Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 395

The ''Final Fantasy'' Series

An overview

Contents
1

Introduction

1.1

Final Fantasy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1

Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.2

Common elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.3

Development and history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.4

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.5

Impact and legacy

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

Final Fantasy character jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.2.1

History and development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.2.2

Physical classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.2.3

Magical classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

1.2.4

Mixed classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

1.2.5

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

1.2.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

Character design of Final Fantasy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

1.3.1

Visual character design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

1.3.2

Recurring characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

1.3.3

Recurring species and races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

1.3.4

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

1.3.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

1.3.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

Gameplay of Final Fantasy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

1.4.1

Parties and battles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

1.4.2

Minigames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

1.4.3

Character growth and classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

1.4.4

Magic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

1.4.5

Airships and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

1.4.6

Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

1.4.7

Reception and legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

1.2

1.3

1.4

ii

CONTENTS
1.4.8
1.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

Music of the Final Fantasy series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

1.5.1

Themes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

1.5.2

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

1.5.3

Merchandise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

1.5.4

Public performances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

1.5.5

Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

1.5.6

Artists inspired by Final Fantasy music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

1.5.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

1.5.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

1.5.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

Main series

60

2.1

Final Fantasy (video game) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

2.1.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

2.1.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

2.1.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

2.1.4

Versions and re-releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

2.1.5

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

2.1.6

Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

2.1.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

2.1.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

2.1.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

Final Fantasy II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

2.2.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

2.2.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

2.2.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

2.2.4

Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

2.2.5

Versions and re-releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

2.2.6

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

2.2.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

2.2.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

2.2.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Final Fantasy III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

2.3.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

2.3.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

2.3.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

2.3.4

Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

2.3.5

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

2.3.6

Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

2.3.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

2.3.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

2.2

2.3

CONTENTS
2.3.9
2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

iii
External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

Final Fantasy IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

2.4.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

2.4.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.4.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

2.4.4

Re-releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

2.4.5

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

2.4.6

Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

2.4.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

2.4.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

2.4.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

Final Fantasy IV: The After Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

2.5.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

2.5.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

2.5.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

2.5.4

Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

2.5.5

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

2.5.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

2.5.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

2.5.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

Final Fantasy V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

2.6.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

2.6.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

2.6.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

2.6.4

Ports and remakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.6.5

Sequel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.6.6

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

2.6.7

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

2.6.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

2.6.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

Final Fantasy VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

2.7.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

2.7.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

2.7.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

2.7.4

Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

2.7.5

Re-releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

2.7.6

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

2.7.7

Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

2.7.8

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

2.7.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

2.7.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

iv

CONTENTS
2.8

2.9

Compilation of Final Fantasy VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


2.8.1

Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

2.8.2

Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

2.8.3

Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

2.8.4

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

2.8.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Final Fantasy VII Advent Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116


2.9.1

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

2.9.2

Voice cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

2.9.3

Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

2.9.4

Promotion and release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

2.9.5

Tie-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

2.9.6

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

2.9.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

2.9.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

2.10 Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125


2.10.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
2.10.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
2.10.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
2.10.4 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
2.10.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
2.10.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
2.11 Final Fantasy VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
2.11.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
2.11.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
2.11.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
2.11.4 Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2.11.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2.11.6 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
2.11.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
2.11.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
2.12 Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
2.12.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
2.12.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
2.12.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
2.12.4 Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
2.12.5 Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
2.12.6 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
2.12.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
2.12.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
2.13 Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

CONTENTS

2.13.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150


2.13.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
2.13.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
2.13.4 Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
2.13.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
2.13.6 Mobile phone tie-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
2.13.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
2.13.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
2.14 Last Order: Final Fantasy VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
2.14.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
2.14.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
2.14.3 Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
2.14.4 Production and release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
2.14.5 Response and cultural impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
2.14.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
2.14.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
2.15 Final Fantasy VIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
2.15.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
2.15.2 Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
2.15.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
2.15.4 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
2.15.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
2.15.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
2.16 Final Fantasy IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
2.16.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
2.16.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
2.16.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
2.16.4 Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
2.16.5 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
2.16.6 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
2.16.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
2.16.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
2.16.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
2.17 Final Fantasy X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
2.17.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
2.17.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
2.17.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
2.17.4 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
2.17.5 Versions and merchandise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
2.17.6 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
2.17.7 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

vi

CONTENTS
2.17.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
2.17.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
2.18 Final Fantasy X-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
2.18.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
2.18.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
2.18.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
2.18.4 Versions and merchandise

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

2.18.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196


2.18.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
2.18.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
2.19 Final Fantasy XI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
2.19.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
2.19.2 Synopsis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

2.19.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204


2.19.4 Expansions and add-ons

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

2.19.5 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205


2.19.6 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
2.19.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
2.19.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
2.20 Final Fantasy XII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
2.20.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
2.20.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
2.20.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
2.20.4 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
2.20.5 Merchandise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
2.20.6 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
2.20.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
2.20.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
2.21 Final Fantasy XII: Revenant Wings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
2.21.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
2.21.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
2.21.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
2.21.4 Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
2.21.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
2.21.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
2.21.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
2.21.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
2.22 Fabula Nova Crystallis Final Fantasy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
2.22.1 Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
2.22.2 Themes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
2.22.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

CONTENTS

vii

2.22.4 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230


2.22.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
2.22.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
2.23 Final Fantasy XIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
2.23.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
2.23.2 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
2.23.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
2.23.4 Versions and merchandise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
2.23.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
2.23.6 Sequels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
2.23.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
2.23.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
2.24 Final Fantasy XIII-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
2.24.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
2.24.2 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
2.24.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
2.24.4 Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
2.24.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
2.24.6 Sequel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
2.24.7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
2.24.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
2.24.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
2.25 Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
2.25.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
2.25.2 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
2.25.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
2.25.4 Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
2.25.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
2.25.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
2.25.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
2.26 Final Fantasy Type-0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
2.26.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
2.26.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
2.26.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
2.26.4 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
2.26.5 Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
2.26.6 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
2.26.7 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
2.26.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
2.26.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
2.27 Final Fantasy XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

viii

CONTENTS
2.27.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
2.27.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
2.27.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
2.27.4 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
2.27.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
2.27.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
2.27.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
2.28 Final Fantasy XV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
2.28.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
2.28.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
2.28.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
2.28.4 Possible sequels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
2.28.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
2.28.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

Compilations and re-releases


3.1

3.2

3.3

Final Fantasy IV (Nintendo DS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296


3.1.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

3.1.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

3.1.3

Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

3.1.4

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

3.1.5

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

3.1.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

3.1.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

3.1.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

Final Fantasy Chronicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298


3.2.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

3.2.2

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

3.2.3

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

3.2.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

3.2.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

3.2.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

Final Fantasy VII (Famicom) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301


3.3.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

3.3.2

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

3.3.3

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

3.3.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

3.3.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

Spinos
4.1

296

304

Chocobo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
4.1.1

Character design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

CONTENTS

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

ix

4.1.2

Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

4.1.3

Appearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

4.1.4

Cultural impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

4.1.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

4.1.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

4.1.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles (series) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306


4.2.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

4.2.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

4.2.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

4.2.4

Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

4.2.5

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

4.2.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

4.2.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

Final Fantasy Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311


4.3.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

4.3.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

4.3.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

4.3.4

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

4.3.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

4.3.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

Dissidia Final Fantasy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316


4.4.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

4.4.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

4.4.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

4.4.4

Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

4.4.5

Release and merchandise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

4.4.6

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

4.4.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

4.4.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

4.4.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321


4.5.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

4.5.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

4.5.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

4.5.4

Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

4.5.5

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

4.5.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

4.5.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

Final Fantasy Brigade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326


4.6.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

CONTENTS

4.7

4.8

4.9

4.6.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

4.6.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

4.6.4

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

4.6.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

4.6.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327


4.7.1

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

4.7.2

Characters

4.7.3

Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

4.7.4

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

4.7.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

4.7.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

Final Fantasy Mystic Quest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328


4.8.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

4.8.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

4.8.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

4.8.4

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

4.8.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

4.8.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333


4.9.1

Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

4.9.2

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

4.9.3

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

4.9.4

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

4.9.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

4.9.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

4.10 Final Fantasy Tactics (series) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336


4.10.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
4.10.2 Common elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
4.10.3 Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
4.10.4 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
4.10.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
4.10.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
4.11 Mana (series) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
4.11.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
4.11.2 Games

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

4.11.3 Common elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340


4.11.4 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
4.11.5 Printed adaptations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
4.11.6 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
4.11.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

CONTENTS

xi

4.11.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342


4.11.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
4.12 SaGa (series) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
4.12.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
4.12.2 Common elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
4.12.3 Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
4.12.4 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
4.12.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
4.12.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
4.12.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
4.13 Theatrhythm Final Fantasy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
4.13.1 Gameplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
4.13.2 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
4.13.3 Development and release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
4.13.4 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
4.13.5 Sequel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
4.13.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
4.13.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
5

Appendix
5.1

353

List of Final Fantasy video games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353


5.1.1

Main series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

5.1.2

Main series-related games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

5.1.3

Spin-os . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

5.1.4

Compilations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

5.1.5

Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

5.1.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

5.1.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

358

6.1

Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

6.2

Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

6.3

Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

Chapter 1

Introduction
1.1 Final Fantasy

larize console-based RPGs in markets outside Japan.

This article is about the video game franchise. For the


rst game in the series, see Final Fantasy (video game). 1.1.1 Titles
For other uses, see Final Fantasy (disambiguation).
Further information: List of Final Fantasy media
Final Fantasy ( Fainaru
Fantaj ) is a media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, and is developed and owned by Square Enix
(formerly Square). The franchise centers on a series
of fantasy and science fantasy role-playing video games
(RPGs), but includes motion pictures, anime, printed media, and other merchandise. The eponymous rst game
in the series, published in 1987, was conceived by Sakaguchi as his last-ditch eort in the game industry; the
title was a success and spawned sequels. The video game
series has since branched into other genres such as tactical
role-playing, action role-playing, massively multiplayer
online role-playing, racing, third-person shooter, ghting,
and rhythm.

Games
Main article: List of Final Fantasy video games
The rst installment of the series premiered in Japan on
December 18, 1987. Subsequent titles are numbered
and given a story unrelated to previous games; consequently, the numbers refer more to volumes than to sequels. Many Final Fantasy games have been localized for
markets in North America, Europe, and Australia on numerous video game consoles, personal computers (PC),
and mobile phones. Future installments will appear on
seventh and eighth generation consoles; upcoming titles
include Final Fantasy XV. As of January 2014, the series includes the main installments from Final Fantasy to
Final Fantasy XIV, as well as direct sequels and spin-os,
both released and conrmed as being in development.
Most of the older titles have been remade or re-released
on multiple platforms.* [1]

Although most Final Fantasy installments are stand-alone


stories with dierent settings and main characters, they
feature identical elements that dene the franchise. Recurring elements include plot themes, character names,
and game mechanics. Plots center on a group of heroes
battling a great evil while exploring the characters' internal struggles and relationships. Character names are frequently derived from the history, languages, pop culture,
and mythologies of cultures worldwide.

Main series Three Final Fantasy installments were released on the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). Final Fantasy was released in Japan in 1987 and in North
America in 1990.* [2]* [3] It introduced many concepts
to the console RPG genre, and has since been remade on
several platforms.* [3] Final Fantasy II, released in 1988
in Japan, has been bundled with Final Fantasy in several
re-releases.* [3]* [4]* [5] The last of the NES installments,
Final Fantasy III, was released in Japan in 1990;* [6] however, it was not released elsewhere until a Nintendo DS
remake in 2006.* [5]

The series has been commercially and critically successful; it is Square Enix's best selling video game franchise,
with more than 100 million units sold, and one of the bestselling video game franchises. It was awarded a star on
the Walk of Game in 2006, and holds seven Guinness
World Records in the Guinness World Records Gamer's
Edition 2008. The series is well known for its innovation, visuals, and music, such as the inclusion of full motion videos, photo-realistic character models, and orchestrated music by Nobuo Uematsu. Final Fantasy has been
a driving force in the video game industry, and the series
has aected Square Enix's business practices and its relationships with other video game developers. It has also
introduced many features now common in role-playing
video games and has been credited with helping to popu-

The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) also


featured three installments of the main series, all of which
have been re-released on several platforms. Final Fantasy IV was released in 1991; in North America, it was
1

2
released as Final Fantasy II.* [7]* [8] It introduced the
"Active Time Battle" system.* [9] Final Fantasy V, released in 1992 in Japan, was the rst game in the series
to spawn a sequel: a short anime series titled Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals.* [3]* [10]* [11] Final Fantasy
VI was released in Japan in 1994, but it was titled Final
Fantasy III in North America.* [12]
The PlayStation console saw the release of three main
Final Fantasy games. The 1997 title Final Fantasy VII
moved away from the two-dimensional (2D) graphics
used in the rst six games to three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics; the game features polygonal characters
on pre-rendered backgrounds. It also introduced a more
modern setting, a style that was carried over to the next
game.* [3] It was also the rst in the series to be released
in Europe. Final Fantasy VIII was published in 1999,
and was the rst to consistently use realistically proportioned characters and feature a vocal piece as its theme
music.* [3]* [13] Final Fantasy IX, released in 2000, returned to the series' roots by revisiting a more traditional
Final Fantasy setting rather than the more modern worlds
of VII and VIII.* [3]* [14]
Three main installments, including one online game, were
published for the PlayStation 2 (PS2).* [15]* [16]* [17]
The 2001 title Final Fantasy X introduced full 3D areas
and voice acting to the series, and was the rst to spawn a
direct video game sequel (Final Fantasy X-2).* [18]* [19]
The rst massive multi-player online role-playing game
(MMORPG) in the series, Final Fantasy XI, was released on the PS2 and PC in 2002, and later on the Xbox
360.* [20]* [21] It introduced real-time battles instead of
random encounters.* [21] The twelfth installment, published in 2006, also includes real-time battles in large,
interconnected playelds.* [22]* [23] The game is also the
rst in the main series to utilize a world used in a previous
game, namely the land of Ivalice, which had previously
featured in Final Fantasy Tactics and Vagrant Story.* [24]

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Final Fantasy has spawned numerous spin-os and
metaseries. Several are in fact, not Final Fantasy games,
but were rebranded for North American release. Examples include the SaGa series, rebranded The Final
Fantasy Legend, and its two sequels, Final Fantasy Legend II and Final Fantasy Legend III.* [34] Final Fantasy
Adventure is another rename, changed from its original
Japanese title, Seiken Densetsu (lit. Holy Sword Legend). Seiken Densetsu 2 was then re-branded as Secret
of Mana in the US Mana series.* [35] Final Fantasy Mystic Quest was specically developed for a United States
audience, and Final Fantasy Tactics is a tactical RPG
that features many references and themes found in the
series.* [35]* [36] The spin-o Chocobo series, Crystal
Chronicles series, and Kingdom Hearts series also include
multiple Final Fantasy elements.* [34]* [37] In 2003, the
Final Fantasy series' rst direct sequel, Final Fantasy X2, was released.* [38] Final Fantasy XIII was originally
intended to stand on its own, but the team wanted to explore the world, characters and mythos more, resulting
in the development and release of two sequels in 2011
and 2013 respectively, creating the series' rst ocial trilogy.* [28] Dissidia Final Fantasy was released in 2009, a
ghting game that features heroes and villains from the
rst ten games of the main series.* [39] It was followed
by a prequel in 2011.* [40] Other spin-os have taken
the form of subseriesCompilation of Final Fantasy VII,
Ivalice Alliance, and Fabula Nova Crystallis Final Fantasy.

Related media
Film and television Square Enix has expanded the Final Fantasy series into various media. Multiple anime
and computer-generated imagery (CGI) lms have been
produced that are based either on individual Final Fantasy games or on the series as a whole. The rst was
an original video animation (OVA) titled Final Fantasy:
Legend of the Crystals, a sequel to Final Fantasy V. The
story was set on the same world as the game, although
200 years in the future. It was released as four 30-minute
episodes, rst in Japan in 1994 and later in the United
States by Urban Vision in 1998. In 2001, Square Pictures
released its rst feature lm, Final Fantasy: The Spirits
Within. The lm is set on a future Earth invaded by alien
life forms.* [41] The Spirits Within was the rst animated
feature to seriously attempt to portray photorealistic CGI
humans, but was considered a box oce bomb and garnered mixed reviews.* [41]* [42]* [43]

In 2009, Final Fantasy XIII was released in Japan, and in


North America and Europe the following year.* [25]* [26]
It is the agship installment of the Fabula Nova Crystallis
Final Fantasy series* [27] and became the rst mainline
game to spawn two direct sequels (XIII-2 and Lightning
Returns).* [28] Final Fantasy XIV, a MMORPG, was released worldwide on Microsoft Windows in 2010, with
a direct sequel for Microsoft Windows and PlayStation
3, titled A Realm Reborn, released in 2013.* [29] At E3
2013, Final Fantasy XV (originally a spin-o titled Versus XIII) was ocially unveiled as an upcoming title
for PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.* [30] Like XIII before
it, XV is part of the Fabula Nova Crystallis series, al- In 2005, Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children, a theatrical
though in many other respects the game stands on its CGI lm, and Last Order: Final Fantasy VII, a non-canon
own.* [31]* [32]* [33]
OAV,* [44] were released as part of the Compilation of Final Fantasy VII. Advent Children was animated by Visual
Works, which help the company create CG sequences for
Remakes, sequels and spin-os See also: Category: the games:* [45] the lm, unlike The Spirits Within, gained
Final Fantasy spin-os
mixed to positive reviews from critics* [46]* [47]* [48] and
has become a commercial success.* [49] Last Order on

1.1. FINAL FANTASY

the other hand was released in Japan in a special DVD


bundle package with Advent Children. Last Order sold
out quickly* [50] and was positively received by Western critics,* [51]* [52] though fan reaction was mixed over
changes to established story scenes.* [53]
A 25-episode anime television series titled Final Fantasy:
Unlimited was released in 2001 based on the common elements of the Final Fantasy series. It was broadcast in
Japan by TV Tokyo and released in North America by
ADV Films.
Other media Several video games have either been
adapted into or have had spin-os in the form of manga
and novels. The rst was the novelization of Final Fantasy II in 1989, and was followed by a manga adaptation of Final Fantasy III in 1992.* [54]* [55] The past
decade has seen an increase in the number of non-video
game adaptations and spin-os. Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within has been adapted into a novel, the spin-o game
Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles has been adapted into a
manga, and Final Fantasy XI has had a novel and manga
set in its continuity.* [56]* [57]* [58]* [59] Seven novellas
based on the Final Fantasy VII universe have also been released. The Final Fantasy: Unlimited story was partially
continued in novels and a manga after the anime series
ended.* [60]

Final Fantasy V is typical of the series in that the heroes must attempt to retrieve crystals to save the world from an ancient evil.
Shown is King Tycoon approaching the Wind Crystal, which controls wind currents and is one of four elemental crystals linked to
the world's creation.

Two titles, Final Fantasy Tactics Advance and Final Fanthe protagonists taking part in the rebellion. The heroes
tasy: Unlimited, have been adapted into radio dramas.
are often destined to defeat the evil, and occasionally
gather as a direct result of the antagonist's malicious actions.* [3]* [63] Another staple of the series is the exis1.1.2 Common elements
tence of two villains; the main villain is not always who it
appears to be, as the primary antagonist may actually be
Although most Final Fantasy installments are indepensubservient to another character or entity.* [3] The main
dent, many gameplay elements recur throughout the seantagonist introduced at the beginning of the game is not
ries.* [61]* [62] Most titles feature recycled names ofalways the nal enemy, and the characters must continue
ten inspired from various cultures' history, languages
their quest beyond what appears to be the nal ght.* [63]
and mythology, including Asian, European, and MiddleEastern.* [63] Examples include weapon names like Stories in the series frequently emphasize the interExcalibur and Masamunederived from Arthurian leg- nal struggles, passions, and tragedies of the characters,
end and the Japanese swordsmith Masamune respectively and the main plot often recedes into the background
*
*
as well as the spell names Holy, Meteor, and Ul- as the focus shifts to their personal lives. [23] [64]
tima.* [62]* [63] Beginning with Final Fantasy IV, the Games also explore relationships between characters,
*
main series adopted its current logo style that features the ranging from love to rivalry. [3] Other recurring situsame typeface and an emblem designed by Japanese artist ations that drive the plot include amnesia, a hero corYoshitaka Amano. The emblem relates to a title's respec- rupted by an evil force, mistaken identity, and self*
*
*
tive plot and typically portrays a character or object in the sacrice. [3] [65] [66] Magical orbs and crystals are restory. Subsequent remakes of the rst three games have curring in-game items that are frequently connected to
*
replaced the previous logos with ones similar to the rest the themes of the games' plots. [63] Crystals often play
a central role in the creation of the world, and a majorof the series.* [62]
ity of the Final Fantasy games link crystals and orbs to
the planet's life force. As such, control over these crysPlot and themes
tals drives the main conict.* [63]* [67] The classical elements are also a recurring theme in the series related
The central conict in many Final Fantasy games focuses to the heroes, villains, and items.* [63] Other common
on a group of characters battling an evil, and sometimes plot and setting themes include the Gaia hypothesis, an
ancient, antagonist that dominates the game's world. Sto- apocalypse, and conicts between advanced technology
ries frequently involve a sovereign state in rebellion, with and nature.* [63]* [65]* [68]

4
Characters
Further information: Character design of Final Fantasy
Character names are another recurring theme. Since the
release of Final Fantasy II, including subsequent remakes
of the original Final Fantasy, a character named Cid has
appeared in dierent capacities: as a non-playable ally,
a party member, and a villain. Though Cid's appearance
and personality dier between titles, the character is normally related to the in-game airships. Biggs and Wedge,
inspired by two Star Wars characters of the same name,
appear in numerous titles as minor characters, sometimes as comic relief.* [23]* [62] The later titles in the
series feature several males with eeminate characteristics.* [69]* [70] Recurring creatures include Chocobos
and Moogles.* [23] Chocobos are large, often ightless
birds that appear in several installments as a means of
long-distance travel for characters. Moogles, on the other
hand, are white, stout creatures resembling teddy bears
with wings and a single antenna. They serve dierent capacities in games including mail delivery, weaponsmiths,
party members, and saving the game. Chocobo and
Moogle appearances are often accompanied by specic
musical themes that have been arranged dierently for
separate titles.* [3]* [23]* [62]

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
who worked on X,* [75] was meant to have an actionoriented feel, emulating the cinematic battles in Final
Fantasy VII: Advent Children.* [76]
Like most RPGs, the Final Fantasy installments use
an experience level system for character advancement,
in which experience points are accumulated by killing
enemies.* [77]* [78]* [79]* [80] Character classes, specic
jobs that enable unique abilities for characters, are another recurring theme. Introduced in the rst game, character classes have been used dierently in each title.
Some restrict a character to a single job to integrate it
into the story, while other games feature dynamic job systems that allow the player to choose from multiple classes
and switch throughout the game. Though used heavily in
many games, such systems have become less prevalent in
favor of characters that are more versatile; characters still
match an archetype, but are able to learn skills outside
their class.* [23]* [62]* [63]

Magic is another common RPG element in the series.


