connectors,switchboxes,etc.)isachanceforamismatch.
Butbeforeblamingthecable,there'sanotherpossibilitytocheckout.Onecommonesourceof
ghostingisapoorterminationofthelineatthemonitoritselfandatthegraphicscarddrivingit.Itcan
lookworsewithanextensionsimplyduetotheextracablelengthmovingthe"ghost"fartheraway
fromtheimagecausingit.(Theghostis,afterall,justareflectedsignalthatwentbackDOWNthe
cable,gotreflectedagainatthecontroller,andsentbackuptothemonitor.Addedcablelengthmakes
thisroundtriplonger,andmovestheghostfarthertotherightoftheoriginaledgeinthedisplayed
image.)Ifthisisthecase,theyouwillalsoseetheghostwithouttheextensionit'llsimplybemuch
closertotheoriginaledgethatit's"ghosting".Inthatcase,abetterextensioncablecanactuallymake
theappearanceoftheghostworsealowerlosscablemeansthatmoreofthereflectionwillget
throughbacktothemonitor!
Ifitisbeingcausedbytheextensioncable,youmaygetbetterresultsbyusingBNCconnections
insteadoftheDsubatthepointwherethecablesmate.TheDsubisaprettypoorconnectorinterms
ofprovidingtheproperimpedance.Usingapairof15Dto5BNCsbacktobackmaygivebetter
results.

DrivingmultiplemonitorsfromasinglePC
WhereBNCmonitorsareinvolvedanddaisychainingisacceptable,additionalcircuitryisgenerally
notrequiredforreasonabledistances.BNCcablesforR,G,B,andpossiblyHandVsync,arerun
fromthesourcetoeachmonitorinturnwithonlythelastonebeingterminatedin75ohms(theothers
MUSTbeHiZ).
SomenewerBNCmonitorsdonothaveaHiZoptionforterminationsodaisychainingisnotevenan
optionwiththese.
Attemptingtodrivemultiplemonitorsinastarconfigurationwithoutbufferingthesignalswill
generallyresultinpoorresultsreducedbrightnessandcontrast(by1/nwherenisthenumberof
monitors)andghostingandothersignaldegradation.However,nothingwillblowupsofor2monitors
itmaybeworthtrying.
Ineitherofthesecases,whatisneededisadistributionbufferamplifier.

UsingaPCasamonitortestpatterngenerator
AlmostanyPCwithatleastamediumperformanceSVGAvideocardcanbeprogrammedforawide
rangeofresolutionoptions,dotclocks,horizontalandverticalsynctiming,andsyncpolarity.Some
canbeprogrammedtogeneratecompositesyncandsyncongreenaswell.
DOS/Windows/Win95willsufficeformostPCapplicationsusingdriverssuppliedbythevideocard
manufacturerbutforcompleteflexibility,rununderLinuxtakealookattheXfree86documentation
formoredetails.
Testpatternscanbecreatedwithanygraphicsapplicationsandthensavedforrapidrecall.

Ofcourse,fordifferentoutputlevelsandimpedancesyouwillneedsomeextraelectronics.Anormal
SVGAcardonlyproducesR,G,BvideoandHandVsyncsignalscompatiblewithdoublyterminated
75ohmcables.Asnoted,somewillgeneratecompositesyncand/orsyncongreen.Seethe"Syncon
GreenFAQ"formoreinformationonhowtodothisifyourcardisnotcapableofit.ForNTSC/PAL
videogeneration,additionalhardwarewillbeneeded.Seethesection:Displayingcomputervideoon
aTV.

Monitortestingprograms
ThereareavarietyofPCcompatiblesoftwareprogramsfortestingofSVGAcomputermonitors.
Thesedisplayvarioustestpatternsandcolorchartswhichareappropriatefortheproceduresdiscussed
inthisdocument.
Hereareafewpointers:
Themonitortestprogram"NTest"isveryoftenrecommendedonthe
comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.videoNewsgroup.ThiswasoriginallyavailablefromNokiabut
sinceNokiasoldtheirmonitordivisiontoViewsonic,ithasdisappearedsohereisacopy.I'llbe
happytolinktotheViewsonicsiteiftheyreplaceit.
NokiaNtestMonitorTest.
ComputerCraftprovidesasharewareprogramfortestingmonitorsandvideocards.Ihavenot
testeditbutastheysay:"Ifyouareawareofthedangers,Monitors1.01isapowerfultool."See
thedocument:PerformanceTestingofComputerandVideoMonitors,specificallythesection:
"WARNINGandDISCLAIMER"forsomeofthese.Thissharewareprogramcanalsotest
videocardsforcharacteristicsandgraphicmodes.
Monitors1.01.
(From:MarkE.Nikl(markn3@infoave.net).)
InthedownloadsectionoftheWebsite,thereisafilecalledmonitors.Itwillgiveyouallthe
testpatternsandsetupsforgrayscales,HVregulation,tellyouaboutyouvideocardandmuch
more.Ijustranacrossittheotherday.Youcanevensetupthepincushionandlotsmore.
SONERATechnologiesmarketsasetofprogramscalled"DisplayMate"availableforDOSand
Windows/Win95.Thisissupposedtoguideyouthroughthemonitortestingandsetupprocess
withaseriesoftestpattern'slides'.IhavenottrieditsoIcannotcommentonitsutility.
Ademoversionwithafewtestpatterns,moreinformationontheirproducts,andsomevideo
techtips,andsometestpatternsareavailableat:
DisplayMateHomePageandDemo.
TestPatterns.
PassMarkhasaproductthatappearstohaveafairlycomprehensivesetoffeaturesincluding25
testpatterns,displayofmonitorandvideoadapterinformation,andsupportformultiple
resolutions,colordepths,anddisplaytypes.Itcanbedownloadedforfreewitha15day
evaluation,thencosts$15:
PassMarkMonitorTest.

UsingaTVtunercardinaPC

TheseISA,EISA,orPCIcardsputTVprogramsorotherNTSC/PALsourcematerialintoawindow
onyourPC'smonitorscreen.Thequestionhascomeupastowhetherthiswilldamagethemonitorin
thelongterm.
Iwouldnotthinkthatthereshouldbeanyproblemsunlessyoutendtoturnthebrightnessupmuch
higherthannormallyusedforcomputeractivities.Ifanything,theconstantlychangingpicturewillbe
betterthanastationarywindow.However,movingittodifferentlocationseverysooftenwillnothurt.
Similarcommentsapplytoothertypesofimageandvideocapturesaswell.
IMHO,IstillthinkitissillytouseanexpensivePCandmonitortowatchTV.

Whatiscolortemperatureandwhatdoesitaffect?
Somemonitorshavethecapabilityofselectingoradjustingforthe'colortemperature'ofthedisplay.
NECAcuColoronthe4/5/6FGseriesofmonitorsisoneexample.
Theterminologyreferstothespectraloutputofanidealblackbodysourceatthatactualphysical
temperature.Itessentiallysetstheappearanceofawhitescreen.Forexample,acolortemperatureof
9300Kwillappearbluewhitewhile6300Kwillappearyellowwhite.
ItonlyaffectstherelativebalanceofR,G,Bandhasnothingtodowithrefreshratesoranything
performancerelated.Unlessyouaredoingworkwheretheexactcolorsmatterorareusingmultiple
monitorswherethecolorsneedtomatch,usewhicheversettingismorepleasing

Whatisthisgooparoundsomeelectrolyticcapacitorsandothercomponents?
Thatgoopisprobablyglueandgenerallyharmlessitistheretoholddownthecomponentsaganst
vibration.IhaveheardofitsometimesdecomposingandshortingstuffoutbutIdoubtyouhavethat
problem.
Therefore,unlessyoufindabadcapinthefocusorrelatedcircuit,wearestilllookingataflyback
problem.

Whatdoestheflyback(LOPT)transformerdo?
ThetypicalflybackorLineOutPutTransformer(LOPT)consistsoftwoparts:
1.Aspecialtransformerwhichinconjunctionwiththehorizontaloutputtransistor/deflection
circuitsbooststheB+(120VtypicalforaTV)ofthelowvoltagepowersupplytothe20to30
kVfortheCRTaswellasprovidevarioussecondarylowervoltagesforothercircuits.
AHVrectifierturnsthehighvoltagepulsesintoDCandtheCRTcapacitancesmoothsit.The
HVmaybedevelopedfromasinglewindingwithmanymanyturnsofwireoralowervoltage
windingandadiodecapacitorvoltagemultiplier.
Thevarioussecondaryvoltagespowerthelogic,tuner,videosignal,verticaldeflectioncircuits,
andCRTfilaments.Infact,withmanyTVdesigns,theonlypowernotderivedfromtheflyback
isforthekeepalivecircuitryneededtomaintainchannelmemoryandprovidestartupdriveto
thehorizontaldeflection/highvoltagesystem.
2.Avoltagedividerthatprovidesthefocusandscreensupplies.Thepotsareinthisdivider
networkandthesethingsfailresultingpoorfocus,uncontrolledbrightness,orfluctuating
focusand/orbrightness.Atotalshortcouldalsoresultinfailureofothercomponentslikethe

horizontaloutputtransistor.Insomemonitors,thefocusandscreendividerand/orcontrolsare
externaltotheflybackandsusceptibletodustandproblemsparticularlyonhumiddays.The
resistanceofthesecircuitsissohighthatdirtorothercontaminationcaneasilyprovideabypass
pathtogroundespeciallywhenslightlydamp.

Tony'snotesonsettingconvergenceonolderdeltagunCRTs
(From:ard12@eng.cam.ac.uk(A.R.Duell))
Theolderdeltaguntubes(3gunsinatriangle,notinaline)cangive**excellent**pictures,with
verygoodconvergence,provided:
1.You'vesetthose20orsopresetscorrectlyarightpainastheyinteracttosomeextent.
2.TheCRTissetupinthefinalpositionthistypeoftubeismoresensitivetoexternalfieldsthan
thePILtype.
Bothmydeltagunsets(aB&O3200chassisandaBarcoCDCT2/51)haveveryclearlysetoutand
labeledconvergencepanels,andyoudon'tneedaservicemanualtodothem.Theinstructionsinthe
Barcomanualaresomethinglike:
"Applycrosshatch,andadjustthecontrolsontheconvergenceboardinthenumberedorderto
convergethepicture.Thediagramsbyeachcontrolshowtheeffect".
Here'saveryquickguidetodeltagunconvergencewherethesettingsaredoneusingvarious
adjustmentsontheneckoftheCRT(ifyoudon'thaveaservicemanualbutdoknowwhateach
controldoes,andwheretheyallareotherwise,followtheinstructionsintheservicemanualsam):
1.Applyawhitecrosshatchordotpatterntotheset.Don'ttryandconvergeonanythingelse
you'llgoinsane.It'susefultobeabletoswitchbetweenthose2patterns.
2.Beforeyoustart,settheheight,width,linearity,pincushion,etc.Theywillinteractwiththe
convergence.AlsocheckPSUvoltages,andtheEHTvoltageifit'sadjustable.That'swhereyou
doneedaservicemanual,Iguess.
3.TurnoffthebluegunusingtheA1switch,andusetheredandgreenstaticradialcontrolstoget
ayellowcroshatchinthemiddleofthescreen.Thesecontrolsmaybeelectricalpresets,ormay
bemovablemagnetsontheradialconvergenceyoke(theYshapedthinkbehindthedeflection
yoke).
4.Turnonthebluegunandusethe2bluestaticcontrols(radialandlateral)toaligntheblueand
yellowcrosshatchesatthecenterofthescreen.Somemanufacturersrecommendturningoffthe
greengunwhendoingthis,andaligningredwithblue(using*only*thebluecontrols,of
course),butIprefertoalignbluewithyellow,asitgivesacheckontheoverallconvergenceof
thetube.
5.Turnoffthebluegunagain.Nowthefunstartsdynamicconvergence.Thefirstadjustments
aligntheredandgreencrosshatchesneartheedgesInormallydothetopandbottomfirst.
Therewillbe2controlsforthis,eitheratopandabottom,orashiftandalinearity.Thesecond
typeisa*pain*todo,asit'snotuncommonforittoaffectthestaticconvergence.
6.Gettingtheredandgreenverticalsalignedneartheedgesisasmilarprocess.
7.Younowhave(hopefully)ayellowcrosshatchovertheentirescreen.

8.Nowtoaligntheblue.Thisisalotworse,althoughtheprincipleisthesame.Turnontheblue
gunagain,andcheckthestatic(center)convergence
9.Toalignthebluelineswiththeyellowones,you'llfindnotonlyshiftcontrols,butalsoslope
controls.Usetheshiftcontrolstoalignthecentersofthelinesandtheslopecontrolstogetthe
endpointsright.Theseinteracttosomeextent.You'llneedtofiddlewiththecontrolsforabitto
workoutwhattheydo,evenifyouhavethemanual.
Theconvergenceovertheentirescreenshouldnowbegood....
Awordofwarninghere...ThepurityissetbyringmagnetsonalmostallcolourCRTs,butonPIL
tubes,thereareotherringmagnetsaswelllikestaticconvergence.Makesureyouknowwhatyou
areadjusting.

Jerry'scommentsonconvergenceandotheradvancedCRTadjustments
(From:JerryG.(jerryg@total.net).)
Convergencealignmentisnotsomethingyoucandoyourselfunlessyouhavethepropercalibration
instrumentsandskills.Ittakeslotsofexperienceandtime.Therearepublishedspecsformostofthe
goodmonitors.Mostofthetimetheyareasfollows:
Thereisthe'Aarea','Barea',and'Carea'.Ona15inchmonitortheAareawouldbeadiameterof
about4inches.TheBareawouldbeabout7.5inches.TheCareawouldbetheoutsideareas
includingthecorners.Thesenumbersareapproximate.Thereareactuallystandardspecsforthese
areas.Theyareexpressedinpercentageofscreenviewingarea.Thereforetheincheswouldvarywith
theCRTsize.
Thehighertheprice(quality)ofthemonitorCRT,yoke,andscanningcontrolcircuits,thetighterthe
convergencecanbealignedbythetechnician.FortheAareaonagoodmonitor,themaximumerror
shouldnotexceed0.1mm.FortheBareaitshouldnotexceedmorethanabout0.25mm.Andforthe
Carea,itcanbealloweduptoabout0.3mm.MostofthemonitorsthatIhaverepaired,seen,and
useddidnotmeetthesespecsunlesstheywereratherexpensive.Withthesespecstherewouldnotbe
anyrealvisiblemisconvergenceunlessyouputyournoseveryclosetothescreen...Alotoftheones
inthemediumpricerangetheywereabout0.15mmerrorintheAarea,about0.4intheBandgreater
thanintheCarea.ThisalsoannoysmebecauseIamverycritical.
Ifonehastheskillsandtestgearheorshecandoabetterjobonmostmonitors.Itisaquestionofthe
timeinvolved.Toseetheconvergenceerrorsagratingorcrosshatchpatternisused.Afullrastercolor
generatorisrequiredforthepurityadjustmentsaswell.Thisisnecessarytoalignthelandingpointsof
theCRTguns.Theexactcenterreferenceandpurityadjustmentsaredonewiththeringmagnetson
theCRTneck.Theyokepositionangleadjustmentsarealsodoneforthesideandtopbottomskewing
aswell.Everythinginteracts!
Thecornersaredonewithvarioussortsofsliporedgemagnets.Asforcornerconvergenceskewing,
buttonmagnetsareused.Thecolorpuritywillbeeffectedasyougo,andmustbealsocorrected.
Theseadjustmentsinteractononeanother,andtheprocessescontinuesuntiltheconvergenceand
purityaregoodatthesametime...!
Idon'trecommendtheamateurorhobbiest,oreventhedoityourselfertoattemptthisalignment
procedure.Thetestgearwouldexceedthecostofareallygoodmonitoranyways...!!!Andwithoutthe
properskillsrequired,heorshewouldonlymakeitworseanyways...
Asforpurityspecs,thecolorchangefromanycornertoanycornermustnotexceedanerrorofmore
than200degreesKelvin.TheerrorintheBareashouldnotexceed300degreeskelvin.Thisappliesto

awhiteraster.MostofthemonitorsIseedon'tgetbetterthanabout300degreesKelvin.Andsome
areeven1000out!ThepurityerrorsarebestcheckedwithafullRedrasterusing100%saturation.
Thentheothercolorvectoranglesarecheckedwithcyan,andthenmagenta.Thecolortemperature
stabilityshouldbethesameinallaspects.
Acolorspectrometershouldbeusedtojudgethiserrorfactor.Asfarastheeyeisconcerned,itwill
seeapurityerrorofmorethanabout500degreesKelvinifthepersonknowswhattolookfor...
WhenchangingtheCRT,thisalignmentmustbedonecompletely.Mostshopsdonotevenemploy
peoplewhoareskilledtoaproperalignment,ordon'tevenowntheinstrumentstodoitright,andthe
poorcustomergetbackamonitorthatisnotinspecs...!

Useofsurgesuppressorsandlinefilters
Shouldyoualwaysuseasurgesuppressoroutletstriporlinecircuit?Sure,itshouldn'thurt.Justdon't
dependonthesetoprovideprotectionunderallcircumstances.Somearebetterthanothersandthe
marketingblurbisatbestoflittlehelpinmakinganinformedselection.Productliteratureunlessitis
backedupbytestingfromareputablelabisusuallyprettyuselessandoftenconfusing.
Linefilterscanalsobeusefulifpowerinyouareaisnoisyorpronetospikesordips.
However,keepinmindthatmostwelldesignedelectronicequipmentalreadyincludesbothsurge
suppressorslikeMOVsaswellasLClinefilters.Moreisnotnecessarilybetterbutmaymovethe
pointoffailuretoareadilyaccessibleoutletstripratherthantheinnardsofyourequipmentifdamage
occurs.
VeryeffectiveprotectionispossiblethroughtheuseofaUPS(UninterruptiblePowerSupply)which
alwaysrunstheequipmentoffitsbatteryfromtheinternalinverter(notalldo).Thisprovidesvery
effectiveisolationpowerlineproblemsasthebatteryactsasahugecapacitor.Ifsomethingis
damaged,itwilllikelybetheUPSandnotyourexpensiveequipment.Anotheroptionistousea
constantvoltagetransformer(SOLA)whichprovidesvoltageregulation,lineconditioning,and
isolationfrompowerspikesandsurges.
Itisstillbesttounplugeverythingiftheairraidsirensgoofforyouseeanelephantwearingthick
glassesrunningthroughtheneighborhood(oranimpendinglightningstorm).

GFCItrippingwithmonitor(orotherhightechequipment)
GroundFaultCircuitInterrupters(GFCIs)areveryimportantforminimizingshockhazardsin
kitchens,bathrooms,outdoorsandotherpotentiallywetareas.Theyarenowgenerallyrequiredbythe
NECCodeintheselocations.However,whattheGFCIdetectstoprotectpeopleanimbalanceinthe
currentsintheHotandNeutralwirescausedpossiblybysomeonetouchingaliveconductormay
existsafelybydesignin3wiregroundedelectronicequipmentandresultinfalsetrippingofthe
GFCI.ThereasonisthatthereareusuallysmallcapacitorsbetweenallthreewireHot,Neutral,and
GroundintheRFIlinefiltersofcomputermonitors,PCs,andprinters.Atpoweronandevenwhile
operating,theremaybeenoughleakagecurrentthroughthecapacitorsbetweenHotandGroundin
particulartotriptheGFCI.Evenforungrounded2wiredevices,thepoweronsurgeintoinductiveor
capacitiveloadslikeswitchingpowersuppliesmayfalselytriptheGFCI.Thisismorelikelyto
happenwithmultipledevicespluggedintothesameGFCIprotectedoutletespeciallyiftheyare
controlledbyacommonpowerswitch.
Therefore,IdonotrecommendtheuseofaGFCIforcomputerequipmentaslongasall3wire
devicesareconnectedtoproperlygroundedcircuits.Thesafetygroundprovidesalltheprotectionthat
isneeded.

Monitorsonforeignpower
Usingamonitoronadifferentvoltageorfrequencyisusuallynotaseriousproblem.
YourPCandmonitorshouldbefinerequiringatmostatransformer(notjustanadapterforheating
appliances,however)toconvertthevoltage.Theybothuseswitchingpowersupplieswhichdon'tcare
aboutthelinefrequency.
Somepowersuppliesareuniversaltheyautomaticallyadapttothevoltagetheyarefedwithout
requiringevenatransformerbutdon'tassumethischeckyouusermanualorcontactthe
manufacturer(s)todetermineifjumpersorswitchesneedtobechanged.YoucouldblowupthePCor
monitorbyattemptingtoruniton220VACwhensetof115VAC.Ifyouarelucky,onlyafusewill
blowbutdon'tcountonit.
Fornonswitchingpowersupplydeviceslikeprintersandwalladaptersthatuselinepower
transformers,inadditiontomatchingthevoltage(orsettingjumpersorswitches),runningonalower
linefrequencymaybeaproblem.Thereisaslightchancethatthepowertransformerwilloverheaton
50Hzifdesignedfor60Hz.(Theotherwayaroundshouldbefine.)Itisbesttocheckthenameplate
itshouldtellyou.Ifitdoesnot,thenbesttocontactthemanufacturer.