The method by which characters gain magic varies between installments, but is generally divided into classes
organized by color: White magic, which focuses on
spells that assist teammates; Black magic, which focuses on harming enemies; Red magic, which is a
combination of white and black magic, Blue magic
, which mimics enemy attacks; and Green magic
which focuses on applying status eects to either allies or enemies.* [3]* [62]* [71] Other types of magic freGameplay
quently appear such as Time magic, focusing on the
themes of time, space, and gravity; and Summoning
Main article: Gameplay of Final Fantasy
magic, which evokes legendary creatures to aid in battle and is a feature that has persisted since Final Fantasy
In Final Fantasy games, players command a party of III. Summoned creatures are often referred to by names
characters as they progress through the game's story like Espersor Eidolonsand have been inspired
by exploring the game world and defeating oppo- by mythologies from Arabic, Hindu, Norse, and Greek
nents.* [3]* [63] Enemies are typically encountered ran- cultures.* [62]* [63]
domly through exploring, a trend which changed in Final
Fantasy XI and Final Fantasy XII. The player issues com- Dierent means of transportation have appeared through
bat orderslikeFight,Magic, andItemto in- the series. The most common is the airship for long range
dividual characters via a menu-driven interface while en- travel, accompanied by chocobos for travelling short disgaging in battles. Throughout the series, the games have tances, but others include sea and land vessels. Following
and futuristic vehicle deused dierent battle systems. Prior to Final Fantasy XI, Final Fantasy VII, more modern
*
signs
have
been
included.
[63]
battles were turn-based with the protagonists and antagonists on dierent sides of the battleeld. Final Fantasy IV
introduced theActive Time Battle(ATB) system that
augmented the turn-based nature with a perpetual time- 1.1.3 Development and history
keeping system. Designed by Hiroyuki Ito, it injected urgency and excitement into combat by requiring the player Origin
to act before an enemy attacks, and was used until Final
Fantasy X, which implemented the Conditional Turn- See also: Development of Final Fantasy (video game) and
Based(CTB) system.* [3]* [23]* [71] This new system Development of Final Fantasy II
returned to the previous turn-based system, but added In the mid-1980s, Square entered the Japanese video
nuances to oer players more challenge.* [19]* [72] Fi- game industry with simple RPGs, racing games, and
nal Fantasy XI adopted a real-time battle system where platformers for Nintendo's Famicom Disk System. In
characters continuously act depending on the issued com- 1987, Square designer Hironobu Sakaguchi chose to cremand.* [73] Final Fantasy XII continued this gameplay ate a new fantasy role-playing game for the cartridgewith the Active Dimension Battlesystem.* [74] Final based NES, and drew inspiration from popular fantasy
Fantasy XIII 's combat system, designed by the same man games: Enix's Dragon Quest, Nintendo's The Legend of

1.1. FINAL FANTASY

Hironobu Sakaguchi, creator of the Final Fantasy series

Zelda, and Origin Systems's Ultima series. Though often


attributed to the company allegedly facing bankruptcy,
Sakaguchi explained that the game was his personal lastditch eort in the game industry and that its title, Final
Fantasy, stemmed from his feelings at the time; had the
game not sold well, he would have quit the business and
gone back to university.* [81]* [81]* [82]* [83] Despite his
explanation, publications have also attributed the name
to the company's hopes that the project would solve its
nancial troubles.* [82]* [84]

5
For the original Final Fantasy, Sakaguchi required a
larger production team than Square's previous titles. He
began crafting the game's story while experimenting with
gameplay ideas. Once the gameplay system and game
world size was established, Sakaguchi integrated his story
ideas into the available resources. A dierent approach
has been taken for subsequent titles; the story is completed rst and the game built around it.* [88] Designers
have never been restricted by consistency, though most
feel each title should have a minimum number of common elements. The development teams strive to create
completely new worlds for each title, and avoid making
new games too similar to previous ones. Game locations
are conceptualized early in development and design details like building parts are eshed out as a base for entire
structures.* [61]
The rst ve games were directed by Sakaguchi, who
also provided the original concepts.* [63]* [89] He drew
inspiration for game elements from anime lms by Hayao
Miyazaki; series staples like the airships and chocobos are inspired by elements in Castle in the Sky and
Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind, respectively.* [90]
Sakaguchi served as a producer for subsequent games
until he left Square in 2001.* [63]* [89] Yoshinori Kitase took over directing the games until Final Fantasy
VIII,* [91]* [92]* [93] and has been followed by a new director for each new title. Hiroyuki Ito designed several
gameplay systems, including Final Fantasy V 's "Job System", Final Fantasy VIII 's "Junction System" and the
Active Time Battle concept, which was used from Final
Fantasy IV until Final Fantasy IX.* [63]* [91] In designing
the Active Time Battle system, Ito drew inspiration from
Formula One racing; he thought it would be interesting if
character types had dierent speeds after watching race
cars pass each other.* [94] Ito also co-directed Final Fantasy VI with Kitase.* [63]* [91] Kenji Terada was the scenario writer for the rst three games; Kitase took over as
scenario writer for Final Fantasy V through Final Fantasy VII. Kazushige Nojima became the series' primary
scenario writer from Final Fantasy VII until his resignation in October 2003; he has since formed his own company, Stellavista. Nojima partially or completely wrote
the stories for Final Fantasy VII, Final Fantasy VIII, Final Fantasy X, and Final Fantasy X-2. He also worked
as the scenario writer for the spin o series, Kingdom
Hearts.* [95] Daisuke Watanabe co-wrote the scenarios
for Final Fantasy X and XII, and was the main writer for
the XIII games.* [96]* [97]* [98]

The game indeed reversed Square's lagging fortunes, and


it became the company's agship franchise.* [42]* [82]
Following the success, Square immediately developed a
second installment. Because Sakaguchi assumed Final
Fantasy would be a stand-alone title, its story was not designed to be expanded by a sequel. The developers instead chose to carry over only thematic similarities from
its predecessor, while some of the gameplay elements,
such as the character advancement system, were overhauled. This approach has continued throughout the series; each major Final Fantasy game features a new setting, a new cast of characters, and an upgraded battle
system.* [5] Video game writer John Harris attributed
the concept of reworking the game system of each installment to Nihon Falcom's Dragon Slayer series,* [85]
with which Square was previously involved as a publisher.* [86] The company regularly released new titles in
the main series. However, the time between the releases
of Final Fantasy XI (2002), Final Fantasy XII (2006),
and Final Fantasy XIII (2009) were much longer than previous titles. Following Final Fantasy XIV, Square Enix
stated that it intended to release Final Fantasy games either annually or biennially. This switch was to mimic the
development cycles of Western games in the Call of Duty, Artistic design, including character and monster creAssassin's Creed and Battleeld series, as well as maintain ations, was handled by Japanese artist Yoshitaka Amano
from Final Fantasy through Final Fantasy VI. Amano also
fan-interest.* [87]
handled title logo designs for all of the main series and the
image illustrations from Final Fantasy VII onward.* [89]
Tetsuya Nomura was chosen to replace Amano because
Design
Nomura's designs were more adaptable to 3D graphics.
He worked with the series from Final Fantasy VII through
See also: Category: Final Fantasy designers
Final Fantasy X;* [63]* [89] for Final Fantasy IX, how-

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
includes non-player characters (NPCs) the player could
interact with, but they are mostly static in-game objects.
Beginning with the second title, Square used predetermined pathways for NPCs to create more dynamic scenes
that include comedy and drama.* [102]

Final Fantasy VI artwork by Yoshitaka Amano, who provided


designs for much of the series

In 1995, Square showed an interactive SGI technical


demonstration of Final Fantasy VI for the then next generation of consoles. The demonstration used Silicon
Graphics's prototype Nintendo 64 workstations to create
3D graphics.* [102]* [103] Fans believed the demo was
of a new Final Fantasy title for the Nintendo 64 console; however, 1997 saw the release of Final Fantasy VII
for the Sony PlayStation.* [103]* [104] The switch was
due to a dispute with Nintendo over its use of faster
but more expensive cartridges, as opposed to the slower
and cheaper, but much higher capacity Compact Discs
used on rival systems.* [105]* [106] Final Fantasy VII
introduced 3D graphics with fully pre-rendered backgrounds.* [105]* [107] It was because of this switch to 3D
that a CD-ROM format was chosen over a cartridge format.* [105]* [108] The switch also led to increased production costs and a greater subdivision of the creative
sta for Final Fantasy VII and subsequent 3D titles in
the series.* [61]

ever, character designs were handled by Shuk Murase,


Toshiyuki Itahana, and Shin Nagasawa.* [99] Nomura is
also the character designer of the Kingdom Hearts series, Compilation of Final Fantasy VII, and Fabula Nova
Crystallis: Final Fantasy.* [100] Other designers include
Nobuyoshi Mihara and Akihiko Yoshida. Mihara was
the character designer for Final Fantasy XI, and Yoshida
served as character designer for Final Fantasy Tactics,
the Square-produced Vagrant Story, and Final Fantasy
XII.* [36]* [101]
Graphics and technology

Final Fantasy VIII, along with VII and IX, used pre-rendered
backgrounds

Because of graphical limitations, the rst titles on the


NES feature small sprite representations of the leading
party members on the main world screen. Battle screens
use more detailed, full versions of characters in a sideview perspective. This practice was used until Final Fantasy VI, which uses detailed versions for both screens.
The NES sprites are 26 pixels high and use a color palette
of 4 colors. 6 frames of animation are used to depict different character statuses like healthyand fatigued
. The SNES installments use updated graphics and effects, as well as higher quality audio than in previous
games, but are otherwise similar to their predecessors in
basic design. The SNES sprites are 2 pixels shorter, but
have larger palettes and feature more animation frames:
11 colors and 40 frames respectively. The upgrade allowed designers to have characters be more detailed in
appearance and express more emotions. The rst title

Starting with Final Fantasy VIII, the series adopted a


more photo-realistic look.* [109]* [110] Like Final Fantasy VII, full motion video (FMV) sequences would have
video playing in the background, with the polygonal characters composited on top. Final Fantasy IX returned to
the more stylized design of earlier games in the series,
although it still maintained, and in many cases slightly
upgraded, most of the graphical techniques used in the
previous two games.* [110] Final Fantasy X was released
on the PlayStation 2, and used the more powerful hardware to render graphics in real-time instead of using prerendered material to obtain a more dynamic look; the
game features full 3D environments, rather than have 3D
character models move about pre-rendered backgrounds.
It is also the rst Final Fantasy game to introduce voice
acting, occurring throughout the majority of the game,
even with many minor characters.* [19] This aspect added

1.1. FINAL FANTASY

a whole new dimension of depth to the character's reac- fare, a theme that has become one of the most recognized
tions, emotions, and development.* [19]* [111]
pieces of music in the series. The basic theme that acTaking a temporary divergence, Final Fantasy XI companies Chocobo appearances has been rearranged in
used the PlayStation 2's online capabilities as an a dierent musical style for each installment. A piece
MMORPG.* [112] Initially released for the PlayStation called Prologue(and sometimes Final Fantasy),
2 with a PC port arriving six months later, Final Fantasy originally featured *in the rst game, is often played during
XI was also released on the Xbox 360 nearly four the ending credits. [62] Although leitmotifs are common
years after its original release in Japan.* [113] This in the more character-driven installments, theme music is
typically reserved for main characters and recurring plot
was the rst Final Fantasy game to use a free rotating
*
camera. Final Fantasy XII was released in 2006 for elements. [42]
the PlayStation 2 and uses only half as many polygons
as Final Fantasy X, in exchange for more advanced
textures and lighting.* [114]* [115] It also retains the
freely rotating camera from Final Fantasy XI. Final
Fantasy XIII and Final Fantasy XIV both make use of
Crystal Tools, a middleware engine developed by Square
Enix.* [116]* [117]

Nobuo Uematsu was the chief music composer of the


Final Fantasy series until his resignation from Square
Enix in November 2004.* [42] Other composers include
Masashi Hamauzu, Hitoshi Sakimoto* [118]* [119] and
Junya Nakano. Uematsu was allowed to create much of
the music with little direction from the production sta.
Sakaguchi, however, would request pieces to t specic
game scenes including battles and exploring dierent areas of the game world.* [120] Once a game's major scenarios were completed, Uematsu would begin writing the
Music
music based on the story, characters, and accompanying
artwork. He started with a game's main theme, and deMain article: Music of the Final Fantasy series
veloped other pieces to match its style. In creating charThe titles in the series feature a variety of music, but
acter themes, Uematsu read the game's scenario to determine the characters' personality. He would also ask the
scenario writer for more details to scenes he was unsure
about.* [121] Technical limitations were prevalent in earlier titles; Sakaguchi would sometimes instruct Uematsu
to only use specic notes.* [120] It was not until Final
Fantasy IV on the SNES that Uematsu was able to add
more subtlety to the music.* [102]
The opening four notes of the Final Fantasy victory theme
spell a letter V in Morse Code, similar to the opening notes of the rst movement of Symphony No. 5
(Beethoven).

1.1.4 Reception

Nobuo Uematsu, composer of most of the Final Fantasy soundtracks

frequently reuse themes. Most of the games open with a


piece calledPrelude, which has evolved from a simple,
2-voice arpeggio in the early games to a complex, melodic
arrangement in recent installments.* [23]* [62]* [83] Victories in combat are often accompanied by a victory fan-

Overall, the Final Fantasy series has been critically acclaimed and commercially successful, though each installment has seen dierent levels of success. The series
has seen a steady increase in total sales; it sold 45 million
units worldwide by August 2003, 63 million by December
2005, and 85 million by July 2008.* [183]* [184]* [185] In
June 2011, Square Enix announced that the series had
sold over 100 million units.* [186] Its high sales numbers have ranked it as one of the best-selling video game
franchises in the industry; in January 2007, the series
was listed as number three, and later in July as number
four.* [42]* [187]
Several games within the series have become best-selling
titles. At the end of 2007, the seventh, eighth, and ninth
best-selling RPGs were Final Fantasy VII, Final Fantasy
VIII, and Final Fantasy X respectively.* [188] Final Fantasy VII has sold more than 9.5 million copies worldwide, earning it the position of the best-selling Final Fan-

8
tasy title.* [189] Within two days of Final Fantasy VIII
's North American release on September 9, 1999, it became the top-selling video game in the United States, a
position it held for more than three weeks.* [190] Final
Fantasy X sold over 1.4 million Japanese units in preorders alone, which set a record for the fastest-selling console RPG.* [188]* [191] The MMORPG, Final Fantasy
XI, reached over 200,000 active daily players in March
2006* [192] and had reached over half a million subscribers by July 2007.* [42] Final Fantasy XII sold more
than 1.7 million copies in its rst week in Japan.* [193]
By November 6, 2006one week after its releaseFinal
Fantasy XII had shipped approximately 1.5 million copies
in North America.* [194] Final Fantasy XIII became the
fastest-selling game in the franchise,* [195] and sold one
million units on its rst day of sale in Japan.* [196] Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn, in comparison to its
predecessor, was an runaway success, originally suering from servers being overcrowded,* [197] and eventually gaining over one million unique subscribers within
two months of its launch.* [198]

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
The series has garnered some criticism however. IGN
has commented that the menu system used by the games
is a major detractor for many and is a signicant reason why they haven't touched the series.* [23] The site
has also heavily criticized the use of random encounters in the series' battle systems.* [212]* [213] IGN further stated the various attempts to bring the series into
lm and animation have either been unsuccessful, unremarkable, or did not live up to the standards of the
games.* [11] In 2007, Edge criticized the series for a number of related titles that include the phrase "Final Fantasy" in their titles, which are considered inferior to previous titles. It also commented that with the departure
of Hironobu Sakaguchi, the series might be in danger of
growing stale.* [42]

Several individual Final Fantasy titles have garnered extra attention; some for their positive reception and others
for their negative reception. Final Fantasy VII topped
GamePro's 26 Best RPGs of All Timelist,* [214]
as well as GameFAQs Best Game Everaudience
polls in 2004 and 2005.* [215]* [216] Despite the success of Final Fantasy VII, it is sometimes criticized as
being overrated. In 2003, GameSpy listed it as the
Critical response
seventh most overrated game of all time, while IGN
presented views from both sides.* [217]* [218] Dirge of
The series has received critical acclaim for the qual- Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII shipped 392,000 units in
ity of its visuals and soundtracks.* [42] In 1996, Next its rst week of release, but received review scores
Generation ranked it as the 17th top game series of all that were much lower than that of other Final Fantime, speaking very highly of its graphics, music and sto- tasy games.* [219]* [220]* [221] A delayed, negative reries.* [199] It was awarded a star on the Walk of Game view after the Japanese release of Dirge of Cerberus
in 2006, making it the rst franchise to win a star on from Japanese gaming magazine Famitsu hinted at a conthe event (other winners were individual games, not fran- troversy between the magazine and Square Enix.* [222]
chises). WalkOfGame.com commented that the series Though Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within was praised for
has sought perfection as well as having been a risk taker its visuals, the plot was criticized and the lm was considin innovation.* [200] In 2006, GameFAQs held a contest ered a box oce bomb.* [41]* [42]* [43]* [223] Final Fanfor the best video game series ever, with Final Fantasy tasy Crystal Chronicles for the GameCube received overnishing as the runner-up to The Legend of Zelda.* [201] all positive review scores, but reviews stated that the use
In a 2008 public poll held by The Game Group plc, Final of Game Boy Advances as controllers was a big detracFantasy was voted the best game series, with ve titles ap- tor.* [104]* [224] The predominantly negative reception
pearing in theirGreatest Games of All Timelist.* [202] of the original version of Final Fantasy XIV caused thenMany Final Fantasy games have been included president Yoichi Wada to issue an ocial apology during
in various lists of top games.
Several games a Tokyo press conference, stating that the brand had been
*
have been listed on multiple IGN Top Gamesgreatly damagedby the game's reception. [225]
*
*
*
*
*
*
lists. [203] [204] [205] [206] [207] [208]
Eleven
games were listed on Famitsu's 2006 Top 100 Favorite
Games of All Time, four of which were in the top ten, 1.1.5 Impact and legacy
with Final Fantasy X and Final Fantasy VII coming rst
and second, respectively.* [209] The series holds seven The Final Fantasy series and several specic games
Guinness World Records in the Guinness World Records within it have been credited for introducing and popularGamer's Edition 2008, which include the Most Games izing many concepts that are today widely used in console
in an RPG Series(13 main titles, seven enhanced RPGs.* [3]* [104] The original title is often cited as one of
titles, and 32 spin-o titles), the Longest Development the most inuential early console RPGs, and played a maPeriod(the production of Final Fantasy XII took ve jor role in legitimizing and popularizing the genre. Many
years), and the Fastest-Selling Console RPG in a console RPGs featured one-on-one battles against monSingle Day(Final Fantasy X).* [188]* [210] The 2009 sters from a rst-person perspective. Final Fantasy introedition listed two titles from the series among the top duced a side view perspective with groups of monsters
50 consoles games: Final Fantasy XII at number 8 and against a group of characters that has been frequently
Final Fantasy VII at number 20.* [211]
used.* [3]* [83]* [104] It also introduced an early evolv-

1.1. FINAL FANTASY


ing class change system,* [226]* [227] as well as dierent methods of transportation, including a ship, canoe,
and ying airship.* [228] Final Fantasy II was the rst
sequel in the industry to omit characters and locations
from the previous title.* [5] It also introduced an activitybased progression system,* [229] which has been used in
later RPG series such as SaGa,* [230] Grandia,* [231] and
The Elder Scrolls.* [229] Final Fantasy III introduced the
job system, a character progression engine allowing the
player to change character classes, as well as acquire new
and advanced classes and combine class abilities, at any
time during the game.* [232] Final Fantasy IV is considered a milestone for the genre, introducing a dramatic
storyline with a strong emphasis on character development and personal relationships.* [233] Final Fantasy VII
is credited as having the largest industry impact of the series,* [105] and with allowing console role-playing games
to gain mass-market appeal.* [234]

9
ocial soundtracks have been released for sale as well.
Numerous companion books, which normally provide indepth game information, have been published. In Japan,
they are published by Square and are called Ultimania
books.* [242]* [243] In North America, they take the form
of standard strategy guides.

1.1.6 See also


Dragon Quest Initially a competing series from
Enix, continues to be produced alongside Final Fantasy after their merger with Square
Granblue Fantasya 2013 video game featuring key
sta from Final Fantasy
The Last Storya 2012 video game featuring key
sta from Final Fantasy

The series aected Square's business on several lev Final Fantasy series Wikipedia book
els. The commercial failure of Final Fantasy: The
Spirits Within resulted in hesitation and delays from
Enix during merger discussions with Square.* [43]* [83] 1.1.7 References
Square's decision to produce games exclusively for the
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The series' popularity has resulted in its appearance and
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16

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1.1.8 External links


Square Enix's ocial Final Fantasy website
(Japanese)
Final Fantasy Games at DMOZ
IGN Presents the History of Final Fantasy

1.2 Final Fantasy character jobs


In several installments of the Final Fantasy series of roleplaying games by Square Enix, classes (jobs) are roles
assigned to playable characters that determine the character's prociencies.* [1] Classes can be loosely categorized
into physical classes, which specialize in using weapons
and techniques; magical classes, which are procient in
magic; and mixed classes, which combine elements of
both classes in addition to other special abilities.
This article summarizes the most common character
classes; many games in the series have featured unique
classes that have not reappeared in subsequent games. For
information on those classes, see the article regarding the
game in which the class appeared. Job classes in Final
Fantasy XI are featured in Final Fantasy XI character
classes; those in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance are featured in List of jobs in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance.

1.2.1 History and development


1. In Final Fantasy, the player allocates permanent
class selections to the four playable characters at
the beginning of the game. Each of the six starting classes can be upgraded to a corresponding advanced class midway through the game.* [2]

1.2. FINAL FANTASY CHARACTER JOBS

17
8. Final Fantasy VIII adopted a similar system as Final Fantasy VII, Although here it is linked the
development of the game's Summoned Monsters
(called Guardian Forces), by choosing which abilities they learn through combat and boosting character stats, damage and resistances by equipping spells
to those abilities through a system called Junctioning.* [8]* [9]* [10]
9. In Final Fantasy IX, characters have predetermined
dormant abilitiessimilar to Final Fantasy IV; however, the characters in Final Fantasy IX learn abilities by wearing equipment instead of gaining levels.* [11]

The job system in Final Fantasy V

2. Characters in Final Fantasy II are molded according


to their performance in battle.* [3] However, while
jobs are not part of the game mechanics, they are
part of the setting; the playable characters include a
White Mage, a Dragoon and a Dark Knight, and the
town of Mysidia is populated mostly by Black and
White Mages.
3. Final Fantasy III changed the formula by allowing
the player to change a character's class, as well as
acquire new and advanced classes.* [4]* [5]
4. Final Fantasy IV introduced characters already
locked into a class; abilities related to the character's
class are learned as the character gains experience
points.* [6]
5. Final Fantasy V returned to the system used in Final
Fantasy III, allowing players to change a character's
class and acquire new and advanced classes. Furthermore, Final Fantasy V added ability slots, allowing a character with one class to use abilities learned
with another class.* [4]* [5]
6. In Final Fantasy VI, each playable character has
a locked class from the beginning of the game,
and a signature command, such as Dance, Lore or
Mimic.* [7] However, the magicite system lets every
character learn almost every magic and summoning
spells.
7. In Final Fantasy VII, characters were designed
around traditional classes which aect base stats,
stat growth and weapon type of the character (ex:
Tifa was designed around the Monk class, giving
here strong physical stats, low hp growth and hand
to hand weapons). Due to the materia system letting
the player assign any magic or special command (ex:
Steal, Mimic) to any character, they can all be customised to play the same in battle; nevertheless, each
character is dierentiated by their stats and unique
limit breaks.* [8]* [9]* [10]

10. Final Fantasy X introduced thesphere grid"; characters began at certain areas of the grid, which represent traditional character classes by their statistical bonuses and abilities. Character classes were reintroduced in Final Fantasy X-2 as dresspheres";
these classes are gradually acquired and can be
changed at any point, including battle mode.* [12]
11. The classes that appeared in Final Fantasy XI, the
rst MMORPG title in the series, have certain
unique implementations that more closely follow
MMORPG convention.* [13] Notably, in Final Fantasy XI a player can equip a secondary job, called a
subjob, and have half the abilities of that class.
Extensive backstories are often given to the games'
job classes to add to the setting's lore.
12. In Final Fantasy XII, abilities are unlocked through
theLicense Boardsystem, which allows the player
to mold characters into anything, without restriction of traditional classes.* [14]* [15] However, in
the game's international version and in Final Fantasy
XII: Revenant Wings, the growth system is modied
to have more clearly dened classes.
13. In Final Fantasy XIII, characters can switch class
mid-battle and in the eld, utilizing the Paradigm
system. Final Fantasy XIII-2, in addition to Serah
Farron and Noel Kreiss using a modied Paradigm
system from the prior game, players can recruit
monsters into their Paradigm Pack, where they ght
along the player characters in battle in one of the
Paradigm roles. Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy
XIII uses the Schema system, where the player assigns and customizes three Schemata to use in battle.
14. In Final Fantasy XIV, player classes vary by what
weapon they are wielding (i.e. wielding a sword
turns that player into a Gladiator, while wielding
knuckles turns the player into a Pugilist etc.). Additionally, abilities learned from other classes may
be junctioned onto the player's current class (i.e. a
Pugilist may use Red Lotus from the Gladiator class)

18

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

15. In Final Fantasy Tactics and Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, classes are chosen by the player
from one of several starting classes; however, characters must meet prerequisites before changing
classes.* [16]* [17]
16. In Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light all characters can use any piece of equipment or magic spell
available at one point in time. However, equipping
a dierent crown alters a character's battle performance to a certain extent, raising the power of some
weapons, spells and abilities and decreasing those of
others, as well as providing special abilities unique
to that crown, so the concept of classes can still be
used in this case.
Many Final Fantasy installments deviate from the class
system by allowing exibility in character growth, or featuring pre-determined jobs. In Final Fantasy VI, Final
Fantasy VII, and Final Fantasy VIII, for example, characters begin with equipment and attack prociencies similar to character classes, but the player can allocate magic
and statistical bonuses.* [7]* [8]* [9] Final Fantasy character classes have also made cameo appearances as hidden
players in Mario Hoops 3-on-3, Mario Sports Mix and as
enemies in Kingdom Hearts II.

the Warrior class,* [2]* [4] but later games in the series
began to use the two terms interchangeably.* [18] Recurring abilities shared by the Warrior/Fighter and Knight
classes include various special attacks, the most common
of which are the variousbreakorrendabilities, each
of which can either inict specic stat-lowering debus
or destroy a specic piece of enemy equipment. Recurring abilities of the Knight class include the ability to cast
some lower level white magic spells andCover, which
intercepts attacks against wounded allies. The Warrior
has appeared in Final Fantasy,* [2] Final Fantasy III,* [4]
Final Fantasy X-2, Final Fantasy Tactics Advance,* [17]
and Final Fantasy XI;* [13] the Knight has appeared in Final Fantasy,* [2] Final Fantasy III,* [4] Final Fantasy IV,
Final Fantasy V,* [18] Final Fantasy XII and Final Fantasy Tactics.* [16] Though she is not ocially categorized
as a Warrior, Final Fantasy XIII protagonist Lightning
ghts and attacks enemies with a sword-like gunblade
whenever she takes on the Commandorole. In Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn, the two-handed axe
wielding Marauder class can equip the Warrior job soul
crystal, becoming a powerful tank class with some selfhealing and increased mitigation granted through special
attacks. Many games in the series also feature specialized sword-wielding classes, such as Dark Knight, Paladin, Samurai, or Holy Knight.* [4]* [16]

Summary Table
The following table summarizes the names of the jobs in
the various Final Fantasy video games. The columns are
sorted from pure physical (Fighting) jobs on the left to
pure magical (Healing) classes to the right. Since jobs
names can vary slightly between dierent versions of the
same video game, the version where names are taken
from is written under the video game title in the rst column.

1.2.2

Physical classes

Physical classes are able to inict damage through a variety of weapons and job-specic techniques. In general, these jobs have access to heavier weapons and armor than magical or mixed classes, giving them superior
attack power and physical defense.
Warrior
See also: Warrior (character class)
The Warrior ( Senshi), formerly translated as the
Fighter, is portrayed as an expert of the sword and/or
axe who uses some of the most powerful armors and
weaponry.* [2]* [4] As such, it is a well-rounded physical
combatant with high attack and defense statistics.* [12]
Initially, the Knight was treated as an upgraded form of

Monk
See also: Monk (character class)
The Monk ( Monku) is a master of martial arts
who favors barehanded ghting,* [2]* [4]* [18] sometimes
supplemented with claws. In some games, they can
use meditative techniques, which improve their power or
heal their wounds.* [16]* [18] They can often counterattack against physical attacks as well.* [18] In early English localizations of the series, the Monk was known
as the Black Belt;* [19] in Final Fantasy III, the Black
Belt is an upgraded form of the Monk.* [4] The Monk
has appeared as a class in Final Fantasy,* [2] Final Fantasy III,* [4] Final Fantasy IV (Yang Fang Leiden),* [6]
Final Fantasy V,* [18] Final Fantasy VI (Sabin Rene Figaro),* [20] Final Fantasy IX (Amarant Coral), Final Fantasy XI,* [13] Final Fantasy XII International Zodiac Job
System, Final Fantasy Tactics,* [16] Final Fantasy Tactics
Advance,* [17] and Hataraku Chocobo. In addition, Josef
(Final Fantasy II), Tifa Lockhart (Final Fantasy VII), Zell
Dincht (Final Fantasy VIII) and Snow Villiers (Final Fantasy XIII) all ght hand-to-hand (Tifa can also use claws),
as well as having hand-to-hand limit breaks or special attack (Snow'sSovereign Fist), in-keeping with the tradition of the monk class. Final Fantasy: 4 Heroes of Light
also has the monk class, though it is called the Fighter
crown, granting increased barehanded attack prociency
and some traditional abilities.