LifespansofMonitors
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
MostmanufacturerswillquoteanMTBF(MeanTimeBeforeFailure)ofsomewhereinthe30,000to
60,000hourrange,EXCLUSIVEOFtheCRT.ThetypicalCRT,withoutanextendedlifecathode,is
usuallygoodfor10,000to15,000hoursbeforeitreacheshalfofitsinitialbrightness.Notethat,ifyou
leaveyourmonitoronallthetime,ayearisjustabout8,000hours.
Theonly"tuneup"thatamonitorshouldneed,exclusiveofadjustmentsneededfollowingreplacement
ofafailedcomponent,wouldbevideoamplifierand/orCRTbiasingadjustmentstocompensatefor
theagingofthetube.Theseareusuallydoneonlyifyou'reusingthethinginanapplicationwhere
exactcolor/brightnessmatchingisimportant.Regulardegaussingoftheunitmaybeneeded,of
course,butI'mnotconsideringthata"tuneup"oradjustment.

Howdomonitorsknowwhentoenterpowersavingmodes?
(PortionsfromBobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
IfthemonitorcomplieswiththeVESADPMS(DisplayPowerManagementSignalling)standard,it
willgointopowersavingmodeswheneitherhorizontalorverticalsyncisdisabled.Different
combinationsofthesyncsignalsindicatedifferentlevelsofpowermanagement,distinguishedbyhow
muchthepowerisreducedandtheexpectedrecoverytime.Thegreaterthepowersavings,thegreater
therecoverytimeisexpectedtobe.Forinstance,onethingthatmaydistinguishthegreaterpower
savingsstatesisturningofftheCRTfilament,somethingthatyoudon'trecoverfrominjustasecond
ortwo.
Youcantellwhichpowersavingmodeisactivebyhowlongthemonitortakestocomebacktolife:
1.Videoblankingimagewillappearinstantlywhenanykeyispressedsincethisisjustalogic
levelinhibitingthevideodrivers.
2.Fullshutdownawarmupperiodofaround15secondswillbeneededfortheimagetoreappear
sincethefilamentsoftheCRTneedtowarmup.

Monitorlife,energyconservation,andlaziness
Acommonmisconceptionaboutthecareandfeedingofcomputermonitorsisthattheyshouldbeleft
onallthetime.Whiletherearesomeadvantagestothis,therearemanymoredisadvantages:
1.CRTLife:ThelifeofamonitorisdeterminedbythelifeoftheCRT.TheCRTisbyfarthe
mostexpensivesinglepartanditisusuallynotworthrepairingamonitorinwhichtheCRT
requiresreplacement.ThebrightnesshalflifeofaCRTisusuallyabout1015Khoursofon
timeindependentofwhatisbeingdisplayedonthescreen.10Khoursisonlyalittlemorethan
ayear.Bynotturningthemonitoroffatnight,youarereducingthelifeofthemonitorbya
factorof23.Screensaversdonotmakeanysubstantialdifferenceespeciallywithmodern
displaysusingXWindowsorMSWindowswherethescreenlayoutisnotfixed.Withvideo
displayterminals,thetextalwayscameupinthesamepositionandeventuallyburned
impressionsintothescreenphosphor.WithmodernCRTs,thefilamentscanbelefttominimize
thetimeneededforapicturetoappearsincethisdoesn'taffectCRTlifeverymuch.
2.Componentlife:Theheatgeneratedinsideamonitortendstodryoutpartslikeelectrolytic
capacitorsthusshorteningtheirlife.Theseeffectsareparticularlysevereatnightduringthe
summerwhentheairconditioningmaybeoffbutitisstillaconsiderationyeararound.
3.Safety:WhileelectronicequipmentdesignedandmanufacturedinaccordancewiththeNational
ElectricalCodesisverysafe,thereisalwaysasmallriskofcatastrophicfailureresultingina
fire.Withnoonearound,evenwithsprinklersandsmokealarms,suchanfailurecouldbemuch
moredisasterous.
4.Energyuse:Whilemodernmonitorsusealotlessenergythantheiroldercousins,theaggregate
energyusageisnotsomethingtobeignored.Atypicalmonitorusesbetween60and200Watts.
Thusata$.10perkWHelectricratesuchamonitorwillcostbetween$48and$160ayearfor
electricity.Duringthenight,1/2to2/3ofthisiswastedforeverymonitorthatislefton.Ifair
conditioningisonduringthenight,thenthereistheadditionalenergyusageneededtoremove
thisheataswellprobablyabouthalfthecostoftheelectricitytorunthemonitor.
Thepopularrationalizationforwhatismostoftenjustlazinessisthatpoweronisastressfultimefor
anyelectronicdeviceandreducingthenumberofpowercycleswillprolongthelifeofthemonitor.
Withaproperlydesignedmonitor,thisisrarelyanissue.Canyourecallthelasttimeamonitorblew
upwhenitwasturnedon?Theotherargument,whichhasmorebasisinrealityisthatthethermal
cyclingresultingfromturningamonitoronandoffwillshortenitslife.Itistruethatsuchthermal
stresscancontributetovariouskindsoffailuresduetobadsolderconnections.However,thesecanbe
easilyrepairedanddonoteffectthemonitor'shearttheCRT.Youwouldn'tleaveyourTVon24
hoursaday,wouldyou?FullpowersavingwherevirtuallyeverythingincludingtheCRTfilamentsis
turnedoffisreallybestbutthedelaybeforeapictureappearsmaybe20secondsormore.
Alsoseethesection:Thermalcyclingandcomponentlife.
Mostofthenewest('green')monitorshaveenergyconservingcapabilitiesbutitisnecessaryforthe
softwaretotriggerthesepowerreductionorpowerdownmodes.However,manymonitorstillinuse
lackthesefeatures.AndnotallworkstationsorPCsaresetuptosupportthem.Ifyouhavesucha
monitorandcomputertosupportit,byallmeanssetupthenecessarypoweroff/powerdowntimers.
However,usingthepowersavingmodesofa'green'PCwithanoldermonitorcanpotentiallycause
damagesincesomeofthemodesdisablethesyncsignals.A'green'monitorwhichcandetectablank
screenandandusethisasatriggercaneasilybeusedwithascreensaverwhichcanbesettodisplaya
blankscreenonanyPCorworkstation.
Evenifthemonitordoesnotsupportpowersavingmodes,ablankscreenordarkpicturewillreduce

stressontheCRTandpowersupply.Electroniccomponentswillruncoolerandlastlonger.
Pleasemakeitahabittoturnyourmonitorsoffatnight.Thiswillextendthelifeofthemonitor(and
yourinvestment)andisgoodfortheenvironmentaswell.Forworkstations,therearegoodreasonsto
leavethesystemunitonallthetime.However,themonitorshouldbeturnedoffusingitspower
switch.ForPCs,myrecommendationisthattheentireunitbeturnedoffatnightsincetheboot
processisveryquickandPCsaregenerallynotrequiredtobeaccessibleoveranetwork24hoursa
day.

Thernalcyclingandcomponentlife
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
InaCRTmonitor,theshortestlivedcomponentBYFARistheCRTitself,anditages(moreproperly,
thecathodeisaging)aslongastheheaterisonandthetubeisunderbias.Mostmonitorsdon'tget
aroundtoturningtheheaterdownoroffuntiltheyentertheDPMS"suspend"or"off"modes.(And
no,screensaversdoNOThelpherethetubeisstillonandthecathodeisaging.)
Otherfactorssimplyhavingthecircuitshotandpoweredupingeneralmeansthatthey'reaging.
Clearly,they'reNOTagingwhenthey'reoff.Thisneedstobebalancedagainstthethermalcycling
sortofstressesthatyoumentionwhichhappenduringpowercycling,andthisiswhyIrecommend
shuttingoffonlywhenyou'regoingtobeawayforanextendedperiod,suchasovernight.Thisis,of
course,mostimportantforthosecomponentswhichhaveclearheatrelatedaging,butmostdoto
someextent.Esp.vulnerablearethingslikeelectrolyticcaps,forobviousreasons.
Thebottomlineisthatnothingisevergoingtolastforever,andtryingtomaximizethelifeofthe
productisanexerciseinmakingtradeoffsbetweenvariousaging/failuremechanisms.

Minimumandmaximumlifespanofmonitors
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
There'snowaytoseta"minimum"or"maximum"life,asthere'squiteavariationfromunittounit.
Somesmallpercentagewillfailrightoutofthebox("infantmortality")whileotherswillrunhappily
foryears.Wenormallyspeakofamean,oraverage,lifeexpectancy,asin"MTBF"("meantime
beforefailure").InaCRTdisplay,theCRTitselfisusuallythelimitingfactorinthis,andinTHAT
specificcaseweusuallyspeakof"meantimetohalfbright"instead,sinceit'srareforaCRTto
simplydieonceit'spastitsearlyoperatinglife.(Excludingsuchthingsasmechanicaldamageandso
forth,ofcourse.)Meantimetohalfbrightisjustwhatitsays:howlong,onaverage,canyouoperate
thetubebeforethebrightnessdropstohalfitsinitiallevelforagivensetofoperatingconditions.
(BrightnessisALWAYSslowingdecreasingthroughoutthetube'slife,duetotheagingofthecathode
andthephosphor.)Formosttubeswithstandardcathodes,thiswillbeintheneighborhoodof10K
15Khours(alittleoverayeartonotquitetwoyearsofcontinuousoperation).

Implicationsofpowersavingmodes
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
EnergyStarandsimilarpowersavingcertificationsgenerallydon'tspecifywhatisdoneinsidethe
monitortoachievethepowerreduction,justthemaximumpowerdissipationinthe"reducedpower"
state(s).Still,mostdesignsWILLeitherreducethevoltagetothefilament,orshutitoffcompletely,
dependingonthedegreeofpowerreductionneededforagivenstate.
Thermalstresseswouldbedamagingtotheheaterandcathodeiftheyhappenedsignificantlymore

oftenthanthedailypowerdown(youDOturnyoumonitoroffforthenight,don'tyou?).Thewayto
usethesefeaturesproperlyistoNOTsetupthesystemtoenterthemorereducedstates("suspend"
and"off")untilareasonablylongperiodhaspassedwithnoaction.Usethe"standby"stateforthe
firstlevel,theoneyouenterafterafewminutes(10?)ofinactivity,anddon'tgobeyondthatunless
thesystemisinactivelongenoughtosuggestthayyou'regoingtobeawayforawhile.Butmakesure
thatthesystemWILLgettothedeepestlevelofpowerreductionsupportedwiththemonitoras
closetofulloffasyoucangetwhenyou'regoingtobeawayforareallylongwhile,likeovernight.
Turningthemonitoroffovernightisthebestthingyoucandoforit.
Andno,Idon'tthinkthesemonitorswillbethatmuchmoredifficulttoservice,justbecausethey've
gotpowermanagement.Thisisusuallyafairlysimpleadditiontothepowersupply,anddoesn'treally
affectthecomplexityoftherestoftheunit.ButmodernmonitorsDOtendtobemorecomplicated
anywaywhatwithdigitalcontrols,onscreendisplays,etc.andsoaresomewhatmoredifficultto
repair.Itjustdoesn'treallyhavemuchtodowiththepowersavingbits.

Methodstopreventscreenburninonfixedformatmonitors
WhenTVsormonitorsareusedtodisplaythesamepatterndayinanddayout,screenburnislikelyto
result.ThismayhappenwithTVsusedextensivelyforvideogamesandtextdisplayterminalsboth
situationswheretheformatofthescreenisrelativelyfixed.ItisnotlikelywithTVsundernormal
usageormonitorsusedwithwindowingsystems(e.g.,Win95,Xwindows)wherethedisplaychanges
fromtimetotime.
WithTVs,youronlyoptionsaretoreducethebrightnessorgetthekids(you?)toparticipateinless
mindnumbingactivities.
Formonitors,herearethreeapproaches(theycanobviouslybeusedtogether).
Blankordimthescreenoruseascreensaverwhennotinuse(won'tprolongCRTlifebutwill
reducepossibilityofburnin).
Onlysetthebrightnessandcontrastashighasneededforcomfortableviewing.Subduedambient
illuminationwillallowthesetobegreatlyreduced(andsaveenergyaswell!).
Randomizethedisplay.Onatextentryterminal,forexample,thesystemcouldbesetuptovarythe
positionofthetextonthescreenbyasmallamountarandomnumberofpixelshorizontallyand
scanlinesverticallylessthanthecharactersize.Thiscouldbedoneeverytimeitisswitchedonor
periodically.Ofcourse,unlessyouarethedesignerorprogrammer,thisoptionprobablyisn'tvery
viable!
Therewillalwaysbesomedegradationofthephosphorevenduringnormaluse.Withchanging
scenes,itwillsimplyresultinalongtermdarkeningofthescreenandreductioninmaximum
brightness(independentofthereducedmissionfromtheelectronguns).Thiseffectislikelyvery
slightbutmyadviceistokeepcontrast(peakwhites)onlyashighasyouneedandturnthebrightness
downwhennotusingthemonitorforafewminutes.Alsoseethesection:Monitorlife,energy
conservation,andlaziness.

Monitors,heat,andcoolingfans
Electronicequipmentingeneralmostoftenreallylikestobekeptcool.Uptoapoint,coolerisbetter.
However,tosaveafewcentsandtoavoidcomplaintsaboutnoise,fewmonitorscomeequippedwith
internalcoolingfanseventhoughthesecouldsubstantiallyreducetheinternaltemperatureandmay
prolongatroublefreelife.

Withoutafan,therearestill(possibly)simplestepsthatcanbetakentokeepthemonitorhappy:
Keeptheambienttemperaturelow.Thereisnoneedforthehumanstofreeze,butifyouare
uncomfortablywarm,soisyourmonitor.
Runthemonitorattheminimumbrightnessforyourneeds.Itisbetterforthemonitorand
energyconservationuselowerambientilluminationandlowerbrightness.Stressonboththe
CRTandpowersupplycomponentsisreducedandthemonitorwillruncooler.
Whenidle,useascreenblanker(orscreensaverthatdisplaysadarkpicture)ortakeadvantage
ofanypowersavingmodesthatmaybesupported.Asabove,thiswillreducestressesonthe
monitor'scomponentsandsaveenergyaswell.Ofcourse,turnallthemonitorsoffatnight.See
thesection:Monitorlife,energyconservation,andlaziness.
Makesurethemonitor'sventilationholesarenotcoveredorblockedinanyway.Thereshould
beseveralinchesofclearanceonallsides,top,andbottom.Makesuredustdoesn'tcollect
suckitoutwithaportablevacuumcleaner.
However,evenifyoufollowtheserecommendations(orhavenocontroloversomeaspectsofyour
monitor'senvironmentandoperation),somemonitorsrunexcessivelyhot.
WhileIdon'tknowofanycontrolledstudiesonthistopic,anecdotalevidencesuggestsasubstantial
benefittoforcedaircoolingforsomemonitors.
Itdoesn'ttakemuchevenaCPUstyle1.5inchfanwillmakeanoticeabledifferenceinnearlytotal
silence.
Thebestplacetomountsuchafanisprobablyontheplasticcaseinthevicinityofthehighpower
componentspowersupplyorhorizontaldeflection.Provideaholeandgrilltomatchthefan.
Orientingittoblowoutwardmaybebetterforgeneralcooling.However,itwillbeeasiertocool
specificpartsifthefanblowsinandwithafilter,thiswillalsoreducedustinfiltration.
Powercanbetappedfromanyconvenientsourcewhichprovidesavoltagethatiscompatiblewiththe
fan.Forexample,a12VDCfancanrunonanythingfrom8V(orsomewhatless)to15Vorsowitha
correspondingvariationinspeed.Thecurrentusedbysuchafanisgenerallynegligiblesoitshouldn't
beaproblemtofindasourcewithenoughexcesscapacity.
Ifyoureallywanttobeslick,addacircuittoadjustfanspeedbasedonscanmode(higherscan
modes>higherairflow)and/ortemperature.

WhyarepricesofvideomonitorssohighcomparedtosimilarlysizedTVs?
"HowcomeIcanbuya32"SonyTrinitronTVsetfor$800,butwhenitcomestobuying
amonitorformyPC,$1400onlygetsmeanoname20"tube?
Whycan'tagiantlikeSonyproduceaPCmonitoranywherecloseincosttoan
equivalentlysizedTVset?"
Well,thebottomlineisthatthereisn'tmuchincommonbetweenaTVandcomputermonitorwhen
onegetsdowntothedetails.Thebasicprinciplesofrasterscandisplayapplytobothandthatisabout
it!Monitorswouldalreadybemuchmoreexpensiveifitweren'tfortheadditionalfactthatmany
moreTVsaremanufacturedandsoldthanmonitorswhichdrivesdowntheirpricesstillfurther:
(Someofthisfrom:MikeStewart(mstewart@whale.st.usm.edu).)

Thereareseveralsignificantfactorsbeingoverlookedhere:
1.Economyofscale.Therearestill*many*moreTVsetsbeingsoldthancomputermonitors.
ManufacturersorderTVchipsetsinmuchlargerquantities.Thisdrivesdowntheprice.
2.Resolution.NTSCTVsignalsaren'tevenVGAresolution.Trygettingthat32"SonyTrinitron
XBRtogiveyou1280x1024.AcomputermonitorhasaCRTwitharesolutionabout2to3
timesthatofaTVofsimilarsizeinbothhorizontalandverticaldirections.Thebeamisalso
moresharplyfocused.
3.Refreshrates.NTSCTVsignalscomeatonerefreshrate,period.Youeitherwatchbroadcast
NTSCat59.94Hz(interlaced),oryoudon'twatchitatall.Nonice,clean72HzNIdisplayon
there.(NOTE:Thisonlyreferstothe99+%ofTVplaybackequipmentthatcontainsnoline
doublingcircuitry.That'sfair,asyou'llpayagoodbitmoreforanoninterlaced,linedoubled
NTSCpicturethanthepreviousposterwascomplainingabout,anyway.)
Therefore,aautoscanmonitorneedsmoresophisticateddeflectionandpowersupplycircuitry.
Itmustrunatmuchhigherscanratesandthiscomplicatesthecircuitryaswell.
4.Geometry.TheprecisionofagoodcomputermonitorismuchgreaterthenanyTV.Thesides
willbeparallelandsquare.Adjustmentsareprovidedtoeliminatepincushion,keystone,and
trapazoiddistortions.
5.Stability.Theimageonahighqualitycomputermonitorisrocksolidanddoesnotshiftposition
orchangesizeascomponentswarmup,orthepowerlinevoltagefluctuates,etc.
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
ThebasicreasonforthecostdifferencebetweenCRTsforcomputerandTVisthattheyareNOTthe
sameproductATALL.
TheydonotshareANYmajorcomponent.Theglassisdifferent(foronething,computertubesare
stillalmostALL90deg.deflectionTVglassisfor110114deg.deflection).Theelectrongunsare
different(differentspotsizevs.brightnesstradeoff).Theshadowmasksaredifferent(computer
displaysuseamuchfinerdotpitchthanthesamesizeTVtube).Eventhephosphorsusedare
sometimesdifferent.Theyareaimedatdifferentmarkets,withdifferentrequirements,andsoare
completelyseparatedesigns.Theymostoftenarenotevenproducedonthesameproductionline.
BeyondtheCRT,everyothermajorpartofthedisplaydesignisdifferent,mostlyowingtothe
differenceinhorizontalratesrequired(~15.7kHzforTV,vs.3085kHzandoftenMUCHhigherfor
computerdisplays)andtheneedformultifrequencyoperationinthecomputermarket,combinedwith
theneedtoholdtomuchtightergeometry,convergence,etc.specsatthesehigherrates.
Inshort,theonlythingthat'sthesamebetweenaTVsetandacomputermonitoristhatthey'reboth
boxeswhichmakepicturesonaglassscreen.SortofliketheQueenElizabethIIandtheExxon
Valdezyes,they'rebothbigmetalthingsthatfloatintheocean,butthere'snotreallyallTHATmuch
incommonbetweenthetwodesigns.