1.2. FINAL FANTASY CHARACTER JOBS

19

Samurai
Samurai ( Samurai) are Japanese-styled ghters who
ght primarily with katana.* [16] Some abilities often associated with Samurai areCoin Toss(sometimesGil
Toss,GP Rain, orZeninage) which uses Gil to
damage enemies,Fast Draw(also referred asFdraw
,Iainuki,ZantetsuorOblivion"/"Cleave) which
is an attempt to defeat the enemy in a single attack, and
Blade Catch
( Shirahadori), a supplementary evasion
skill.* [21] In Final Fantasy Tactics and Final Fantasy XI,
they can hold their weapons with both hands for increased
damage. Samurai are featured as classes in Final Fantasy
V,* [21] Final Fantasy VI (Cyan Garamonde), Final Fantasy X-2, Final Fantasy XI,* [22] and Final Fantasy Tactics. In Final Fantasy Tactics, Samurai can unleash the
spirit
of certain katana with theirDraw Out
skill.* [16]
In Final Fantasy X, the character Auron uses the abilities
of both a samurai and a ghter. Also in Final Fantasy X,
Yuna can summon Yojimbo, a samurai who when given
the right amount of gil can attack withZanmato(an instant kill move). In Final Fantasy Tactics A2, the Paravir
class can be obtained for Humes. This Class very closely
resembles the Samurai class, and uses a katana, as well as
having many of the same support abilities as the Samurai class in the original Final Fantasy Tactics. Samurai is
also a type of enemy in Kingdom Hearts II, with similar Kain Highwind, a dragoon-class character from Final Fantasy
powers and appearance.
IV
Dragoon
The Dragoon ( Rykishi) (also known as Dragon
Knight or Lancer) uses spears and their Jumpability and usually wears heavy armour.* [4]* [18] Unlike
their armor, the design for the Dragoons' helmets remain
fairly constant from game to game. Jumptypically
does double damage when the user is wielding a spear,
and removes the Dragon Knight from combat for one
round.* [6]* [18] While jumping, Dragoons either thrust
downward with their spears to skewer enemies,* [6]* [16]
or toss the weapon at the foe from above. In Final Fantasy VI, theJumpskill is a special ability conferred by
the Dragoon Bootsrelic. The English localizations
of Final Fantasy IV, Final Fantasy XI and Final Fantasy Tactics Advance refer to Dragon Knights as Dragoons,* [22] and the English localization of Final Fantasy Tactics refers to them as Lancers.* [16] In addition,
the characters Ricard Highwind (Final Fantasy II), Kain
Highwind (Final Fantasy IV),* [6] Cid Highwind (Final
Fantasy VII),* [23] Freya Crescent (Final Fantasy IX),
and Llyud (Final Fantasy XII: Revenant Wings) are identied as Dragoons. Alexander Highwind Tycoon (Final
Fantasy V), though not specically stated to be a Dragoon, shares the common Highwind surname and wears
armor resembling the traditional Dragoon garb. Ward
Zabac (Final Fantasy VIII) is similar to a Dragoon because he ghts with harpoon-style weapons and features
an aerial limit break
( Jump"-like attacks).* [24] Kimahri

Ronso (Final Fantasy X) uses spears for weapons and features an overdrive calledJump.* [25] Final Fantasy XI
*
[26] features the Dragoon as a playable job class; players are able to utilize several signature jump techniques,
as well as summon a wyvern as support in combat. Oerba
Yun Fang from Final Fantasy XIII also possesses characteristics of a Dragoon, as she wields a spear and can
even perform a full ATB attack called Highwind, a
powerful Jump attack. In the Final Fantasy Tactics Advance series, only Bangaa characters can become Dragoons. During chapter 9 aboard The Palameciain
Final Fantasy XIII, a soldier-type enemy called PSICOM
Dragoons appears, wearing the characteristic PSICOM
armor with an additional hi-tech jetpack strapped to the
back of the suit. Lightning can equip Dragoon garb in
Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII, giving her access
to the job's traditional Lancet ability. Dragoon is also a
type of enemy in Kingdom Hearts II, with similar powers
and appearance. In Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn,
this class is the epitome and upgraded Job of the Lancer
Class which specializes in devastating spear attacks which
include Jumpingwith and throwing their spear. This
is one of the most powerful single target DPS roles in the
game.

20
Thief
See also: Thief (character class)

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
dealing items like shuriken and weapons from the inventory at the enemy.* [16]* [18] In many games, Ninja possess the ability to hold a weapon in each hand, sometimes
known asDoublewieldorTwo Swords.* [16]* [18]
There are various "Ninjutsu" eects that, depending on
the game, appear as magic,* [6] throwable items, or commands. In the original Final Fantasy, the Ninja class is
a class change of the Thief. This association between
the Thief and Ninja classes is a constant trend in latter
Final Fantasy games. Edge in Final Fantasy IV has the
Stealskill as well asNinjutsuabilities; in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, mastering skills in the Thief jobclass is a prerequisite to acquiring the Ninja class.* [2]
Ninja also appear in Final Fantasy III,* [4] Final Fantasy
V,* [18] Final Fantasy VI (Shadow),* [20] Final Fantasy
Tactics,* [16] and Final Fantasy XI.* [22] Specic to Final
Fantasy XI,Ninja shares more in common with a spellcaster than a physical job with the line of Ninjutsu spells.
Current trends in Final Fantasy XI, however, have seen
players emphasize both the Ninja's iconic dual-weapon
focused melee expertise as well as its Ninjutsu magic's
ability to debu and avoid damage; therefore, the game's
incarnation of the Ninja is more of a Tank than in any
previous game. In Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn,
the Ninja job takes the role of DPS, using dual daggers,
the ability to poison, and a line of Mantra abilities that
will have to be used in specic successful combinations
in order to provide additional eects. Yue from Final Fantasy VII has certain Ninja characteristics, although
she is primarily a Thief. Amarant Coral from Final Fantasy IX possesses the Ninja signature move,Throw, but
also possesses many characteristics of the Monk character class. Hope Estheim from Final Fantasy XIII has some
characteristics of a Ninja, as he ghts with boomerangs
that he throws to attack enemies whenever he takes on
the Commando role. The Ninja class is also available in
Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light. As standard, someone with the Ninja crown helps the party evade monster
encounters and can create copies of themselves. They can
also learn Counter, allowing them to use counterattacks if an attack misses and Lightning Fists, which
acts like a classic Hunter ability. This crown is therefore
hard to obtain. Ninja has also appeared in Mario Sports
Mix.

The Thief ( Shfu) is generally a swift and nimble ghter whose main weapon includes daggers or short
swords.* [2] They usually have very high speed, accuracy
& evasion but moderate strength, health & defense.* [12]
Stealis their trademark ability; it allows them to transfer an item or piece of equipment held by an enemy to the
player's inventory.* [12]* [16] Sometimes, they can attain
the skill Captureor Mug, which allows items to
be stolen during an attack. They can also disarm traps
and detect hidden passages.* [18] The Thief has appeared
as a class in Final Fantasy,* [2] Final Fantasy III,* [4] Final Fantasy V,* [18] FInal Fantasy VI, Final Fantasy X,
Final Fantasy X-2, Final Fantasy XI,* [13] Final Fantasy Tactics,* [16] Final Fantasy Tactics Advance,* [17]
and Hataraku Chocobo. The pirate Leila in Final Fantasy II joins the party attributes and weapon skills akin
to a Thief's, in addition to fair magical ability and the
Thunder spell. Locke Cole (Final Fantasy VI) and Zidane
Tribal (Final Fantasy IX) were stated to be Thieves in
their respective games, although Locke insists that he is a
treasure hunter.* [27]* [28] Yue Kisaragi (Final Fantasy VII) is identied as a "materia hunter,and she does
steal the party's materia at one point during the game, as
well as coming equipped with theStealmateria when
she joins the party. In Final Fantasy X, Rikku can learn
various theft-related moves, such as Steal, Pilfer
Giletc., whilst in Final Fantasy X-2, she starts o with
Thief as her default dressphere.* [12] In Final Fantasy XI,
the thief has a unique ability, Sneak Attack,that enables a single, enhanced strike when hitting the enemy
from behind; Trick Attackwill pin the attention of
the enemy on an ally, if the ally stands between the thief
and the enemy. Often, Sneak Attack and Trick Attack
are combined (called SATA), in order to focus the
enemy's attention on atank,such as a Paladin or Ninja.
This gives the Thief a unique role in the MMO environment of Final Fantasy XI, known ashate control.The
thief class also appears in Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of
Light as the Bandit crown. Party members with this can
learn several theft abilities and an assassination move in
Deadly Blow": which might cause attacks to inict instant death. Since they also possess strength and intellect Dark Knight
on par with the Hero crown, they are a more combat oriented class than they normally are.
Dark Knights ( Dku Naito, lit. Darkness
Knight) (also Ankoku Kishi) class tends to focus on dark magic which targets the health of an enemy.
Ninja
Their special attacks usually involve draining their own
health or, in some cases, sacricing themselves to inThe Ninja ( Ninja, lit. Assassin) is generally both ict extremely heavy damage.* [6] Dark Knights are usufast and powerful; however, to achieve this level of dex- ally among the most powerful damage dealers in their reterity, Ninja are unable to wear heavy armor. They can spective titles, but also typically suer from a notable lack
equip Ninja-specic weapons, such as katanas, knives, in defense, though this is often circumvented by their life
and boomerangs. Ninja usually possess the Throw absorbing abilities and heavy armor. Dark Knights are
ability, which allows them to throw powerful, damage- typically portrayed as either warriors of evil, or tortured

1.2. FINAL FANTASY CHARACTER JOBS


gures who draw upon their own torment and suering in
order to power their abilities. Some of the most notable
Dark Knights in the series include Leon (Final Fantasy
II), Cecil Harvey (Final Fantasy IV), Goard Gafgarion
(Final Fantasy Tactics) and Zeid (Final Fantasy XI). Dark
Knights are also found in Final Fantasy III,* [4] Final Fantasy X-2, and Final Fantasy XI. In Final Fantasy XI, they
are a damage dealing class with the highest base attack
in the game, but have relatively weak black magic spells
other than their dark magic.* [22] They do not appear in
Final Fantasy VIII and Final Fantasy IX, but their trademark Darksideability is learnable, by Steiner in the
latter game. In Final Fantasy XII, theSoul Eaterability and the Arcaneclass of magic are learnable. In
Final Fantasy Tactics: The War of the Lions, characters
can use the Dark Knight class, although it is referred to as
Fell Knight.* [29] Dark Knights are also available in Final
Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light though the crown is called
Dark Fencer. This crown grants increased sword prociency and the Dark Knight's classicDarksideability:
characters with this crown can also learn an upmarket version calledDarker Sidewhich hurts all enemies and the
vengeance ability Eye for an Eye which increases attack
power the lower the user's HP is.

21
. Also, in Final Fanatsy VI Celes Chere learns many support spells as she levels up, and her Runic ability lets her
direct most magic attacks away from her allies, restoring
her own MP and resulting in her teammates not taking
any damage, though it will only work if she has a sword
equipped. Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light features
the Paladin crown, which grants the Cover ability and increased shield prociency as standard, as well as tremendous HP and strength. Party members with this crown
can also learn the Viking's Provokeability (though it
is called Bait) allowing them to direct damage away
from their teammates, Avenge, an ability that raises
the user's attack power the more the user is targeted for
enemy attack andLast Stand, which allows the paladin
to hang on for several rounds with 1 HP. While inFinal
Fantasy XIV: A Realm Rebornpaladins epitomize the
role by having thecoverability. They are found wearing heavy plate armor, wielding a sword and shield (granting them the ability to block partial damage on physical
attacks), and using some white magichaving access
to a few Conjuror spells (being far less eective than a
White Mage or Scholar), giving them formidable defensive power. Taking on the role of a tank, a paladin in
FFXIV:ARR focuses on mitigating damage while protecting allies.

Paladin
Hunter
See also: Paladin (character class)
See also: Ranger (character class)
Paladins ( Paradin), the opposites of Dark
Knights, are virtuous knights devoted to the good of the The Hunter ( Kariudo, lit. Hunter) (sometimes
people; these knights in shining armortend to wield called Archer,* [16] Ranger,* [22] or Gunner* [12]) is a
low-level white magic. The Paladin can use Coverto physical class specializing in long-ranged weaponssuch
temporarily redirect damage from an ally to itself. No- as bows, crossbows and occasionally guns.* [16] The class
table Paladins in the series include Cecil Harvey (Final frequently possesses the Aimcommand, which perFantasy IV), General Beatrix (Final Fantasy IX), Agrias forms an attack with greatly increased accuracy,* [21] and
Oakes, and Delita Hyral (both of whom are referred to as a command localized as Barrage, Rapid Fireor
Holy Knights in Final Fantasy Tactics). In Final Fantasy X-Fight, which makes several attacks for reduced damIII they are simply referred to as Knights, but they do still age, generally against random targets. Aside from their
possess the Coverskill and have access to low rank bow attacks, some Hunters have personal bu abilities,
white magic. In Final Fantasy XI, they rely on curative such as Charge, which increases the damage that armagic and high defense bonuses to aid their parties in bat- rows inict.* [16] They can cause status eects with spetle, they also have the highest sword and shield skills.* [22] cialized arrows, and sometimes can detect, capture, or
Sentinels in Final Fantasy XIII fulll a role of protecting hide from enemies. They have appeared as a class in Fiallies from enemy attacks; Snow Villiers, the character nal Fantasy III,* [4] Final Fantasy V,* [21] Final Fantasy
who is most procient in the Sentinel Role, has a coat XI,* [22] Final Fantasy XII International Zodiac Job SysnamedPaladinwhich improves his Sentinel guard abil- tem, Final Fantasy Tactics,* [16] and Final Fantasy Tactics
ities. Final Fantasy XIII-2 has the Paladin role exclusive Advance.* [17] There are many variations on this class.
to Lightning in theRequiem of the GoddessDLC as an Some White Mages and Warriors throughout the series
enhanced version of the Commando role. Paladins also can also use bows. Rosa from Final Fantasy IV, for exappear in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance in which they ample, is a White Mage with theAimability.* [6] The
can master the powerful Holy Bladeability, which Hunter class is not present in Final Fantasy VI, however
deals extreme Holy-based damage to a single target, of- theirX-Fightcommand can be learned. In Final Fanten resulting to an instant kill. The Coverability is tasy Tactics, the Engineer, Mediator, and Chemist classes
also available in two games which don't feature Paladins; have the ability to shoot long-range guns. The Sniper is
in Final Fantasy VI through a Relic calledTrue Knight an upgraded class of the Archer in Final Fantasy Tactics
, and in Final Fantasy VII through the Covermateria Advance, and can use more advanced moves like Dou-

22
bleshot. Barret Wallace and Vincent Valentine from
Final Fantasy VII ght with a gun-arm and a gun, respectively, like Hunters, and theDouble Cutmateria can be
used to gain theBarrage"/"Rapid Fire"/"X-Fightcommand, which is localized as 4x Cut. Irvine Kinneas
from Final Fantasy VIII wields a variety of ries, and his
Limit Break,Shot, allows him to re a volley of a variety of bullets with various eects. Laguna Loire, also
from Final Fantasy VIII, wields a machine gun and his
Limit Break, Desperado, has him swing from a rope
and unleash a barrage of gunre, followed by an explosion
from a hand grenade, which deals damage to all enemies.
In Final Fantasy X-2, Yuna starts o with the Gunner as
her default dressphere. Wakka from Final Fantasy X is
another variation on the class, as he ghts with a blitzball
he can throw to attack enemies from long distances rather
than the usual bow, crossbow, or gun, and he, too, can use
the Aimability. The playable race known as Gria in
Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift are able to
become Hunters, whilst the Seeq have the Ranger class
available to them. Sazh Katzroy from Final Fantasy XIII
has some characteristics of the Hunter, as he uses guns
to attack enemies from long distances whenever he takes
on the Commandorole, in which he majors. Ranger
is also a character class in Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes
of Light but without multi-attack capabilities. However,
they do possess the Targetcommand, a Covering
Fireability that damages all opponents in the following
round and even an assassination ability called Smashing
Blow which deals heavy damage to one target and may
kill minor enemies, with lower accuracy and a high cost
of 4 Action Points. In Final Fantasy XIV, the Archer is a
starting class and can be turned into the Bard job. Both
use a bow to deal damage, that is also a harp used to play
songs to benet team members.
Viking
The Viking ( Vaikingu) class is a very rare
class that has only appeared in Final Fantasy III (both the
original Famicom version and the Nintendo DS remake)
and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift. It consists of characters who wield axes and hammers as their
weapons, which they can swing with great ease. Vikings
possess great physical strength and typically have a large
amount of health. In the DS version of Final Fantasy
III, the class comes with the special ability Provoke,
which increases the chance of a targeted enemy attacking the Viking. All characters may take on the Viking
job class in both versions of Final Fantasy III, while only
Seeq can be Vikings in Final Fantasy Tactics A2. In addition, while there are no ocial Vikings in Final Fantasy
X, Tidus may learnProvokeon the Sphere Grid. In Final Fantasy XI, the Warrior class learnsProvokeat level
5. Characters who take on the Sentinelrole in Final
Fantasy XIII (such as Snow Villiers and Oerba Yun Fang,
who initially major in the role) can also learn powerful
defensive moves like the Provokeability to take the

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
focus o their allies, who then heal them as Medics, and
they can even immediately counterattack their enemies
after defending against their attacks. In Final Fantasy
Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift, Vikings also have access
to a few stealing abilities, and some Thunder and Waterelemental magic as well. In Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm
Reborn, the Provoke ability is learned by the Gladiator
class, but the Marauder class is this roles current incarnation. Able to wield heavy axes with deadly force as their
Pirate/Viking fore-bearers, Marauders provide the second tanking class. They have no access to magic without
using spells from other classes (which becomes impossible once upgraded to Warrior) and their defense is less
than a Gladiator/Paladin. However, a Marauders damage
output is far better and they have a greater ability tokeep
aggrothrough their increased damage and multi-target
attack Overpower. Warriors later train in abilities to
use the damage they do to their opponents to heal them
slightly while they ght.
Berserker
See also: Berserker (character class)
The Berserker ( Bsk) is a pure physical
class focusing on high strength to defeat their opponents.
Typically, Berserkers, like the Vikings of Final Fantasy
III, use axes and hammers, though some use their bare
hands. In most appearances, the Berserker, unlike the
Viking, is in a permanent Berserkstatus, and as such
not able to use commands other thanAttack. They rst
appeared in Final Fantasy V, as a job class which became
available after acquiring the pieces of the Water Crystal. Umaro from Final Fantasy VI is a Berserker. In Final Fantasy VII 's Vincent Valentine's Limit Breaks place
him into a Berserker state, as he morph him into a powerful, yet uncontrollable creature. Final Fantasy VIII 's
Rinoa Heartily attains a limit break that also places her in
a similar state, but here she will only cast spells with their
eects amplied. In Final Fantasy X-2 the Berserker is
represented by the Berserker dressphere. Berserkers are
controllable this time, but can use the Berserkcommand to increase their power in exchange for less control.
The Berserker class is also available as a job for the Seeq
race in Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift.
Berserker is also a type of enemy in Kingdom Hearts II,
with similar powers and appearance.
Mystic Knight
Mystic Knights ( Mahkenshi, lit. Magic
Fencer) are warriors that can cast magic on their swords
to perform attacks with the power of the spell for several rounds. They have also been called Magic Knights,
Mageknights, Biskmatars, and Sorcerers.* [21] Although
their magic power is weaker than that of Mages, Mystic Knights tend to use less magic points (and generally

1.2. FINAL FANTASY CHARACTER JOBS


pierce Reect, which can hinder certain Mages' offense). In Final Fantasy V, the Mystic Knight can use
any magic previously learned on their sword.* [21] The
skill itself is called Magic Swordin Final Fantasy V
and Spellbladein Final Fantasy V Advance. In Final
Fantasy VII, the Added Eectmateria can be used
in a combo slot with a Magic materia such as Bioor
Transform, and the Elementalmateria with other
magic Materia such asIceorFireto give the players' weapon those attributes. Likewise, the same eect
can be obtained in Final Fantasy VIII through the use of
the Junction system, adding elemental or status-inicting
spells to their respective attack junctions. The Mystic
Knight's ability appears in Final Fantasy IX in the form
of the combo between Adelbert Steiner and Vivi Orunitia,
where Vivi casts a spell on Steiner's sword, who attacks
the enemy at the same time. In Final Fantasy X-2, the
Warrior dressphere carries elemental physical attacks that
use magic points. In Final Fantasy XI, Red Mages have
En-" spells, which imbue their weapons with the properties of elements, similar to the Mystic Knight's ability.
Lightning, Snow Villiers, Sazh Katzroy, and Oerba Yun
Fang from Final Fantasy XIII can physically attack enemies with their weapons while causing elemental damage with some of their attacks whenever they take on the
Ravagerrole. The same is true of Serah Farron and
Noel Kreiss when they likewise take on the Ravager role
in Final Fantasy XIII-2. Mystic Knights also appear, albeit under the name Spell Fencer, in Final Fantasy:
The 4 Heroes of Light where they can imbue their weapon
with the attribute of an elemental spell in their command
list (though light or darkness attributes cannot be added).
The character Krinjh features as a Spell Fencer in this
game, though his class is unchangeable.

Onion Knight
The Onion Knights ( Onion Naito) are
warriors with distinctive, onion-like helmets. In Final
Fantasy III, they have an initially low stat growth rate
which steeply increases as they approach the maximum
level of 99. In the original version of Final Fantasy III,
they are the starting class, can use all equipment, and
cannot cast spells or use other special abilities. In the
Nintendo DS remake, they are an optional class obtainable through a sidequest and have gained the ability to use
black and white magic of all levels. However, they cannot
use other classes' new, class-specic equipment. In Final
Fantasy Tactics: The War of the Lions, the Onion Knight
can use any weapon, its stats are initially low, but increase
based on the number of other jobs a character has mastered. In Dissidia Final Fantasy, the Onion Knight character can use sword-based attacks and black magic spells.

23
Machinist
The Machinist ( Karakurishi), Gadgeteer,
Tinker or Engineer job is focused on using mechanical
devices. In Final Fantasy IV, Cid carries tools and can
use the Peepcommand. In Final Fantasy VI, Edgar
Figaro, has theToolcommand, which allows him to use
tools to damage and/or debu enemies. In Final Fantasy
XII International Zodiac Job System, the Machinist job
can wield guns and measures, wear light armor and cast
some high level time spells and low level green spells. In
Final Fantasy Tactics, Engineers can wield guns and have
theAimed Shotcommand, which includes three attack
abilities:Arm Shot, which prevents attacks and spells,
Leg Shot, which prevents movement, andSeal Evil
, which can petrify undead targets. The Engineer job is
exclusive to the recruitable character Mustadio Bunansa
and the NPC Barich Fendsor. Final Fantasy Tactics Advance includes a Gadgeteer job and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift includes a Tinker job; Gadgeteers have thePandoracommand and Tinkers have
the similar Clockworkcommand. Each Pandora
or Clockworkability performs a specic eect, such
as healing, applying a specic bu or bus or applying
a specic debu, and randomly targets either all members of the enemy team or all members of the Engineer's
own team. Both jobs use st and claw weapons and are
exclusive to the Moogle race.
Freelancer
The Freelancer ( Suppin, roughly translates as
face without makeup), also localized as Bare or Natural, is usually the default job in the games in which it
appears. In Final Fantasy V, the Freelancer can use any
piece of equipment, and starts out with no stat bonuses
or penalties and no special abilities. However it inherits
the highest stat bonuses and most passive abilities from
other jobs a character masters, and, unlike other jobs, it
has two slots for commands or special abilities. Lightning, Snow Villiers, Oerba Dia Vanille (Vanille acts as a
freelancer at the beginning despite already being a l'Cie),
Sazh Katzroy, and Hope Estheim from Final Fantasy XIII
take on the Freelancer job until they are made into l'Cie.
In the Nintendo DS remake of Final Fantasy III, the Freelancer has replaced the Onion Knight as the default job.
Freelancers have average stats, can use most equipment
and can cast rst level black and white magic spells. In
Final Fantasy X-2 International + Last Mission, characters change to the Bare job if all available Dresspheres
have been disabled in the Yadonoki Tower bonus dungeon. Bare characters have low stats and no special abilities. In Final Fantasy Fables: Chocobo's Dungeon, the
Natural job has average stats and learns mostly oenseoriented, chocobo-themed abilities. In Final Fantasy III
and Final Fantasy V, characters with the Freelancer job
wear their default outts. In Final Fantasy X-2 International + Last Mission, characters with the Bare job are un-

24

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

armed and in their underwear. In Final Fantasy Fables:


Chocobo's Dungeon, Chocobo, the protagonist, wears a
red pouch around his neck while using the Natural job.
In Final Fantasy: the 4 heroes of Light, Freelancer is the
default class: in this case it has no special abilities and
cannot be upgraded but doesn't cause the party to lose
gems upon defeat.

Black Wizard lacked the hat and obscured face that became the dening features of the Black Mage in later
games. However, in the WonderSwan remake and Final
Fantasy Origins his appearance was altered so that he
looked like a traditional Black Mage.* [2] In Final Fantasy
IX, the Black Mage Village is a forested hamlet where
many mass-produced Black Mages have become selfaware. Final Fantasy IX is the only game that features
Black Mages as a distinct race, although the Yukes of
Gunner
Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles are very similar in their
inhuman appearance and magical ability. In the English
The Gunner ( Jyuutsukai), sometimes localized as localization of Final Fantasy Tactics, Black Mages were
Fusilier, is a class focused on the use of rearms. Each called Wizards.* [16]
version of the class includes a command for performing
special attacks with a gun. The class was rst introduced The Black Mage is available as a class in:
to the series in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, and has
Final Fantasy* [2]
also been featured in Final Fantasy VII (Barret Wallace
and Vincent Valentine), Final Fantasy VIII (Laguna Loire
Final Fantasy III * [4]
and Irvine Kinneas), Final Fantasy X-2, Final Fantasy
XIII (Sazh Katzroy) and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Gri Final Fantasy IV (Rydia, who is also a Summoner
moire of the Rift. In Final Fantasy Tactics Advance and
and loses the ability to cast White Magic halfway
Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift, the special
through the game, and Palom)* [6]
command is Gunmanship, and the attacks deal ele Final Fantasy V * [21]
mental damage, or have a chance of inicting a specic
debu on the target. In Final Fantasy X-2, the class's
Final Fantasy IX (Vivi Orunitia)* [30]
signature command is called Gunplay, and most of
the special attacks deal physical damage to a single tar Final Fantasy X (Lulu);* [25]
get, with bonuses such as debus or extra damage against
certain monster types. In Final Fantasy Tactics Advance
Final Fantasy X-2 (Lulu)* [12]
and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift, the
Final Fantasy XI * [13]
class is exclusive to the Moogle race.
Final Fantasy XII

1.2.3

Magical classes

Magical classes specialize in casting magic, including traditional white and black magic, as well as more esoteric
forms of magic, such as geomancy. Magical classes are
generally restricted to lighter equipment, such as rods,
staves and robes, giving them weak attack power and
physical defense, however their armor often provides
high magical defense, and their equipment often provides
bonuses to magic-related stats.
Black Mage
One of the most iconic classes of the Final Fantasy series,
the Black Mage ( Kuromadshi) is a magic user
specializing in attack magic, or Black Magic,* [2]* [21]
generally focusing on re, ice and lightning. Their
weapons are generally restricted to rods and daggers.
They are usually depicted wearing distinctive costumes
consisting of a blue or black robe and a large conical,
wide-brimmed hat which obscures their face, with two
yellow eyes shining from within the shadow.* [2]* [21] The
outt of the Black Mages is similar to the generic appearance of a wizard (female characters sometimes have
bows on their hats). In the original Final Fantasy, the

Final Fantasy XII: Revenant Wings (Kytes)


Final Fantasy XIII (any character who takes on
the role of Ravager possess the qualities of Black
Mages, using oensive magic on their enemies)
Final Fantasy Tactics;* [16]
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance;* [17]
Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light(here, anyone
who equips the Black Mage crown can use black
magic for one less Action Point and with greater
power thanks to a high Intellect stat: they can also
learnMagic Might, an attack that resembles Ultima and damages all opponents heavily and Mirror, which basically imbues everyone with Reect, breaking the tradition a little bit)
Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn
In Kingdom Hearts, some of Donald Duck's rods have the
gurehead of a Black Mage. Statues of Black Mages are
seen in various places at the magic academy in Geo in
Legend of Mana. A Black Mage is a playable character
in Chocobo Racing. Black Mages also appear in Dice de
Chocobo, Chocobo Land: A Game of Dice, Mario Hoops

1.2. FINAL FANTASY CHARACTER JOBS

25

3-on-3 and Mario Sports Mix, while enemy Black Mages


appear in Chocobo's Dungeon 2. The Black Mages was
the name of Final Fantasy music composer Nobuo Uematsu's band, who play remixes of Final Fantasy music.

Final Fantasy IX (Garnet Til Alexandros XVII and


Eiko Carol incorporate characteristics of the White
Mage class and the Summoner class; Garnet also
dons the classic White Mage garb as a disguise near
the beginning of the game)

White Mage

Final Fantasy X (Yuna's area of the Sphere Grid


almost exclusively contains abilities normally attributed to white mages)

A White Mage ( Shiromadshi) uses White


Magic,* [2] which emphasizes defensive spells such as
replenishing party members' health with spells such as
Cure, reviving the fallen with spells such as Raise
or Life, and curing status conditions with spells such
as Esuna.* [21] Typically having a weak and limited repertoire of attack spells and an inability to use
heavy weaponry or armor, their primary use is support
for other members of a battle party. However, when
faced with a considerable number of Undead enemies,
White Mages become even more useful, as their curative spells deal heavy damage against them rather than
healing. White Mages' weapons are generally restricted
to staves, maces, and similar weapons such as ails and
hammers; the relic weapon for the White Mage in Final Fantasy XI is the mythical hammer Mjlnir. Usually
their only oensive skill is the magic Holy, which
deals heavy damage to a target, regardless of whether
or not the target is undead. They often cast Holy"element spells, which are typically eective against undead or demonic enemies. Because of the limited use
of the class in combat, the White Mage has occasionally
been integrated with the Summoner class. The White
Mage is typically depicted as wearing a white cloak or
robe, which has long sleeves, and a hood that covers the
Mage's hair.* [2]* [4]* [22] Another feature of the robe is
the red, triangular patterns on the cus of the sleeves and
bottoms of the robes.* [2]* [4]* [22] In some games, female White Mages wear the hood over their hair, while
male White Mages normally do not wear the hood at all.
In Final Fantasy XI, the hood is a separate piece from the
robe and they can be worn independently, regardless of
gender.
White Mages have appeared as a class in:
Final Fantasy* [2]
Final Fantasy II (Minwu)
Final Fantasy III * [4]

Final Fantasy X-2* [12]


Final Fantasy XI * [13]
Final Fantasy XII
Final Fantasy XIII (any character who takes on the
role of Medicor Synergistmay use white
magic spells)
Final Fantasy XIV
Final Fantasy Tactics (in the English localization
White Mages are referred to as Priests)* [16]
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance* [17]
Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light In this case, the
White Mage crown grants a high Spirit stat, abilities
that allow recovery spells to aect everyone at once
for one time, the Bard'sHideability,Miracle
, which heals everyone at once and removes status
ailments and allows white magic to be used for one
less Action Point.
Some White Mage NPCs appear in various towns in Final Fantasy IV, and Shelinda from Final Fantasy X and
Final Fantasy X-2 is also a White Mage NPC. Shirma, a
pink-haired female White Mage, is the partner of Boco
in Chocobo's Dungeon 2, a playable character in Chocobo
Racing and makes another appearance in Final Fantasy
Fables: Chocobo Tales. She is also one of the central characters in Final Fantasy Fables: Chocobo's Dungeon. A White Mage is also playable in Dice de Chocobo,
Chocobo Land: A Game of Dice, Mario Hoops 3-on-3,
and Mario Sports Mix.

Devout
Final Fantasy IV (Rosa Farrell and Porom are referred to as 'White Mage' in the original English A Devout or Seer ( Shisai) is the natural evolution
of a White Mage as they gain higher levels of healing and
translation)* [6]
white magic likeSealandHoly. Like White Mages,
Devouts typically wield weapons such as staves, maces,
Final Fantasy V * [21]
hammers and ails, typically wear light armour such as
Final Fantasy VII (Aerith Gainsborough's defensive robes and hats, and generally cannot use shields. Devouts
and restoring limit breaks, and her sta place her in have appeared in Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy Dimensions and Bravely Default: Flying Fairy.
the White Mage tradition)

26

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Final Fantasy VII (any character can become a Summoner by equipping materia)* [24]

Magus
A Magus or Warlock is a black magic based version of
the Devout which uses higher levels of black magic with
FlareandDeathbeing good examples. They virtually have the same armor choices as Devouts, but tend to
have lower maximum HP: they also use rods and daggers
just like a Black Mage. Magi have appeared along with
Devouts in Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy Dimensions
and Bravely Default: Flying Fairy.

Final Fantasy VIII * [32]


Final Fantasy IX (Garnet Til Alexandros XVII and
Eiko Carol)* [25]
Final Fantasy X (Yuna)* [25]
Final Fantasy XI * [22]
Final Fantasy XII * [33]

Summoner
Summoners ( Shkanshi), also localized as Caller,
use Summoning Magic, which calls on powerful entities
known as Call Beasts(Final Fantasy IV), Espers
(Final Fantasy VI and Final Fantasy XII), Guardian
Force(Final Fantasy VIII),Eidolons(Final Fantasy
IX, Final Fantasy XIII, and the DS version of Final Fantasy IV), Aeons(Final Fantasy X), Avatars(Final Fantasy XI),Primals(Final Fantasy XIV), or
simply Summon Monsters(most other games in the
series). These entities attack enemies, protect the party,
or render other forms of aid. Summoners often use commands such asSummon,but in the original translation
of Final Fantasy IV, the command was instead known as
Call. As a magic-using class, summoners are typically shown to be physically frail as a trade-o for high
magical potency, and can traditionally equip only light
armaments such as clothing and robes. Summoners often use staves or rods as weapons,* [16] although in some
games they can also use whips; their potential in the use
of melee weaponry is downplayed signicantly in favor
of their ability to use magic. Many summoners feature
a horn on the forehead and green robes.* [22]* [31] Rydia of Final Fantasy IV, Garnet Til Alexandros XVII and
Eiko Carol of Final Fantasy IX, and Yuna of Final Fantasy X are identied as Summoners,* [25] though there is
usually also a strong White Mage element to the character. In some games that lacked Summoners, various
means of equipping the summon ability are provided. In
Final Fantasy III, the lower-class name for a Summoner
is Evoker.* [4] Notable recurring Summonsinclude
Ifrit, Shiva, Ramuh, Bahamut, and Odin. It should be
noted that Bravely Default's summoned beasts are an entirely new set with none of the recurring ones appearing
in this case.
Summoners have appeared in:

Final Fantasy XIII (Eidolons live within the brands


of the l'Cie who summon them, and each l'Cie has
an Eidolon unique only to him or her)
Final Fantasy Tactics* [16]
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance
Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn (Summons become available after defeating them. They are represented much smaller, and act as pets in combat.)
Bravely Default: Flying Fairy
Time Mage
See also: Chronomancy
The Time Mage ( Tokimadshi) is a specialized wizard with the ability to manipulate the space-time
continuum so as to speed up, slow down, or completely
halt the passage of time, control celestial bodies, and inuence the pull of gravity.* [31] In actuality, the Japanese
version specically calls these magesTime Mages(
, tokimadshi). Time Mages can typically wield
rods and/or staves. They are commonly depicted wearing tall, pointed wizard hats adorned with star and moon
decorations.* [31]
Time Mages have appeared as playable jobs in:
Final Fantasy V * [31]
Final Fantasy XII: International Zodiac Job System
Final Fantasy Tactics* [16]
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance

Final Fantasy III * [4]

Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift

Final Fantasy IV (Rydia) [6]


*

Final Fantasy V [31]


*

Final Fantasy VI (any character can become a Summoner by equipping Espers)* [20]

Hataraku Chocobo
Bravely Default: Flying Fairy
Time magic has also appeared in:

1.2. FINAL FANTASY CHARACTER JOBS

27

Final Fantasy IV, Rosa is able to learn Slow and


Haste as she levels up, and Rydia has learned Stop
upon returning to the party. Tellah and Fusoya can
also wield these spells.

against all units on the eld, whilst other Lorespells


includeMad Science, which inicts a random bu on
a single target, and Study, which reveals the target's
equipment, treasure and gil. Four Heroes of Light sees a
dierent take on this: scholars are skilled with books and
Final Fantasy VII, any character can cast Time learn abilities that allow them to attack an enemy's status
Magic equipping the Time Magic Materia.
attributes (such as attack strength and physical defense)
Final Fantasy IX, Haste can be cast by Eiko and directly.
Slow, Stop, Demi and Meteor can be cast by Vivi. Scholars are included as a job option for the Arcanist class
Interestingly by equipping an Emerald as Eiko's Ac- in Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn, where the implecessory Item, her Eidolon Carbuncle, will cast Haste mentation is again very dierent. These Scholars, who
on the entire party rather than Reect.
trace their origin to the ruined city-state of Nym, are primarily a healing and support class who will rely onfairy
Final Fantasy X, in which a variety of Time Mage pets. Scholars will focus on damage mitigation and other
spells in Tidus's section of the Sphere Grid.
supportive abilities, as opposed to thestraight healsnature
of the Conjurer/White Mage. Though, when spec'ed
Final Fantasy XII, which includes seven levels of
correctly
can be a potent source of long term damage with
Time Magick [sic] is divided into seven levels.
their early Arcanist abilities (i.e. Bio, Miasma, etc).
Final Fantasy XIII, in which the Haste spell is avail Final Fantasy XI
able to 5 of the 6 playable characters through the
Synergistrole, and 4 of the 6 playable characters
Final Fantasy XIV
have access to at least one spell from the Slow series
through the Saboteurrole.
Green Mage
Scholar

Although inicting negative status eects is typically the


province of Black Mages and providing protective status eects is typically the province of White Mages, the
Green Mage ( Midori Madshi) is occasionally
a separate class specializing in both, with spells such as
Protect, Shell, Sleep, Silence and Blind. They can cast single/multiple variants of spells such asPoison,Sleep
and Blindand their reversals, as well as newer effects such asLeap(increasing mobility). Green Magic
does not include spells that cause hit point damage, with
the exception of someDamage Over Timespells; nor
does the class typically include curative spells. Like most
magic users they have relatively low HP (though higher
than that of a Black Mage in general) but greater attack
power than other caster classes, as they wield maces and
hammers. As can be expected, the typical uniform for a
Green Mage is dyed green.

Scholar ( Gakusha) is a magic-based class introduced in Final Fantasy III, which use 'books', physical weapons with element-based damage and which are
equally powerful from the front or back rows. In the original version of Final Fantasy III, Scholars can check an enemy's hit points or weakness. In the Nintendo DS remake,
they can cast low level Black and White Magic spells, the
eects of any items they use in battle are doubled, and
their Studyability allows them to check an enemy's
hit points and weakness, as well as removing the target's
bus. In Final Fantasy XI, Scholars have access to both
the curative White Mage spells and the elementally powerful Black Mage spells, but do not have access to most of
the enfeebling or enhancing spells from either job's spell
line (although many of these can be acquired depending
on the sub-job selected). They have spells that inuence
the weather eect that a character is under, and can cast Green Mages or Green Magic appear in:
powerful elementalDamage Over Time(DOT) spells
Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (exthat inict small amounts of damage over regular interclusive to the Viera race)
vals for a period of time. They also build up charges
which are used to power eects that cause spells to be
Final Fantasy XII (Although not technically a class,
cast more eciently or more powerfully. While books
Green Magick can be acquired through the licence
cannot be equipped in Final Fantasy XI, the book theme
board)
from Final Fantasy III is retained, as a book appears oating before the Scholar whenever a charge is used.
Additionally, similar classes and / or abilities are present
In Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift, the in other games in the series:
Scholar class is exclusive to the Nu Mou race and func In Final Fantasy XIII, the Saboteur role focuses on
tions substantially dierently from previous implementaweakening enemies by applying harmful status eftions. Scholars have theLoreability, which allows them
fects, while the Synergist role focuses on strengthento cast a number of spells. Many Lorespells inict a
ing allies by applying benecial status eects.
specic type of damage, such as Iceor Thunder,

28
Final Fantasy Tactics and its remake, Final Fantasy
Tactics: The War of the Lions, include the Oracle or
Mystic class, which specializes in casting negative
status eects and dispelling positive ones.
Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light allows characters to change to the Shaman job by wearing the
Shaman crown. In this game, spells that inict status
ailments such as poison or sleep are classed as 'dark
magic', which is the Shaman's specialty. Party members with the Shaman crown can use these spells for
one less Action Point and can learn special abilities such as Ritual, which expends an action point
to make the next Dark spell target all enemies, Hex,
which expends two action points to make the next
Dark spell target all enemies at increased power, and
Spellbound, which prevents anyone, friend or foe,
from taking actions for several turns.
Sage
The Sage ( or Kenja or Sji) is a combination
mage who can cast both black and white magic spells, like
Red Mages (and often share their drawbacks of smaller
magic point pools and / or lower magical stats than black
or white mages). Unlike Red Mages, however, Sages eschew physical combat in favor of increased spellcasting
prociency, and while they tend to have better magic stats
and maximum MP than Red Mages, they are also usually
restricted to light armor and weak weapons such as staves,
wands and occasionally maces.
Sages appear in:
Final Fantasy III, in which they can cast any black,
white or summon spell. In the original Famicon
version, they have the highest MP growth of any
class, and their stat growth rates match the higher
of the two rates for the Devout and Magus jobs,
and they cast the same version of Summon spells as
the Summoner job. In the DS and iOS remakes,
their stats and MP growth rates are lower, particularly for higher level spells (however they still have
more mid to high level MP than the Black or White
Mage jobs, and more low level MP than the Devout
or Magus jobs), and they cast the (random and generally weaker) Conjurer versions of Summon spells
instead of the Summoner versions (which produce
xed, and generally more powerful, eects).
Final Fantasy IV (Tellah the Sage can learn and use
most white and black magic spells, and can even use
some rather potent spells of his own in the DS version if he uses Recall, and Fusoya the Lunarian
shares a lot of the characteristics of a Sage, eschewing heavy weapons and armor and casting all white
and black magic spells. Both have low stats and MP
compared to mages and summoners of similar levels.)

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Final Fantasy VIII (Selphie Tilmitt's Limit Break
Slot allows the player to cast any random spell from
the game, excluding Blue Magic, numerous times
as well as certain magic used exclusively in her limit
break. Selphie's stats also reect those typical of a
sage, versus more focused Mage like a Sorceress.)
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance: Sages are exclusive
to Nu Mou. They wield maces, and can cast the following spells with the Sagacity skill: Drain, Blind,
Water, Aero, Raise, Giga Flare, Bio (a powerful poison spell) and Ultima Blow (a powerful mace attack).
Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (Sages
wield maces and share some spells with the Green
Mage, White Mage and White Monk classes, as well
as having some exclusive spells; the class is exclusive
to the Nu Mou race. They have lower MP and magic
stat growth rates than black or white mages.)
Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light.: Sages have intellect stats and oensive magic skill ratings nearly
as high as those of black mages, and spirit stats and
recovery magic skill ratings nearly as high as those
of white mages. Sages have four exclusive special
abilities: Spell Again, which allows the Sage to expend all AP (action points) to cast several spells
in quick succession (similar to Dualcast), Diligence
and Betterment, bus which reduce the AP cost of
Black Magic and White Magic spells respectively,
and Good and Evil, which summons beams of light
to simultaneously heal the party and inict heavy
holy-elemental damage upon foes. The temporary
party member Torte is also a Sage, however, unlike
the four permanent party members, his job cannot
be changed.
Alchemist
The Alchemist ( ( ) Renkinjyutsushi (Seirenjyutsushi)), or Chemist (/
Yakushi/Aitemushi, lit. Dispenser/Item User) class
is generally focused on consumable restorative items. In
Final Fantasy V, Chemists possess the passivePharmacologyability, which doubles the potency of consumable restorative items such as Potions and Ethers, and the
Drinkcommand, which allows a Chemist to use special
drinks for personal bus. Chemists can gain three more
commands during the game:Mix, which combines two
items to generate various eects depending on the items
used,Recover, which removes debus from the party,
andRevive, which revives the party with a small number of health points. Final Fantasy X has Rikku's Overdrive use the Mixcommand, which mixes two items
to produce a great number of oensive, defensive and
restorative eects. In Final Fantasy X-2, Alchemists also
possess theMixcommand, which functions much like
it does in Final Fantasy V. Alchemists can also learn abilities used through the Stashcommand, which mimic

1.2. FINAL FANTASY CHARACTER JOBS


the eects of consumable restorative items without consuming them; and can learn the Chemist, Elementalistand Physicistpassive abilities, which double
the potency of restorative, elemental damage and nonelemental damage items respectively. In Final Fantasy
Tactics, Chemists possess theItemscommand, which
makes it possible to use various consumable restorative
items, and the Throw Itemsability, which increases
the range of these items. The ability to use each type of
item must be learned separately. In Final Fantasy Tactics
Advance and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the
Rift, the Alchemist job is exclusive to the Nu Mou race.
Alchemists can learn powerful damaging non-elemental
damage spells such as Flare, as well as other spells,
such asRasp(which reduces the target's magic points),
Astra(which prevents the next status ailment from affecting the target), Poison(which poisons the target),
andToad(which transforms the target into a toad). Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light takes the following approach: Alchemists and Chemists (called Salve Makers)
are separate classes, but both deal with items. Alchemists
can use attack items to great eect, can create many effects with their Smeltability, change one item into
another type through Experiment, or even create an
attack item mid-battle with Forge. The Salve Maker
crown deals with recovery items: characters with it can
use recovery items without worrying about AP costs and
can useDispensaryto use these items without aecting
stock either. They can also use the abilityLevel Serum
to raise the party's level by one for the battle and Poison Pillto make recovery items damage their enemies
(seeq Rangers in Final Fantasy Tactics A2 have an action
ability called Mirror Items which provides this eect and
status ailments as well, depending on the item used).

1.2.4

Mixed classes

29
trait, signicantly shortening the period of time required
to cast any magic spell. They are also able to access the
special ability Chainspell,which allows the player to
both cast and recast spells instantly for a short period of
time. In dress, Red Mages are usually recognizable by a
distinctive red hat tipped with a white feather.* [22]
Red Mages have appeared in:
Final Fantasy* [2]
Final Fantasy II (Scott wears a red outt and joins
with high sword skill and white and black magic
spells)
Final Fantasy III * [4]
Final Fantasy V * [31]
Final Fantasy VII: Crisis Core (Genesis is often considered as a Red Mage. He wields a Rapier, can cast
low-mid tier magic and employ swordplay. He also
wears a red coat, and his sword has the red color)
Final Fantasy IX (Vivi Orunitia and Eiko Carol's
trance abilities allow them to double cast black and
white magic respectively, and Freya Crescent, although actually a Dragoon, wears a red hat tipped
with a white feather. Non playable characters called
Red Mages, donning the traditional red outt with a
hat, appear throughout the game.)
Final Fantasy XI;* [13]
Final Fantasy XII;
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance (as a Viera job class)
Hataraku Chocobo
Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (as a
Viera job class)

These classes can use both adequate physical attacks


and magic or magic-related attacks. Generally, these
classes can equip heavier weapons and armor than mag- Red mages do not appear in Final Fantasy IV (DS),
ical classes, although their selection tends to be limited Final Fantasy VI, Final Fantasy VII or Final Fancompared to that of pure physical classes.
tasy X, although their signature X-Magic"/"WMagic"/"Doublecastability appears in all three games,
and characters can use both Black and White magic in
Red Mage
the latter two games.
Red Mages ( Akamadshi) are members of
a hybrid class, able to cast spells associated with either
Black or White Mages, as well as wield swords. However,
the jack-of-all-trades quality of their profession makes
them less powerful at each individual skill than the classes
which specialize in them. In general, they are only able
to cast low-mid level spells,* [4] but make up for this deciency by casting more quickly. For example, they are
often associated with the ability to cast two spells in a single combat round (called Dualcastor Doublecast
).* [31] Final Fantasy XI continues this tradition by granting players who play as Red Mages a Fast Castjob

Blue Mage
The Blue Mage ( Aomadshi) is a mage who
is able to replicate the special attacks of his/her opponents.* [31] The precise extent of and mechanism for this
capacity diers from game to game. Most Final Fantasy games require that an enemy use the ability at least
once during combat before the Blue Mage is able to use
it. For example, Blue Mages in Final Fantasy V must
be targeted by the ability to learn it; once the ability has
been learned, however, any Blue Mage in the party may

30
use it.* [34] Strago in Final Fantasy VI does not have to
be targeted by the spell, but he does have to see it in action in order to learn the spell. Players who adopt the
Blue Mage job in Final Fantasy XI have a random chance
to learn abilities executed during combat, by absorbing
the essence of felled opponents. Typically, Blue Mages
learn a variety of abilities, making them very versatile.
The Final Fantasy XI incarnation is also highly skilled in
swords, making them a potentially deadly melee ghter,
while having an arsenal of powerful spells at their disposal which can either be damaging, enfeebling, enhancing, or healing, making the Blue Mage potentially one of
the most powerful and well rounded classes in the game.
Some games in the series which do not explicitly oer the
Blue Mage as a job class feature abilities or characteristics generally associated with Blue Mages.
Blue Mages have appeared in:

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
refers to Chinese geomancy or feng shui. The signature
attack of a Geomancer has been called Terrain(Final Fantasy III),* [4] Gaiaor Earth(Final Fantasy V),* [36] Elemental(Final Fantasy Tactics) and
Geomancy(Final Fantasy Tactics A2).* [16] In the two
rst games, the Geomancers are depicted wearing green
or blue fur-lined clothes and a fur-lined cap.* [21]
They appear in:
Final Fantasy III * [4]
Final Fantasy V
Final Fantasy VI (the moogle Mog can use dances
that have similar eects to the Geomancer)
Final Fantasy XI (Seekers of Adoulin expansion)

Final Fantasy V * [31]

Final Fantasy XII (a member of the Garif tribe is


identied as a Geomancer and grants access to a sidequest later in the game)

Final Fantasy VI (Strago Magus)

Final Fantasy Tactics* [16]* [36]

Final Fantasy VII (any character may copy certain


abilities onto an equipped Enemy Skillmateria,
and cast them as magic)

Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (Geomancer is a job class for the Gria race)

Final Fantasy VIII (Quistis Trepe)* [35]

Bard

Final Fantasy IX (Quina Quen devours enemies to


Bards ( Gin'yshijin) use songs to cause efgain their abilities)
fects, often bung the party or debung the opposition
*
*
*
Final Fantasy X (Kimahri Ronso may absorb skills via the Singcommand. [4] [12] [36] They generally
*
equip harps as weapons. [36] Some Bard incarnations,
via his Lancetability)* [25]
including Edward Chris von Muir from Final Fantasy IV,
Final Fantasy X-2 (via the Gun Mage dressphere)
have the ability toHidefrom the enemy.* [6] This command is mainly used due to the Bard's low physical abil Final Fantasy XI: Treasures of Aht Urhgan expan- ities. Bards in Final Fantasy XI have MP regeneration
sion pack
songs and stat boosting songs. In Final Fantasy Tactics,
Final Fantasy XII (lacks Blue Mage as a formal Bard *is the only male-exclusive class available to generic
class, but the game's Technicksbranch of abili- units. [16] InFinal Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the
ties include several spells typically classied as blue Rift, the Bard job is exclusive to the Moogle Hurdy. In
Final Fantasy Type-0, Deuce plays the ute in battle and
magic)
acts as a bard, aiding her allies and debilitating her en Final Fantasy Tactics Advance (only available to hu- emies using the melodies from her ute. Strangely, in
Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light, one of the White
mans)
Mage's special abilities is Hide, which is normally seen
Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift with bards.
(Available only to humes)
The Bard class is seen in:
Geomancer

Final Fantasy III * [4]

Geomancers ( Fsuishi) channel the powers of


the surrounding environment;* [4] therefore, their abilities dier depending on their location. If in a forest, they
will attack with vines and forest animals, if in a cave with
rockslides, if in a desert with quicksand, and so on. Geomancers are featured either as a class or in loose association with a character's powers. In the Japanese versions,
Geomancers are " (fsuishi),which specically

Final Fantasy IV (Prince Edward Chris von Muir of


Damcyan)* [6]
Final Fantasy V * [36]
Final Fantasy X-2 (does not have a Bard class, however its Songstress class combines aspects of the
Bard and Dancer classes, with both a Singcommand and a Dancecommand)* [12]

1.2. FINAL FANTASY CHARACTER JOBS


Final Fantasy XI * [37]
Final Fantasy Tactics
Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (Only
Hurdy has access to it)

31
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance (restricted to the Nu
Mou race)* [17]
Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (see
above)

Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light (as a hidden


Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light (with separate
crown: whips are not available here)
Bard and Musician classes: bards have increased
harp prociency and musicians become stronger if
Dancer
a bard is one of their teammates)
Final Fantasy XIV : A Realm Reborn (As a damage Dancers ( Odoriko) use special Dances to
dealer and support mix. The bard's bow is also a cause status eects or damage enemies on a battle
harp, and can use attacks while playing songs.)
eld.* [12]* [16] In Final Fantasy V, there are four oensive dances, each with a single eect, one of which is
Final Fantasy Type-0 (as Deuce)
performed randomly when theDancecommand is selected. In Final Fantasy VI, the Dancecommand allows Mog to perform one of eight dances, each of which
Beastmaster
causes the player to lose control of the character, who
Beastmasters ( Majtsukai) (also known as will randomly perform one of the specic dance's four
Tamer or Trainer) can control or even capture and train special abilities each turn. In Final Fantasy Tactics, Fimonsters.* [36] Typically, the class wields whips. In Final nal Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift and Final
Fantasy XI and Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, whips are Fantasy X-2, the Dancecommand allows one of sevnot an available weapon type, instead, the Beastmaster eral dances to be selected, each dance performs a single
xed eect. In 4 Heroes of Light, Rekoteh features as a
classes specialize in axes and instruments, respectively.
Dancer. Like Torte, however, her class can't be changed.
The class (or a variation thereof) has appeared in:
The Dancer crown also features increased dagger prociency and many abilities to do with the party's Action
Final Fantasy V * [36]
Point scores, allowing them to recharge faster for a few
rounds (Danceand Perform) or provide an on Final Fantasy VI (the Fake Mustacheaccessory
the-spot boost (ApplaudandOvation) making this
allows Relm Arrowny to use the Controlcoma potent class in that game.
mand in place of her usual Sketchcommand)
The Dancer class appears in:
Final Fantasy VII (any character can control certain
enemies using the Manipulatemateria)
Final Fantasy V
Final Fantasy VIII (Rinoa Heartilly's pet dog Angelo will perform random attacks when summoned
as her Limit Break, which are learned from reading
in-game books and traveling with Rinoa in the active
party)
Final Fantasy X Although monsters cannot be used
to battle. Weapons can be given the capture ability
to allow the player to capture monsters to sell to the
owner of the monster arena. Through this the player
can gain access to several optional superbosses and
easy grinding for a price.
Final Fantasy X-2
Final Fantasy XI * [38]
Final Fantasy XIII-2 (Serah Farron has the ability to
tame monsters to have them ght alongside her and
Noel)
Final Fantasy Tactics (the ability is adjusted for the
job Mediator as learning an ability to communicate
with and manipulate monsters)* [16]

Final Fantasy VI (Mog possesses theDancecommand, which functions similar to a Geomancer's


abilities)
Final Fantasy X-2 (no specic Dancer class, however its Songstress class combines aspects of the
Bard and Dancer classes, learning both songs and
dances)* [12]
Final Fantasy XI: WIngs of the Goddess expansion (Dancer uses TP (Tactical Points) to carry
out dances which have varying eects and can be
used as a front-line healer because of its restorative
dances)
Final Fantasy Tactics (Dancer is the only femaleexclusive class available to generic units)* [16]
Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (exclusive to Penelo)
Hataraku Chocobo
Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light

32

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Gambler
The Gambler ( Gyanbur) uses a Slots
system in battle. When the player selects the Slots
command, three slots like those of a slot machine are presented on screen. Each slot is then stopped by the press
of a button. Certain combinations produce benecial effects such as healing the party or dealing great damage, or
even death, to the enemies. However, this is usually balanced with combinations that have disadvantageous effects, such as reducing the party's health, or instant game
over.
The Gambler class has appeared in:

Final Fantasy VI (Gogo is a Mimic who possesses


the class' signatureMimiccommand, and can be
given up to three other commands)* [20]

Final Fantasy VI (Setzer Gabbiani)* [20]


Final Fantasy VII (Cait Sith's Limit Break attack
features a slot machine or dice. Additionally, Tifa
Lockhart's Limit Break used a slot system to determine which techniques in a string of powerful moves
hit or miss)
Final Fantasy VIII (Selphie Tilmitt uses Slotas
her Limit Break* [35]
Final Fantasy
slots)* [25]

(Wakka's

Overdrive

Final Fantasy V (Mimes can equip most types


of equipment, but they are restricted to lighter
weapons, such as rods, staves, knives and
boomerangs. Like Freelancers, they automatically inherit most passive special abilities and
all stat bonuses from other jobs the character
has mastered.* [36] In addition to replacing their
Fightcommand with the Mimiccommand,
they also sacrice their Itemcommand for an
extra custom ability slot, for a total of 3, 1 more
than Freelancers and 2 more than any other job in
the game.)

uses

Final Fantasy X-2 (the Lady Luck dressphere uses


dierent Dice and Slots attacks)
Final Fantasy XI (features the class Corsair, which
uses a dice based game similar to Blackjack to enhance party members' prociency in battle)
Final Fantasy XII
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance (the Gadgeteer class
bears resemblance to the Gambler because it uses
techniques that have an equal chance of aecting
the party or the enemy (e.g., Green Gearhas an
equal chance of poisoning the player's party or the
enemy's party). However, Gadgeteers do not use a
slot system.
Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII (theDMWis a slotreel system in battle; matching number or character
panels can activate a variety of special eects, such
as Limit Breaks and Invincible)
Gambler is also a type of enemy in Kingdom Hearts II,
with similar powers and appearance.