WhyistheresolutionofacomputermonitorsomuchbetterthanaTV
Ofcourse,computerdisplaysmayrunatresolutionsof1280x1024ormore.Thesearenotlimitedby
minorconsiderationssuchaschannelbandwidth,andtoalesserextent,cost.Theseareseparateissues
fromwhyacomputermonitordisplayissomuchbetterevenwhenthenumberofscanlinesisthe
sameaswithNTSCversusbasicVGA(640x480).

1.NTSC(525/30)isfundamentallylimitedbythebandwidthandcolorencodingofthecomposite
videosignal.ThisisthemostsignificantfactorlimitinganypossibledisplayonaTVviathe
RF/cable/antenna,orcompositeorNTSC(directA/V)inputstoperhapshalfofVGAresolution
horizontally.
PAL(625/25)morecloselymatchesan800x600SVGAformatbutstillsuffersfromsimilar
limitationsinhorizontalresolution.
2.Monitorsaredesignedtoprovidesharpfocusattheexpenseofbrightness.TVsdon'thavegreat
focusbutproducebrighterdisplay.Thislimitsbothhorizontalandverticalresolution.
3.MonitorCRTsaredesignedwithmuchfinerdot/linepitchintheshadow/slotmaskoraperture
grilloftenbetterthan2:1smallerthansimilarsizeTVs.
4.TVsuseinterlacedscanning.Jitterintheverticalalsoaffectsperceiveddisplayquality.
WhereaTV/monitorhasdirectRGBinputs,thelimitationisprimarilydueto(2)to(4)thoughthey
maynothavethesamehighbandwidthcircuitryasamorecostlycomputermonitor.
Thereareotherfactorsbutthesearethemostimportant.

CombinedTVandcomputermonitor
"Thisisa27"VGAmonitorwhichshouldalsobeabletobeusedasanNTSCtelevision
monitor.Cananybodycommentonit?"
IMO,IthinktheentireideaofacombinedTV/computermonitorissillyespeciallywhenthelikely
costpremiumistakenintoaccount.WatchingtheboobtubewilltieupyourentirePC.Theoptimal
sizeforTVandcomputeruseisnotthesamenoraretherequirementsintermsofscanrate,
resolution,brightness,andsharpness.Thus,thedesignwillbeinherentlymoreexpensiveandinclude
morecompromises.
So,Iwillprobablybeprovedwrongbyrecordsalesofthesethings...

ProblemswithdesigningacombinationTVandcomputermonitor
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
It'spossible,andhasbeendone(forinstance,Toshibahasoneproductandofferingsfromother
companiesareavailableorareontheway).ButsuchdesignsAREcompromises,andwon'tgivethe
bestperformancepossibleineitherapplication.
ThereisafundamentaldifferencebetweenCRTsdesignedforTVuse,andthoseusedincomputer
monitors.It'sabrightness/resolutiontradeoffTVtubesarerunabout3Xorsothebrightnessofa
typicalcomputermonitor,butsacrificetheabilitytousesmallspotsizesandfinedotpitchestodo
this.Youdon'tseeverymanycolortubesrunningat100150fLbrightnessandstillusingan0.28
mmpitch!

So,whatabouttrulydigitalmonitors?
Thefollowingissueisdistinctfromthatofflatpaneltechnologywhichofcourseisrapidlyreplacing
theCRTincomputermonitors.
"IamreallyinterestedinthisDigitalRevolution(DVD,HDTV)butwhataboutPC

monitors?Wouldn'titbegreattohaveamonitorthatwasalsocompatiblewithHDTV?I
wanttobuyanew17"or19"butIdon'twanttoinvestinCRT(analogtechnology),when
willDigitalPCMonitorsbecomingout?"
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
BeingcompatiblewithHDTVjustmeanshavingtherightfrontendtointerpretthesignals,justas
usingNTSCvideoonacurrentcomputermonitorrequiresadecoder.Iseriouslydoubtthatwe'llsee
computerdisplayswhichareDIRECTLYcapableofhandlingtheHDTVdatastream.
Havingsaidthat,thereisALREADYastandardforadigitaldisplayinterface,whichwasapproved
byVESAlastyear.Thenew"Plug&Display"interfacestandardsupportsBOTHdigitalandanalog
videooutputsonasinglestandardconnector,enablingmonitorswitheithersortofinterfacetobe
easilysupported.(ThehostusesIDinformationfromthemonitoralreadyastandardfeatureofmost
CRTdisplaystodecidewhichinterfacetouseandhowtoconfigureitforagivenmonitor.)There
arealreadyproductsonthemarket(afew)orindevelopmentusingthenewinterface.
HavingsaidTHAT,don'tcounttheCRTmonitoroutjustyetit'llprobablybewithusforsometime
yet,andthere'slittlereasontouseadigitalinterfaceforaCRTbaseddisplay(since,underthenew
standard,you'regoingtohaveBOTHflavorsofinterfaceavailableanyway).Actually,thereisvery
littleinherentadvantageforMOSTdisplaytechnologiesintheinterfaceitselfbeing"digital"(even
LCDsare"analog"atthepixellevel)theproblemsmostnonCRTdisplayshavetodaywith"analog"
videohavetodowithgettingagoodTIMINGreferencewithwhichtosamplethevideo,NOTwith
whetherthatvideoisencodedindigitaloranalogform.

Aboutsyncpolarityoptions
Manyvideocardsprovidepolarityoptionsforeachscanmode.Why?
Probablytobecompatiblewitholdermonitors.Mostmodernmonitorsareautopolaritydetectingso
thesettingsshouldnotmatter.
(NotethatsomeofthedigitalPCvideostandarddidhavespecificsyncpolarityspecifications.)
Somesoftwareprogramsthatdirectlyaccessthevideocardmayevenbechangingsyncpolarityfor
apparentlynoreasonwithoutyoubeingawareofit.
Yourvideocarddeterminesthemaximumvideorateyoucangenerate.Themonitorhastobeableto
locktoit.So,ifyoucannotsetuphigherthansomespecifiedrate(i.e.,theoptionsdonotexistinyour
menu),itisafunctionofthevideocardanddrivers.Ifyoucansetitbutthemonitordisplaysgarbage
ornothingatall,itisalimitationofthemonitor.Thesyncpolarityrarelymakesanydifferenceandif
itdoes,theeffectswillbeobviouspictureshiftedleft/right/up/downonscreenorjustwon'tsyncat
all.
Ifyouexperienceproblemsofthistype,experimentingwiththesyncpolaritymaybeinstructive.
Ifyoudonotknowwhatyourmonitorwantsandyouhavetheoption,setbothhorizontalandvertical
syncpolaritiestobenegativeasthisisnearlyalwaysacceptable(forstudiovideoandVGA/SVGA
monitors).
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Thiswasusedinoldersystemstoidentifycertaindisplaymodes,butingeneralmodernmonitors
accepteitherpolarityequallywell.Recentdisplaytimingstandardshaveallbeenwrittenspecifying
positivepolaritysync(thesyncpulseisatlogical"1"ratherthan"0"),buttheuseofnegativepolarity

usuallywon'tdoanythingexceptpossiblycausetheimagetobeoffcenterbythewidthofthesync
pulse.

VESADisplayDataChannelstandard
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Thisdefinedseveralprotocolsfordigitalcommunicationsbetweenahostsystemanditsdisplay.DDC
provides3differentmodes:
DDC1Aunidirectional(displaytohostonly)serialcommunicationssystem
whichprovidesbasicdisplayIDandfeaturesupportinformation
(includingsupportedtimings,displaysize,colorimetryandgamma,
etc.)tothehost.Thisusespin12onthe15pin"VGA"connectoras
adataline.
DDC2BAddsclock(pin15)andreturn(pin11,IthinkI'mathome,and
don'thavethestandardwithme)toenableatleastIDinformationto
beobtainedviaanI2Cinterface.I2Cisabidirectionalinterface,
butdisplaycontrolviaDDC2Bisnotdefinedatthistime.
DDC2ABFullIDandcontrolofthemonitorviaACCESS.bus.AsACCESS.busis
basicallyacommandandprotocoldefinitionontopoftheI2C
hardwareinterface,thisusesthesamelinesasDDC2B.

DDCwasthefirstandonlydefinitionofthe15pinDsubminiaturevideooutputconnectorwhich
VESAhasprovided.Nofurtherdefinitionsonthisconnectorwillbemade,asVESAisinstead
concentratingonthenewEnhancedVideoConnectorstandardwhichisdueoutlaterthisyear.This
willdefineacompletelynewconnectorwhichwillincludesupportforDDCandseparatesyncsasin
the15pinDsub,andwillalsoincludesupportforaudioI/O,videoinput,andtheUSBandP1394
serialinterfaces.

Identifyingconnectionsonunknownorcutmonitorcables
Obviously,thisisbestdonewithaschematic.However,sincesuchaluxurymaynotbepossible,how
canyougoaboutfiguringoutwhereallthewiresgo?Easyanswerverycarefully.
Forthefollowing,IassumeaVGA/SVGAmonitor.Youneedtoidentifythegrounds,videosignals,H
andVsync,andmonitorsenselines.Theprocedureisdescribedwithrespectoacutcablebutifyou
aretryingtoidentifyanunknownconnectortypeonthemonitor,thesamecommentsapplytothe
wiring**inside**themonitor.
Firstidentifythegrounds.Useanohmmeterbetweeneachwireandtheshellofthevideoconnector
onthemonitor.Resistancewillbelessthananohmforthegroundwires.Thesewilloftenbecolored
black.TheshieldsoftheRGBcoaxeswillalsobeconnectedtoground.
Thehighbandwidthvideosignalswillalwaysuseindividualcoaxialcables.Thesemayevenbecolor
codedred,green,andblue.Ifnot,youcandeterminewhichiswhichlateron.Ifthereareonlythree
suchcoaxes,theyarethevideosignals.Iftherearefour,theextraonemaybetheHsync.Ifthereare
five,theextratwomaybetheHandVsyncs.Testingbetweenthesewiresandgroundwithan
ohmmetershouldmeasure75ohmsforthevideoterminations.
DisplayalivelyscreenonyourPCataresolutionyouknowthemonitorshouldsupport(remember,
tryingtodriveamonitorofunknownscanratespecificationsbeyonditsratingsislikeplaying
RussianRoulette.)Whenindoubt,VGA(640x480,31.4kHzH,60HzV)shouldbesafe.

Turnupthebrightnessandcontrastonthemonitor.Ifyouarelucky,evenwithoutanysync,therewill
beavisibleraster.Setittobejustvisible.Ifthereisnone,thenitshouldappearoncethereisvalid
sync.
YouwillneedtobringoutwiresfromthevideoconnectoronyourPC.
Connectthegroundofyourvideocardtothegroundwiresyoualreadyidentifiedonthemonitor
cable.
Attachawireinserieswitha200500ohmresistortoHsync(pin13)ontheVGAconnector.
Momentarilytouchtheendofthiswiretoeachoftheremainingunidentifiedwires(includingthe
coaxesifyouhave4or5oftheseanditisnotobviouswhicharethevideosignals)onthemonitor.
WhenyoufindtheHsyncinput,therastershouldlockinandprobablybrightenup.Ifthemonitor
wasoriginallywhiningduetolackofsync,itshouldquietdown.
OnceyouhavelocatedHsync,youcanremovetheresistorandconnectthewireupdirectly.
Now,attachthevideosignals.Itislikelythatyouwillnowhaveapicturebutitwillberollingonthe
screen.Somemonitors,however,willnotunblankuntiltheyreceivebothvalidHandVsync.Use
yourresistorwiththeVsyncoutputofthevideocard(Pin14)ontheremainingunidentifiedwires.
OnceyoufindtheVsyncinput,thedisplayshouldlockinsolid.
Theonlyremainingunknownsarethemonitorsenselines.Foroldermonitorsthosewithoutthe
ACCESS.businterface,youcanjustwireupthesenselinestotheappropriatelevels(Color:ID0(Pin
11)toground,ID1(Pin12)NC).
Seethedocument"PinoutsforvariousconnectorsinRealLife(tm)"fordetailedhookupinformation".
ReplacementVGAconnectorsarereadilyavailable.
Alsoseethesection:ReplacingthecableonanHPD1182Amonitorforsomehintsandhelpful'hassle
savers(tm)'.

Replacingmonitorcablesorconnectors
Manyintermittentorerraticlossofcolororlossofsyncproblemsareduetoabadcablemore
specifically,badconnectionsusuallybetweenthemalepinsandthewires.Or,perhaps,oneormore
pinswereaccidentallybrokenoffasaresultoftheconnectorbeingforcedinthewrongwayaround.
Unfortunately,itisalltoolikelyparticularlywithnewermonitorsthattheshellismoldedonand
impossibletonondestructivelyremovetoaccesstheconnectorforwirerepairorpinreplacement.
Youhaveseveraloptions:
Fornamebrandmonitors,entirereplacementcablesmaybeavailable.Thesewillbepricey($25
to$50typical)butarebyfartheeasiestsolution.
Theconnectoritselfcanbereplaced.PlaceslikeMCMElectronicsstockVGA(HD15)male
connectorsandpins.Thesemaybeeithersolderorcrimptype(bothcanactuallybesolderedif
youworkatit).Ittakesasteadyhand,brightlight,andpatiencetosolderthefinewirestothe
tinypins.Acrimptoolisprobablynotworththeinvestmentforasinglerepair.
IfyoucanlocateadeadmonitorwithagoodVGAcablestillattached,itispossibletocutand
splicethewiresawayfromtheconnector.Useanohmmetertoidentifywhichsignalpin
connectstowhichcolorcodedwireoneachcableandthensolderandtapetheindividualwires.

Itwon'tbeprettybutshouldworkreasonablewell.

ReplacingthecableonanHPD1182Amonitor
(From:MarionD.Kitchens(jkitchen@erols.com).)
Byfollowingtheprocedureinthesection:Identifyingconnectionsonunknownorcutmonitorcables,
IwasabletogetaD15correctlyconnectedontheendsofanHPD1182Amonitor'svideocable.This
wasamonitorthatcametomewiththeD15missing.Theonlyremainingunknownisthebrownwire
butthemonitorseemstoworkfinewithoutit(however,seebelow).
CableWireInternalPin#FunctionResistanceD15PinNotes

WhiteCoax5,4RedVideo751,6shieldis6
BlackCoax3,1GreenVideo752,7shieldis7
RedCoax7,6BlueVideo753,8shieldis8
Red8Gnd010red&blueare
Blue9V.sync1K14twistedpair
Yellow10Gnd010yellow&clearare
Clear11H.Sync50013twistedpair
Brown12ID0??Infinite11??WorksOKw/o

Internalpinnumbersrefertoa12pin,inlineconnectorinsidethemonitor.Itismountedonacircuit
board(modelXC1429Uprintedonboard)thatismountedontheneckoftheCTR.Thereare12pins,
butoneisblanknothingconnected.Ihavecalledthatonepin#2forreference,andthepin
furthermostawayIcalledpin#12.Doublenumbersmeanthefirstisconnectedtothecoaxcenter
conductor,andthesecondisthecoaxshield.
ThedoublenumberedpinsunderD15abovemeanconnectthecenterconductorofthecoaxtothe
firstpinnumber,andthecoaxshieldtothesecondpinnumber.Allthecoaxshieldsshouldmeasure
zeroOhmstoground,andallthecenterconductorsshouldmeasureabout75Ohmstoground.Ground
istheoutershieldofthevideocable,whichisconnectedtotheD15connectorshellwhendoingthe
wiringjob.
Pins5&10arealsolistedasgroundconnectionsontheD15connector.IsuspectthesearefortheH.
sync&V.sync,butdonotknowthatforafact.IconnectedwhatIbelievetobebothgroundreturns
(perthetwistedpairsshowabove)topin10.
Thecurrentlyunconnectedbrownwiredoeshaveasignalofsomesortonit.Atleastwhentryingto
findtheH.syncandV.syncwires,IgotscreenreactionsifIconnectedittosomepinsontheD15
connector.Sinceitwastheonly"leftover"wirewhenIgotH.sync&V.synccorrect,Isuspectitto
betheID0wire.Yes?No?Maybe?NothingseemstohappenwhenIconnectittoD15pin#11.The
monitorSEEMStobeOKwithoutthebrownwireconnectedtoanything(butthecolorbalanceisa
bitoff,greenandblueOK,butredisapalepink).AnOhmmeterconnectedbetweengroundandthe
brownwire"actslike"itischargingacapacitorresistancestartslowandincreaseswithtimeto
several10'sofMeg.Isthataclue?
AsanaidinfindingthecorrectwiringconnectionsImakeaspecialfloppy.Itisabootablefloppyfor
useintheA:drive.Bootthecomputerfromthatfloppy.FirstformatasystemfloppyfortheA:drive.
ThencopytheANSI.SYSfilefromyourC:\DOS\filestothefloppy.NextwriteaCONGIF.SYSfile
tothefloppy,containingonelineDEVICE=A:\ANSI.SYSNowwritethreebatchfilestothe
floppy,oneforeachcolor.
RED.BATfile
PROMPT$p$g$e[41m
CLS

GREEN.BAT
PROMPT$p$g$e[42m
CLS
BLUE.BAT
PROMPT$p$g$e[44m
CLS

IntryingtofindtheH.syncandV.sync,Ifounditmosthelpfultousethefollowingprocedure.
1.Connectallofthegroundwires,andoneofthecoaxcenterconductors(anyoneatrandom)to
D15pin#1.
2.Bootthecomputerfromtheabovefloppy.Watchthedrivelighttodeterminewhentheboot
processiscompleted.HitRETURNtwicetogetpastthenewtimeanddatethatitasksfor.
3.Turnonthemonitor,andtypeREDtoruntheredbatchfile.
4.Nowfollowtheprocedureinthesection:Identifyingconnectionsonunknownorcutmonitor
cablestofindtheH&Vsyncwires.Whenyouhavethemcorrectyoushouldseeacolored
screen(itmightbered,green,orblue)andtwo"A:>"promptsonscreen.Makesurethe
brightnesscontrolissetformaximumbrightness,andthatcontrastishigh.
5.Onceyouhaveareadablescreen,findthecorrectcoaxtoproducearedscreenwhenconnected
toD15pin#1.ThentypeGREENtorunthegreenbatchfile,andfindthecorrectcoaxto
produceagreenscreen.Theremainingcoaxis,ofcourse,thebluevideo.Butverifythat
anywaybytypingBLUEtorunthebluebatchfile.
6.Nowyoushouldbeabletogetred,green,andbluescreensbuyrunningtherespectivebatch
files.
Toaidinthetrialanderrorprocessoffindingallthecorrectwiring,Imadeasmall(3by4inch)PCB
with15connectionpointsandalargegroundingpoint,andmountedaD15connectorononeedge.
The15coppertraceswerewiredtotheD15connectorsothatpinnumbers1through15followeda
simpleseriesacrossoneedgeofthePCB.The15traceswereabout1/4by1inchtomakelifeeasy.I
evensoldered220Ohmresistorstopinnumbers13&14ontheboardtomakethateasytoo.Withthis
"aid"Iusedavideoextensioncabletobringmyworkingpointtothefrontofthetestbench,andhad
plentyofworkingroomforallthosetrialanderrorconnections.Yes,Idolike'hasslesavers(tm)'!

HowcanIdeterminemonitorspecificationsorwhetheritsupportsSVGA?
Thereisnoeasywaytotellbyjustexaminingthemonitorvisually.Eventhosewithonlya9pin
ratherthana15pinconnectoraresometimesSVGA(e.g.,MitsubishiAUM1381andNECMultisync
IIwhichwilldo800x600at56HzVnoninterlacedand1024x768interlacedat43HzV).
Youcannotevensafetytestscanratesonallmonitorssome(mostlyolderones)willblowuporbe
damagedbybeingdrivenwithincorrectvideo.
Foramonitorthatyoualreadyhave,lookingitupinamonitordatabaseisreallytheonlywaytobe
sureofitscapabilities(well,prettysuretheselistingsarenotalwayscorrect!).Seethesection:Web
siteswithmonitorspecificationsforonlineresources.Ifthisdoesn'thelp,youtrypostingthe
informationyouhave(modelnumber,FCCcode,etc.)tothenewsgroups:
comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.videoandsci.electronics.repair.Wherenoneofthisisproduction,hereare
somequickietests:

1.Checkthevideoconnector.Ifithasahighdensity(VGA)15pinconnectorthenthereisa
greaterlikelihoodofSVGAbutnotalways.
2.Checkthemanufacturingdateontheback.Ifithasamanufacturingdateof1991orlater,the
likelihoodofitsupportingSVGAishigherasdemandforVGAonlymonitorswasrapidly
decliningbythispoint.
3.CheckthedotpitchontheCRTbyexaminingthescreenwithamagnifier.Ifitisreallycoarse,
themonitorprobablycannotdoanythingbeyondVGA.
4.Becomefamilierwiththemajormanufacturersandmodelssothatyouwillrecognizethe
commonSVGAmodels.
5.Checkthedatabaseslistedinthesection:Websiteswithmonitorspecifications.
Whilenotconclusive,positiveresultsonthefirst3ofthesetestsdefinitelyincreasesthelikelihood
thatitsupportsatleastsomeSVGAmodes.Ofcourse,ifyourecognizeamodelnumber,youhave
dramaticallyincreasedyouroddsofsuccessassumingitworks!
From:AdrianKwong(a.kwong@ieee.ca).)
Mostnewmonitorsemployfrequencyprotection.Thesymptomthatyouwilltypicallyseeis,a
completelackofvideo.MostmonitorswithmulticoloredpowerLED's,usuallychangecolorto
indicateanerror.SomemonitorslikeNokia's,willflashthescreenonandoff(blackandwhite)to
indicatethattheoverfrequencyprotectioncircuitshavebeenactivated.
Ihaveblownafewmonitorsbysettingthevideoresolutionseithertoohigh,orsettingthevertical
refreshtosomethingthatputsthehorizontalfrequencywaaayabovetheratedspecifications.
IactuallyhavenoideahowsomeofthesemonitorsactuallyreceivedaULorCSAapprovalstamp,as
Ihaveseensomeofthesemonitorscatchonfire.Mostofthe'blowouts',werejustcapacitorsthat
explodedandaboutaroomfullofsmokefillsthevicinity.
AllofthemonitorsthatIblewup,werereallyoldmonitorswithnofrequencyprotection.

IsCRTreplacementworthit?
ThesadfactisthatevenifyoucanobtainanewCRTyouwon'thavethepropersetupforgetting
properalignmentandconvergence.Theygenerallyusevariouspermanentmagnetgluedtothe
perimeteroftheyoketosetthegeometryoftheraster.Ittakesaspecialfactoryjigtodothisstepor
reallygreatpersistenceandpatience.However,ifyouhavethetimeandwillresistpunchingaholein
thenewCRTbeforeyoufinish,byallmeans.
Also,considerthecostofanewCRTmaybemorethanhalfthecostofthemonitorwhenitwasnew.
ReplacingamonochromeCRTisasnapincomparison.
Abetter(oratleastlessstressful)approachistolocateamonitorthatdiedduetoacircuitproblem
andsalvagetheCRTincludingtheyokeandalltheothermagicalmagnetsandcoils.
(From:AndyCuffe(baltimora@psu.edu).)
Ihavefoundthatmost15"monitorsusecompatibleCRTs.IjustputtheCRTfromanold
Gateway2000withanalogcontrolsintoanice2yearoldmonitor.AslongastheyokesandCRT
socketsaresimilaritshouldworkfine.Don'ttrytoswaptheyokesoryouwillnevergetitconverged.

AninformalhistoryofXrayprotection
(Thefollowingisfrom:Marty).
MostoftheoldtubetypecolorTVsetsusedashuntHVregulatortube,usuallya6BK4.Ifitfailed,or
somecomponentintheHVcircuitfailed,thehighvoltage,normally25kV,couldgoupto35kVor
more,causingsomeXRayleakagefromtheCRT.Intheearly70swhennewsofthisradiationscare
wasfirstannounced,therewasapublicoutcrytoimmediatelyfixtheproblem.TheFedshastily
imposedarequirementonmanufacturersofTVsetstosomehowrenderaTVset"unwatchable"ifthe
HVexceededratedlimits.
Themanufacturersfirstresponsewastofollowtheletterofthelawandthefirst"HEW"circuitsimply
blankedthevideowhentheHVexceededasetpointtomaketheset"unwatchable".
ItwasquicklynoticedthattheHVwasnotturnedoffwiththiscircuitandtheCRTstillcouldemit
someradiation.ManyTVsetswiththisfeaturewereleftonsotheconsumercouldlistentothesound,
sothefedstightenedtherequirement.
BythistimenewTVsetswereallsolidstateandsomemanufacturersexperimentedwithHV
shutdowncircuits,butmostofthesecircuitswerepoorlydesignedandnotreliable.
ZeniththoughttheyhadtheanswerbyregulatingtheHVwithabankof5capacitorsacrossthe
horizontaloutputtransistorto"holddown"theHVto25kV.Ifonecapacitoropened,theHVwould
onlyriseabout2kV,notadangeroussituation.Thiswasn'tgoodenoughforthefeds.
The"fix"thatZenithfinallycameoutwith,wasa"4leggedcapacitor.Twolegsweretheemitter
returnforthehorizontaloutputtransistor,&twolegsweretheHVholddowncapacitor(theequivalent
valueofthebankof5caps).This"fix"wasacceptedbyHEWandmillionsofTVswereproduced.It
workedsowell,thatothermanufacturerssoonfollowedthelead(Magnavox,GE,etc.).
Thentheworsthappened!The4leggedmonstersstartedfailinginalargenumbers.Notopening
completely&notshortingout.TheysometimesallowedtheHVtoskyrockettoover50kV.Someof
themevencutthenecksoffoftheCRTs.
Zenithissuedarecallonthosemodelswiththeproblem(morethanoneentiremodelyear).After
several"improved"versionsofthecapacitor,theproblemwasfixedbutthatrecallalmostbankrupted
thecompany.Othercompanieshadfailurestoo,butusuallynotasdramaticasZenith's.
MagnavoxusedtheHVholddowncapacitor,bothsingle&4legversioninseveral70seraTVsets
andisagoodcandidateforfireworksaswell.

TurningaTV(ormonitor)intoanoscilloscope?
ThisquestioncomesupsooftenanditdoessoundlikeaneatprojecttogiveadefunctTVasecond
life.Don'texpecttoendupwithaTek465onthecheapwhenyouaredone.However,itcouldbea
funlearningexperience.
CAUTION:Seethesafetyrecommendationsbelow.
Youwillbeseverelylimitedintheperformanceofsuchascope.TVsandmonitorsaredesignedto
operateataverynarrowrangeofhorizontalscanratesandthehighvoltageisusuallyderivedfrom
thehorizontaldeflection.So,youwouldneedtoretaintheoriginaldeflectionsystemforthispurpose
atleast.
1.Youwillneedtodisconnectthedefectionyokefromthehorizontalandverticaldeflection

circuitsoftheTVormonitorwithoutkillingtheHV.(also,doingallthiswithoutkilling
yourselfaswell).Dependingonthedesign,thismaybeassimpleasunpluggingtheyoke
connector.Morethanlikely,youwillneedtosubstitutealoadforthehorizontaldeflectioncoil.
AcoilfromanothersacrificialsimilarTVormonitorwouldprobablysuffice.
Warning:atthispointyouhaveareallybrightspotinthemiddleofthescreenwhichwillturntoa
reallyblackspotifthebrightnessisnotturnedwaydownreallyreallyquickly.
2.Forthehorizontal,youneedarampedcurrentsource.Youaredrivinganonidealinductor(the
deflectioncoil)soithasbothinductanceandresistance.Thusthewaveformisatrapezoida
voltageramp(fortheresistivepart)superimposedonavoltagestep(fortheinductivepart).
Thisshouldnotbetoodifficult.Don'texpecttobeabletoachievereallyfastsweep.Even
runningatnormalTVratesisnontrivial.
3.Similarly,fortheverticalyouneedtodrivewithavoltage(yoursignal)controlledcurrent
source.However,ifyoujustscrewingaround,thenthelinearityetc.fortheverticalmaynotbe
thatimportant.Inthiscase,onewayistoputacurrentsensingresistorinserieswiththe
deflectioncoilandusethisinapoweropamptypeoffeedbackarrangement.(Youcoulddothis
for(2)aswell.
4.Thereisagoodchancethattheoriginalbrightnesscontrolwillworkasanintensityadjustment.
However,withsomeTVsandmonitors,thisdependsonreceivingavalidvideosignal.You
mayneedtoimprovise.Ifyoudowanttocontroltheintensityfromasignalsource,youshould
beabletotapintothedrivesignalsgoingtothelittleboardontheneckoftheCRT.
5.Don'texpecthighbandwidth,uniformresponse,oranyoftheotherthingsyoutakeforgranted
withadecentscope.Thattakeswork.However,asafunproject,thiscertainlyqualifies.
Interchangingthefunctionsofthehorizontalandverticaldeflectionyoke(androtatingit90
degrees)mayprovideabettermatchofhorizontalandverticalbandwidthtoyourintended
applicationsorexperiments.
6.WithacolorTVormonitor,theseexperimentscouldbequiteinterestingandeducationalbut
theremaybecolorfringingeffectssinceyouarenotcompensatingforcertainaspectsof
dynamicconvergenceatall.
7.SAFETY:OnceyoudisconnectthedeflectionyokefromtheTVormonitor'scircuits,movethe
originalcircuitsoutofthewayandputabarrierbetweenbetweenyouandtherestoftheTVor
monitor.AllyouwillneedareconnectionstothedeflectionyokeontheCRT(unlessyouwant
todointensitymodulationinwhichcaseyouwillneedtodrivethevideooutput(s)totheCRT
cathodes.Iwouldrecommendagainstdoingthisifyourunitisoneofthosewithatotally'live'
chassisastherewouldbeadditionalsafetyhazardsandcircuitcomplications).
(From:LanceEdmonds(lanceedmonds@xtra.co.nz).
SomeyearsagoELEKTORandElectronicsAustraliamagazinespublishedarticlesonadesignfor
this.DickSmithElectronicsinbothNZ&Australiausedtosellthekit.
MaxBandwidthwasastartling10or15Khz.Enoughforelementaryaudioservicing.
Thosemagazinesalsopublisheddesignsfordelayedsweep&triggermodulesasadditionstoany
basic'scope.Plus,astoragescopedesign,logicanalyzerdesign,andaDualtraceemulatordesign.
Enoughtokeeptheaveragehobbist/experimenterhappyforquiteawhile(g).
(From:DaleH.Cook(dhcook@rev.net).)

Everyfewmonthssomeonewillpopupwiththisquestion.ATVwouldnotmakeaverygoodscope.
Bandwidthwouldbelimitedandtheamountofworkneededtobuildthehorizontalandvertical
amplifiers,sweepandtriggeringcircuitsandsoonwouldn'tbeworththeeffort.You'dneedevenmore
worktoaddmodernfeaturessuchasdelayedtriggeringandvariableholdoff.Don'teventhinkabout
multiplechannelsandtheadvantagestheyoffer.InatimewhenIseeusedTek465sofferedfor$200
itcertainlydoesn'tpaytotrytoconvertaTV.Ifyouarejustlookingforachallengingelectronic
projectIcanthinkofseveralthathaveafarbetterchanceofyieldingsomethinguseful.Now,ifyou
werestartingwithanantiquesetthatusedanelectrostaticCRTyoumightdoabitbetter,buta1937
Dumontwillsetyoubackabout$3,000.00orsoalittletoomuchofaninvestment.
(From:TonyDuell(ard@p850ug1.demon.co.uk).)
I'veworkedonthevectormonitorsthatwereusedonsomeofthe1970'sminicomputers.Theseare
essentiallyXYdisplays(notrasterscanned),andwouldmakeaudiobandwidth'scopesifgivena
timebase.Iwouldguessatabandwidthoftheorderof100kHz.
Someofthem(DEC,certainly,maybeTektronix)wereelectromagneticallydeflectedlikeaTV.
However,thereareacoupleofthingstobeawareof.Firstly,theoutputamplifier,whichdrivesthe
yokeatconstantcurrent,isprettycomplex.Secondly,theyokeisspeciallymadethe2setsofcoils
areprettysimilar(unlikethoseinaTV),andtheinductanceiscritical.
So,whileI'llkeepthesemonitorsrunning,I'dnotwanttohavetocovertaTVintoone:).
(From:DavidKatz(DAVEkATZ@prodigy.net).)
IfbychancewhatyouwantisanXYdisplayforaudio,nota(moretypical)XT,it'seasy.Justputa
resistorinserieswitheachyoke(about100ohms,5W)anddrivethemwithastereoamp.
(From:SteveRoberts(osteven@akrobiz.com).)
Yourbesthopemightbetogetaoldergenerationheartmonitorfromahospital,thesehavea
professionalXYdisplaymoduletobeginwith,andaresurprisinglyeasytohack,minewas$10atthe
localsurplusshop.Theultralongpersistencephosphorisapain/blessingdependingonwhatyouare
doing.
Foradescriptionofwhatonepersondid,see:Dan'sHomeBuiltOScopePage.
(From:Alan(revidyks@rocketmail.com).)
Apparentlyit'sprettyhardtoproduceadecentscope.
Itis,however,prettyeasytousetheCRTassomethinglikeascope,whichIdidrecentlywiththe
builtingreenscreenmonitorofathingcalledaKapro2X.Itwasbeingthrownaway,soIsaidI'dtake
itandhavealookinsidebeforethrowingitaway.
IwonderedwhatifitwaspossibletodrivetheCRTfromasourceotherthanthecomputervideo
circuitry,soIdidsometests,workedouthowandbywhatvoltagethedeflectorsweredriven,(about
1v,0.3AmeasuredasanACvoltage).
OnceI'dworkedoutthatthiswasaboutthesameastheoutputfromasmallstereoamp,Iremovedthe
horizontalsignalfromtheCRTandhookedonechannelofmystereoacrossthehorizontaldeflector,
lefttheverticaldeflectorhookeduptoit's(60Hz?,30Hz?)signal,andswitchediton.Theresultslook
prettygood,Igetafullscreenmovingtraceofthesoundwave.OneotherthingthatIdidwasmake
thebeamintensityconstantbyturningaknobmarked'BSUB'abit,thiswouldhavefloodedthe
screenwith'white'ordinarily,butwasperfectformeasIcouldnowremovethecomputer
motherboardalltogether.

Ialsotriedconnectingtheleftandrightchannelsacrossthehorizontalandverticaldeflectors
respectively(firstdisconnectingthemfromtheirnormalinputs),whichproducedsomereallycool
lookinglissijous(sp?)figuretypethings,thatchangeandthrobwiththemusiceachCDseemedto
havedistinctivecharacteristics.MaybeI'lltrytwodifferentpiecesofmusicacrosstheaxes,couldbe
interesting...
I'dlovetotrythrowingsomedifferentsignalsofdifferentfrequenciesandshapesacrosstheaxestoo,
especiallyincombinationawithmusicalone.The'best'resultssofar,havebeenfrommusicwitha
strongbass,simplebeat(cymbalswithabassdrumlookgreat),andnottoomanylayersofguitars,
vocals,etc.(toomanysoundsandit'sanuninterestingmess...)
Ifyouwantmoreinformationorhaveanyadviceonorexperiencewiththissortofthing,mailme...
Ifyou'rethinkingoftryinganyofthis,remember(incaseyoudon'tknow)thatTVs/Monitorscanbe
REALLYdangerousevenwhenswitchedoffandunplugged.Seethesection:SAFETY.

Displayingavideosignalasapictureonanoscilloscope
Iamnotsurewhyanyonewouldreallywanttodothisotherthanasanexperimentitwouldbe
interestingone.
Ifacompositevideosignalistheinput,youwillneedasyncseparator.ForVGA,thesyncsignalsare
alreadyavailable.
Youwillhavetoconstructaverticaldeflectionvoltagerampgeneratorwhichcanbelockedtoyour
verticalsyncsignal.
Thehorizontaltimebaseofthescopewillbefineforthehorizontaldeflectionandshouldeasilylock
toyourhorizontalsyncpulseor(ifthescopehasaTVtriggermode)directlytothevideosignal.
AvideoamplifierwillbeneededifyourZaxisdoesnothaveaninternalamplifier(youneed.7Vpp
tobefullbrightnessrange.)Unlessyouprovideautomaticgaincontrol,thiswillneedtoincludeoffset
(brightness)andgain(contrast)adjustments.Evenifthereisaninternalamplifier,itmaynothavethe
requiredbandwidthforthevideosignal.
However,theoverallbrightnessmaybedisappointingascopeisnotdesignedforoverallhigh
brightness.ThebeamfocuswillnotbeasgoodasthatonalittleTVeither.

Couldamonitorbemodifiedfor3D(stereo)display?
Thewholeideaofstereo3Dvisiontoputtheleftandrightviewstotheappropriateeyeball.There
aretwocommonwaysofdoingthis:
1.Usedifferentcolorsforthetwoviewswithcolorfiltersinfromofeacheyetoseparatethe
views.Thisiswhatwereoftenusedforthereallybad(contentwise)scifimoviesofthe'50s.
2.DisplayalternateviewsonthesamemonitorscreenbutuseLCDshutterglassestoalloweach
eyetoonlyseetheappropriateview.Thisrequiresincreasingtherefreshratetoavoid
unacceptableflicker.
ThefirstapproachcanbeusedwithanyTVandapairofmonochromevideocameras.Ofcourse,true
colorcannotbeusedsincepurecoloredimagesareneededtoseparatethestereoviews.
AlternatingviewswithsynchronizedLCDglassesisapossibilitybutandhasbeenusedcommercially

butrequiresspecialhardwaretosynchronizetothecomputer'svideocard.Bestresultsareobtained
withrefreshratesofatleast120Hzpermitting60fullleftrightframespersecond.Ifyoutrytothis
witharegularTVorCGAmonitor,theresultingrefreshratewouldbe30Hzwitha50%dutycycle
whichislikelytobeusefulonlyasashortexperimentelseyourviewerswilllikelydevelopsplitting
headaches.

ShouldIuseaVGAtoBNCcableifmymonitorhasBNCconnectors?
(ThefollowingassumesanormalvideocardwithaminiDB15VGA/SVGAconnectorifyourshas
BNCconnectors,theimprovementmaybeevengreater.)
Theanswerisanunqualifiedmaybe.Inprinciple,theBNCcableshouldhavehigherbandwidthand
bettertransmissionlinecharacteristics(impedance,termination)andresultinsharpercrisperimages
withlessghosting,ringing,andotherartifacts.However,thiswillonlylikelybesignificantathigher
refreshrates(1024x768at75Hzandbeyond)anddependingonyourmonitorandvideocard,you
mayseenochangeoritmayevengetworse.ItisbesttopurchaseagoodqualityVGAto5BNC
cablewithareturnprivilageandtryit.Isuggesta5BNCcableevenifyouonlyneed3or4
connectorssothatitwillbecompatiblewithanymonitororvideocardyoumighthaveinthefuture.
Costshouldbeinthe$25to$70range.
PotentialadvantagesofusingtheBNCconnectorinputsonyourmonitorwithagoodqualitycable
are:
highervideobandwidth>sharperdisplay.
properconnectors(atoneend,atleast)andcorrectterminationimplieslessghostingand
ringing.
Foragoodmonitorwithahighqualityvideocard,thedifferencecanbedramaticasisthecasewith
myATIGPTandNEC5FG.
(FromBobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
However,oneshouldalsonotethatconnectingviaBNCsgenerallydisablesmonitor"plug'n'play"
features,sincethesearebasedonIDinformationconveyedondedicatedpins(usingtheVESADDC
&EDIDstandards)onthe15pin"VGA"connector.
Asoflastyear,anewconnectorstandardtheVESAEnhancedVideoConnector,orEVChasbeen
released,whichwillprovidebothgreatlyimprovedvideosignalperformanceANDsupportforDDC
andanumberofotherfeatures.
MostcurrentmonitorscomplywiththeVESADisplayDataChannel(DDC)standardwhichprovides
apathandprotocolforgettingsomebasicIDinformation(model,manufacturer,supportedtimings,
chromaticites,etc.)backfromthemonitor.Underthatstandard,thefollowingnewsignalshavebeen
addedtotheDB15connector:

Pin9:+5VDCfromhost
Pin12:Serialdata
Pin15:Dataclock

Pin10(theoldsyncreturnpin)nowdoesdoubledutyasthereturn/referenceforDDC.TheDDC
systemusestheI2Cspecforonelevelofimplementation,althoughabaselevelisalsoprovidedin
whichthedataisclockedbackfromthedisplaybytheverticalsyncpulse.
Theold4lineIDschemeusingpins4,11,12,&15isobsolete.Ican'tthinkoftoomanyhosts,or
ANYmonitors,stillusingit.