Final Fantasy VII (characters equipped with the


Mimemateria can mimic the most recent action
performed by another party member)
Final Fantasy X (players can learn a miming move
called Copycat)
Final Fantasy Tactics - The Mime has very high
pre-requisites, requiring a character to gain levels
in most of the game's other jobs. Mimes have the
Mimic special ability, which prevents them from being controlled directly. Instead, they automatically
attempt to copy the movements and commands of
all other party members (with a small chance of
failure). Movement and abilities use relative twodimensional co-ordinates, for example, if a Black
Mage casts a spell centered on a square three squares
north and one square west, the Mime will cast the
same spell, targeted three squares north and one
square west of the Mime (as opposed to targeting
the same tile). Mimes cannot Mimic certain special
abilities (specically, those restricted to characterspecic special jobs), cannot engage in impossible
actions (such as walking over impassable terrain, using abilities on invalid targets, or engaging in actions
prohibited by status ailments), cannot mimic reaction abilities, and cannot mimic other Mimes. Mimics cannot use any equipment.
Dissidia Final Fantasy (the hero representing Final
Fantasy V, Bartz Klauser, uses the other player's attacks as his own, and his general appearance is based
on the Mime job class)
Puppet Master

Mime

Puppet Masters employ a toy puppet in combat. The puppet itself can have various skills, usually from other jobs,
Mimes ( Monomaneshi, lit. Mimic) can repli- such as Paladin, Black Mage, White Mage and Ranger.
cate the previous action of another party member with Usually these skills are modied to t with the Puppet
the Mimic command.* [36]
Theme. Puppet Master was not a specic class in any
They appear in many dierent versions throughout the games previous to Final Fantasy XI, although some abilseries:
ities and characters do t under the basic description of

1.2. FINAL FANTASY CHARACTER JOBS


Puppet Master, for example Lulu from Final Fantasy X
uses a puppet toy as a weapon, and to assist in her spell
casting; In something of a twist in Final Fantasy IV: the
interlude and Final Fantasy IV: the After Years feature
Calca and Brina. Rather than being in control of a doll or
puppet, they are dolls.
Memorist

33

[8] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy VII


North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. pp. 3234. SCUS-94163.
[9] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy VIII
North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. pp. 2435. SLUS-00892GH.
[10] The Evolution of Final Fantasy. IGN. Retrieved February
11, 2006.

The Memorist job was introduced in Final Fantasy Di- [11] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (2000). Final Fantasy IX
North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
mensions. Memorists are somewhat similar to FreeArts. pp. 1619. SLUS-01251.
lancers and Mimes. Memorists have two special abilities: The Memorandom command temporarily allows the [12] Square Enix Co., ed. (2003). Final Fantasy X-2 North
Memorist to choose from a randomly selected set of four
American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 13.
commands which the character has already unlocked by
gaining levels in other jobs, and Recollect is a passive abil- [13] Final Fantasy XI Ocial Site. Playonline.com. Retrieved
February 9, 2007.
ity which allows the player to assign and distribute the
Memorist's attribute points.

1.2.5

Reception

[14] BradyGAMES, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy XII Ocial


Strategy Guide. DKPublishing. pp. 1819. ISBN 0-74400837-9.
[15] Final Fantasy XII introduces a new way to experience

In a review of the Final Fantasy Anthology compilation,


RPGs. CBS News. Retrieved February 11, 2006.
IGN praised Final Fantasy V's incredibly engrossing
job system.* [39] The gameplay of Final Fantasy Tactics [16] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy Tactics North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Advance was lauded for retaining elements from Final
Arts. pp. 2426. SCUS-94221.
Fantasy Tactics while oering freedom to players to develop characters as they wish;* [40]
[17] Final Fantasy Tactics Ocial Website Square-Enix.com.
Retrieved February 18, 2007.
However, some reviewers thought the character jobs in
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance are too many and overlap [18] Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology
one another, reaching a point where certain abilities are
North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p.
rendered redundant.* [41]
19. SLUS-00879GH.

1.2.6

References

[19] Final Fantasy Origins review. IGN. Retrieved February


11, 2007.

[1] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy Tactics North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. pp. 13, 24. SCUS-94221.

[20] Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology


North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. pp.
4446. SLUS-00879GH.

[2] Square Enix Co., ed. (2003). Final Fantasy Origins North
American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 5.
SLUS-01541.

[21] Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology


North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p.
20. SLUS-00879GH.

[3] Square Enix Co., ed. (2003). Final Fantasy Origins North
American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 23.
SLUS-01541.

[22] Final Fantasy XI Ocial Website: Job Descriptions.


PlayOnline. Retrieved February 10, 2006.

[4] Final Fantasy III Ocial Website. Square Enix. Retrieved


February 17, 2007.
[5] Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology
North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. pp.
1718. SLUS-00879GH.
[6] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (2001). Final Fantasy Chronicles North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. pp. 69. SLUS-01360.
[7] Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology
North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. pp.
4748. SLUS-00879GH.

[23] Knight, Sheila (2003).


Tetsuya Nomura 20s.
FLAREgamer. Retrieved April 13, 2006.
[24] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy VII
North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. pp. 711. SCUS-94163.
[25] Final Fantasy X Ocial Site. Square Enix.com. Retrieved
February 10, 2006.
[26] http://wiki.ffxiclopedia.org/wiki/Dragoon
[27] Terra: You're Locke, right? Edgar told me about you.
Is it true you're a thief? / Locke: That's TREASURE
HUNTER! (Final Fantasy VI)

34

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

[28] Amarant: Listen to you. I lost to some spineless thief. /


Zidane: The sly eagle doesn't kill at whim. (Final Fantasy
IX)

characters while Toshiyuki Itahana was the nal character designer for Final Fantasy IX, and Akihiko Yoshida
was the character designer for Final Fantasy XII.

[29] BradyGAMES, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy XII Ocial


Strategy Guide. DKPublishing. pp. 284286. ISBN 07440-0837-9.

1.3.1 Visual character design

[30] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (2000). Final Fantasy IX


North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. p. 18. SLUS-01251.
[31] Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology
North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p.
21. SLUS-00879GH.
[32] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy VIII
North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. p. 25. SLUS-00892GH.
[33] BradyGAMES, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy XII Ocial
Strategy Guide. DKPublishing. p. 44. ISBN 0-74400837-9.
[34] Final Fantasy Jobs: Blue Mage. Ffcompendium.com.
Retrieved 2011-12-06.
[35] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy VIII
North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. p. 21. SLUS-00892GH.

The Emperor of Palamecia is an example of a male character


with eeminate characteristics.

The series has often featured male characters with slightly


eeminate characteristics,* [1]* [2] as well as female characters with slightly tomboyish, but still feminine, characteristics. This trend has generally increased as the series
evolved.* [3] These characters are usually teenagers,* [4]
[37] http://wiki.ffxiclopedia.org/wiki/Bard
which some critics have interpreted as an eort on the
[38] http://wiki.ffxiclopedia.org/wiki/Beastmaster
part of the designers to ensure the players identify with
them.* [5] At the same time, some female characters have
[39] Reyes, Francesca (1999).Final Fantasy Anthology IGN
been increasingly designed to wear very revealing outReview. PSX.IGN.com. Retrieved 27 July 2006.
ts. Square Enix has stated that a more rugged look[40] Kasavin, Greg (2003-09-08).Final Fantasy Tactics Ad- ing hero had been considered for Final Fantasy XII but
vance Review. GameSpot.com. Retrieved 2007-07-24. had ultimately been scrapped in favor of Vaan, another
eeminate protagonist. The developers cited scenaristic
[41] Metts, Jonathan (2003-10-13). Final Fantasy Tactics
reasons and target demographic considerations to explain
Advance Review. Nintendoworldreport.com. Retrieved
their choice.* [3] For Final Fantasy XIII, Square Enix set2007-07-24.
tled on a female main character, described as a female
version of Cloud from FFVII.* [6] This aspect of FiFantasy can also be seen in Sora, the protagonist of
1.3 Character design of Final Fan- nal
Kingdom Hearts, a crossover series featuring Final Fantasy and Disney characters.* [4]
tasy
[36] Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology
North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p.
22. SLUS-00879GH.

Although each installment of the Final Fantasy series


is generally set in a dierent ctional world with separate storylines, there are several commonalities when it
comes to character design, as certain design themes repeat themselves, as well as specic character names and
classes. Within the main series, Yoshitaka Amano was
the character designer for Final Fantasy, Final Fantasy
II, Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy IV, Final Fantasy V
and Final Fantasy VI, Tetsuya Nomura was the character designer for Final Fantasy VII, Final Fantasy VIII,
Final Fantasy X, Final Fantasy XI and Final Fantasy XIII,
Yoshitaka Amano created and did the concept art for the

1.3.2 Recurring characters


Biggs and Wedge
The names Biggs and Wedge (
Biggusu & Wejji) are given to two related characters in
several Final Fantasy games. They are speculated to be
an homage to the Star Wars characters Biggs Darklighter
and Wedge Antilles.* [7] Their rst appearance is in Final
Fantasy VI withBiggsmistranslated toVicks
as a pair of soldiers accompanying Terra Branford in an

1.3. CHARACTER DESIGN OF FINAL FANTASY

35

attack on Narshe to claim an Esper. They are playable for hart. This chicobo possesses its own minigame; Chocobo
a short period, but are soon killed by the Esper.
World. A chocobo named Bobby Corwen appears in FiFollowing their rst appearance, Biggs and Wedge have nal Fantasy IX in the Black Mage Village; his initials in
appeared in several games. In Final Fantasy VII, they Japanese katakana characters form the wordBoko, and
are members of AVALANCHE, an eco-warrior organi- there is a Tetra Master card also named Bokowhich
zation. They are killed after a failed attempt to stop one features a depiction of an eight-bit chocobo. In Final Fanof Midgar city's support pillars from being destroyed by tasy XI, Boko appears as a black chocobo in various races.
Shinra. In Final Fantasy VIII, Biggs and Wedge are Galbadian soldiers who engage in battle with the protagonists
twice, (once in Dollet, and again in D-District Prison).
They eventually retire from the Galbadian forces. In Final Fantasy X and Final Fantasy X-2, they are guards at
the Luca Blitzball stadium, and can be scouted by the
player to participate in Blitzball. In Final Fantasy XII,
two Archadian guards named Gibbs and Deweg (variation of Biggs, anagram of Wedge) stand at Nalbina Town,
and provide comic relief in several optional scenes. Biggs
and Wedge are also featured in Final Fantasy XIII, as the
name of a shop; B&W Outtters.
Biggs and Wedge have also appeared in several Final Fantasy spin o games. Final Fantasy Tactics features a form
of the names (ViggsandWezale), where they are
members of a raiding party, without speaking roles and
who die while descending Orbonne Monaster. In Final
Fantasy Tactics Advance, Biggs is a former business subordinate of Cid. In Final Fantasy IV: The After Years,
they appear as Red Wings soldiers who die protecting Cecil's son, Prince Ceodore, from an attack led by the Mysterious Woman. The game reveals that Biggs and Wedge
were actually the two soldiers who questioned Cecil about
stealing the Water Crystal of Mysidia at the beginning of
Final Fantasy IV. In Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII, Biggs
and Wedge are enemies in a sniping minigame.
Biggs and Wedge are also common names in other video
games by Square and Square Enix. In Chrono Trigger,
Vicks and Wedge, along with a third character named
Piett (who likewise shares a name with a Star Wars character), are sideshow attractions at Norstein Bekkler's Lab
at the Millennial Fair. Biggs retains his original name
in the Nintendo DS re-release of Chrono Trigger. In
Kingdom Hearts II, Biggs and Wedge are storekeepers
who own armor shops. Chocobo's Dungeon 2 features
them as two Black Mages who may assist the player.

Boco also appears in Final Fantasy Tactics as a chocobo


owned by Wiegraf Folles, which is later lost in a forest
and can be saved and recruited by the protagonist Ramza
Beoulve. In Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII, a pilot
in the Shera airship mentions that she is raising a chocobo
named Boco.

Chaos
Chaos ( Kaosu) is the nal boss in the original Final Fantasy game. He is a relatively large, winged
demonic gure who uses his hatred to create the Four Elemental Fiends, the antagonists of the game.* [8] Originally, he was Garland ( Grando) an evil
knight who kidnaps the princess of Cornelia. His plot
is foiled by the Warriors of Light. However, seemingly
killed, Garland was actually sent back through time into
the distant past by the four Crystals, siphoned by the
Four Elemental Fiends, becoming Chaos and sending the
Fiends into the present to cause mass destruction in World
A. This in turn creates a time-loop and allows Garland to
live forever. The Warriors of Light return to the Chaos
Shrine ruins to travel two thousand years into the past,
where they meet Garland as he assumes his demon form.
After the Warriors of Light defeat Chaos, they return to
their own time with the Garland of a new reality waiting
for them.* [8]

Chaos appears as the God of Discord and is also the main


antagonist in Dissidia Final Fantasy, where he is voiced
by Norio Wakamoto in Japanese and Keith David in English. In the storyline, Chaos was created as a perfect
Manikin, malformed from the memories of multiple people used in his creation, and raised by his creator as a son.
Later used as a weapon of war, Chaos destroyed all the
summons of World A before he, his creator, and Cosmos
(the God of Harmony) arrived in World B. There, Chaos
Biggs and Wedge are an important duo in FFXIV as well,
became the God of Discord and was supported by Garaiding the protagonist through the storyline and assisting
land, who accepted his predestined fate to become the
Cid in piloting airships. Biggs and Wedge also appear in
Chaos of Final Fantasy.* [9]* [10] In the prequel to DisLightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII
sidia, Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy, a new form of Chaos
called Feral Chaos is introduced. This incarnation of
Chaos also appears as the nal boss of Theatrhythm FiBoko
nal Fantasy.
A chocobo named Boko or Boco () appears in several installments of the series. Boko rst appears in Final Fantasy V as Bartz Klauser's mount. Boko also appears in Final Fantasy VII as a chocobo in the races at
the Gold Saucer. In Final Fantasy VIII, a chicobo (young
chocobo) named Boko can be obtained by Squall Leon-

The nameChaosalso appears in other Final Fantasy titles. In Final Fantasy VII, Vincent's fourth and nal Limit
Break causes him to take the form of a black, winged
demon called Chaos; this concept is explored further in
the sequel, Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII. In Final
Fantasy XII, Chaos appears as an Esper, bearing the title

36
Walker of the Wheel.Also, the agship of the antiImperial Resistance eet bears the name Garland. The
main antagonist and nal boss of Final Fantasy: The 4
Heroes of Light is also named Chaos.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Cid of the Lufaine) becomes more involved in Dissidia
Final Fantasy, serving as the game's non-physical narrator and the one who began the conict itself after arriving
in the mirror dimension of World B.* [13] Furthermore,
Cid also created the Manikins, with only three being perfect: Cosmos (modeled after his wife), Chaos (an earlier
creation he took in as a son), and the Warrior of Light (a
clone of himself).* [14]

In the anime series Final Fantasy: Unlimited, Chaos is an


otherworldly being that consumes entire worlds, feeding
on the negative energy of others. Last but not least, Chaos
appears in Final Fantasy XIII-2 and Lightning Returns:
Final Fantasy XIII as a dark force.
In Final Fantasy II, Cid is a non-playable character and
a freelance airship pilot. He reappears in the Soul of
Rebirthsection of Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls
Cid
and in the 20th Anniversary version of Final Fantasy II,
which takes place during the nal parts of the main game.
He appears in Final Fantasy III as Cid Haze, a nonplayable character.
In Final Fantasy IV, Cid Pollendina is a playable character, the rst playable Cid in the series.

In Final Fantasy V, Cid Previa is a non-playable character and elderly inventor. In the OVA sequel to Final
Fantasy V, Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals, the late
Cid's brain has been stolen by Ra Devil to be used in the
villain's plans.
In Final Fantasy VI, Cid del Norte Marguez is a nonplayer character who is a researcher for the Empire and
the adoptive grandfather of Celes Chere.

Cid of Final Fantasy II.

In Final Fantasy VII, Cid Highwind is a spear-wielding


airship pilot, and for the rst time in the series, a major
playable character. He also appears in the game's prequel
Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII and the sequels, the OVA
Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children and the game Dirge of
Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII. Cid Highwind also appears
in Kingdom Hearts and Kingdom Hearts II. A memory version of Cid appears in Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories, which takes place between the two main games.
He also appears in the Chain of Memories PS2 remake,
Kingdom Hearts: Coded, and the Coded NDS remake.

In Final Fantasy VIII, Cid Kramer is a non-playable


Cid ( Shido) is a character who appears, or is at least character and the headmaster of Balamb Garden, which,
mentioned, in every Final Fantasy installment since Final at one point in the game, turns into an airship. He is the
Fantasy. According to Hironobu Sakaguchi, Cid was ini- husband of Edea Kramer, who appears initially as the antially conceived as a character that could appear in all of tagonist of the game.
the games in dierent forms.* [11] Although he is rarely In Final Fantasy IX, Cid Fabool is the ruler of Lindblum
the same age, and never the same individual in each of the and is briey playable. He is also married to Lady Hilda.
main series, he is usually presented as an owner, creator, Appropriately, his full name is Cid Fabool the 9th.
and/or pilot of the various airships in each game, and pro- He designed two airships that the party uses throughout
vides transportation to the main characters and their party the game (both of which are named after his wife), and
members at various points. In Final Fantasy II, he has a plays an important political and personal role in relation
friendly relationship with a woman named Hilda; he also to various other characters in the game.
has a close relationship with a woman of the same name
In Final Fantasy X and its sequel, Final Fantasy X-2, Cid
in both Final Fantasy IX and Final Fantasy XI.
is the leader of the Al Bhed tribe, the father of Rikku and
Cid does not appear in the Nintendo Entertainment Sys- Brother, and Yuna's uncle. He is the captain of the rst
tem version of the original Final Fantasy, but he has been game's only airship, although he was not the creator of the
retroactively inserted in subsequent versions (from 2003's machine; rather, he led the Al Bhed in restoring a broken
Final Fantasy Origins onwards), where he is mentioned as airship that had sunk to the bottom of the sea.
the creator of the party's airship.* [12] This Cid (known as

1.3. CHARACTER DESIGN OF FINAL FANTASY

37

In Final Fantasy XI, Cid is featured prominently in the Gilgamesh


world of Vana'diel as a non-playable character. He is the
chief engineer of The Republic of Bastok who created
*
the airships and plays a major role in many of the game's Gilgamesh ( Girugamesshu) [15] is
a character rst introduced in Final Fantasy V. He is
missions and quests.
characterized by having a grey complexion, amboyFinal Fantasy XII is notable for being both the rst Final antly colorful battle armor, and multiple (usually eight)
Fantasy with more than one Cid, and the rst in which arms wielding multiple weapons at once. He has a erce
Cid is a villain. Doctor Cidolfus Demen Bunansa is a faade, but this masks his own childlike personality.
non-playable character as an enemy boss. He is the fa- The name Gilgameshcomes from the Sumerian king
ther of the sky pirate, Balthier, a playable character. In Gilgamesh, the main character in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
keeping with the airship theme, he is the one who designs He has been shown as both a hero and villain throughmany of the enemies' airships, including the sky fortress out the games. In Final Fantasy V, he is shown to be
Bahamut. There is also a character by the name of Al- good natured, such as when he is seen to sadden upon
Cid Margrace, who is the heir of Rozarria and friend of hearing of Galuf Baldesion's death, as well as sacricing
Larsa Solidor.
himself for the party when ghting Necrophobe. HowFinal Fantasy XIII continues the portrayal of a villainous ever, his arrogance, occasional stupidity, and thirst for
Cid in the form of Cid Raines, who is the youngest Cid battle have generally pitted him against the party, usually leading to a boss battle. Gilgamesh is commonly
to appear in the main game series.
known to carry the powerful Genji equipment set, conFinal Fantasy XIV Cid's full name isCid Garlond. He
sistently composed of the Genji Gauntlet, Genji Shield,
is a former member of the Garlond Imperial Army & his
Genji Helm, and Genji Armor. In many game appearAliation: Garlond Ironworks. He is part of the Story
ances, Gilgamesh uses a variety of weapons, some being
line (thus far) and can also be interviewed by any of the
parodies of signature swords from the Final Fantasy se3 nations' newspaper.
ries.
The name Cid also appears in Final Fantasy games outGilgamesh's rst appearance is in Final Fantasy V, as
side the main series. In Final Fantasy Tactics, Cidolfas
a major villain who the party encounters several times
Orlandu, known within the game asThunder God Cid
before he is banished to the Rift by Exdeath for his re, is a playable character, a powerful general described
peated failures. As revealed in Dissidia 012: Final Fanas the only man that Ramza Beoulve's father, Balbanes,
tasy, Gilgamesh ended up traveling to various planes of
could truly trust. An optional side task that can be taken
existence since then. These appearances appear to inby members of Ramza's party involves raising a sunken
clude Gilgamesh being a Guardian Force summon in Fiship named the Highwind. In Final Fantasy Tactics Adnal Fantasy VIII after Seifer killed Odin, provided the
vance, Cid Randell is the leader of the Judges who upplayer got Odin, an optional boss in Final Fantasy XII
hold law in Ivalice, and can be acquired as a player charand Final Fantasy XII: Revenant Wings, accompanied by
acter. In the spin-o, Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire
his animal companion Enkidu, and a downloadable boss
of the Rift, there is a dierent playable character named
that can be recruited in Final Fantasy XIII-2, and a side
Cid, who belongs to the race of Revgaji (the rst clearly
quest character in Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn.
non-human Cid in the series) and is the leader of the Clan
Gilgamesh also appeared in Final Fantasy IV: The After
Gully. Al-Cid Margrace from Final Fantasy XII also apYears and Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls as a boss,
pears in Grimoire of the Rift.
and in Final Fantasy VI as a summon. Other versions
Cid also appears in the CGI feature lm Final Fantasy: of Gilgamesh include one in Final Fantasy IX who is a
The Spirits Within (as Dr. Sid), the anime TV series Final self-proclaimed great treasure hunter with four arms and
Fantasy: Unlimited (as a scientist), Final Fantasy Crystal goes by the alias Alleyway Jack; the player encounters
Chronicles: My Life as a King (as Mogcid), Final Fantasy this four-armed man multiple times during the journey,
Crystal Chronicles: The Crystal Bearers (as Professor until Zidane Tribal reveals his true identity. There is also
Cid), Chocobo Racing, Chocobo's Dungeon 2 and Final the Gilgamesh of Final Fantasy XI, a legendary swordFantasy Fables: Chocobo Tales. Outside of the Final smith who is leader of the Tenshodo pirating organizaFantasy series, he appears in Treasure of the Rudras and tion in Norg. Players run into him while attempting misDragon Quest Heroes: Rocket Slime (as Ducktor Cid).
sions from the rst expansion pack, Rise of the Zilart, as
well
as the quest to unlock Samurai as a playable job, for
Cid takes on the main role in a Final Fantasy game for the
which
the character also receives a two-handed katana.
rst time with Cid and Chocobo's Mysterious Dungeon:
Gilgamesh
is also the name of one of Final Fantasy XI 's
the Labyrinth of Forgotten Time for the Nintendo DS, a
world
servers.
remake of the Wii game Final Fantasy Fables: Chocobo's
Dungeon.

Gilgamesh makes numerous appearance in spin o games


as well. He appears as a secret, unlockable character in
Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy, which marks his rst appearance as a playable character. Continuing his story from

38

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Final Fantasy V, upon entering the Rift, Gilgamesh began


traveling to other worlds, as he still sought to settle things
with Bartz Klauser. However, he was able to escape from
the Rift in search of Bartz, encountering a group of protagonists from the games he has made appearances in
(Squall from Final Fantasy VIII, Zidane from Final Fantasy IX, and Vaan from Final Fantasy XII). After nding,
ghting and losing to Bartz (who had lost his memories of
him), Gilgamesh disappears back into the Rift, swearing
to return. In Final Fantasy Type-0, Gilgamesh appears
as a l'Cie from the country of Lorica. His appearance in
this game was released as a Japanese-exclusive DLC for
Gilgamesh in Dissidia 012.