AdditionalinformationontheEVCstandardisavailablefromtheVESAWebSite.
Andonemanufacturer'swayaroundthepreceeding:
(From:RussSmith(smith@urguh.com).)
TheNanaoF221I'musingisconnectedvia5splitoutBNCsonitsendontheOTHERendisthe
standardVGAconnectorthatconnectorplugsintonotthevideocard,butalittle"blackbox"which
performstheplugnplayidentification.ThatlittlewidgetplugsintothePnPcompatiblevideocard
(MatroxMillenium).
Thus,eventhoughBNCsareusedatthemonitorendandthemonitoritselfcan'tcommunicate
anythinguseful,theinformationisnonethelesscommunicated.
Ahackthatworks.

Buildinga5BNCcable
Thisisstraightforward,iftimeconsumingandtedious.
Thefivecoaxialcables(75ohm,RG59typical)arewiredasshowninthetable.Thecorresponding
VGAconnectorpinnumbersarein().
CoaxCenterCoaxShield

RedVideo(1)RedReturn(6)
GreenVideo(2)GreenReturn(7)
BlueVideo(3)BlueReturn(8)
HSync(13)Ground(5,10)
VSync(14)Ground(5,10)

Tiepin11(ID0)toGroundtoindicateacolormonitor.Leavepin12(ID1)open.
Makesurethatthelengthsofthecablesarefairlywellmatchedtowithinacoupleofinchesto
assurethatthe3colorchannelslineupprecisely.(Onefootofcableisabout1.5to2nsofdelay
whichissignificantfora10nsdotclock!).
Alsonote(seetheothersectionsonBNCcables)thatyouwillloseyourPlugandPlaycapabilities
withoutthedirectcontrolconnectionstothemonitor(orformonitorswithoutthesefeatuers).
That'sit!
Youwillwishthatyourfingerswereabout10timessmallerthantheyare,however.:)

UsingaworkstationmonitoronaPC
Thesearenearlyalwaysfixedfrequencymonitorswithascanratethatisnotcompatiblewithtypical
SVGAcards.
Theymayhaveaspecialconnectorlikea13W3or3,4,or5BNCconnectors.Somehaveanon
standardconnector.
Whilethesenormallyusestandardanalogvideosignallevels,youhaveacoupleofproblemsoutof
thestartinggate:
1.Thefixedscanningfrequenciesofmostofthesemonitorsarenotdirectlycompatiblewith

typicalSVGAstandards.ManyhighendboardsliketheATIProTurbocanscanat1280x1024
probablyatanappropriaterefresh(horizontalisgoingtobethecriticalone)rate.Also,boards
thatallowsoftwareadjustmentofsize(liketheATI)areineffectchangingscanratesaswellso
thatgivesanotherdegreeortwooffreedom.
However,manytypicalvideocardsdonotprovidethisdegreeofflexibility.
2.Themonitorneedssyncongreen(3BNCconnectors),compositeHandVsync(4BNC
connectorsand13W3)oratleastaVGAtoBNCadaptercable(5BNCconnectors).YourVGA
cardnormallyputsoutseparatesyncs.
Manyvideocardshaveasoftwaremode(probablyaccessibleinthesetupprogram)toenable
compositesyncoutputsofortheseatleastthereisnoproblemwitha4BNCmonitor.
Youcanbuildacircuittogeneratetherequiredvideofora3BNCmonitorifyouareso
inclined.Seethe"SynconGreenFAQ"fordetailedinformationandschematics.
3.WhatyoudoforbootingsincethedefaultwillbeVGA(atleastforDOS/Windows.Ifyouonly
useyourPCatonefixedhighresolution,thanthismaynotbethatmuchofaproblem..
TherearespecializedboardsthatwillemulatestandardVGA/SVGAmodesusingafixedfrequency
monitor.Formoreinformation,seethedocument:NotesonApproachestousingFixedFrequencyor
NonStandardMonitorsonPCs.

Tweakingthedeflectionrateofafixedfrequencyornonstandardmonitor
Pullingafixedfrequencymonitorbymorethanafewpercentwilllikelybeaproblem.Iknowthisis
nottheansweryouwerelookingforbutgettinganewinexpensivevideocardmaybeabetter
solution.
OthertypesofmonitorsXGAforexamplemaybevariableormultiplefrequencybutincompatible
withVGA/SVGA.Someadjustmentmaybepossiblebuthowfaryoucangowilldependonmany
factors.
Ifnot,youarelookingforanadjustmentcalledhorizontaloscillator,horizontalfrequency,or
horizontalhold.Ifyoudotweak,markeverythingbeforehandjustincaseyouneedtogetbacktothe
originalsettings.
Thereisaslightriskofdamage,particularlywhenloweringthehorizontalrateasthisincreasespeak
currenttothehorizontaloutputtransistor.Thismayresultinimmediatefailureormorestresson
componentsresultinginfailuredowntheroad.Ihavenoideawithyourmonitor.
Analternativethatmaybepossibleistousethesetuporinstallprogramthatcamewithyourvideo
cardtodecreasehorizontalsizeandthenadjustverticalsizeifneeded.Thiswouldbestbedonewhile
monitoringwithascopeormultiscanmonitor.Abyproductofsoftwareadjustmentstosizewilloften
beachangeinthescanrateofafewpercentwhichmaycompletelycoverwhatyouneed.Thereason
thismayworkisthattheseadjustmentsvarythelengthoftheHandVvideobackporchwhichaffect
thetotalscantime.
IknowIcandothiswithmyATIcards.
Alsoseethedocument:ApproachestoUsingFixedFrequencyorNonStandardMonitorsonPCs
whichincludesaspecificmodificationtopermitanIBM9517XGAmonitortobeusedat
VGA/SVGAscanrates.

DisplayingTVonacomputermonitor
Mygeneralrecommendationisthatifyouhavethespace,buyaninexpensiveTVthequalityinthe
endmayinfactbebetter.And,itwillbeusablewithouttyingupyourexpensivemonitorand(maybe)
PC.
SomeoldermonitorsliketheMitsubishiAUM1381andEmersonCGA(whichalsohasaspeaker)
includeacompositeNTSCinputjackrequiringonlyabasebandvideosourcelikeaVCR.Thesedo
produceaverynicepicture.However,mostnewerautoscanVGA/SVGAmonitorsdonotgotolow
enoughhorizontalscanrates.TodisplayNTSCorPALontheserequiresascanconvertor(likelytobe
veryexpensive)oratleastascandoubler(lessexpensivebutnotasgood).
Forthecaseofoldermonitorswithdigital(TTL)inputs,seethesection:ModifyingaCGA(orEGA)
monitorforNTSCorPALinput.
Youcanalsobuyvideoinputcardscompletewithtuners('PCTV')whichwillputTVintoawindow
andallowyoutoidleawaythetimeyouaresupposedtobeworkingwhilewatching'Morkand
Mindy'.
WhilevariousconvertorsareadvertizedtouseacomputermonitorwithvideofromaVCRorother
source,keepinmindthatifitsoundstoogoodtobetrue,itprobablyisliketheclaimofa$200box
forthis:
OK,letmegetthisstraightthiscard/boxwillenablea31.4kHzhorizontalscanratemonitor(VGA)
beusedasaTVyesorno?ItthusincludesavideoA/D,fullscreenframebuffer,D/A,andallthe
othertunerstuffforunder$200?Idon'tthinkso.Ascandoublerwhichisasubsetoftheabove
willnotresultinahighqualitypicturesinceitwilldisplaypairsoflinesinterleavedorleavealternate
linesblankedreducingbrightness.Ordoestheimpressiveadvertisementleaveoutthekey
requirementthatthemonitorsyncattheNTSChorizontalscanrateof15.734kHz(mostnewer
monitordonot)?OrisitaboardthatplugsintoaPCandindeeddoesusetheresourcesofthePC
includingtheVGAcardandbus?
Inanycase,getawrittenmoneybacksatisfactionguarantee.

ModifyingaCGA(orEGA)monitorforNTSCorPALinput
TheseareoftenhighqualitymonitorsandwouldmakeniceTVdisplaysespeciallyastherearemany
nodoubtgatheringdustontheirwaytothedumpster!
However,thesearedigital(TTL)monitorswithrespecttothevideoinputsandproperlinearvideo
amplifiersmaynotevenbepresent.Therefore,youmayneedtoimplementboththeNTSCorPAL
decodingaswellasboostingthesignallevelstothehundredvoltsorsoneededtodrivetheCRT.
ThescanrateofCGAisthesameasNTSCsodeflectionisnotaproblem.
ForPAL(625/50)insteadofNTSC,theverticalratewillneedtobereducedto50Hzbutthisshould
notbeaproblem.Thehorizontalscanrateiscloseenough(15.625kHz).
SimilarcommentsapplytoEGAmonitorsthathaveacompatiblescanrate.EGArepresentsarange
ofscanratesbetween15.75kHzand21.85kHzsothisshouldnotbeaproblem.

Pictureinstabilityofcomputermonitorusedtowatchvideos
AssumingyouhaveoneofthoseoldercomputermonitorsthatsyncstoTVscanrates

(NTSC/PAL/SECAM/whatever)orhavefoundsomeotherwaytoadaptyourmonitortoTVsignals,
youmayfindthatwhenattemptingtouseitwithaVCR,thereisabendingorjitteringatthetopof
thepicture.
(From:JeroenH.Stessen(Jeroen.Stessen@philips.com).)
TheproblemiswiththetimebaseinstabilityofmodernVCRs.Attheendofeachframethereisa
phasejumpofupto+/20microsecondsintheHsync.ThelinePLLinacomputermonitorisway
tooslowtofollowthisjump.ThelinePLLinatelevisionisswitchedtoafastmodetofollowitjust
fastenough.Thishasneverbeenarequirementforcomputermonitors.Youmayneedatimebase
corrector.Youmaybeunabletoaffordit.SomeVCRshaveonebuiltin.AllLaserdiscplayershave
builtinTBC.VideoCDandDVDdon'tneedit.

Drivingmultiplenondaisychainedmonitorsfromonevideosource
Itisnotpossibletojustconnectmonitorsinparallel.Theterminatingresistors(75ohms)ofeach
monitorwillalsobeinparallelreducingsignalstrengthandresultinginvariousproblemswithcable
terminationincludingghosting,ringing,etc.
Asimplecircuittoimplementavideosplitterisshownat:
AnatekcorpArticlesPage.
Thisisjustasetofemitterfollowingbufferamplifiersandshouldsufficeformanyapplications.
VariouscompaniesincludingElantec,AnalogDevices,Maxim,andothershavevideoamplifierchips
aswellbutthebasicapproachmaybeadequateforyourneeds.

DisplayingcomputervideoonaTV
AssumingthismeansNTSC:
1.YouneedtoconvertRGBtoNTSCtherearesinglechipsforthis.TrySony,Philips,Motorola,
andothers.ThesewillcombinetheR,G,B,Hsync,andVsyncintoasinglecompositevideo
signalusingaminimumofadditionalcomponents.
2.YouneedtomatchthescanratetoNTSC15.734kHzhorizontal.EvenbasicVGAistwice
this31.4kHz.IfyourvideocardcanbeprogrammedtoputoutinterlacedNTSCratevideo
thenthisiseasy.Ifnot,itismoredifficult.IfyouwanttouseanythinghigherresthanVGA,it
isaverynontrivialproblemrequiringtheconstructionofascanconvertorwhichincludesa
videoA/D,fullframestore,interpolator/readouttiming,videoD/A.Unlessyouarean
experienceddigital/analogdesigner,youreallydonotwanttotackleanyofthis.
ForthespecialcaseofVGA>NTSC,youmaybeabletogetawaywithjuststoringasinglescanline
sincethehorizontalfrequencyis(almost)exactlytwicetheNTSChorizontalof15.734kHz.Adouble
bufferwhereonebufferisstoringwhiletheotherisreadingoutatapproximatelyhalftheVGApixel
rateshouldwork.Withappropriatetiming,evenlinesbecometheevenfieldforNTSCandoddlines
becometheoddfield(Imayhavethisbackwards).Itisstillnotatrivialundertaking.Also,keepin
mindthatthequalityyouwillgetonNTSCwillbepoorerthantheVGAduetofundamentalNTSC
bandwidthlimitations.Also,flickerforlinegraphicswillbesignificantduetotheinterlacingat30
Hz.Eventhisisanontrivialundertaking.
TherequirementsforPALareverysimilar.For625linessystems,the800x600istheformatthatmost
closelymatchestheTVresolution.

Youcanalsobuylittleboxestodothis.Qualityisgeneralnotgreatasyouareseriouslylimitedby
NTSC/PALandtheVCR.ExceptforpresentationsonexistingTVrateequipment,itisprobablynot
worththeeffort.Thisistotallyuselessforanyseriouscomputerapplications.
Forprofessionalpresentations,modernvideoprojectorsareavailablethatusehighresolutionLCD
panelsandrealtimescanconversion.However,theyarestillrelativelyexpensive).

HDTVascomputermonitorCanitbeworthit?
(From:JeroenH.Stessen(Jeroen.Stessen@philips.com).)
Someinfo:
HDTVat1080linesinterlacedusesalinefrequencyof33.75kHz.
LinedoubledPALrunsat31.25kHz,linedoubledNTSCat31.47kHz.
PhilipshasmadeVGAtelevisionscapableof31,35and/or38kHz.
Nowwhatsortofcomputerperformancedoesthatbuyyou?
31kHz:640x480NI@60Hz
35kHz:800x600NI@56Hz
38kHz:800x600NI@60Hz
Inotherwords:nothingtowritehomeaboutcomparedtotoday'scomputermonitors.My17Agoesup
to95kHz.TVsaregoodenoughtobeusedaspresentationdisplaystobewatchedfromadistance.
Theywillalsomakeexcellentgamedisplays.Butyoudon'twanttousethemforwordprocessing.
JustbecauseitissoldasanHDTVdisplaydoesnotmeanthatthesharpnesswillbethatmuchbetter.
Certainlynotasgoodasthatofacomputermonitor.
HDTVmonitorswillneverhaveonlycompositeinputs,becausecomposite=CVBSisusedonlyfor
PAL/Secam/NTSC.MostlikelyitwillhaveYPbPrinputs(Y,BY,RY),whichisinconvenientwitha
computerthatdeliversonlyRGB.IfyouareluckyitwillhaveaVGAinputoraGoldenScart(a
ThomsonstandardforRGBHDTVsignals).
Holdontoyour17"computermonitor...

WhatisKellfactorwithrespecttointerlaceddisplays?
(FromBobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
TheKellfactorwhichhastodowiththefactthatwe'reoftenundersamplinganimagefromthe
standpointoftheGospelAccordingtoSt.NyquistISafactorinthereductionofverticalresolution,
butinterlacingplaysapartaswell.Thiscomesfromatleasttwofactors:
1.Themonitororreceiverusuallycannotpreciselyinterleavethetwofields.
2.Moreimportantly,therearestepstakentoreducetheinterlineflickerwhichreducetheeffective
verticalresolution.Thisincludesrunningthelinewidthofthedisplaysomewhatlargerthan
wouldotherwisebethecase,andininterlacedcameras,dischargingtheentirescreen(including
thelinesfromthe"other"field)aftereveryfieldscanned.
Interlaceisparticularlytroublesomeonmovingimages,whereyouwilloftenperceivemomentarily
"missing"details.TherewasaLOTofdiscussionregardingthegorydetailsofinterlacinginthe
recentHDTVdebateswithinSMPTEandothergroups.

Weirdphenomenonofthemonth
Talkaboutunusual.Thiswaspostedtosci.electronics:
"SomethingVERYstrangeishappening,andIcantexplainit.
Thereisa"ghost"onmyTVscreenofthetextappearingonmycomputerscreen.They
areNOThookedtogetherinanymanner.Theyareabout45feetapart.Although,the
antennacablerunswithinafootofmycomputer.Iamwonderingwhatcausesthisto
happen.Ihaveexperiencedinterference,butthisismorelikeawirelesssecondmonitor.I
canturnoffmymonitor,andlookoverattheTV.ThetextontheTVisscrollingupevery
9seconds.(likewhenthevholdisn'tadjusted.)AnyIdeas?"
ThisisprobablycausedbyRFIradiofrequencyinterferencefromaCGAorPCTVcardbeing
pickedupontheTV'scableorantenna.OnlyCGAhasascanratethatisnearlythesameasNTSC.
AnyotherPCvideoscanratewouldresultinatornuporrollingpicture.
(From:BobbyRichardson(boreal@vance.net).)
ThatisindeedRFI,andduringtheheydayofCGAwascalled'ReallyFreeIntelligence'inmilitary
intelligencecirclesbecause,withahighlydirectional,welltunedantenna,intelopscouldreadthe
target'smonitorjustlikelookingovertheirshoulder.

BigAl'srulesofthumbonmonitorrepair
1.Useanisolationtransformer.Avariaccanbehelpfultoo.Acheapisolationtransformercanbe
constructedbywiringtwoidenticaltransformersofadequatepowercapabilitybacktoback.
(Hereisauseforthoseoldboatanchorsyoucan'tbeartopartwith).
2.Ifit'sjustthepowersupplyorflybackswitchingtransistorsthathavefailed,thentherepairis
probablyeasyenoughandquickenoughtobeworthwhile.Blownpowertransistorsaretrivial
tolocateinthecircuitandquiteeasytofindreplacementsfor.InmanycasesI'vefoundthatthe
monitorwouldhavelivedamuchlongerlifeifonlythetransistormountingscrewshadbeen
tightenedproperlybythemanufacturer.Makesureyouuseappropriatereplacementsandthe
properheatsinkpartsandheatsinkcompound.
3.Ifit'stheflybacktransformer,thenjudgementshouldbemadebasedonthecostandavailability
ofthereplacementpart.Also,ontheriskoftherebeingadditionalproblemsbeyondthatofthe
badflyback.Whoget'stoeatthecostofthepartintheeventyoudon'tsucceedandgiveup?
However,determiningthattheflybackisindeedatfaultmayprovechallengingwithouta
flybacktester.Sometimestherewillbeobviousdamagesuchasburntmarks,crackedplastic,or
othersignsofoverheating.Ifyouhavethecorrectresistancemeasurements,thenforthe
primaryyoumaybeabletodetectshortedwindings.Youcanalsoconstructthebruteforce
flybacktesterattheendofthedocument.
4.Ifit'stheCRTthenmaketheproject"someoneelse'sproblem"andgivethemonitortosomeone
elsetouseasapartscarcass.MylifeismuchhappiersinceIlearnedthereisnodisgracein
makingthischoice.
5.Thereisanothercommonfailurecategorywhichisaresultofpeoplewhoaretoolazytoturn
offthepowerswitchatnight.Theconstantheatcausestheelectrolyticcapacitorstodryoutand
becomeintermittent.Ioftenreplaceallofthesmallestelectrolyticsinthepowersupplysection
especiallywhenIknowtheswitchingtransistorisgood.Ifafteracoupleofhoursoflaboranda
dozencapsIstilldon'thaveitrunning,Igiveuponthesetoo.

6.Berealisticwithyourselfaboutthevalueofausedworkingmonitor.CGA'sEGA'sand
monochromeHerculesmonitorsrarelyfetchmorethan$25ataswapmeet.
7.Don'tsellausedmonitortoafriendunlessyouwanttocontinuerepairingthethinguntilyou're
oldandgrey.
8.Don'tputascopeonthecollectorofthesupplyorflybacktransistors,unlessyouhaveaspecial
X100highvoltage/highfrequencyscopeprobe.

TicTocTips
(From:AndyLaberge(tictoc@wolfenet.com))
1.Whenyougotodischargetheanodeofapicturetubemakesureyouhookupyourgroundfirst
oryoumaygetanunexpectedsurprise.Ihave.
2.Picturetubeswillholdtheirchargeforalongtime.InfactIhavebeenbittenfromatubethat
wasremovedfromaTV,dischargedandallowedtositforsixmonths.Treatallpicturetubesas
thoughtheywerefullycharged.
3.Thereisapracticalreasonforusinganisolationtransformerfortroubleshootingmonitors
besidesthesafetyissue.Theprimarysideofthepowersupplyisisolatedfromgroundandif
youstartprobingitwithagroundedscopeyouwillshortoutcomponentsthatwereperfectly
gooduntilthen.Itwillcostyoumoretimeintroubleshootingandmoremoney.
4.Whenlookingforrealsmallcracksinamonitorboardtrytouseastrongindirectlighttokeep
theglareandreflectionstoaminimum.Youcanlooseacrackintheglare.Cracksalsohide
underneaththesoldermask(thegreenstuff).Ihavescrappedawaythesoldermaskandthere
prettyasyoupleaseisthatlittlebeggar.Nextyouwanttofixitscrapmoresoldermaskoffthe
traceabout1/2"onbothsidesofthecrack.Brightenthecopperusinganinkeraser(ithas
abrasivegritinit).Tintheexposedcopperverywellandthensolderonapieceofbaretinned
busswire.Thisissortofanacquiredart.Cutthebuswireabout6"long.Nextbendthewireat
90degreesatthe5"markyounowhaveanLthatis1"onthebottomand5"onthestem.Hold
thestemandsolderthebottomtothePCBontopofyourexcessivelysolderedcrack.Nowjust
clipthestemoff.Youshouldnowhaveacrackthatisbridgedbyasolderedonwirewhichwill
giveyourcrackedboardtheaddedstrengththatitneeds.Iftherearenearbytracesyoushould
alsochecktheseforpossiblehairlinecracksorthestartsofsome.Onboardswithhightrace
densitythismethodmaynotbepossibleinthatcaseusesmallgauge(#30)Kynarcovered
wirewrapwireandsolderittotheassociatedtracepadsonoppositesidesofthecrack.
5.Someconnectionswon'ttakethesolderveryeasily.Inthatcaseremovealltheoldsolderwith
eitherwickorasoldersucker.Pretintheconnectoruntilitexceptsthesolderreadilyandthen
soldertheconnectorandit'spad.Ifyoudon'tdothisyouwillendupwithacoldsolderjoint
underneathyournewsolder.
6.Ifyouareapersonthatisforsomereasonorotheralwaysmovingorunpluggingyourmonitor
gooutandbuyyourselfanextensionforyourmonitorsignalplug.Hookthemonitorsignal
plugtotheextenderandthenusethemaleendoftheextensionplugasyoursignalplug.Ifyou
bendoneofthesepinsitwillbealotcheaperthenhavingtobuyasignalplugforyourmonitor
ifyoucanfindone.
7.InsomeVGAmonitorsyoumayhavevideosmearingwithdarklettersonalightbackground.
Thismaybecausedfromsomelowvalueelectrolytics(usuallyaround1uf)thathavegonebad
inthevideodrivercircuits.Usuallyyoucanchecktheseincircuitwithanoscilloscopeoroutof
circuitwithacapacitancechecker.

8.Otherfilamentproblemsmightbelowvoltagecausedfromaleakyfiltercapacitorinthe
filamentcircuit.Thecapacitorwilldroppedthefilamentvoltagedown.Aresistorcanincrease
invaluecausingthefilamentcurrenttodropoff.Bothoftheseproblemscangiveyouafaded
picturelook.Afiltercapacitorthathasopenedupwillgiveyouabrightpicturefullofnoiseand
thatishardtotraceespeciallyifyouarelookingforitinthevideo.
9.Homemadedegaussingcoilscanbemadeusingthreedegaussingcoils(outofjunkedmonitors)
inseriesthatwayyoudonotneedaballastloadanditactsmoreliketheheavyduty
degausseringcoils.Theystillgetwarmthough.
10.Whencheckingafocuscontrolthemainthingtolookforhereisthatthebestfocusisnoton
oneendofthecontrol.Ifitisthenyourfocuscontrolblockisbadorfallingoutoftolerance.
11.Highvoltageregulationcircuitscangiveyousomeweirdproblems.Oneparticularmonitor
wouldshutdownwhenitwentfromhighwhitescreentoablackscreen.Highvoltagewill
elevatewhenthescreenisdarkerandsometimesexceedthehighvoltagesafetylimitactivating
theshutdowncircuit.
12.ChangingCRT'sismoreofanartthatgetsbetterwithpractice.SomecolorCRT'slinerightup
withanewtubeandsometakeoverfourhoursexperimentingwithresultsthatstilldonotfall
withinspecs.
13.CapacitorsintheprimaryoftheSMPSmaygobadandcausetheshapeoftheswitchingpulse
tobedistortedtheSMPSbecomesinefficientandcausingoverheatingandlowervoltage.
Changethecapacitorsiftheylookbadshrinkingofthevinylcasingorleakageunderneath
(lookslikealeakybatteryinaradio).Capacitorswith105degreetemperatureratingsare
recommendedinpowersuppliesinsteadof85degreetypesbecauseoftheselfgeneratedheat.
Everythinginthepowersupplyisasuspectoffailure.SMPStransformerscanevenfail
althoughitisrare.Someproduceahighaudiofrequencywhineattimesduetomaterial
oscillationsandloadconditions.
14.Metalfilmresistorscancauseweirdshutdownandstartupproblems.Theseareusuallyfound
inthepowersupplyovercurrentsensecircuits.Theseresistorscheckgoodcoldbutfailafter
applyingheattothem.Whencooltheywouldseemtorunalldaybutifheatisappliedtheyfail
faster.Thevalueoftheseresistorswouldfallbetween100kand500kusually.
15.Agoodflybacksource:ComponentTechnology18008780540

Monitorserviceandhowtogetsome
Atypicalmonitorwarrantyissomethinglike:2yearsparts,1yearpartsandlabor(i.e.youhaveto
payforlaborthelastyearofyourwarranty).Whatshouldyoudowhenyouaretotallyunsatisfied
withwarrantyserviceorwhenyourmonitorblowsup1dayafterthewarrantyexpires.
(Frommaterialprovidedbyaformerheadserviceguyforamajorcomputersales/servicecompany.)
Thebehindthescenessecretstogetwhatyouwantaretodooneoramultipleofthefollowing:
1.Callthe"Service"(itappearstheyreallyaren't)Departmentofthecompanyyouprocuredthe
monitorfrom,andkindlyasktospeakwiththeServiceManager.Iftheyaskforyourname,
theywillmostlikelypassiton,aswellasyourservicehistory...Themanagerwillbe"notathis
desk".Theywillasktotakeamessage...saysomethinglike"Iwouldliketodiscussaservice
contract"(freemoney)or"Iwouldliketospeaktohimaboutyourfirm'sgoodservice"(appeal
tohisego).Thesearepositivethingstheylike.Theypersononthephonewillgetyour#and
youwillhearbackwithinmaybeanhourorso.Reason:Servicepeoplelikemyselfliveina

very,VERYnegativeworld...inthebackofourmindsweliketoheargoodandhidefromthe
everydaybad.Hewillcallbackthinkinggoodandwhenyougethim,youcaneitherbeathim
up,orbutterhimup...dependingonyourpersonalityorstyle.Thelaterisbest.Theniceryou
aretosomeone,themoretheywilldoforyou...treathimlikeyou'veknownhimforyears...talk
tohimonaoneononetypestyle...tellhimwhathashappenedinaverycalm,relaxedmood...
sitbackandrelax...imagineyourselfasJackNicolson.(?)Talkaslongasyoucan...joke,talk
aboutgolf,whatever...Thelongeryouareonthephonewithhim,themorelikelyheistodo
something.
2.Hardball!Tell'emyouaregoingtocalltheAttorneyGeneralandgetthismonitorcoveredunder
theLemonlawinyourstateiftheydon'tgetitfixedNOW!Theywillhavetogiveyouanew
monitorifthemachinehastobefixedunderwarrantymorethan3timesina1yearperiod.
3.Callthemanufacturer.Tellthemyourmonitorisbadandthatthecompanythatsoldyouthe
monitorhassentittoforservicemultipletimesandthatyoumusthaveitfixedbecauseit
monitorsadialysismachinefora5montholdbabywithlivercancerandabrokenlegor
somethinglikethat...Pulltheirstrings.Kindlyletthemknowyouaren'tpleasedwiththe
monitorandyouwouldliketosenditinpersonally...(yes!youcandothis!)Thekeyacronyms
areRMA#orRA#orMRA#....theyallrefertoReturnMerchandiseAuthorizationnumberin
someform.
4.(Thisoneisfromsam)ThreatentoplastertheirmiserableproductnameallovertheInternet.
NotethatIdonotbelieveoneshouldactuallydothispostingwhineymessagestoabunchof
newsgroupsislargelynonproductiveandmayleaveyouopentolegalrepercussions.But,the
threatwillneedtobetakenincreasingseriouslyastheimportanceofInternetasaninternational
mediumexpandsexponentially.
Whenyousenditthemonitor,theRMA#hastobeonthebox.Callthemanufacturerattheir800
number.AskforCustomerService.Tellthemthestory(kindly)andsaythatyouwouldliketogetan
RMA#.Thisisatypeoflaundryticket#theygiveyoutotrackthemonitor'sprogress...andthey
reportdirectlytoyouwhenyoucalltheRMAdepartmenttocheckonit'sstatus.Iftheywon'tdothis
foranindividualperson,askforanaddressofanAuthorizedRepairDepot.Youwillhavetocallthe
repairdepotandgetanRMA#.
Letthemknowyouwouldliketodealwiththemdirectly.Iwouldusetip(3)asalastresort,(just
beforeIcalltheAttorneyGeneral).
Iwouldalsobecarefulofthegametheymaybeplaying:letthewarrantyonlaborrunoversowecan
getsomemoney.

Shippingdamage1:whymonitorsarelikebasketballs
(From:StephenSwann(swann@panix.com).)
Monitorsaremorepronetoshippingdamagethanmostothercomputercomponents,anditdoesn't
helpthattheytypicallypassthroughseveralpeople'shands(severalstagesofshipping)beforethey
gettoyou:factory>distributioncenter>vendor>you.
AndfromwhatI'veseenfirsthandofshippingpractices(Iputinacoupleofmonthsworkingina
distributionwarehouseduringcollege),youcansafelyassumethateachstageofshippingisroughly
theequivalentofyourmonitorbeingdroppeddownaflightofstairs.
Youwouldn't*believe*theabusethatUPSandFedExcansubjectpackagesto.Infact,puttinga
*FRAGILE*signonthesideoftheboxisabouttheequivalentofwriting"KICKME"onit.I
rememberreceivingpackagesmarked"FRAGILE"wherethe(originallycubical)cardboardboxes

hadbeensmashedintoshapelesscardboard"bags",andittookus20minutestofigureoutwhatthe
contentsoftheboxhadoriginallybeen.("Whatarealltheseshards?""Ithinkitwassomekindof
vase""No,itwassomekindoflamp.""Where'sthebulbsocket,then?""Howaboutthissquashed
pieceofaluminum?""Yeah,you'reright,butwhere'sthecordthen?"etc).:)Shippingguyswould
thinknothingofdropping"fragile"boxesfromwaisthighontoaconcretefloorsafeinthe
knowledgethatthepackagehadpassedthroughsomanyhandsthatthedamagecouldneverpossibly
betracedbacktothem."BlamelessisGuiltless"shouldbethemottoofthesefolks.
Basically,whatI'msayingisthatif1monitorin3arrivesarrivesinworkablecondition,youshouldbe
surprisedthateventhatonemonitorsurvived.

Shippingdamage2:whymonitorsarelikehammers(asinthrow)
(From:SteveCunningham(swc@tamu.edu).)
Yesfolks!Asatrainingexerciseforthe2002Summergames,BillBaxter(nothisrealname),aunion
thugfromUnitedParcelwillattempttobeatthesteroidenhancedmonitorthrowrecordof551/4feet
setbyUdoSchrankoftheformerEastGermany.
ButseriouslyfolksUPSandIjust"goround'n'round!"Overthepasttwoyears,theyhavebroken
aboutonethirdofthemonitorsshippedtous,eventhosepackedintheoriginalpolystyrenefoam.One
monitorhadthecaseshattered,andthetubeneckshearedoffeventhoughthemonitorwaspacked
securelyintheoriginalboxandfoam.ThestockresponsefromUPSisthat"itprobablywasn'tpacked
securely,"orsomesuchdrivel,whileignoringtheobvioustheyarecarelesswithfragilemerchandise.
ThelatestoutragewaswhenIwastakingashortnapinmyhouse(Iworkoutofmyhouse),anda
veryloudcrashingsoundstartledmeawake.Mywifesaidthatitsoundedasifsomeonewascrashing
throughthefrontdoor.TurnsoutthattheUPSdudedroppeda$2000.0070pound20"Ikegami
monitorfromwaistleveltotheground,hittingthefrontdoorintheprocess.Aftercoolingoff,I
carefullyinspectedthemonitor,and,amazingly,itwasn'tdestroyed(Ihavewitnessedmonitorboxes
droppedfromtheairplanetotheground).
Toaddtotheoutrage,whenIwasreadytoreturntherepairedmonitor,thelocalUPSmanagermade
mepurchaseanewbox,andhavefoaminjectedintoit,atacosttothecustomerofabout50bucks,
beforetheywouldconsidershippingit(theoldboxwasdented,butnoworseforwear).Ina
remarkablebitofrestraint(ifIdon'tsaysomyself),IcalmlywalkedoutoftheUPSoffice(after
waitinginline30minutes),andusedaremailingcompanyintheareatoshipitviaUPSatan
additionalfee.Thecustomerreceivedthemonitorafewdayslater,andyes,itwasbroken.Allofthis
despitebeingpackedwithseveralinchesofhardfoam,andinanew,sturdy,27"UhaulTVbox.The
packagearrivedatthecustomer'splaceofbusinessupsidedown,despiteuparrows.
Irealizethattheyareadiscountshipper,but,theyarenotpaidtomerelyshippackages.Theyarepaid
toshiptheminonepiece.Iftheycan'tdothat,Ithinkthattheyshouldgetoutofthebusinessandquit
runninganinsurancescam.Ican'treturnrepairedmonitorstopeoplewiththescrewsmissing,saying,
"it'sbecauseI'madiscountservicer."Thereisaminimumlevelofqualitythatisacceptable.
Sometimesthelowestpriceisnotthebestvalue.Asinallthingshuman,letthebuyerbeware!
Hopefullysomeonewillfindthisusefultothatend.Wewon'tbeusingUPSanymore.

Shippingdamage3:whysmallmonitorsarelikefootballs
(From:CaptainMocha(CaptainMocha@Electra.com).)
IusedtoworkforUPS,Iloadedthetrucks.

It'samazingyougetanythinginonepiecewhenshippingwithUPS.Therearesosososomany
packagesthatneedtobeloadedinthosetrucksinjustthreehoursperworkshift.Thefloormanagers
wouldencourageustogetthetrucksloadedin'anywaypossible'.
Weusedtotreatthesmallpackagesas'footballs'andtrytothrowthemthroughbox"goals"fromthe
otherendofthetruck.Wealsodid'puntkicking'etc.
Sogetyourfactsstraight!!It'snot'HammerThrowing',it'sfootball!=)
(From:MichaelSchuster(schuster@panix.com).)
AfriendusedtoworkinManhattan,NYCandduringlunchhourheoftenpassedthelarge
camera/electronicsretailer,47thStreetPhoto,justastheUPStruckwasunloading.
Itwascommonforthistobeaccomplishedbyhavingthedriverstandinthetruck,andKICKthe
boxestothegroundonebyone.Soyousee,itisn'tahammerthrow...It'sfootball(orsoccer)that
they'remodeledafter.

Shippingdamage4:somaybeifmonitorswerepackedandshippedlikeeggs
"Afterreceivingmythirdcrunchedmonitorthisweek,I'veabouthaditwiththese
"BrownShirtedBoxStompersinthemist!"Youwouldthinkthatawellpacked14"
clonemonitorwouldsurvivea30milejourneywhileintheirveryincapablehands.
Actually,IshouldapologizetoJaneGoodall,orwhoeverthatGorillababewasher
objectsofstudywouldprobablybemuchmorecarewithmonitorboxesthantheknuckle
walkersatUPS.Ihavebeenthinkingofdoingmyownstudyastowhatdecelerationit
takestodothedamagetoamonitorthattheyhavedone.Myguessisthattheymusthave
todropthethingonconcretefrom5to7feethigh!I'veseenhighimpactcasesshattered,
tubenecksshearedoff,boardcrackedinhalfsheesh,wheredotheygettheseguys?
Fromazoo?Sure,theyreimbursetheowner,butIlosetherepairfee.Doesanyoneknow
ifcanmakealossclaimalso?"
(From:DavidRouse(david.rouse@engineers.com).)
Actuallytheyareprobablyonlybeingnormallyclumsy.Itprobablyisthepackagingofthemonitor
thatiscausingthefailures.Amonitorisafragilething.Itonlytakesabout50g'sofaccelerationto
killone.Thistranslatesintoabouta34inchdropontoahardsurface.Thepackagingissupposedto
protectitbyspreadingtheshockpulseoutoveralongertimeperiod.Alas,though,allstyrofoam(or
whateverisbeingusedforcushioning)isnotcreatedequal.Themakerwasmostlikelytryingtosave
acoupleofpenniesandusesomethingalittletoorigid.Thewrongmaterialcanprovidetoolittle
cushioningandinsomecasesevenamplifytheshocktransmittedtotheproductundertheright(or
wrong)circumstances.FYITrinitrontubeshavereallybadshockcharacteristics.

Cleaningplasticmonitorcases
Forsurfacecontaminationlikegreaseortobaccosmoke,avarietyofhouseholdcleanerswillwork
includingFantastik,Windex,409,etc.somebetterthanothersdependingonthetypeofcoating.
Verifythatwhateveryouuseissafefortheplasticbytryingitoutonaninconspicuouslocationfirst.
Forozoneorheatdamagewhichpenetratesdeeplyintotheplastic,paintingmaybetheonlya
solution.Testonanonvisiblesectiontoseehowdeeplythediscolorationhaspenetrated.Formodest
discoloration,Ihavehadsomesuccesswithwaterandscouringpowdercontainingbleach.
CAUTION:Testanycleaningagentorsolventonaninconspicuousareaofthemonitorfirsttobesure

itdoesn'tdamageit.

Secretmenus
"I'veseensometantalizingreferencestotheSECRETmenuforadjustingVisionMaster
Pro17monitorsecretmenu.
CouldsomeonekindlypointmetosomedetailssothatIcanaccessandproperlyusethis
covertfunctionality?"
(From:ScotMiller(scot@cts.com).)
Shutthepoweroff,thenswitchitbackonwhilesimultaneouslyholdingdownthe'menu','',and'+'
buttons.Thenthe'menu'buttonworksnormallybutwillbringupthesecretmenu.

Reliabilityandperformanceofrefurbishedorremanufacturedmonitors
"Consideringa21inchmonitorandhaveseenanumberofresellersbeginningtocarry
refurbishedmonitors.UndermostcircumstancesIwouldwalkrightpastanything
refurbishedfortheshinynewmodel,butatthepriceofnew21inchers,well...Monitor
wouldbeusedprimarilyinWindowsandforplayingQuake.LocallyI'mseeingpricesof
$1100.00to$1300.00witha2yearwarrantyfor1st&2ndtierproducts.Feedback,
anyone?"
Assumingyoucanfullytestdriveitand/orgetamoneybacknoquestionsaskedwarranty,thenthey
areworthconsidering.ThemostcriticalissueistheconditionoftheCRTmakesureitisbright,sharp,
andhasnoscreenburn.IftheCRTisingoodcondition,thenthereisnoreasontothinkthattherestof
themonitorwillfallapartorgoupinsmoke.Note:Testfromapoweroffforatleastanhour
condition.OnceanoldCRTwarmsup,itmayappeartobebetterthanitactuallyis.Seethe
document:PerformanceTestingofComputerandVideoMonitorsforadditionalevaluationcriteriabut
bewarnedthatnomonitorisperfectsome'defects'youfindmaybeinherentinthedesignorsimply
duetonormalvariationsinmanufacturingqualitycontrol.
Thetwoterms'refurbished'and'remanufactured'maybemeanthesamething.However,itwould
probablybeworthtryingtogetaclarificationinwritingofexactlywhatwasdonetothemonitor.
Dependingontheintegrityofthereseller,thesetermscouldmeananythingfrom'well,weturnediton
anditdidn'tblowup'to'unitwascompletelyoverhauledandrestoredtonewspecificationsreplacing
partswherenecessary'.

Ron'snotesonvideosignalqualityproblems
From:pinecone@pacbell.net(Ron)
Herearesomepossiblecausesforghosting,smearing,etc.:
1.Apoorqualityvideocable.
2.Avideoextensioncable(makingthecablelongeralwaysmakesthingsworse).
3.Runningthevideocardand/ormonitortooclosetotheirmaximumbandwidths.
4.Impedancemismatchbetweenthevideocardandthemonitor.Mostcards,monitors,andcables
are75ohms,but50ohmpartsexist.

5.Badvideocard.I'veseenmanyvideocardswiththisproblem,andamanufacturerrecently
admittedtomethatonerevisionoftheirboardhasagroundingdefectthatcauses...ghosting.
6.Badmonitor.Ithinkthisisunlikely.Usuallypoormonitorsproducemuddyimagesthathide
ghosting,ifindeedthereisany.