In Final Fantasy IX, Ultima is Zidane Tribal's ultimate


weapon. In Final Fantasy X, both Omega and Ultima reside in the Omega Ruins, the most dicult dungeon in
the game, where Ultima exists as Omega's shadow. In
Final Fantasy XI, they appear as bosses in the Chains
of Promathiaexpansion pack and again as Proto-Omega
and Proto-Ultima as bosses of the Limbus areas. In Final Fantasy XII, Ultima appears as an Esper in addition
to lending its name to a sword called the Ultima Blade,
whereas Omega appears as an optional boss in the form
of a giant Mimic named Omega Mark XII. In Final Fantasy XIII, the main character can equip powerful
lightning-elemented weapons called Ultima Weapon and
In the English versions of Final Fantasy XII and Final Omega Weapon. Like Gilgamesh, Omega appears as an
optional DLC boss in Final Fantasy XIII-2 and can be reFantasy XIII-2, Gilgamesh is voiced by voice actor John
*
DiMaggio, and in Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy by Keith cruited after battle. [16]
Szarabajka. In Japan, Gilgamesh was originally voiced by In theSoul of Rebirthbonus storyline in Final Fantasy
Daisuke Gri for Final Fantasy XII, with Kazuya Nakai I & II: Dawn of Souls, a boss called the Ultima Weapon
taking over after his predecessor's passing since Dissidia guards the Ultima Tome. In Dirge of Cerberus: Final
012.
Fantasy VII Omega is the main antagonist, and is being
used by Weiss to destroy the earth. Ultima appears as the
nal boss of Final Fantasy Tactics and is also a spell cast
Mog
by various monsters, including Ultima herself.
Moogles with the name Mog have appeared various times
throughout the series.
Mog was rst introduced as a major playable character
in Final Fantasy VI, where his special technique was to
cause various eects by dancing. In Final Fantasy VII,
Mog appears riding a Chocobo as a summon and also
appears in an arcade game in the Gold Saucer. In Final Fantasy IX a female moogle named Mog serves as
Eiko Carol's guardian, although she ultimately proves not
to be a moogle, later becoming the Summon Madeen or
Guardian Mog. In Final Fantasy XIII-2 a male moogle
named Mog joins Serah and Noel in their quest, he is
able to transform into a 'bowsword' which Serah uses as
her weapon and he is able to reveal time gates and objects
phased out of time to his companions.
In the spin-o games Chocobo's Dungeon, Chocobo's
Dungeon 2, and Chocobo Racing, a Moogle named Mog
is friends with the main character Chocobo.
Ultima and Omega
Ultima and Omega are recurring names that have appeared throughout the Final Fantasy series, often appearing as optional bosses towards the end of the game, as
they are far more formidable than the average monster.

1.3.3 Recurring species and races


Chocobo
Main article: Chocobo
A Chocobo ( Chokobo) is a large, normally
ightless galliforme/ratite bird capable of being ridden
and has been a staple of the Final Fantasy series since they
were introduced in Final Fantasy II. The onomatopoeia
for a chocobo's call is Kweh( Kue), although
Kwehis sometimes replaced withWarkin English
translations. Most chocobos dwell in forests. While timid
in the wild, and vicious if threatened, they tame easily
and make good transports. They are occasionally used as
lightly armored war mounts, where they can assist their
riders with their beak and claws. Most often chocobo can
be caught in the wild and ridden without fear of random
encounters, escaping after the player dismounts. While
ordinary Chocobos are yellow, certain rare breeds are of
dierent colors and have special abilities, such as crossing
mountains or ight. An even rarer, more extreme variant
is the Fat Chocobo (or Chubby Chocobo), which resembles a morbidly obese yellow chocobo.

In Final Fantasy II the most powerful tome in the game


is called the Ultima Tome. Omega rst appeared as an
optional boss near the end of Final Fantasy V. Ultima
rst appeared in Final Fantasy VI, and again appears in
Final Fantasy VII (under the name Ultima Weapon
) as a main storyline boss. In Final Fantasy VIII, both
Ultima Weapon and Omega Weapon are optional bosses.

The Chocobo signature theme is an upbeat ditty that is


present in one form or another in every game in the main
series since Final Fantasy II. Chocobos also have a series
of games dedicated to them, and they appear in several
other Square Enix games, notably the Mana series.

1.3. CHARACTER DESIGN OF FINAL FANTASY


Moogle
Moogles ( Mguri) are small creatures that appear in several Square Enix game series, including the
Final Fantasy series, the Mana series, the Chocobo series, and the Kingdom Hearts series. The Japanese name
is a portmanteau of the Japanese words mogura (mole)
and kmori (bat).

39
lock, Chocobo Knight, and Moogle Knight.
Moogles also appear as summoned creatures in Final
Fantasy VII, where a Moogle appears riding a Chocobo,
and Final Fantasy VIII, where the player can summon a
young Moogle called MiniMog.

Apart from Mog, other notable named Moogles in the


series include Stiltzkin from Final Fantasy IX and Final
Fantasy Crystal Chronicles, and Montblanc from Final
Moogles have small, black eyes (often closed), and red, Fantasy Tactics Advance, Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Gripink, black, or purple bat-like wings. A single black moire of the Rift and Final Fantasy XII.
antenna sticks up from their heads, with a small colorOutside Final Fantasy, Moogles have appeared in the
ful ball (usually red, yellow or pink) at the end called a
Mana series as a race and/or as a status condition (compompom. Their ears are usually shaped like a cat's
monly referred to as being moogled) in Final Fanand their fur is white or light pink. Variations can be seen
tasy Adventure, Secret of Mana and Seiken Densetsu 3, and
in the Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles series, where they
they are mentioned in Sword of Mana. They make an aphave a dierent body shape, lacking a distinct head and
pearance in the Chocobo series in Chocobo's Dungeon,
torso. Also, in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance and Final
Chocobo's Dungeon 2, Chocobo Racing, and Chocobo
Fantasy XII they have longer, rabbit-like ears and beige to
Land: A Game of Dice. They also appear in all four
gray fur. When they rst appeared, in Final Fantasy III,
games of the Kingdom Hearts series, which includes
Moogles generally ended their sentences with the word
Moogles named after many famous characters from the
nya, the Japanese equivalent of a cat's meow. In
series. Moogles also appear as shop clerks in Dissidia Fithe later games, they use the word kupoinstead, and
nal Fantasy and the sequel, Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy, in
some games briey mention a Moogle language formed
which they created their own network, called the Mognet,
out of various permutations of kupo.
to communicate with players. A Moogle also appears in
Moogles rst appeared in the Final Fantasy series in Final Egg Monster Heroes, while one is an unlockable character
Fantasy III, a Japan-only release, and have been present in in Mario Hoops 3-on-3. A Moogle can also be unlocked
all subsequent numbered installments except Final Fan- in Mario Sports Mix.
tasy IV. They have also appeared in Final Fantasy Tactics,
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, the Final Fantasy Crystal
Chronicles series, and the anime TV show, Final Fantasy:
Monsters
Unlimited. They appear as stued dolls in Final Fantasy
VII Advent Children, Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy
VII, Final Fantasy X and Final Fantasy X-2, in addition to See also: Summoned monsters in Final Fantasy
Yuna's version of the Mascot dressphere being a moogle
in Final Fantasy X-2.
Certain ctional monsters reappear frequently throughout
The Moogles perform various functions in the games the series, including Goblins, Oni/Ogres/Gigas/Giants,
throughout the Final Fantasy series. They run an in-game Bombs, Behemoths, Tonberries, Malboros, Flans and
message delivery service in Final Fantasy IX and the Fi- Cactuars (Sabotendersin the Japanese version, afnal Fantasy Crystal Chronicles series. In the Final Fan- tersaboten, the Japanese word for cactus, and named
tasy III Nintendo DS remake, their message delivery ser- Pampa in the French version). The series borrows
vice allows players to send real e-mails to other players' four creature types directly from the original version of
games using the Nintendo DS Wi-Fi function. Final Fan- Dungeons & Dragons: Beholders, Mindayers, Otyughs
tasy VII features a character named Cait Sith, which is and Sahuagin. Other monsters are based on creatures in
essentially a cat sitting atop a giant stued Moogle. They the real world, such as wolves, wasps, piranhas, and othare used as Save Points in Final Fantasy IX. In Final Fan- ers have amplied, deadlier versions appearing throughtasy XI, a Moogle is assigned to each player to take care out the series. Other creatures are not necessarily harmful
of their house and change their jobs (hence it is called and may provide benets to the player, such as the Magic
a Mog House), and FestiveMoogles run the holiday Pot.
events in the game. In Final Fantasy XII, the Moogles are
known to be skillful in mechanics and engineering; they
were the rst pioneers of airship construction. In Final
Fantasy Tactics Advance and Final Fantasy Tactics A2,
the Moogles have a variety of dierent jobs to master in
the clan. Some of the standard jobs include Thief, Animist and Black Mage. After they master a certain number
of abilities, new jobs become available for the Moogles,
including the Juggler, Tinker, Time Mage, Fusilier, Flint-

Summoned monsters, such as Bahamut and the elemental monsters Shiva (ice) and Ifrit (re), have appeared in
almost every title in the series. The lightning elemental
has been represented by a variety of creatures, principally
Ramuh, but also Quetzalcoatl and Ixion. Odin is another
re-occurring character, rst appearing as an optional summon in Final Fantasy III. Odin then makes an appearance
as a summon in Final Fantasy IV, Final Fantasy V, Final Fantasy VI, Final Fantasy VII and Final Fantasy VIII,

40

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

the latter being replaced by Gilgamesh on the fourth disk.


Odin is also the Thunder Eidolon in Final Fantasy XIII,
able to transform into Sleipnir, his mythical horse. In Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, the elemental monsters represent spells cast by Summoners (either the player's own,
or those of rivals). In Final Fantasy XII the traditional
summon monsters were changed, but still made a cameo
of sorts as the names of Archadian airships.
Several entries in the series provide backstories on the
origins and motives behind monsters. The backstory of
the ends and monsters given in-game was rst established in Final Fantasy VII, where monsters are animals
and humans who have been exposed to a high degree of
Mako, or descendents of the Ancients, via exposure to
Jenova's 'Virus'.* [17] In Final Fantasy VIII, monsters are
sent to the game world from one of its moons via a burst
of energy called theLunar Cry.* [18] In Final Fantasy
IX, monsters are spawned from the Mist, which is made
up of the souls of the dead unable to pass on.* [19]* [20] In
Final Fantasy X and Final Fantasy X-2, the hostile monsters are better known as ends, which are manifested
from the restless spirits of the dead and driven by malice to devour the living.* [21] In Final Fantasy X-2, these
Fiends are classied by type.* [22] In Final Fantasy XII,
the monsters have diering origins; however, most of the
more powerful variants (namely the particularly powerful 'Rare Game') are the result of a mutation caused by
exposure to the Mist.* [23]* [24]

1.3.4

Notes

[1] Cork, Je (2007-02-28).Ten Gaming Clichs. Game


Informer. Archived from the original on October 10,
2007. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
[2] IGN Sta (2003-11-20). Final Fantasy XII Q&A.
IGN. Retrieved 2009-04-02.

LIGHT WARRIORS are returning.. As they travel in


time, the world returns to normal. Sara and Jane wait for
them.. Of course, Garland does too..
[9] Square Enix (March 22, 2011). Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy. PlayStation Portable. Square Enix. Report 12: I
often think of the start of the cycle. I as Chaos summon
me from the future; once summoned, I become Chaos.
[10] Square Enix (March 22, 2011). Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy. PlayStation Portable. Square Enix. Chaos: It was
just as I thought... You were the beginning. / Garland:
No, Chaos... for myself...you are the beginning. Before
the Great Will led me to this realm, when I was on the
edge of death, it was you who sent me two thousand years
into the past. You are me... and I...am you.
[11]EGM". August 1997. Hironobu Sakaguchi :There really isn't any deep meaning to it, we just wanted to make
a character that would appear in various forms in all the
games. I guess I've always had a soft spot for that kind
of character. Cid is like Yoda from the Star Wars series-very intelligent and wise.
[12] Square Enix (2004-11-29).Final Fantasy I&II Dawn of
Souls. Game Boy Advance. Lufenian: You use a vessel
you call an airship... It was built by one of our ancestors...
a man by the name of Cid.
[13] Square Enix (March 22, 2011). Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy. PlayStation Portable. Square Enix. Cid of the
Lufaine's biography: He created the cycle of conict to
have Chaos increase his powers and use them on this world
to open the Interdimensional Rift.
[14] Square Enix (March 22, 2011). Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy. PlayStation Portable. Square Enix. Warrior of
Light's biography: Holding no prior memories of his
past, the Warrior of Light behaves as other warriors summoned by Cosmos, but he himself was not summoned by
the goddess. In truth, he is the only warrior created in this
realm by the Great Will.

[3] Final Fantasy XII Q&A - PlayStation 2 News at IGN


[15] Final Fantasy Summons: Gilgamesh.
Ffcom. ign.com. Retrieved 2010-04-06.
pendium.com. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
[4] Because Women DO Play. WomenGamers.Com.
Archived from the original on 2007-09-09. Retrieved [16] Simmons, Brice. Final Fantasy XIII-2 To Have DLC
2010-04-06.
Enemies, Starting With Omega Weapon [Updated]". Retrieved 29 December 2012.
[5] Nerd Heroes: The Phenomenon of Loser Protagonists in
Modern Japanese Games. GameCritics.com. Retrieved [17] Ifalna The Cetra were attacked by the virus and went
2010-04-06.
mad, transforming into monsters. Then, just as he had at
[6] FFXIII Interview: Nomura, Kitase, Hashimoto and
Toriyama: News from. 1UP.com. Retrieved 2010-0406.
[7] Final Fantasy, Star Wars, Biggs and Wedge - Playstation
3. Bellaonline.com. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
[8] Square (1990-07-12). Final Fantasy. Nintendo Entertainment System. Nintendo. Game ending: Garland's
hatred burned for 2000 years. That hatred led the Four
Powers to this world. CHAOS was created from those
Four. Evil dominated the world and covered it in darkness. But, it is over now, wrong has been set right!! The

knowlespole...he approached other Cetra clans, infecting


them with the virus.(Final Fantasy VII)
[18] Controller: The lunar world is a world of monsters.
Didn't you learn that in school? As you can see, the monsters are gathering at one point. History's starting to repeat
itself. The Lunar Cry is starting. (Final Fantasy VIII)
[19] Steiner: Surely even you must know something about the
Mist! The vicious monsters it spawns! (Final Fantasy IX)
[20] Garland: The Mist you see comprises the stagnant souls
of Gaia. (Final Fantasy IX)

1.4. GAMEPLAY OF FINAL FANTASY

[21] Lulu: The dead need guidance. Filled with grief over
their own death, they refuse to face their fate. They yearn
to live on, and resent those still alive. You see, they envy
the living. And in time, that envy turns to anger, even
hate. Should these souls remain in Spira, they become
ends that prey on the living. Sad, isn't it? The sending
takes them to the Farplane, where they may rest in peace.
(Final Fantasy X)

41

1.3.6 External links


Gilgamesh article at the Final Fantasy wiki

1.4 Gameplay of Final Fantasy

Although each installment of the Final Fantasy series is


generally set in a dierent ctional world with separate
[23] Sage Knowledge 09: Mist: Naturally occurring energy, storylines, there are several commonalities from game to
found in almost all regions of the world, aecting all living game when it comes to gameplay, many aspects of which
things, the climate, and even the land itself... The high- have remained relatively consistent throughout the series.
[22] Final Fantasy X-2 Guide, 315

est concentrations of Mist can even do damage, leading to


over-rapid changes in the environment, and violent behavior among animals and those more sensitive to the Mist's
eects. (Final Fantasy XII)

1.4.1 Parties and battles

[24] Sage Knowledge 63: Nabreus Deadlands: [D]ense


Mist has given rise to all manner of bizarre ora and fauna
of an invariably vicious temperament. (Final Fantasy XII)

1.3.5

References

Birlew, Dan (2000). FINAL FANTASY IX Ocial


Strategy Guide. Brady Publishing. ISBN 0-74400041-6.
Birlew, Dan (2001). Final Fantasy X Ocial Strategy Guide. BradyGAMES Publishing. ISBN 07440-0140-4.
Birlew, Dan (2003). Final Fantasy X-2 Ocial
Strategy Guide. BradyGAMES Publishing. ISBN
Screenshot of Final Fantasy VI's Active Time Battle (ATB) sys0-7440-0285-0.
tem.

Boyce, Mary (1975). History of Zoroastrianism,


Vol. I. Leiden: Brill.
Throughout the Final Fantasy series, the most basic element of the gameplay has been that players command
Cassady, David (1997). Ocial FINAL FANTASY a party of characters during battle. The maximum size
VII Strategy Guide. Brady Publishing. ISBN 1- of the party has been as low as two and as high as seven,
56686-714-2.
depending on the game. Players must face a variety of
enemies who continually try to damage the player,* [1] as
Cassady, David (1999). Ocial FINAL FANTASY well as aict "status ailments" upon the characters, such
VIII Strategy Guide. Brady Publishing. ISBN 1- as poisoning them or putting them to sleep.* [2] Many of
56686-903-X.
the games feature a random encounter system,* [3] where
the player is randomly drawn into battle with enemies
Ong, Alicia (March 22, 2001). The Religions Be- that are not visible on the map.* [4] This remained true
hind Final Fantasy. Archived from the original on of the numbered entries in the series until Final Fantasy
2007-03-17.
XI changed to a system where all enemies are visible as
the player explores the game world.* [3]
Schmidt, Ken (2006). Final Fantasy III Ocial
Strategy Guide. BradyGAMES Publishing. ISBN In battle, the characters can select a variety of commands
from a menu, such as Fight, Magic, Item,
0-7440-0848-4.
as well as other special skills such asSteal,Throw
Spoors, Glen (January 2005). Meaning and Emo- or Summon.* [3] The battle is won when all enemies
tion in Squaresofts Final Fantasy X: Re-Theorising are defeated, whilst the game ends if all player characters
'Realism' and 'Identication' in Video Games. p. are unable to ght (either by losing all of their health, or
96. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.
if they are stuck in a state which requires another ally to

42
cure them in order to continue ghting, such as petrication). In some, but not all battles, the player may attempt
to ee. While Final Fantasy VI introduced Desperation Attacks,where characters very low on hit points
had the chance to use a much stronger attack than usual,
with each Desperation Attack unique to each character,
Yoshinori Kitase created an improved system in Final
Fantasy VII called Limit Breaks. These were powerful attacks that gained strength as the player took damage,
and were accompanied by a sophisticated animation.* [5]
Since then, games in the series allow characters to perform special moves when they ll up a power meter,* [4]
and this gameplay component has become synonymous
with the series.* [6]
As the series has gone on, the battle system has evolved
from the basic turn-based combat system used in the
original Final Fantasy to incorporate more real-time elements. The original turn-based system, with the player
characters on the right and the enemies on the left, has
been imitated by numerous RPGs.* [1] A major departure from this system came in Final Fantasy IV, when
Hiroyuki Ito introduced theActive Time Battle(ATB)
system,* [7] where the time-keeping mechanism does not
stop whilst the player selects commands.* [8] Square led
a Japanese patent application related to the ATB system
on July 16, 1991 and a corresponding US application
on March 16, 1992. One Japanese patent (JP2794230)
and two US patents (US5390937 and US5649862) were
granted based on these applications.* [9]* [10]* [11] On
the battle screen, each character has an ATB meter that
gradually lls, and the player is allowed to issue a command to that character once the meter is full.* [12] Because enemies can attack at any time, and the player can
lose his turn if he doesn't attack quick enough, urgency
and excitement are injected into the combat system.* [8]
When designing the ATB system, Ito was inspired by
Formula One racing. According to Final Fantasy IV's
lead designer, Takashi Tokita, the planner, Hiroyuki
Ito, was watching a Formula One race. Seeing all the
cars pass each other, we thought of an interesting idea
where character speed would dier depending on, I suppose, the type of character it is. So, that's where the initial
idea came from.* [13]

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
divided into segments and commands can take up from
one segment to the entire bar, so dierent commands can
be mixed and matched as the player sees t. The ATB
bar can also be upgraded to have more segments via the
game's Crystarium leveling system. This version of the
ATB system returns in Final Fantasy XIII's sequel, Final
Fantasy XIII-2.

1.4.2 Minigames

Comparison of the Snow Game minigame in Final Fantasy VII


(left) and Final Fantasy VII Snowboarding on mobile phones
(right).

Final Fantasy has become known for its inclusion of one


or more minigames as part of its core gameplay, beginning mainly with Final Fantasy VII. Participation and progression in these minigames generally does not aect the
main game, but can often oer many items or power
upsthat are either very rare, or simply otherwise unavailable. However, in some Final Fantasy installments,
such as Final Fantasy VII and Final Fantasy X, certain
minigames are sometimes necessary in order to progress
the storyline.
The earliest origins of these minigames were in the form
of simple easter eggs which could be unlocked by pressing
special button combinations in a particular location. For
example, in the rst Final Fantasy, a sliding puzzle can
be unlocked while on board the ship. In Final Fantasy II,
a matching game can be unlocked while boarding the ice
sled and meeting a certain requirement. However, Final
Fantasy VII was the rst game to feature a large number
of 'proper' minigames. A number of minigames appear
occasionally throughout the main storyline and at various
locations, many of which can later be played at the Gold
Saucer theme park within the game, along with various
other minigames exclusive to the Gold Saucer. These include, amongst others, a chocobo racing game, chocobo
breeding, motorbike racing, a snowboarding game, an
arm wrestling game, a martial arts game, and a basketball
game. A port of the snowboarding minigame was released in Japan and North America in 2005 as a separate game for mobile phones, entitled Final Fantasy VII
Snowboarding.* [18]

The ATB system remained the norm until Final Fantasy


X implemented aConditional Turn-Based(CTB) system, which slowed gameplay while making it important
for the right characters to square o against the right monsters.* [14] Its sequel, Final Fantasy X-2, used a faster
paced variant of the ATB system. Final Fantasy XI altered the system further by instituting a real-time system, where characters continuously attack unless issued
another command.* [15] Final Fantasy XII introduced the
Active Dimension Battlesystem,* [16] where the player
may issue commands to the characters, or allow them to
act automatically with certain behavioral triggers.* [17] Final Fantasy VIII introduced the card game Triple
In Final Fantasy XIII, a completely new version of the Triad. It was not considered an essential part of the
ATB system was introduced. Here, the ATB gauge is game, but instead served to provide light relief to the storyline and allow the player to interact with minor charac-

1.4. GAMEPLAY OF FINAL FANTASY

43

ters in a dierent way. Through the use of aCard Mod


ability, the player is able to create rare items by converting cards earned by defeating various competitors.* [19]
Final Fantasy VIII was the rst of the series to introduce a
side-game with such interaction. Triple Triad was praised
by GameSpot as amore-than-worthy RPG minigame.
*
[19] Following the release of the game, Japanese games
company Bandai produced a full set of collectible Triple
Triad cards. The set was made up of the 110 cards, as
seen in the game, along with 72 artwork cards and a collector's edition playing mat.* [20]

of the game if they wish. In Final Fantasy X, the player


controls the individual players on the team, while in X2 they act as manager and coach. X-2 also has a game
called Sphere Break, a mathematical game using numbered coins that possess several dierent attributes which
can help the player in the Sphere Break minigame itself or
gain items that can help in the various battles throughout
the main game.* [26] GameSpot were unimpressed with
blitzball, commenting thattrivial minigames have been
creeping into the Final Fantasy games at an alarming rate
over the last few years, and in this regard, X-2 is denitely
*
Another major minigame in Final Fantasy VIII is the most egregious oender in the series. [27]
Chocobo Worldwhich was released as a handheld
electronic game for the PocketStation (a peripheral for
1.4.3 Character growth and classes
PlayStation). The game could be played exclusively, or
as a minigame.* [21] The game was present in all localMain article: Final Fantasy character jobs
izations of Final Fantasy VIII, but the PocketStation itThe Final Fantasy series is like many role-playing video
self was only released in Japan.* [22] In 2000, Chocobo
World was ported to the Windows version of Final Fantasy VIII.* [23] The game allows players to control Boko,
a chicobo (young chocobo), on his quest to save his friend
Mog from the clutches of an evil demon. The game's
screen consists of black and white pixel graphics and is
presented in a manner similar to the "virtual pet" concept
conceived by Bandai's Tamagotchi. To play in conjunction with Final Fantasy VIII, the player must nd Boko
in the world of the main game. Once accomplished, the
player receives a user interface for communicating with
the minigame. At any time, the player may send Boko
into Chocobo World to gain experience and collect special items, which are transferred back for use in the main
game. In addition, Boko may be used as a summon in
Final Fantasy VIII.* [24]
Similar to Triple Triad, Tetra Masteris a card game
found in Final Fantasy IX. Unlike most of the minigames
in the series, a few Tetra Master games must be played,
one at the beginning of the game, and several closer to
the end. Tetra Master was seen by GameSpot as inferior and confusing compared to Triple Triad, as the rules
were only vaguely explained in the game, and there were
very few rewards earned from playing it despite its extensiveness.* [25] Final Fantasy IX also had an additional
minigame named Chocobo Hot and Cold. Upon the
acquisition of a chocobo, the player is able to access the
game inside of Chocobo Forest. No games ofChocobo
Hot and Coldare required to progress through the main
game, although items received through the game could be
used in the main game, including both regular game items
and clues towards discovering more items.
In Final Fantasy X and Final Fantasy X-2, the main
minigame is Blitzball, an underwater sport featuring six-man teams that combines the physicality of rugby
and soccer for scoring, and the hand passes of water polo.
The game is played in a large sphere pool suspended in the
air. Although blitzball is a crucial element to Final Fantasy X 's plot, only one game must be played, although the
player has the option of playing through an entire season

The job system in Final Fantasy V

games in that it uses a level-up system,* [28] where players gain experience points and raise their character's experience level by killing enemies.* [29]* [30]* [31] Players
may have diculty defeating an enemy until they reach
a higher experience level, although Final Fantasy VIII reduces the need to level-up by making the enemy's experience level always match that of the player's.* [32]
Each character class in a Final Fantasy game has unique
abilities which develop as the player's level increases. In
some titles, the player can assign a character with a specic class at the start of the game, while others allow
characters to combine and learn abilities from a number
of classes.* [7] In addition to other abilities, a character's
class usually determines the types of weapons and armor
that they can use.* [7] Some of the more traditional classes
include the Warrior/Fighter, the Dragoon, the Thief and
the dierent Mages/Wizards.* [3]* [33] Mage classes have
included Black Mages (who use oensive spells), White
Mages (who cast healing magic), Red Mages (who use
both), Blue Mages (who use enemy spells and attacks cast
against them), and Time Mages (who cast spells which

44
speed up or slow down time). More original classes have
appeared throughout the series, such as Bards, Scholars,
and Summoners. Due to the series' popularity, they have
become staples of RPGs since they debuted in Final Fantasy III.* [33]
The complexity of the class system varies from game to
game.* [3] In the original Final Fantasy, the player allocates permanent class selections to the four playable characters at the beginning of the game, and each of the six
starting classes can be upgraded to a corresponding advanced class midway through the game.* [34]
Characters in Final Fantasy II are molded according
to their performance in battle.* [35] Final Fantasy III
changed the formula by allowing the player to change a
character's class, as well as acquire new and advanced
classes and combine class abilities.* [36]* [37]
In Final Fantasy IV, the characters are assigned a job class
that reects their personality in the storyline,* [3]* [8] and
in some cases the character's classes are not explicitly
stated;* [3] abilities related to the character's class are
learned as the character gains experience points.* [38] Final Fantasy IV also introduced the concept of characters joining or leaving the party throughout the storyline,
which requires players to adjust their battle plans constantly.* [8]
In Final Fantasy V, each character can be assigned and
reassigned one of 22 'jobs', gaining attributes in that job
as they win battles. Many praised the game for the freedom this system aorded, although some considered the
system highly complex, and it has been speculated that
this may have been one of the reasons the game was not
initially released in North America.* [33]
In Final Fantasy VI, characters are locked into specic
classes from the start of the game, and each has a signature command, such asDance,LoreorMimic.
*
[39] In Final Fantasy VII and Final Fantasy VIII, characters lack classes, and they all play the same in battle;
nevertheless, each character has one or more unique limit
breaks, and particular characters statistically support the
informal adoption of class roles.* [39]* [40]* [41]

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
equip a secondary job, called asubjob, and have half
the abilities of that class. Extensive backstories are often given to Final Fantasy XI 's job classes to add to the
setting's lore.
In Final Fantasy XII, the player can mold characters into anything, without restriction of traditional
classes.* [45]* [46] However, in the game's international
version and in Final Fantasy XII: Revenant Wings, the
growth system is modied to have more clearly dened
classes. In Final Fantasy XIII, characters can switch class
mid-battle and in the eld, utilizing the Paradigm system.
In Final Fantasy XIV, player classes vary by what weapon
they are wielding (i.e. wielding a sword turns that player
into a Gladiator, while wielding knuckles turns the player
into a Pugilist etc.). Additionally, abilities learned from
other classes may be junctioned onto the player's current
class (i.e. a Pugilist may use Red Lotus from the Gladiator class)
In Final Fantasy Tactics and Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, classes are once again chosen by the player from
one of the starting jobs; however, characters must meet
prerequisites before changing classes.* [47]* [48]

1.4.4 Magic
Like many role-playing games, the titles in the Final Fantasy series feature a system of magic. While the rst
game in the series had eight levels of spells with one to
eight uses per level, later games jettisoned this concept
for a common pool of magic points that all spells consume.* [1] Magic in the series is generally divided into
classes, which are usually organized by color.* [4] The
actual magic classes vary from game to game, but most
games includeWhite Magic, which is focused primarily on spells that help teammates, and Black Magic,
which is focused on harming enemies.* [1] A character
who is procient in White or Black magic is often known
as a White Mage or Black Mage, respectively.* [1]* [49]
Other games include other types of mages and spells, such
as Geomancers, who can cast spells based on the terrain,
Blue Mages who can cast spells that are learned from enemies in battle, and Red Mages who can cast both white
and black magic.* [49] In most games, the most powerful
oensive White Magic spell is Holy, while the most
powerful black magic spell is often Ultima(a White
Magic in Final Fantasy II), Meteor, or Meltdown
.