Monitorqualitycontrol
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
ThebottomlineisthatI'vebeeninvolvedwiththedesign,manufacture,specification,andpurchaseof
CRTdisplaysforlongerthanIcaretoadmit,andIcantellyouonethingwithabsolutecertainty:itis
IMPOSSIBLEtomaintainvisiblyperfectgeometry,linearity,etc.,onthethingsoveraproductionrun.
Youcanspendhoursandhoursgettingagivenunittolookprettydarngood,buteventhatisiffyit
dependstomuchonthelimitationsbuiltintothatparticularCRTandyoke.AndevenifyouCANget
thatunit'perfect',thisISN'Tsomethingthatyoucandoinnormalproductionnotunlessyoufind
customerswillingtopaySIGNIFICANTLYhighercostsfortheproducts.Despiteclaimstothe
contraryhere,thathasNOTbeenthedesireexpressedbythemarket.
(From:GaryFlynn(gary@habanero.jmu.edu).)
ManyyearsagoIdidTVrepairandtherewereLOTSofadjustmentsavailable.Ihaven'tcrackedopen
aTVormonitorlatelybutyourstatementaboutCRTandyokelimitationsjoggedmymemory.Are
mostmonitorstoday"rackandstack"orarethereinternalfactoryadjustments?Havingjustordereda
17"TrinitronbasedmonitorandhavingconfidenceinmyoldTVabilitiesmakesmewanttoexplore
:)
(From:Sam.)
No,youwillnotfindmanyofthesesortsoftwiddlesinmodernmonitors.Mostpurity,convergence,
andgeometryadjustmentsareviastrategicallyplacedmagnetsgluedtotheCRT,theorientationof
multiplemagnetizedrings,thepositionandtiltofthedeflectionyoke,etc.Youreallydonotwantto
messwiththeseunlessyouhavenochoiceandlotsoftime.
Manymodernmonitorscontrolthepictureadjustmentsviahiddenmenusanddigitalcontrols.
The'goodolddays'aregoneforever...:):(.

IsBigBrotherwatchingoveryourshoulder?
"DoesanyoneoutthereknowhowtheTimex/Microsoftwatchisprogrammedbyholding
thewatchinfrontofaVGAmonitor.Theremustmesomesortofsensoronthewatch
thatpicksupsomesortofpatternonthescreenretraceofthemonitor...."
(From:LenTurnbow(quartlow@netcom.com).)
IknownothingabouttheTimex/MicrosoftVGAopticalcommunicationsprotocol.But,sometime
whenyouhavenothingbettertodo,youmightconnectaphototransistortoabiasingsourceand
thencetoyouroscilloscope.Aimphototransistoratyourcomputermonitorandcheckoutalltheweird
patternsproducedasaresultofvariousscreendisplays.
Beforelong,youwillnotethattheleftmostedgeofyourscopedisplayrepresentsinformationpresent
nearthetopofyourscreen.Ifyouhaveyourtriggerproperlyset,youwillalsonotethatthewhole
contentsofthescreenarepresented(toptobottom)onyourscope(lefttoright).

Withablankwhiteraster,youwillbeabletomoveyourhandinfrontofthescreenandseetheresult
onyourscopealaflyingspotscanner.ButIdigress.
ArmedwithaborrowedcopyoftheMicrosoftinterfacesoftwareandyourphototransistor,youcould
probablyreverseengineertheprotocol.
OrasksomeoneatMicrosoft.com:).Whatwouldbethefuninthat,though?
(From:DavidFries(dfries@mail.win.org).)
Idon'tknowwhyitwouldbereferredtoas'theTimex/Microsoftwatch',whenitjustincludes
windowssoftware.ItreallyshouldbereferredtoastheTimexDatalinkwatch.Microsoftwouldn't
knowanythingabouttheprotocolasitisaTimexproduct(andpatentIbelieve).
ImaintaintheLinuxsoftwaretointerfacewiththeTimexDatalinkwatches,model70,150,150s,and
Ironman.See:DatalinkLibraryfortheIronmanWatch.Icansaysomethingofthephysicallayer
communicationandthatinthepastIhavedecodedtheironmanprotocolbyusingaphotocell(as
opposedtoaphototransistor)connectedtothesoundcardinputofanothercomputer.Aphotocell
variesresistancewiththeamountoflightitreceives,perfectforpluggingintoasoundcardmicin
withoutanyothercomponents.
Therearetwovariations,the150,150s,andIronmanbothsendtwobytesperscreenrefresh.There
areuptoninelineslitatthetopofthescreenand9linesatthebottom.Eachlineisasolidwhiteor
off.Thefirstlineofeachsetisalwayson,andusedasastartbit,therestaredatabits.Theprotocol
partitionsthedataintopacketswithcheckbytesattheendofeachpacketfollowedbyafew
completelyblackscreensbeforethenextpacket.Thatiswhyitlookslikeitflickers,stops,flickers,
stops,etc.Thescreenissetto60Hz,twobytesperrefreshor120bytesasecond,notexactlyspeedy
byanymeansandthatdoesn'tincludethebuiltinpauses.
Themodel70issimilar,butonlyfillsthetopninelinesgivingitanevenslowertransferrateofone
byteperrefreshor60bytespersecond.
Theprotocolmakesthemonitorintoaserialoutputdevicebecausethewatchdoesn'tpayany
attentiontowherethelinesare,onlytheoverallbrightnessofthescreen.

Lamentofthelackofadjustmentpotsonthenewestmonitors
In'thegoodolddays'beforedigitalcontrolsandservicemenus,onecouldspendasubstantialfraction
ofone'slifetweakingmonitoradjustments.Thenewestmonitors(andTVs)arenearlytotally
controlledbysettingsstoredinEEPROM.Theserviceadjustmentsmayonlybeaccessibleviaaport
connectiontoaPCrunningaspecialmanufacturerspecificsetupprogram.
Thisisthewaveofthefutureandwearestuckwithitforbetterorworse.Inallfairness,digital
adjustmentsarelesscostlytomanufactureandpermitmuchmoreautomationinthefactorysetupof
screengeometry,color,andsoforth.However,notmakingthesetupsoftwareavailablefora
reasonablelicensingfeeisaseriousproblemwhichwillresultinlostopportunitiesforsmaller
independentrepairshops.
(From:CiaraTom(ciaratom@aol.com).)
Thepointisthateachmanufacturerhaswrittenaprogramforhismonitortotweakthingsthatweused
todowithascrewdriver.Itismodelspecific,notgeneric,andoftenrequiresaninterface(special
cable,withorwithoutcircuitryinbetween)sometimesconnectingtoyourparallelport,sometimesto
theserial.

GoldstardoesthiswithaspecialproprietarysoftwareandspecialcableViewsonichas(thatcostme
$220trytorecoupthatfromarepair)anditissouserunfriendlythatyoudon'tevenknowwhatto
dowithit.

AnalogversusdigitalLCDflatscreenmonitors
(From:BobMyers(myers@fc.hp.com).)
Thisreferstotheinterfacetothemonitor,with"analog"generallymeaningthatitcanplugdirectly
intothesamevideoconnectorasyourtypicalCRTmonitor.Digitalinputmonitorshaveinthepast
requiredspecialinterfacecards,buttherearenewstandardsfordigitalvideooutputs(suchasthe
VESA"Plug&Display"connectorfamily).Thedisplaysthemselves(theinnerworkingsaren't
REALLY"inherentlydigital"eitheralthoughtheinterfacetothepanelitselfusuallyisbutthey
AREfixedformatdevices,whichbringsalongitsownsetofproblems.
Digitalinterfaces,assumingyouDON'TneedaspecialinterfacecardinthePC,willbelessexpensive
thananaloginterfacesandwillofferbetterperformance.Theperformanceincreasedoesn'tcomeso
muchfromhavingtheinformationprovidedin"digital"form,butratherfromhavingaccuratetiming
informationavailable.Thebiggestheadacheindesigningananaloginterfaceforthesemonitorsis
tryingtogeneratethecorrectclockforsamplingtheincomingvideo.It'susuallybeendoneby
multiplyingthehorizontalsyncrateuptotheproperfrequency,butthatishardtodowithREALLY
goodstability,andthephaserelationshipbetweentheH.syncsignalandthevideoisn'tallthat
reliable.Thismakesforanunstabledisplay,withwhatlookslikeconsiderablenoise(especiallywhen
youhavelotsofsinglepixeldetails).

Whyisthereagrowthonmymonitorcable?
(From:DavidKessner(davidk@peakaudio.com).)
Well,itisaferritesleeveorbead.There'sathingcalledaferritebeadwhichisasimpledoughnut,
sleeve,orbeadthatawiregoesthrough.Electricallythisissimilartoaninductor.Thereareother,
larger,typesthataremadetoclampontocables.
Thepracticaleffectofaferritebead(FB)isthatitcausesaresistanceathighfrequencies,butalmost
noresistanceatlowfrequencies.MostFB'sareratedatXXXohmsatYYYMHz.Smallonesare
typicallyabout25ohmsat100MHz,withtheresistanceincreasingwithfrequency.
Usually,FB'sareusedtofilterouthighfrequencynoise.Inacable,ifyouprovideahighfrequency
resistancethenyouwillhavelesshighfrequencycurrentaswell.Thismeanslesshighfrequency
signalsornoiseontheline.ThismakestheFCChappy,sinceyouwon'tbeemittingasmuch
EMI/RFI.
WhenyouseeFB'soncables,itisusuallyputthereasaquickfix.Someonewilldesignadeviceand
it'llfailFCCtesting.Throughtrialanderror,theywillfindthatputtingaFBonthecablewillmakeit
pass.Sotheyputoneonandshipitthatway.WelldesignedcardseitherhaveFB'sonthePCB,or
theydosomethingelsetoreducetheEMI/RFIemitted.
ThereareotherusesforFB's,butthisisthegeneraluseofthemwhencablesareconcerned.
(From:DouglasW.Jones(jones@pyrite.cs.uiowa.edu).)
Thethingisaferritecore.ItisusedtocontrolEMI/RFIinterference.They'resometimescalledfilter
blocks,becausethey'reablockofferriteusedasafilter,butsometimespeoplejustcallthething"a
ferrite".

YoucanbuyaftermarketfilterblocksfromParaConthesejustclipontotheoutsideofacable.
They'relistedintheDigiKeycatalogunderthename"ferrites"onthecatalogpage,butthey're
indexedunder"filterblocks".
Whatdotheydo?Twothings.First,ifyou'vegotawirecomingoutofyourelectronicwhatsit,that
wirecanactasatransmittingantennaforanyRFoscillatorwithinthewhatsit.So,thecablebetween
yourcomputerandyourvideomonitormightenduptransmittingnotonlyabasebandvideosignalat
somewherenear10Mhz,butitcouldalsotransmityourCPUclocksignalandotherannoyingsignals
generatedwithinyourcomputer'sbox.
Tokeepthecablefromtransmittingavideosignal,weusecoaxialcablewithadecentshield.Tokeep
thecableasawholefromtransmittingtheCPUclockandotherhigherfrequencysignals,weputa
ferritecorearoundthecable.Thisactsasalowpassfilterpreventingcommonmodesignalsfrom
gettingthroughwhileallowingbalancedsignals(properlysentoverthecoaxialcable)togettothe
videomonitor.
Thesecondpossibilitytoworryaboutisthecableactingasareceiver.Thisisparticularlytroublesome
whenthereisagroundloop.Forexample,mycomputerandvideomonitorbothhavegroundedline
cordsthatarepluggedintothewall.Thecomputercabletothevideomonitoralsohasagroundpath,
throughtheshield,sothere'saloop,fromwalloutlettocomputertovideomonitortowalloutlet.This
loopactsasaloopantenna,anditcanpickupsignalsfromaround100Khzto1Mhzquitewell,
dependingonthegeometryoftheloop.Thesecouldcauserealproblemsiftheywereconfusedwith
logicsignalsinsidethecomputer.
Thestandardadvicetoelectricalengineersis:Avoidgroundloops.Whenthisadvicefails,thefallback
positionis,breaktheloopwithafilter.That'swhatthefilterblockdoes!

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.

ServiceInformation
Advancedmonitortroubleshooting
Ifthesolutionstoyourproblemshavenotbeencoveredinthisdocument,youstillhavesomeoptions
otherthansurrenderingyourmonitortothelocalservicecenterorthedumpster.
Alsoseetherelateddocument:TroubleshootingofConsumerElectronicEquipment.
Manufacturer'sserviceliterature:Servicemanualsmaybeavailableforforyourmonitor.Onceyou
haveexhaustedotherobviouspossibilities,thecostmaybewellworthit.Dependingonthetypeof
equipment,thesecanrangeinpricefrom$10150ormore.Somearemoreusefulthanothers.
However,notallincludetheschematicssoifyouarehopingtorepairanelectronicproblemtryto
checkbeforebuying.
Insidecoveroftheequipment:TVsoftenhavesomekindofcircuitdiagrampastedinsidetheback
cover.Intheolddays,thiswasacompleteschematic.Now,ifoneexistsatallforamonitor,itjust
showspartnumbersandlocationforkeycomponentsstillveryuseful.
SAMsPhotofacts:Thesehavebeenpublishedforover45yearsbuthaveneverbeencommonfor
monitors.ThereareafewforsomeearlyPCmonitorsbutforanythingmodern,forgetit.
Whatevertheultimateoutcome,youwillhavelearnedagreatdeal.Havefundon'tthinkofthisasa
chore.Electronictroubleshootingrepresentsadetective'schallengeofthetypehatSherlockHolmes

couldnothaveresisted.Youatleasthavetheadvantagethattheelectronicsdonotlieorattemptto
deceiveyou(thoughyoumaybegtodifferattimes).So,whatareyouwaitingfor?

Additionalinformation
ForgeneralinformationonPCvideocardsandmonitors,seetheFAQoftheUSENETnewsgroup:
comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video.Thisdocumenthasawealthofdataonnearlyeverythingyoucould
possiblywanttoknowaboutvideoforthePCworld.
TheFAQisavailableviaftpandtheWWW:
ToftpatextonlyversionofthisFAQ,and/orthechipsetlist:
CompressedVideoFAQ
CompressedVideoChipsetList
TheFAQhasreceivednews.answersapproval,soitshouldbearchivedatrtfm.mit.eduandall
mirrors,aswellasinnews.answersandcomp.answers.
Contributions,questionsandcorrectionsalwayswelcomeandappreciated.

TheUSENETnewsgroup:sci.electronics.repair
Whereyouhaveaspecificquestiononaparticularmonitor(orotherequipment),postingthemake
andmodelandaconcisedescriptionoftheproblemandwhatyouhavealreadyattempted,mayresult
insuggestionsfrombothprofessionalsandotherslikeyourselfwhohavehadexperiencewithyour
monitor.
Seethedocument:TroubleshootingofConsumerElectronicEquipmentformanyadditionalonline
resourcestoaidinmonitorservicing.

Suggestedreferences
Theredon'tseemtobethatmanyreadilyavailablebooksonmonitorrepair.Hereareacouple:
TroubleshootingandRepairingComputerMonitors
StephenBigelow
McGrawHill,1995
Hardcover,304pages
ISDN0070054088
Someofthetopicsare
CRTalignmentanddegaussing
Stateoftheartplasmadisplays
Specificationsandarchitecturesofmonochromw,CGA,EGA,VGA,andSVGA
Linear,switching,andhighvoltagepowersupplies
LogicanddriverssupportingbothCRTandLCDmonitors
Graphicsstandards
Sampleschematics
However,acoupleofpeoplehavecommentedthatthedocumentyouarereadingismoreuseful
andbetterorganizedthanthisbook:).IcannotcommentasIhavenotseenit.So,trytocheck
itoutbeforepurchasingormakesureyoucanreturnitifnotsatisfied.

ComputerMonitorTroubleshootingandRepair
JoeDespositoandKevinGarabedian
HowardWSamsandCo,1997
ISBN:0790611007
Lotsofdiagramsandphotos,schematics,andexamplesofproblemsandhowtheyaresolved.
Thisisagoodbasicbook.
Also,sincemonitorssharemuchincommonwithcolorTVs,booksontheirrepairwouldalsobe
applicableformanyproblemsandmaybemorereadilyavailablefromyourlocalpubliclibrary.
Theredon'tseemtobenearlyasmanyTVrepairbooksformodernsolidstateTVsasIrecallforold
tubesets.Hereareisonesuggestionwhichyoumayfind(oritspredecessor)atyourlocalpublic
library(621.384ifyoulibraryisnumberedthatway)oratechnicalbookstore.MCMElectronicshas
thisaswell.
TroubleshootingandRepairingSolidStateTVs
HomerL.Davidson
2ndEdition,1992
TABBooks,Inc.
BlueRidgeSummit,PA17214
(From:Skip(skipperm@mtc2.mid.tec.sc.us))
IrecentlyattendedamonitorrepaircourseputonbyPhilipselectronics.Theyhaveatechnical
trainingmanualwhichcanprobablybeorderedwithoutsigningupforthecourse:
HiResComputerDisplaySystems
Part#ST14961093LE/KGPGC
PhilipsServiceCo.
P.O.Box555,JeffersonCity,TN37760
Phone:4234750044
Thisbookdoesanexcellentjobofexplaininghowthesemonitorswork.MostisaboutPhilips
monitorsbutthematerialisapplicabletomostmanufacturers.Thiscourseandreadingthistext
hashelpmealotwithmymonitorrepairefforts.
Thefollowingdoesn'tspecificallydealwithmonitorsbutmaybeofinterestaswell:
VideoDemystified:AHandbookfortheDigitalEngineer
KeithJack
BrooktreeCorporation,1993
ISBN1878707094

FCCIDNumbersofmonitors
Onlyafewmanufacturersactuallyproducethevastmajorityofcomputerandvideomonitors.For
example,RadioShack,Magnavox,andEmersondonotmaketheirownmonitors(Icantellyouare
notreallysurprised!).Allthosehousebrandmonitorsthatcomebundledwithmailorderor'Mikeand
Joe'sComputerama'PCsarenotactuallyputtogetherinsomeone'sgarage!Well,notthatmany,at
least:).
Howdoyoudeterminetheactualmanufacturer?Formosttypesofconsumerelectronicequipment,
thereissomethingcalledan'FCCID'or'FCCnumber'.AnytypeofequipmentthatmayproduceRF
interferenceorbeaffectedbythisisrequiredtoberegisteredwiththeFCC.Thisnumbercanbeused

toidentifytheactualmanufactureroftheequipment.
Acrossreferenceandotherlinkscanbefoundat:
S.E.R.FAQFCCIDLinks

Partsinformation
Ihavefoundoneofthemostusefulsinglesourcesforgeneralinformationonsemiconductorstobe
theECGSemiconductorsMasterReplacementGuide,about$6fromyourlocalPhilipsdistributor.
STK,NTE,andothershavesimilarmanuals.TheECGmanualwillenableyoutolookupU.S.,
foreign,andmanufacturer'house'numbersandidentifydevicetype,pinout,andotherinformation.
NotethatIamnotnecessarilyrecommendingusingECG(orothergeneric)replacementsifthe
originalreplacementsare(1)readilyavailableand(2)reasonablypriced.However,thecrossreference
cansavecountlesshourssearchingthroughdatabooksorcontactingthemanufacturers.Evenifyou
haveawallofdatabooks,thissourceisinvaluable.Acoupleofcaveats:(1)ECGcrosseshavebeen
knowntobeincorrectthespecificationsoftheECGreplacementpartwereinferiortotheoriginal.
(2)Don'tassumethatthespecificationsprovidedfortheECGpartareidenticaltotheoriginalthey
maybebetterinsomeways.Thus,usingtheECGtodeterminethespecificationsofthepartsinyour
junkbincanberisky.
Othercrossreferenceguidesareavailablefromthepartssourcelistedbelow.

Monitorschematicsandmanuals
Insomecases,thesemaybeavailablefromthemanufacturerandevenreasonablypriced(muchless
thanothersources).Forexample,amanualforatypicalCTXmonitorisonly$15fromCTXbut
around$50elsewhere.However,moreoftenthannot,thiswillnotbethecase.
Seethemanualslistinthedocument:TroubleshootingofConsumerElectronicEquipment.

InformationsourcesontheInternet
ManymanufacturersarenowprovidingextensiveinformationviatheWorldWideWeb.Theanswer
toyouquestionmaybeamouseclickaway.Performanetsearchorjusttrytoguessthe
manufacturer'shomepageaddress.Themostobviousisoftencorrect.Itwillusuallybeoftheform
"http://www.xxx.com"wherexxxisthemanufacturers'name,abbreviation,oracronym.Forexample,
HewlettPackardishp,SunMicrosystemsissun,WesternDigitalCorp.iswdc.NECis,youguessed
it,nec.ItisamazingwhatisappearingfreelyaccessibleviatheWWW.Forexample,monitor
manufacturersoftenhavecompleteinformationincludingdetailedspecificationsforallcurrentand
olderproducts.Electronicpartsmanufacturersoftenhavedetaileddatasheetsfortheirproduct
offerings.
Don'texpecttofindcompleteschematics(atleastnoneofthemodelsIcheckedwentintothisdepth)
buttherewillbespecifications,setupandadjustmentinstructions,and,dependingonmodel,some
troubleshootinginformation,disassemblyinstructionsandexplodedviews,etc.

Interchangeabilityofcomponents
Thequestionoftenarises:IfIcannotobtainanexactreplacementorifIhaveamonitor,TV,orother
equipmentcarcassgatheringdust,canIsubstituteapartthatisnotaprecisematch?Sometimes,thisis
simplydesiredtoconfirmadiagnosisandavoidtheriskoforderinganexpensivereplacementand/or
havingtowaituntilitarrives.

Forsafetyrelateditems,theanswerisgenerallyNOanexactreplacementpartisneededtomaintain
thespecificationswithinacceptablelimitswithrespecttolineisolation,Xrayprotectionandto
minimizefirehazards.Typicalpartsofthistypeincludeflameproofresistors,sometypesof
capacitors,andspecificpartsdealingwithCRThighvoltageregulation.However,duringtesting,itis
usuallyacceptabletosubstituteelectricallyequivalentpartsonatemporarybasis.Forexample,an
ordinary1ohmresistorcanbesubstitutedforanopen1ohmflameproofresistortodetermineifthere
areotherproblemsinthehorizontaldeflectioncircuitsbeforeplacinganorderaslongasyoudon't
getlazyandneglecttoinstallthepropertypebeforebuttoningupthemonitororTV.
Forothercomponents,whetheranotquiteidenticalsubstitutewillworkreliablyoratalldependson
manyfactors.Somedeflectioncircuitsaresocarefullymatchedtoaspecifichorizontaloutput
transistorthatnosubstitutewillbereliable.
Herearesomeguidelines:
1.Fusesexactsamecurrentratingandatleastequalvoltagerating.Ihaveoftensoldereda
normal3AGsizefuseontoasmallerblown20mmlongfuseasasubstitute.
2.Resistors,capacitors,inductors,diodes,switches,potentiometers,LEDs,andothercommon
partsexceptforthosespecificallymarkedassafetycriticalsubstitutionaslongasthe
replacementpartfitsandspecificationsshouldbefine.Itisbesttousethesametypemetal
filmresistor,forexample.Butfortesting,eventhisisnotahardandfastruleandacarbon
resistorshouldworkjustfine.
3.Rectifiersmanyareofthesearehighefficiencyand/orfastrecoverytypes.Replacements
shouldhaveatequalorbetterPRV,Imax,andTrspecifications.
4.Posistorsmanyofthesearesimilar.Unfortunately,themarkingsonthedevicesaregenerally
prettyuselessindeterminingtheirratings.Note,however,thatthepricesforreplacement
posistorsmaybequitereasonablefromtheoriginalmanufacturersoitmaynotmakesenseto
taketheriskofusinganunknownpart.
(From:StefanHuebner(Stefan.Huebner@rookie.antar.com).)
Inmostcasesyoucanuseastandard3terminaldevice,theresistanceofthetemperature
dependentresistorsinitarenearlyidentical.Hereisalistofpossiblereplacementdevices:
38000001,24340521,21996031201,163024A,163035A,CO2200N66,C8ROH,
QX265P05503,32112026,4822A111240148,02199003120,1508001A,5391560067,
F400001.
5.Transistorsandthyristors(exceptHOTsandSMPSchoppers)substituteswillgenerallywork
aslongastheirspecificationsmeetorexceedthoseoftheoriginal.Fortesting,itisusuallyOK
tousetypesthatdonotquitemeetalloftheseaslongasthebreakdownvoltageandmaximum
currentspecificationsarenotexceeded.However,performancemaynotbequiteasgood.For
powertypes,makesuretouseaheatsink.
6.Horizontaloutput(orSMPS)transistorsexactreplacementisgenerallybestbutexceptfor
veryhighperformancemonitors,genericHOTsthathavespecificationsthatareatleastasgood
willworkinmanycases.Makesurethereplacementtransistorhasaninternaldamperdiodeif
theoriginalhadone.Fortestingwithaserieslightbulb,evenatransistorthatdoesn'tquitemeet
specificationsshouldworkwellenough(andnotblowup)toenableyoutodeterminewhatelse
maybefaulty.ThemostcriticalparametersareVceo/Vcbo,Ic,andHfewhichshouldallbeat
leastequaltotheoriginaltransistor.IhaveoftenusedbyfavoriteBU208Dasatemporary
substituteforotherHOTsinTVsandSMPS(chopper)transistors.However,forhigh

performancemonitors,aBU2508Dtypeisabetterchoice.Makesureyouuseaheatsink(with
insulatingwasherifapplicable)andthermalgreaseinanycaseevenifyouhavetohangthe
assemblywithacabletietomakeitfit.
However,usinganHOTwithmuchbetterspecsmayactuallyresultinearlyfailuredueto
excessiveheatingfrominsufficientand/orsuboptimalbasedrive.Seethedocument:TVand
MonitorDeflectionSystemsformoreinfo.
Alsoseethesection:Replacementpowertransistorswhiletesting.
7.Deflectionyokesintheolddays,particularlyforTVs,allofthesewerequitesimilar.Itwas
commontojustswapwithonethatfitphysicallyandatmostneedtoadjustorchangeawidth
coil.Withhighperformanceautoscanmonitors,thisisnolongerthecase.Sometimesitwill
workbutothertimesthepowersupplywon'tevenbeabletocomeupasaresultofthe
impedancemismatchduedifferentcoilsandpolepiececonfigurations.Inaddition,theremaybe
othergeometrycorrectioncoilsassociatedwiththeyokethatcoulddiffersubstantially.
However,ifyouarereallydetermined,seethesection:Swappingofdeflectionyokes.
8.CRTsasidefromtheissuesofphysicalsizeandmounting,manyfactorsneedtobeconsidered.
Theseincludedeflectionangle,neckdiameter,basepinout,focusandscreenvoltage
requirements,purityandconvergencemagnets,etc.ColorCRTreplacementfromscratch(not
usingaCRTandyoke/convergence/purityassemblyfromanothermonitor)israrelyworththe
effortinanycase.But,tryingtosubstituteadifferentCRTisreallyaskingforfrustration.
FormonochromeCRTs,thereislessvariationandthismaybeworthatry.
Thefollowingareusuallycustompartsandsubstitutionofsomethingfromyourjunkboxisunlikely
tobesuccessfulevenfortesting:flyback(LOPT)andSMPStransformers,interstagecoilsor
transformers,microcontrollers,andothercustomprogrammedchips.
Substitutingmainboardsandothermodulesfromidenticalmodelsis,ofcourse,possiblebutsome
realignmentmaybeneeded.Evenamonitorfromthesamemanufacturerthatisnotquiteidentical
mayusethesamesubsystems,perhapsdepopulatedorjumpereddifferently.

Horizontaloutputtransistorpinouts
YouwillnearlyalwaysfindoneoftwotypesofhorizontaloutputtransistorsinTVsandmonitors:
MetalcanTO3package:
_
/O\Viewfrombottom(pinside)
/oo\
(BE)B=Base,E=Emitter,C=Collector
\/
\O/CThemetalcaseistheCollector.

PlastictabTO3Pn(n=severalsuffixes)package:
_____
/\
|O|Viewfromfront(labelside)
||
||B=Base,E=Emitter,C=Collector

|_______|
|||Ifthereisanexposedmetaltab,thisisthe
|||Collectoraswell.
BCE

Someothertransistortypesusethesamepinout(TO66formetalcan,TO218andTO220forplastic
tab)butnotall.However,forhorizontaloutputtransistors,thesepinoutsshouldbevalid.
Notethatthosewithabuiltindamperdiodemayreadaround50ohmsbetweenBandE(near0on
thediodetestrange)thisisnormalaslongastheresistanceisnotreallylowlikeunder10ohms.

HowdoyoulocatetheHOT
Well,itisusuallytheLARGESTtransistorinthesetneartheLARGESTtransformerintheset
(flybackthethingwiththeFATredwireconnectingtothepicturetube)ontheLARGESTheatsink
intheset.
Gotthat?:)
Or,inthegoodolddaysoopsbutthatwasbeforecomputermonitors...
(From:DonWall(d.wall@nunet.neu.edu).)
Sure,it'susuallythelargesttubeintheset,hasatopcap,runsveryhot,andisoftena6BQ6Gorsome
such.(tonguefirmlyincheek)Actually,backinthedaysofyore,theHorizontalOutputTubewas
frequentlyreferredtoastheHOTguesssomethingsdon'tchange!

Replacementpowertransistorswhiletesting
Duringtestingofhorizontaldeflectioncircuitsorswitchmodepowersupplies,particularlywherethe
originalfailureresultedinthedeathoftheHOTorchopper,overstressonreplacementtransistorsis
alwaysapossibilityifalldefectivecomponentshavenotbeidentified.
Therefore,usingapartwithbetterspecificationsmaysaveyouinthelongrunbyreducingthenumber
ofexpensiveblownparts.Onceallotherproblemshavebeenlocatedandrepaired,theproperpartcan
beinstalled.
However,thisisnotalwaysgoingtowork.InaTVandespeciallyahighperformancemonitor,the
HOTmaybecloselymatchedtothedriveandoutputcomponentsofthedeflectioncircuits.Puttingin
onewithhigherVce,I,orPspecificationsmayresultinoverheatingandfailureduetolowerHfe.
Wherepossible,aseriesloadlikealightbulbcanbeusedlimitthemaximumcurrenttothedevice
andwillallowyoutopowertheequipmentwhilecheckingforotherfaults.Somedesigns,
unfortunately,willnotstartupundertheseconditions.Insuchcases,substitutinga'better'devicemay
bethebestchoicefortesting.
(From:GlennAllen(glenn@manawatu.gen.nz).)
IbeenrepairingSMPSofalltypesbutwhenIstartedonthoseusingMOSFETsIwasblowningafew
ofthemwhenreplacedbecausesomethingelsewasfaulty.
EversinceIhavebeenusingaBUZ355onaheatsinkIhaven'tblownit.Itisratedat800V,6A,and
220W.itisaTO218casebiggerthanaT0220.Itseemsthehigherratingsallowsyoutodorepair
whereasasomethinglikea2SK1117orMTP6N60willjustblow.

TestingofreplacementHOTs
ThefollowingisusefulbothtoconfirmthatasubstitutereplacementHOTissuitableandthatnoother
circuitproblemsarestillpresent.However,singlescanlineanomalies(particularlywhenchanging
channelsand/orwherereceptionispoorwithaTVorwhenswitchingscanratesand/orwhennoor
incorrectsyncispresentwithamonitor)resultinginexcessivevoltageacrosstheHOTandinstant
failurearestillpossibleandwillnotresultinanHOTrunningexcessivelyhot.
(From:RaymondCarlsen(rrcc@u.washington.edu).)
AfterinstallingareplacementHOTinaTVsetormonitor,Iliketocheckthetemperatureforawhile
tomakesurethesubstituteisagoodmatchandthattherearenootherproblemssuchasaweakH
drivesignal.Theinputcurrentisjustnotagoodenoughindicator.IhavebeenusingaWCF(well
calibratedfinger)foryears.Forme,theruleofthumb,quiteliterally,is:ifyoucannotholdyour
fingeronit,it'srunningtoohot,andwillprobablyfailprematurely.Touchingthecaseofthetransistor
orheatsinkistricky....
Metalcasetransistorswillbeconnectedtothecollectorandhaveahealthypulse(>1,200Vpeak!)
andevenwithplasticcasetabtransistors,thetabwillbeatthispotential.Itisbesttodothisonlyafter
thepowerisoffandtheB+hasdischarged.Inaddition,theHOTmaybehotenoughtoburnyou.
Abettermethodistheuseofanindoor/outdoorthermometer.IboughtonerecentlyfromRadioShack
forabout$15(631009).Ithasaplastic'probe'ontheendofa10'cableastheoutdoorsensor.Witha
largealligatorclip,Ijustclampthesensortotheheatsinknearthetransistorandsetupthedigital
displayneartheTVsettomonitorthetemperature.ThelastTVIuseditonwasa27"Sanyothathad
ashortedH.outputandanopenB+resistor.Replacementpartsbroughtthesetbacktolifeandthe
flybackpulselookedOK,butthetransistorwasgettinghotwithin5minutes...upto130degrees
beforeIshutitdownandstartedlookingforthecause.Ifounda1uF160voltcapinthedrivercircuit
thatwasopen.Afterreplacingthecap,Ifiredupthesetagainandmonitoredtheheatsinkasbefore.
Thistime,thetemperatureslowlyrosetoabout115degreesandstayedthere.Iranthesetalldayand
noticedlittlevariationinthemeasurement.Testequipmentdoesn'thavetocostafortune.

Removingandreplacingthedeflectionyoke
ShouldyouneedtoremovethedeflectionyokeonacolorCRT,somebasicconsiderationsareadvised
bothtominimizetheneededpurityandconvergenceadjustmentsafterreplacementaswellasto
preventanunfortunateaccident.
Thepositionandorientationoftheyoke(includingpitchandyaw)andmagnetassembly(purityand
staticconvergencerings,ifused)arecritical.UsepaintorWhiteOut(tm)toputastripeacrossallof
themagnetringssoyouwillknowtheirexactpositionsshouldtheyaccidentallyshiftlater.Ifthereare
rubberwedgesbetweentheyokeandthefunnelofthetube,assurethattheyaresecure.Tapethemto
bedoublysureasadhesiveonoldtapedriesupwithageandheatandbecomesuseless.Thiswill
avoidtheneedforunecessarydynamicconvergenceadjustmentsafterreassembly.
TheneckisthemostfragilepartoftheCRTsodonotapplyanyserioussidewaysforceandtakecare
nottobendanyofthepinswhenremovingandreplacingtheCRTsocket.
Theyokeandpurity/staticconvergenceassemblieswillbeclampedandpossiblygluedaswell.
However,theadhesivewillprobablybeeasilyaccessiblebigglobsofstufflikehotmeltglueand/or
RTVsilicone.CarefullyfreetheadhesivefromtheglassneckoftheCRT.Loosentheclampsand
gentlywigglethemagnetsandyokeofftheneck.Theymayappearstuckfromageandheatbut
shouldyieldwithgentlypersuasion.

Oncetheyokeisreplaced,somefineadjustmentsofthepicturerotation,purity,andstaticand
dynamicconvergencemaybeneededbuthopefullywithyourmostexcellentdiagrams,thesewillbe
minimal.
SimilarcommentsapplyformonochromeCRTsbuttherearefarfewerissuesastheyokeispositioned
firmlyagainstthefunneloftheCRTandrotationandcenteringareusuallytheonlyadjustments.
However,theremaybemagnetslocatedonswivelsorgluedtostrategiclocationsontheCRT
envelopetocorrectforgeometricdistortion.

Swappingofdeflectionyokes
ThisshouldworkwithidenticalTVsormonitors.Yourmileagewillvaryifyouareattemptingaswap
betweenmonitorswithsimilarspecifications.Chancesofsuccessformonitorswithwidelydifferent
screensizesorscanratespecificationsisclosetozero.
Oneindicationofcompatibilityproblemswouldbemajordifferencesinresistancereadingsforthe
correspondingyokewindings,CRTHVandotherbiaslevels,etc.
Beforeyoudothetransplant,seethesection:Removingandreplacingthedeflectionyokefor
proceduresandprecautionstominimizeproblemsinrealignment.
Makeaprecisediagramofeverythingyoudo.
Keepthepurity/staticconvergencemagnetassemblywiththeoriginalCRTifpossibleandinstallitin
thesameorasnearlythesamepositionaspossiblewhenyoureplaceit.
Onceyouaresureoftheconnections,poweritupcarefullythereisnoassurancethatyouryokesare
compatible.Ayokewithamuchlowerresistanceorinductancethantheoriginalmayoverstress
componentsinthepowersupply.
Youwillthenneedtogothroughalltheadjustmentsstartingwithpurityandconvergence.

SwappingofnonidenticalCRTs
GiventheproblemsofjustreplacingaCRTwithanidenticalnewone,itisn'tsurprisingthat
attemptingtosubstituteaCRTwhichisnotthesametypewillresultindifficultiestosaytheleast.
Obviously,thecloserinsize,scanrate(formonitors),anddeflectionangle,themorelikelythe
chancesofsuccess.WherethealternativeistojunktheTVormonitor,itmaybeworthashotand
youmaygetlucky!
ItmaybebesttotransferasmuchaspossiblewiththeCRTyokeandpurityandconvergence
magnets.Theconnectorstotheyokemayneedtobechangedbutthismaybetheleastofyour
problems.Differenceinyokeimpedanceandothercharacteristicsmayresultinanythingfrom
incorrectsizetoatrulyspectacularmeltdown!ThelatterismuchmorelikelywithSVGAmonitors
comparedtosimilarsize/deflectionangleTVs.
Wherethenecksizeisthesame,theyokecanbemovedfromoneCRTtotheotherbutyouwillhave
todoacompletepurityandconvergencesetupandeventhenyoumayhaveuncorrectable
convergenceerrors.Seethesection:Swappingofdeflectionyokes.
(From:J.G.Simpson(ccjgs@cse.bris.ac.uk).)
MonitorsaregenerallydesignedbychoosingaCRT,thentheEHT,thendesigningayoketoscanthe
CRT,thendesigningadrivercircuittodrivetheyoke.

InaCRTtestlabit'scommontohavevariablesuppliesforEHTandothervoltages,asmallselection
ofyokes,andvariableamplitudedrivecircuits.
EHTaffectsscansensitivity,brightness,spotsize.Youcan'tgethighbrightnessandsmallspotsizeon
alargemonitorwith3kVofEHT.Virtuallyeveryvariablehassomeeffectonconvergence.Spotsize
isimportant,inasmuchasyouwantmostofitonthephosphorandnottheshadowmask.
Providedthenecksizeisthesameyoucanswaptubesinyokesbutdon'texpectittoworkverywell.
Differenttubemanufacturersmayuseradicallydifferentgunstructures.Agivenyokeanditsdriver
maygiveunderscanoroverscanandit'sprettywellcertainthatconvergencewillbewayoff.
Themilitaryspendsasmallfortuneontryingtogetthedropintotheyokeanditflieswithno
adjustmentorconvergenceCRT.FortherestofusswappingaCRTisapaininthebutt.

Decayedglueinelectronicequipment
Largercomponentslikeelectrolyticcapacitorsareoftensecuredtothecircuitboardwithsomesortof
adhesive.Originally,itiswhiteandinert.However,withheatandage,sometypesdecaytoabrown,
conductiveand/orcorrosivematerialwhichcancauseallsortsofproblemsincludingthecreationof
highleakagepathsordeadshortsandeatingawayatnearbywiringtraces.
Thebottomline:Mostofthetime,thisstuffservesnoessentialpurposeanyhowandshouldbe
removed.AnoncorrosiveRTVorhotmeltgluecanbeusedinitsplaceifstructuralsupportis
needed.

Repairpartssources
Forgeneralelectroniccomponentslikeresistorsandcapacitors,mostelectronicsdistributorswillhave
asufficientvarietyatreasonablecost.EvenRadioShackcanbeconsideredinapinch.
However,formodernelectronicequipmentrepairs,placeslikeDigikey,Allied,andNewarkdonot
havetheavarietyofJapanesesemiconductorslikeICsandtransistorsoranycomponentslikeflyback
transformersordegaussPosistors.
Seethedocument:MajorServicePartsSuppliersforsomecompaniesthatIhaveusedinthepastand
othersthathavebeenrecommended.Alsoseethedocuments:TroubleshootingofConsumer
ElectronicEquipmentandElectronicsMailOrderList(thisoneisquitedatedthough)foradditional
partssources.

Sourcesforadaptersandcables
OfficeandcomputersupplycompanieslikeInmacandGlobalmayhavesomeverycommontypes
likeVGAswitchboxesandextensioncablesofunknownquality.
However,therearecompaniesspecializingincablesforcomputers,video,andcommunications.For
example:
BlackBoxCorporation.Checkouttheironlinecatalogandotherinformation.

Monitorreplacementcables
Hereisacompanythatusedtosupplyreplacementcablesforawidevarietyofcomputermonitors.
Interface2Ltd(UK)(formerlayA+GComputerwareLimited)

Idon'tknowiftheystillhaveanystandardproductsthough.Acustommadecablemightcostmore
thanadozennewmonitors.:)

BacktoMonitorRepairFAQTableofContents.
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