In Final Fantasy IX, characters have predetermineddormant abilitiessimilar to Final Fantasy IV; however, the
characters in Final Fantasy IX learn abilities by wearing
equipment instead of gaining levels.* [42] Final Fantasy
X introduced the sphere grid"; characters began at certain areas of the grid, which represent traditional character classes by their statistical bonuses and abilities. Character classes were re-introduced in Final Fantasy X-2 as How magic is acquired in the series tends to dier radidresspheres"; these classes are gradually acquired and cally from game to game. For example, in Final Fantasy
can be changed at any point, including battle mode.* [43] VI, magic spells are obtained from a magiciteremThe classes that appear in Final Fantasy XI, the nant of a god-like creature called an Esperwho had
rst massively multiplayer online role-playing game died; this also allows for the ability to summon the Esper
(MMORPG) title in the series, have certain unique im- during battle when the magicite is equipped by a charplementations that more closely follow MMORPG con- acter. In Final Fantasy VII, materia works similarly to
vention.* [44] Notably, in Final Fantasy XI a player can Final Fantasy VI 's magicite, but unlike in Final Fantasy
VI where magic learned by a character is permanently at

1.4. GAMEPLAY OF FINAL FANTASY


their disposal, magic in Final Fantasy VII is attached to
the materia and not the character.

Summoning Magic
Another recurring class of magic is Summoning Magic,
which calls forth magical creatures to attack enemies
and/or heal or protect party members.* [3]* [7] These entities have been known by dierent names throughout the
series;Call Beasts(Final Fantasy IV),Espers(Final Fantasy VI and Final Fantasy XII),Guardian Force
(Final Fantasy VIII), Eidolons(Final Fantasy IX, Final Fantasy XIII, and the DS version of Final Fantasy IV),
Aeons(Final Fantasy X),Avatars(Final Fantasy XI),
or simply Summon Monsters.They were rst introduced in Final Fantasy III, with eight dierent summons,
and hit a peak of 51 dierent summons in Final Fantasy
XII: Revenant Wings.* [7] These summoned creatures often draw their names from classic mythology, or derivations thereof. For example, Ifrit and Bahamut come from
Arabian mythology, though Bahamut is more akin to the
draconic deity from Dungeons & Dragons. Carbuncle
and Quetzalcoatl come from The Mesoamerican mythology. Shiva, Garuda, and Lakshmi come from Hindu
mythology. Ramuh is also a Hindu-inspired summon,
drawn from Indra and Rama.* [7] Meanwhile, the serpent
Leviathan is inspired by the Old Testament, and Phoenix
is drawn from Egyptian mythology.* [7] Greek mythology
inspired Titan, Hecatonchires, Hades, Typhon, Cerberus,
and Siren, while Norse mythology was the source for
Odin the warrior, Fenrir the wolf, and Midgardsormr
the serpent.* [7] Doomtrain's Japanese name, GlasyaLabolas, is taken from the grimoire of demons, The
Lesser Key of Solomon. Cait Sith is derived from the
Celtic Cat Sth or Cat Sidhe (pronounced cat shee), a
black cat with a white patch on its chest.

45
However, in Final Fantasy X, Final Fantasy X-2, and Final Fantasy XII, ight is abstracted with a short cutscene,
and essentially allows the player to teleport between locations. The impossibly fast 'Nautilus' in Final Fantasy III
was dubbed the fastest airship in the whole series, travelling across the world map in less than 10 seconds.* [7]

1.4.6 Inventory
Crystals
Elemental orbs or crystals have appeared in more than ten
of the fourteen main titles in the series. They usually drive
the plot as an essential link to the planet's life force, and
thus the player must often nd or collect these crystals to
advance the plot.* [7]
Currency
All Final Fantasy games allow players to purchase various
items and equipment from shops,* [50] using a currency
known as Gil ( giru).* [51]* [52] Final Fantasy IV is
the only game to explain the origin of the word; in that
game, the word Gil is derived from Gilbart, a common
name for members of the royal family of Damcyan, and
was originally used as the currency of Damcyan.* [53] The
most common way to earn gil in the series is from random
battles, although Final Fantasy VIII is a notable exception
where gil is earned as a regular stipend from an academy
for mercenaries,* [32] and in Final Fantasy XI, where it is
dropped less from monsters (only Beastmen drop gil, and
it's a very small amount), and more from the in-game auction house in which players can sell goods to other players
for a more substantial amount of gil.
Weapons

1.4.5

Airships and transport

Although some Final Fantasy games have featured unique


vehicles such as a spaceplane or hovercraft, many vehicles
are common to several games in the series. Many games
in the series allowed players to pilot a ship over oceans and
seas, with some even allowing players to pilot a submarine
underwater. Trains also appear in several games in the
series. The rst three games allowed players to ride a
canoe through rivers. All games since Final Fantasy II
have featured a chocobo, a species of ctional bird which
often acts as a mode of transport.* [7]

Numerous weapons have seen recurring use throughout the series; others have been inuenced by a variety of mythological and fantasy concepts. For example, the Excalibur, named after the King Arthur legend, and Masamune, named after the Japanese swordsmith, have been top-tier blade weapons since the rst
Final Fantasy.* [7] As the series has progressed, other
weapons, such as the Ultima Weapon, the Blood Sword,
Sasuke's Katana and the Ragnarok, have been introduced.* [7]* [49] Interspersed between unique weapons
are a graded scale of other, more common weapons, usually sold in shops. They are typically labeled according
to the following progression, from weakest to strongest:
Bronze, Iron, Steel, Mythril/Silver, Gold, Platinum, Diamond, Crystal, Adamantite (found in Final Fantasy), and
Adamantine.Woodenweapons andLeatherarmor
are also often seen throughout the series.

One of the most iconic modes of transport in the Final


Fantasy series is the airship, which has appeared in every game. The visual style of each airship varies between
games. In several games, they are repaired and improved
during the story, allowing the player to access new areas. In many games, they have built in weapons for ran- Swords are commonly seen throughout the series, and
dom encounters, which attack at the beginning of a battle. come in various forms. Elemental swords, which include

46
a certain element, such as re or wind, are seen in almost every installment in the series. Some elemental
swords launch an additional magical attack during battle,
such as the Lightbringer in Final Fantasy VI. Elemental swords have had many names, re-elemental swords
are usually named 'Flame Saber' or 'Flametongue', iceelemental swords are named 'Blizzard' or 'Ice Brand', and
thunder-elemental swords are named 'Thunderblade' or
'Coral Sword'. A water-elemental sword hasn't been used
often, but in Final Fantasy X the main character obtains
one called 'Brotherhood', and in Final Fantasy X-2, the
Warrior dresssphere has a water-elemental sword attack
called 'Liquid Steel'.
There are also various stas/rods featured in many of the
games, which often use special actions, many of do not
directly damage (or deal very low damage) and are often
benecial, such as theHealing Stafound in Final Fantasy IV and Final Fantasy V. Additionally, some weapons
can be used from the items menu, and can produce a variety of eects, such as dealing damage to an enemy, placing a negative status eect on an enemy, healing the user
or an ally, or placing a positive status eect on the user
or an ally.
The Final Fantasy installments also feature several types
of projectile weapons, including bows, balls, guns,
boomerangs, and launchers. Gunblades have a gun-like
handle which contains a ring mechanism, but are not
considered projectile as the ring mechanism only makes
the blade vibrate causing extra damage, and does not
re any actual shells, with the exception of Yazoo's gunblades from Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children, Weiss's
twin gunblades from Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy
VII, and Lightning's gunblades from Final Fantasy XIII.
In some installments, such as Final Fantasy III and Final Fantasy IV, ammunition (bullets and arrows) is limited; others, like Final Fantasy XII, require the player to
carry a stock of ammunition that can never be depleted.
Other installments, like Final Fantasy VII, omit ammunition completely. Some of the common recurring projectile weapons include Yoichi's Bow, and the Full Moon
boomerang.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
mor and accessories used in the series consist of bracers,
shields, rings, bangles, shoes, helmets, body armor, robes,
and dresses. However, not all games in the series have
an armor system; for example, Final Fantasy X-2 uses
the equipping of dressspheres instead of armor. Final
Fantasy VIII uses stat increases from equipping Guardian
Forces, a form of summoning in the game, rather than the
use of armor.
Several individual pieces of armor and accessories recur
throughout the series. Two of the most common are the
Aegis shield and the Protect Ring, which provide various
eects for the character, depending on the game. The
Golden Hairpin almost always benets the spellcasters in
the party. For example, in Final Fantasy V and Final
Fantasy VI, it was an accessory that reduced spell costs
by half; in Final Fantasy Tactics, it was head armor that
gave a signicant boost to the maximum MP value and
nullied the silence status eect. The Ribbon is also an
accessory in most Final Fantasy games, which allows the
equipped user to become immune to most or all status
ailments.

Items
Phoenix Downredirects here. For The Unguided song,
see Hell Frost.
Itemsare collected objects that may aect the status or
health of a character or enemy. Many objects are one-use
and include a limit to how many are stocked in the party's
inventory. In every installment, the basic HP-recovering
item is some form of potion. The items' names varies in
earlier games, such as being calledHeal Potionsin the
rst game, Cure Potionsin the English translation of
Final Fantasy IV, andTonicsin the English translation
of Final Fantasy VI. Other variants, which heal more HP,
include the mid-level Hi-Potion, the high-level XPotion, and the multi-target Mega Potion.

Since Final Fantasy IV, the lead MP-recovering item has


been the "Ether". The name is derived fromAether, a
classical term used in medieval times to describe a possiIn addition to the types of weapons above, the series has ble substance between air, earth, re, and water. The Enalso included whips, dice, lances, axes, knives, daggers, glish language localization of Final Fantasy VI renamed
the Ether Tincture,and also featured a second-level
hammers, claws and other common weapons.
MP-restoration item, Hi-Ether, which was renamed
simplyEther. The Turbo Ether (also known asDry
Ether) has appeared in numerous games and restores
Armor and accessories
either a signicant or complete portion of a character's
Armor typically follows the same alloy progression as MP.
swords. A common type of armour in the series is the The "Elixir", which appears in most Final Fantasy games,
Genjiarmor, which is seen in Final Fantasy II, Final is both a HP and MP recovery item. Some games include
Fantasy IV, Final Fantasy V, Final Fantasy VI, Final Fan- theMegalixir(orLast Elixir), which fully restores
tasy VII, Final Fantasy IX, Final Fantasy X, Final Fantasy the party's HP and MP. Other items recover both HP and
Tactics and Final Fantasy XII. The Genji armor consists MP at specic locations. Tentsare often used on eld
of a shield, helmet, body armor, and sometimes gloves. maps or at Save Points as replacements for an Inn, as they
Some armor featured in the series is named after met- completely restore the party's HP and MP. Variants such
als or stones; others are based on colors or spells. Ar- as Cabin, Cottage, and Sleeping Bagrestore

1.4. GAMEPLAY OF FINAL FANTASY

47
the down feathers of a bird, the undercoat of feathers beneath the visible layer on top. Other representations of
Phoenix Down include theBottled Tearsof a Phoenix,
Bolted QuiversandBead Necklaces.Variants of this
item include thePhoenix PinionandMega Phoenix
, which revive all party members. Final Fantasy XI is
the exception to this, using instead theRegain Feather
(grants 100% HP, 100% MP and 300% TP), Rebirth
Feather(Reraise III),Revive Feather(Reraise I),Fire
Feather(Enre), and Blaze Feather(Blaze Spikes).
There are other basic items seen throughout the Final
Fantasy series, including Gysahl Greens, which can
be used for a variety of eects; to summon Fat Chocobo,
an item storage service, at specic locations in Final Fantasy IV; to catch, feed and race chocobos in Final Fantasy
VII; to summon a pet chocobo in Final Fantasy VIII; to
ride a chocobo in Final Fantasy IX, Final Fantasy X and
Final Fantasy XII. TheRename Cardrenames characters that have already been named. This rst appeared in
Final Fantasy VI, though the character Namingway had
a similar function in Final Fantasy IV. In Final Fantasy
VIII, a Rename Card renames Guardian Forces, and Pet's
Nametag renames Rinoa's dog's name. In Final Fantasy
IX, the Namingway Card had the eect of renaming the
characters in Daguerreo, and in Final Fantasy X, it was
used to rename Aeons.

All Final Fantasy games also have key items, which


must be acquired to further the game's story or complete
a sidequest. Key items are usually kept in their own special inventory separate from the player's stock of usable
items. Examples of key items include the Nitrofrom
the original Final Fantasy, theHuge Materiafrom Final Fantasy VII, and the Supersoftfrom Final Fantasy IX. A key item is typically received shortly before the
player reaches the point where it is needed. After a key
item is used, it usually remains in the player's inventory
The Final Fantasy XII Potiondrink.
permanently, but serves no further purpose. Some items
or key items are/may be almost completely useless, like
Tissue
from the American release of Final Fantasy VII.
more or less HP and MP; sometimes to only one character. In Final Fantasy IX, Tents can be used during battle,
although there is chance of being inicted with abnormal
1.4.7 Reception and legacy
status eects when used.
Status eect-curing items are also recurring. For example, Antidoteheals poison and venom, Echo
Screen"/"Echo Herbs"/"Echo Dropsremoves silence,
Eye Dropscures blindness, and Soft(originally
Golden Needle) cures petrication.Phoenix Down
(also translated as Phoenix Tail) is used in most Final Fantasy games to revive an unconscious party member with a small portion of their HP. In some of the earlier games, the word was translated asFenixDownbecause of size issues with tting English letters in the space
previously occupied by Japanese characters. Phoenix
Down often instantly kills or inicts maximum damage
on undead and other creatures harmed by curative spells.
The item is supposed to be the feather of a Phoenix a
common symbol of life and rebirth; downrefers to

The Final Fantasy series is credited with dening the


structure of subsequent role-playing games.* [54]

1.4.8 References
[1] Andrew Vestal (1998-11-02).The History of Final Fantasy - Final Fantasy. Gamespot. Retrieved 2008-12-31.
[2] Greg Kasavin (2007-11-12). Final Fantasy XII.
CNET. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
[3] Patrick Kolan (2007-01-18). The Evolution of Final
Fantasy. IGN. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
[4] David Jenkins (2007-02-28). "(Never the) Final Fantasy
. Virgin Media. Retrieved 2009-04-02.

48

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

[5] IGN Presents: The History of Final Fantasy VII. IGN.


2008-04-30. Retrieved 2009-04-01.

[25] Vestal, Andrew (July 19, 2000). Final Fantasy IX Review. GameSpot. Retrieved 2007-06-13.

[6] Interview with Final Fantasy creator. GameAxis Unwired.


November 2006. p. 24.

[26] Final Fantasy X-2 Review. IGN. Retrieved 2006-1208.

[7] Final Fantasy Retrospective Part XIII. GameTrailers.


2007-11-02. Retrieved 2009-03-30.

[27] Shoemaker, Brad (2003).Final Fantasy X-2 for PlayStation 2 Review. GameSpot. Retrieved July 30, 2006.

[8] Andrew Vestal (1998-11-02).The History of Final Fantasy - Final Fantasy IV. Gamespot. Retrieved 2008-1231.

[28] Bill Loguidice, Matt Barton (2009). Vintage Games. Focal Press/Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-240-81146-8.

[9] List of patent family members for US Patent No.


5390937. espacenet. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
[10] US Patent No. 5390937. The United States Patent
and Trademark Oce.
[11] US Patent No. 5649862. The United States Patent
and Trademark Oce.
[12] US granted 5390937, Video game apparatus, method
and device for controlling same, published February 21,
1995, issued February 21, 1995, assigned to Square Co.,
Ltd
[13] Jeremy Parish. 30 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know
About Final Fantasy. 1UP.com. p. 6. Retrieved 201104-27.
[14] 1UP Sta (2000-01-01). Final Fantasy X (PS2)". 1up.
Retrieved 2009-04-02.
[15] Tom Bramwell (2002-01-02). Final Fantasy XI. eurogamer. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
[16] BradyGAMES, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy XII Ocial
Strategy Guide. DKPublishing. pp. 3536. ISBN 978-07440-0837-1.
[17] BradyGAMES, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy XII Ocial
Strategy Guide. DKPublishing. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-74400837-1.
[18] Buchanan, Levi (2005). Final Fantasy VII Snowboarding. IGN. Retrieved 2006-08-11.
[19] Vestal, Andrew (February 24, 1999).Final Fantasy VIII
for PlayStation Review. GameSpot. Archived from the
original on 2007-10-15. Retrieved 2007-11-15.

[29] Final Fantasy Anthology Ocial Strategy Guide.


BradyGames. 1999. ISBN 978-1-56686-925-6.
[30] Final Fantasy VIII Ultimania (in Japanese).
BentStu. 2004. ISBN 978-4-7575-1243-6.

Studio

[31] Final Fantasy X-2 Ultimania Omega (in Japanese).


Square-Enix. 2004. ISBN 978-4-7575-1161-3.
[32] Andrew Vestal (1998-11-02).The History of Final Fantasy - Final Fantasy VIII. Gamespot. Retrieved 200904-02.
[33] Andrew Vestal (1998-11-02).The History of Final Fantasy - Final Fantasy V. Gamespot. Retrieved 2008-1231.
[34] Square Enix Co., ed. (2003). Final Fantasy Origins North
American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 5.
SLUS-01541.
[35] Square Enix Co., ed. (2003). Final Fantasy Origins North
American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 23.
SLUS-01541.
[36] Final Fantasy III Ocial Website. Square Enix. Retrieved
February 17, 2007.
[37] Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology
North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. pp.
1718. SLUS-00879GH.
[38] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (2001). Final Fantasy Chronicles North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. pp. 69. SLUS-01360.
[39] Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology
North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. pp.
4748. SLUS-00879GH.

[20] Final Fantasy VIII: Triple Triad. Board Game geek.


Retrieved 2006-12-07.

[40] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy VII


North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. pp. 3234. SCUS-94163.

[21] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy VIII


North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. pp. 3840. SLUS-00892GH.

[41] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy VIII


North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. pp. 2435. SLUS-00892GH.

[22] IGN sta (July 15, 1999). FFVIII PocketStation Opens


Up Chocobo World. www.ign.com. Retrieved 200607-18.

[42] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (2000). Final Fantasy IX


North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. pp. 1619. SLUS-01251.

[23] Dan Calderman (2000). Chocobo World Playable on


PC. www.rpgamer.com. Retrieved 2006-07-18.

[43] Square Enix Co., ed. (2003). Final Fantasy X-2 North
American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 13.

[24] IGN Sta (2000-01-28). IGN: Final Fantasy VIII Review. IGN. Retrieved 2008-03-31.

[44] Final Fantasy XI Ocial Site. Playonline.com. Retrieved


February 9, 2007.

1.5. MUSIC OF THE FINAL FANTASY SERIES

[45] BradyGAMES, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy XII Ocial


Strategy Guide. DKPublishing. pp. 1819. ISBN 978-07440-0837-1.
[46] Final Fantasy XII introduces a new way to experience
RPGs. CBS News. Retrieved February 11, 2006.
[47] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy Tactics North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. pp. 2426. SCUS-94221.
[48] Final Fantasy Tactics Ocial Website Square-Enix.com.
Retrieved February 18, 2007.
[49] Andrew Vestal (1998-11-02).The History of Final Fantasy - Final Fantasy Series. Gamespot. Archived from
the original on 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
[50] Steve Watt. Final Fantasy XI (Square Enix)". UGO.
Archived from the original on 2008-10-29. Retrieved
2009-04-02.
[51] Louis Bedigian (2006-08-14).Dirge Of Cerberus - Final
Fantasy VII Review. GameZone. Retrieved 2009-0402.
[52] Justin Calvert (2007-06-01).Final Fantasy Anniversary
Edition Hands-On. GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2012-08-28. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
[53] RACapowski (2007).
Translation of Final Fantasy IV documents on Settings Book/Settei Shiryou
Shuu/Compendium/What Have You. Archived from the
original on 2009-02-07. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
[54] GameSpot's 15 most inuential. GameSpot. 2000.

1.5 Music of the Final Fantasy series


Final Fantasy is a media franchise created by Hironobu
Sakaguchi and owned by Square Enix that includes video
games, motion pictures, and other merchandise. The series began in 1987 as an eponymous role-playing video
game developed by Square, spawning a video game series
that became the central focus of the franchise.* [1]* [2]
The music of the Final Fantasy series refers to the
soundtracks of the Final Fantasy series of video games, as
well as the surrounding medley of soundtrack, arranged,
and compilation albums. The series' music ranges from
very light background music to emotionally intense interweavings of character and situation leitmotifs.
The franchise includes a main series of numbered games
as well as several spin-o series such as Crystal Chronicles and the Final Fantasy Tactics series. The primary
composer of music for the main series was Nobuo Uematsu, who single-handedly composed the soundtracks
for the rst nine games, as well as directing the production of many of the albums. Music for the spin-o series
and main series games beginning with Final Fantasy X
was created by a variety of composers including Masashi

49
Hamauzu, Naoshi Mizuta, Hitoshi Sakimoto, and Kumi
Tanioka.
The majority of Final Fantasy games, including all of the
main series games, have received a soundtrack album release. Many have also inspired orchestral, vocal, or piano
arrangement albums. In addition to the regular albums,
a number of compilation albums of tracks from multiple games have been produced both by Square Enix and
outside groups. Music from the original soundtracks of
the games has been arranged as sheet music for the piano and published by DOREMI Music Publishing, while
sheet music from the piano albums have been published
by Yamaha Music Media. The franchise's music has been
performed numerous times in concert tours and other live
performances such as the Orchestral Game Music Concerts, Symphonic Game Music Concerts, and the Play! A
Video Game Symphony and Video Games Live concert
tours, as well as forming the basis of specic Final Fantasy concerts such as the Dear Friends and Distant Worlds
concert tours.

1.5.1 Themes
Although each game in the Final Fantasy series oers
a variety of music, there are some frequently reused
themes. Most of the games open with a piece calledPrelude, which is based on a short piece by Bach that has
evolved from a simple, two-voice, arpeggiated theme in
the early games to a complex melodic arrangement in recent installments.* [3]* [4]* [5] It has been described as beingas recognizable in gaming circles as the Super Mario
Bros. theme or Sonic the Hedgehog 's title screen pop
.* [4] Battle victories in the rst 10 installments of the series were accompanied by a victory fanfare; this theme
has become one of the most recognized pieces of music
in the series.* [6]* [7] Chocobos and moogles, two mascots for the series, each have their own themes. The basic
theme for chocobos is rearranged in a dierent musical
style for each installment, and usually has a title ending
in de Chocobo, while moogles have a theme entitled
Moogle's Theme, which rst appeared in Final Fantasy V.* [3] The chocobo inspired the spin-o Chocobo
series, and many of the pieces from the soundtracks of
that series are stylistically based on the main chocobo
theme.* [8] A piece called Prologueor Final Fantasy, originally featured in the rst game, has appeared
in some form in every game in the main series, with the
exceptions of Final Fantasy II, Final Fantasy X, and Final
Fantasy XIII; originally appearing in the prologue of the
games. It sometimes appears as a full arrangement and
surfaces other times as a theme played during the nale
track.* [3]* [9] Although leitmotifs are often used in the
more character-driven installments, theme music is typically reserved for main characters and recurring plot elements.* [1]

50

1.5.2

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

History

Main series
19871994: Famicom era When Nobuo Uematsu was
working at a music rental shop in Tokyo, a woman working in the art department for Square, which would later
become Square Enix, approached him about creating music for some of their titles in development, and he agreed.
Uematsu considered it a side job and was skeptical it
would become any sort of full-time position. He said it
was a way to make some money on the side, while also
keeping his part-time job at the music rental shop.* [10]
Before joining Square, he composed music for television
commercials.* [11] The rst score he produced for Square
was the soundtrack for the role-playing video game Cruise
Chaser Blassty. While working at Square, he met Final Fantasy creator Hironobu Sakaguchi, who asked him
if he wanted to compose music for some of his games,
which Uematsu agreed to.* [10] Sakaguchi gave him a
few instructions for the soundtrack of Final Fantasy, UeRegular series composer Nobuo Uematsu
matsu's 16th score,* [5] such as the need forbattleand
townmusic, but left the remainder of the composing to
Uematsu, aside from informing him of the specic tech- bum.* [14]
nical limitations of the Famicom system. The game was
In 1994, Square released Final Fantasy VI (1994), the last
released in 1987.* [12]
for the Super Famicom, and the accompanying soundAfter the success of Final Fantasy I, Uematsu remained track has been considered one of the greatest video game
with the series to compose the soundtrack to Final Fan- soundtracks ever composed.* [18] The game's discogratasy II (1988). Although I and II were composed sepa- phy also includes orchestral and piano arrangement CDs,
rately, music from the two games have only been released as well as EPs of unreleased tracks and character themes.
on albums together. These albums include a sound- The soundtrack included the rst attempt in the Final
track album and two arranged albums. Final Fantasy III Fantasy series to include a vocal track, Aria di Mezzo
(1990) was released two years later and featured a sound- Carattere, which has been described as one of Uetrack from Uematsu that has been lauded as one of the matsu's greatest achievements.* [9] This track features
best soundtracks of any NES game.* [13] The soundtrack an unintelligible synthesized voicethat harmonizes
spawned two soundtrack albums, as well as a disc of vocal with the melody, as technical limitations for the SPC700
and orchestral arrangements.* [14]
sound format chip prevented the use of an actual vocal
track.
The rst actual vocals in a piece appeared in Final
Final Fantasy IV (1991) was the rst game in the series
Fantasy
VII.* [14]
to be released for the Super Famicom, and the resultant
changes in the sound technology resulted in a composition
process that Uematsu noted was excruciating.* [15]
Uematsu has stated that, beginning with this soundtrack,
he started to move away from the idea that the soundtrack
had to be solely an orchestral score.* [16] In addition to
the soundtrack album, the music of IV was arranged and
released in the style of Celtic music, performed by Mire
Breatnach. It also sparked the release of an album of piano arrangements, something which would be repeated
for every subsequent main-series game to date.* [14]
Having now gained experience with the Super Famicom
sound chip, Uematsu felt that the sound quality of the
soundtrack for the next game in the series, Final Fantasy
V (1992), was much better than that of IV. He named
this as the primary reason that the soundtrack album was
two CDs long, a rst for the series.* [17] Like IV, the
discography of Final Fantasy V included an arranged
and a piano album in addition to the main soundtrack al-

19972000: PlayStation era Beginning with Final


Fantasy VII (1997), the series moved platforms to the
PlayStation. While the media capabilities of the PlayStation allowed for CD quality music, Uematsu opted instead to use Sequence format.* [19] The soundtrack album ran a record four discs, and Uematsu has stated that
the move into the PlayStation era, which allowed
video game composers to use sounds recorded in the studio rather than from synthesizers, had denitely been
the biggest changeto video game music.* [20] VII was
the rst game in the series to include a track with digitized vocals,One-Winged Angel, which has been described as Uematsu's most recognizable contribution
to the music of the series.* [21] The piece, described as
a fanfare to impending doom, is said to not follow
any normal genre rulesand has been termed possibly
the most innovative idea in the series' musical history.

1.5. MUSIC OF THE FINAL FANTASY SERIES

51

[19] The lyrics of the piece, a Latin choral track which


plays at the climax of the game, were taken from the
medieval poetry on which Carl Or based his Carmina
Burana, specically the songs Estuans Interius, "O
Fortuna", Veni, Veni, Veniasand Ave Formosissima.* [22] There was a plan to use a famous vocalistfor the ending piece as a theme songfor the
game, but the idea was dropped due to time constraints
and thematic concerns.* [21]* [23] The idea of a theme
song would be resurrected in the following installment of
the series. In 2006, IGN ranked VII's music the best Final Fantasy soundtrack to date and cited the gripping
character tracks andOne-Winged Angelin particular
as contributing factors.* [9] The discography of the original game only includes soundtrack, best of, and piano
albums.* [14] However, beginning in 2005 Square Enix
produced a collection of media centered on the game and
world of Final Fantasy VII entitled the Compilation of Hitoshi Sakimoto was the main composer of Final Fantasy XII
Final Fantasy VII. This collection has produced ve ad- and Final Fantasy Tactics.
ditional soundtrack albums, each for a dierent game or
animation.* [14]
The soundtrack of Final Fantasy VIII (1999), unlike that
of VI and VII, did not include character themes, as Uematsu felt they would not be eective.* [24] In response
to a question by IGN music stating that the music of Final Fantasy VIII was very dark and perhaps inuenced by
the plot of the game, Uematsu statedthe atmosphere of
music varies depending on story line, of course, but it's
also my intention to put various types of music into one
game.* [25] Although the idea had not been used in the
previous game, he thought a ballad would closely relate to
the theme and characters of VIII, and composed Eyes
on Me, performed by Faye Wong.* [24] The song was
released as a single, while Square produced soundtrack,
orchestral, and piano albums for the game's music.* [14]

and Nakano contributed 18 tracks to the game.* [30]


The two new composers were chosen for the soundtrack
based on their ability to create music that was dierent
from Uematsu's while still working together.* [31] The
discography for the game includes the soundtrack album,
piano, and vocal arrangement albums, and an EP of tracks
by Uematsu inspired by the game. The theme song for the
game,Suteki da ne, which translates toIsn't it Wonderful?", was written by Nobuo Uematsu and Kazushige
Nojima and was sung by Japanese folk singer Ritsuki
Nakano, known as "RIKKI", whom the music team contacted while searching for a singer whose music reected
an Okinawan atmosphere.* [32] Suteki da neis sung
in its original Japanese form in both the Japanese and EnThe music of Final Fantasy IX, (2000), was based around glish versions of Final Fantasy X, and was released as a
*
a theme of Renaissance music, and was heavily inspired single. [33]
by previous Final Fantasy games, incorporating themes Uematsu, Naoshi Mizuta, and Kumi Tanioka composed
and motifs from earlier soundtracks. Uematsu felt previ- Final Fantasy XI (2002). It was the last Final Fantasy
ous games VII and VIII had a mood of realism, but that soundtrack that Uematsu was a main composer for until
Final Fantasy IX was more of a fantasy, so a serious Final Fantasy XIV, as he resigned from Square Enix in
piece as well as silly, fun pieces could t in.* [26]* [27] November 2004.* [1] The expansion packs were mostly
Uematsu has claimed several times that the music of IX scored by Mizuta alone. The opening of the game feais his favorite work, as well as the one he is most proud tures choral music with lyrics in Esperanto. According
of.* [28]* [29] Like Final Fantasy VIII, IX included a vocal to Uematsu, the choice of language was meant to symtheme, Melodies of Life, which was sung by Emiko bolize the developers' hope that their online game could
Shiratori. The game's discography includes albums of the contribute to cross-cultural communication and cooperaoriginal soundtrack, a selection of the best tracks, a piano tion.* [34] The game and each of its four expansion packs
arrangement album, an album of unreleased tracks, and have produced a soundtrack album; the discography for
a single of Melodies of Life.* [14]
the game also includes two piano albums, an album of unreleased tracks, two arranged albums, and a single for its
2001present: other composers Final Fantasy X vocal theme,Distant World, which was composed by
(2001) marked the rst time in the series' history that Uematsu* and performed by Japanese opera singer Izumi
Uematsu was not the sole composer for the soundtrack. Masuda. [14]
Released on the PlayStation 2, the score was also cre- Final Fantasy XII (2006) was mainly composed by
ated by Masashi Hamauzu and Junya Nakano. Uematsu Hitoshi Sakimoto, although six compositions were concontributed 51 tracks, Hamauzu contributed 20 tracks tributed by his fellow composers Hayato Matsuo and

52

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
XIII the rst game in the main series to not have any work
by Uematsu.* [40] The game has sparked the release of a
soundtrack album, an arranged album, two gramophone
record albums of music from the soundtrack, a piano album, and a single of the game's theme song Because
You're Here( Kimi ga Iru Kara), sung by
Sayuri Sugawara.* [14]* [41] The international versions of
XIII feature the songMy Handssung by British singer
Leona Lewis from her second album Echo.
The latest game in the series, Final Fantasy XIV (2010)
was composed by Uematsu through his Smile Please
studio, and is the rst Final Fantasy since IX to have
a score completely composed by him at release.* [42]
The theme song Answers was sung by Susan Calloway.
Since original launch, and for the A Realm Reborn relaunch, additional in-game music has been composed
by Naoshi Mizuta, Ryo Yamazaki, Tsuyoshi Sekito, and
Masayoshi Soken.* [43] The full ocial soundtrack with
all 104 tracks from the original version of Final Fantasy
XIV was released on August 14, 2013 in a single Bluray disc compilation.* [44] Titled Before Meteor: FINAL
FANTASY XIV Original Soundtrack, the disc contains all
of the music composed by Nobuo Uematsu for the initial
release, as well as music added on subsequent patches by
Uematsu, Mizuta, Yamazaki, Sekito and Soken.

Spin-os
Masashi Hamauzu was the main composer of Final Fantasy XIII.

Compilation of Final Fantasy VII


Music of the Final Fantasy VII series

Main article:

Masaharu Iwata. Uematsu only contributed the theme


song, "Kiss Me Good-Bye", sung by Angela Aki.* [35]
Violinist Taro Hakase also contributed a piece named
Symphonic Poem 'Hope'", featured during the game's
ending credits. Sakimoto was brought in to compose the
soundtrack to the game by Yasumi Matsuno, the producer
of the game, ve months before the game was ocially
announced.* [36] Sakimoto experienced diculty following in Uematsu's footsteps, but he decided to create a
unique soundtrack in his own way, although he cites Uematsu as his biggest musical inuence.* [37]* [38] Sakimoto did not meet with Uematsu for direction on creating the soundtrack and tried to avoid copying Uematsu's
style from previous Final Fantasy soundtracks. However,
he did attempt to ensure that his style would mesh with
Uematsu'sKiss Me Good-Byeand the overall vision of
the series.* [36] The current discography, while originally
limited to the soundtrack album and singles for Kiss
Me Good-ByeandSymphonic Poem 'Hope'", was late
in 2012 given an album of piano arrangements like most
prior soundtracks in the series.* [14]

The Compilation of Final Fantasy VII is the formal title


for a series of games and animated features developed
by Square Enix based in the world and continuity of Final Fantasy VII. Spearheaded by Tetsuya Nomura and
Yoshinori Kitase,* [45]* [46]* [47] the series consists of
several titles across various platforms, all of which are
extensions of the Final Fantasy VII story. The rst announced element of the series was Final Fantasy VII Advent Children, an animated sequel to the original game,
though the rst to be released was the mobile phone
game Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII. Before Crisis's
soundtrack was composed by Takeharu Ishimoto, while
Advent Children was scored by Nobuo Uematsu, Keiji
Kawamori, Kenichiro Fukui, and Tsuyoshi Sekito. Other
titles in the series are Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy
VII, the soundtrack of which was composed by Masashi
Hamauzu, Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII, which was primarily composed by Takeharu Ishimoto with a few tracks
provided by Kazuhiko Toyama, and Last Order: Final
Fantasy VII, also composed by Ishimoto.* [14]

Final Fantasy XIII (2009) was composed by Masashi


Hamauzu.* [39] Although its main theme was originally
announced to be composed by Nobuo Uematsu, Uematsu
instead gave it to Hamauzu to compose after being selected as the composer for Final Fantasy XIV, making

Advent Children featured a song by former Japanese


rock band Bowy's singer Kyosuke Himuro in its ending
credits, the Dirge of Cerberus soundtrack contained two
songs by Gackt, including its theme song "Redemption",
and Crisis Core's theme song, "Why", was performed

1.5. MUSIC OF THE FINAL FANTASY SERIES


by Ayaka. Each element of the series sparked its own
soundtrack album except for Before Crisis and Last Order, which had their soundtracks released together in one
album.* [14] Dirge of Cerberus also had a download-only
soundtrack album for its Japan-only multiplayer mode,
while Redemptionand Whyeach had a single release by their respective artists.* [48]* [49]
Final Fantasy X-2
Fantasy X-2

Main article:

Music of Final

Final Fantasy X-2 (2003), was the rst direct video game
sequel to any Final Fantasy game. Despite having composed the majority of the soundtrack for Final Fantasy
X, Nobuo Uematsu did not contribute any music to the
project. No tracks from X or other games in the series
were used in the game. In an attempt to make a dierent
style of music for the game than previous franchise titles,
Square brought Noriko Matsueda and Takahito Eguchi on
board to compose the music for X-2, as the developers felt
they were theperfect tto incorporate apopstyle
into the music.* [50] The game includes two songs with
vocalized elements, one of which, the J-Pop song real
Emotion, was written by Ken Kato and composed by
Kazuhiro Hara. The other, J-Pop ballad 1000 Words
, was written by scenario writers Kazushige Nojima and
Daisuke Watanabe. Matsueda and Eguchi composed and
arranged the track. Both songs were sung by Jade Villalon from Sweetbox in the English version of the game,
and are available as bonus tracks on the Japanese release
of her album Adagio.* [51] In the Japanese version of the
game both the songs were sung by Kumi Koda and were
released as a single entitled real Emotion/1000 no Kotoba.
Koda also released her own English versions of the songs
on her CD single Come with Me, with slightly dierent
versions of the lyrics than Jade. In addition to Come with
Me, the collection of music for Final Fantasy X-2 includes
the two-disc soundtrack album, a piano album, a soundtrack album for the Final Fantasy X-2 International +
Last Mission version of the game, a single for the song
Eternity ~ Memory of Lightwaves, and a set of three
singles themed around the three main characters of the
game.* [14]

53
tasy XII: Revenant Wings (2007), Final Fantasy Tactics:
The War of the Lions (2007), Final Fantasy Tactics A2:
Grimoire of the Rift (2007), and Final Fantasy XII International Zodiac Job System (2007).* [52]
The music of these games has been primarily composed
by Hitoshi Sakimoto, who also composed the main-series
game set in Ivalice, Final Fantasy XII. Masaharu Iwata
shared compositional duties with him for Tactics; Sakimoto composed 47 tracks for the game while Iwata composed the other 24.* [53] Sakimoto composed almost all
of the music for Tactics Advance, while Uematsu contributed the main theme and Kaori Ohkoshi and Ayako
Saso composed additional battle tracks.* [54] Both games
have a soundtrack album, while Tactics Advance inspired
an arranged album. Sakimoto again was the composer for
Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift, though this time he was
supported by composers from his studio Basiscape, and it
too sparked a soundtrack album release. He also scored
Revenant Wings, though it primarily consisted of arrangements of his previous work and has not been released as
a separate album, and his work on Tactics was used as the
score for the spino series Crystal Defenders.* [55]

Crystal Chronicles Main article: Music of the Final


Fantasy Crystal Chronicles series
Another spin-o of the main series, the Final Fantasy
Crystal Chronicles series consists of Crystal Chronicles
(2004), its sequel Ring of Fates (2007), and their spinos My Life as a King (2008), Echoes of Time (2009),
My Life as a Darklord (2009), and the newest title The
Crystal Bearers (2009). Kumi Tanioka is the main composer for the series, having composed the music for all
of the released games. Her only work on the main series
to date has been as one of the co-composers for Final
Fantasy XI.* [56] She did not compose the soundtrack for
The Crystal Bearers; Hidenori Iwasaki composed it instead.* [57] Tanioka is known for using an eclectic mix of
instruments in her albums; she has described the musical style for the soundtrack to Crystal Chronicles as being
based on ancient instruments. The soundtrack has
extensive use of many medieval and Renaissance musical
instrumentssuch as the recorder, the crumhorn and the
lute; creating a distinctively rustic feeland also follows
the practices and styles of medieval music.* [58] For the
soundtrack to Ring of Fates, Tanioka purposefully did not
Tactics and Ivalice Alliance Main article: Music of focus onworld music, instead focusing oncreating
the Final Fantasy Tactics series
a new landscape containing the same atmosphere.* [59]
Echoes of Time also incorporates a variety of instruments,
oboes, xylophones, marimbas, and Latin guiThe Final Fantasy Tactics series is a spin-o of the main including
*
tars.
[60]
Final Fantasy series, consisting of primarily tactical roleplaying games with heavy thematic similarities to the Of the released games, Crystal Chronicles, Ring of Fates,
main series. After Final Fantasy XII was set in the same and Echoes of Time are the only ones to have a released
world, Ivalice, as the two games in the series Final Fan- soundtrack. Crystal Chronicles also has sparked a sintasy Tactics (1997) and Final Fantasy Tactics Advance gle of its theme song, Sound of the Wind(
(2003), Square Enix announced that all future games set Kaze no Ne), composed by Kumi Tanioka and perin the game world would be part of the new Ivalice Al- formed by Fujimoto Yae.* [61] Ring of Fates also has an
liance subseries. These games to date include Final Fan- associated single of its theme song, A World Without

54

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
spired an orchestral arrangement album also composed
by Hamauzu.* [64] The soundtrack of Chocobo's Dungeon
2 was composed by Kumi Tanioka, Yasuhiro Kawakami,
Tsuyoshi Sekito, Kenji Ito, and Nobuo Uematsu.* [65]
The games whose soundtracks were primarily composed
of previous Final Fantasy and Chocobo tracks were Final
Fantasy Fables: Chocobo's Dungeon, which was arranged
by Yuzo Takahashi of Joe Down Studio, Chocobo Racing, whose original tracks were composed by Kenji Ito,
and Final Fantasy Fables: Chocobo Tales. The sequel to
Chocobo Tales, Chocobo and the Magic Picture Book: The
Witch, The Maiden, and the Five Heroes, contains mainly
original works, and the two games were scored by Yuzo
Takahashi. Unlike the other Chocobo games, they had a
joint soundtrack album release, while Chocobo Tales had
a previous download-only best ofalbum.* [66]

Others Other spin-os of the main Final Fantasy series include Final Fantasy Adventure (1991), a spin-o
game later also considered as the rst game in the Mana
series, which had references to Final Fantasy removed in
its remake, Sword of Mana.* [67] It was scored by Kenji
Ito, with one track by Uematsu. Final Fantasy Mystic
Quest (1992) is an SNES game scored by Ryuji Sasai
and Yasuhiro Kawakami.* [68] Final Fantasy: Legend of
the Crystals (1994) is an animated sequel to Final Fantasy V, and was scored by Masahiko Sato. Final Fantasy:
The Spirits Within (2001), a computer animated science
*
Kumi Tanioka was the main composer of the Crystal Chronicles ction lm, was scored by Elliot Goldenthal, [69] and
Final Fantasy: Unlimited (2001), a 25-episode anime seseries.
ries, was scored by Nobuo Uematsu, Shiro Hamaguchi,
and Akifumi Tada.* [70] The soundtracks to The SpirStars( Hoshi no Nai Sekai), written and its Within and Mystic Quest were released as separate
performed by Aiko.* [62] Echoes of Time did not have a albums, while Unlimited had two soundtrack album retheme song.* [60]
leases.* [68]* [69]* [70] Final Fantasy Adventure saw the
release of a soundtrack album, an arranged album, a release which compiled both previous albums together, and
a soundtrack album for its remake.* [67]
Chocobo Main article: Music of the Chocobo series
The Chocobo series is a spin-o series of games rst
developed by Square and later by Square Enix, featuring a super deformed version of the Final Fantasy series mascot the chocobo as the protagonist. These
games include Mystery Dungeon installments and a variety of minigame collections over a wide variety of video
game consoles. The series includes over a dozen games,
most of which have been released only in Japan.* [63]
The soundtracks to the games have been composed by a
wide variety of composers, and many of the soundtracks
are composed primarily of arranged versions of tracks
from previous Final Fantasy soundtracks, especially the
chocobotheme.* [8]
Only some of the games have led to separate soundtrack
releases. The rst of these was Chocobo's Mystery Dungeon (
Chocobo no Fushigina Dungeon), which was scored by Masashi Hamauzu and in-

1.5.3 Merchandise
The majority of games in the franchise, including all of
the main series games, have led to a soundtrack album
release. Many have also inspired orchestral, vocal, or piano arrangement albums as well. These albums have been
produced and reprinted by a number of dierent companies, including DigiCube, NTT Publishing, Square Enix
itself, and many others. Additionally, many albums have
been made available at the iTunes Music Store.* [71] In
addition to the regular albums, a number of compilation
albums of pieces from several Final Fantasy games have
been produced both by Square Enix and outside groups,
both ocially and unocially. These albums include
music directly from the games, as well as arrangements
covering a variety of styles. Square Enix produced the
rst album, Final Fantasy 19871994 (1994) and has
since produced 13 albums, leading up to Final Fantasy

1.5. MUSIC OF THE FINAL FANTASY SERIES


Remix (2008). The rst compilation album produced by
an outside group was The Best of Final Fantasy 1994
1999: A Musical Tribute, released in 2000 by Sherman
F. Heinig; the newest is Voices of the Lifestream, an unlicensed download-only album from OverClocked ReMix
released in 2007.* [72]

55
date as well as the Play! A Video Game Symphony world
tour from 2006 onwards, for which Nobuo Uematsu composed the opening fanfare that accompanies each performance.* [77]* [78] Final Fantasy music was played at the
Symphonic Game Music Concert series, a series of annual German video game music concerts notable for being the rst of their kind outside of Japan, from 2003 to
2007.* [79]* [80] The music made up one fourth of the
Symphonic Fantasies concerts in September 2009 which
were produced by the creators of the Symphonic Game
Music Concert series.* [81] It has also been played by the
Australian Eminence Symphony Orchestra, an independent symphony orchestra specializing in classical music
from video games.

Music from the original soundtracks has been arranged


for the piano and published by DOREMI Music Publishing.* [73] Books are available for every main series game
except for Final Fantasy V, as well as for Advent Children and Crystal Chronicles. All piece in each book have
been rewritten by Asako Niwa as beginning to intermediate level piano solos, though they are meant to sound as
much like the originals as possible.Best ofcollections
and arrangements for guitar solos and piano duets are also Music from the series has also been played in specic Fiavailable.* [74]
nal Fantasy concerts and concert series. After the success
Additionally, the actual piano sheet music from each of of the 20020220 Music from Final Fantasy concert in
the ten Final Fantasy Piano Collections albums has been 2002, a recording of which was produced as an album, the
published as ten corresponding music books by Yamaha Tour de Japon: Music from Final Fantasy, was launched
Music Media.* [75] Each book contains the original mu- in Japan in 2004. It was followed by the Dear Friends
sic, exactly as arranged and performed on the albums. -Music from Final Fantasy- tour in the United States that
to be a single
Unlike the Original Score arrangements, these pieces are same year, which was originally scheduled
*
concert
but
grew
into
a
year-long
tour.
[82]
In 2005, a
intended only for advanced players as they are generally
concert
entitled
More
Friends:
Music
from
Final
Fantasy
more dicult. Sheet music for the Final Fantasy XI Piwas
performed
to
coincide
with
the
one-year
anniversary
ano Collections album included in the Final Fantasy XI
and also had an album
OST Premium Box Set was included in that box set, and, of the rst Dear Friends concert
*
published
of
the
performance.
[83]
The latest Final Fanlike the album itself, is unavailable for purchase elsetasy
tour
is
the
worldwide
Distant
Worlds:
Music from
*
where; [76] sheet music for the identically named stanFinal
Fantasy
tour,
which
began
in
Sweden
in
2007 and
*
dalone piano album is published by Yamaha. [75]
still continues to date.* [84] A recording of its rst performance was released as an album. Nobuo Uematsu additionally plays with The Black Mages, a band which per1.5.4 Public performances
forms Final Fantasy music in a rock music style. They
have performed music live in concert, as well as with orSee also: Final Fantasy concerts
Music from Final Fantasy has been performed numer- chestras as part of various concert tours. They have released three albums to date, as well as DVDs of their live
performances.* [14]

From November 2003 to April 2004, Square Enix U.S.A.


launched an AOL Radio station dedicated to music from
the series, initially carrying complete tracks from Final
Fantasy XI in addition to samplings from VII through
X.* [85] The station was relaunched in July 2006 and still
remains on the site. In the 2004 Summer Olympics, the
American synchronized swimming duo consisting of Alison Bartosik and Anna Kozlova were awarded the bronze
medal for their performance toLiberi Fatalifrom Final
Fantasy VIII.* [86]

1.5.5 Sales
Rinoa Heartilly shown at the Los Angeles Dear Friends concert

Albums
ous times in concert tours and other live performances.
Music from the series was played in the rst four con- The sales gures for the various Final Fantasy music alcerts of the Tokyo Philharmonic Orchestra's Orchestral bums in Japan are as follows:* [87]
Game Music Concerts series from 1991 to 1994, and each
Final Fantasy VI Original Sound Version (1994) concert has been released on an album. It has also been
175,000* [88]
played in the Video Games Live concert tour from 2005 to

56

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Final Fantasy VII Original Soundtrack (1997) 148,260

At least eight of these soundtrack albums debuted in


the top ten of the Oricon albums chart: Final Fantasy
VI Original Sound Version, Final Fantasy VII Original
Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Original Soundtrack, Final Fantasy VIII Original Soundtrack, Final
Soundtrack (2005) - 38,904
Fantasy IX Original Soundtrack, Final Fantasy X Origi Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII Original nal Soundtrack, Final Fantasy X-2 Original Soundtrack,
Final Fantasy XII Original Soundtrack, and Final Fantasy
Soundtrack (2006) - 14,361
XIII Original Soundtrack, the latter debuting at #3 on the
Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII Original Sound- chart.* [88] The sales gures for albums released before
track (2007) - 13,321
Final Fantasy VI are currently unknown. The only Fi Final Fantasy VIII Original Soundtrack (1999) - nal Fantasy albums that failed to reach the top 30 of the
Oricon albums chart were the soundtracks for the Final
300,000* [89]
Fantasy Tactics series and Crystal Chronicles series.* [87]
Final Fantasy VIII: Fithos Lusec Wecos Vinosec
(1999) - 7,540
Singles
Final Fantasy IX Original Soundtrack (2000) The sales gures for the various Final Fantasy vocal sin101,520
gles in Japan are as follows:* [87]
Final Fantasy IX Original Soundtrack PLUS
(2000) - 4,180
"Eyes on Me" (vocals by Faye Wong, for Final Fantasy VIII, 1999) - 500,000
Final Fantasy X Original Soundtrack (2001) 140,380
"Melodies of Life" (vocals by Emiko Shiratori, for
Final Fantasy IX, 2000) - 100,000
Final Fantasy X Vocal Collection (2001) 11,762
Final Fantasy X Piano Collections (2002) 2,900

"Suteki Da Ne" (vocals by Rikki, for Final Fantasy


X, 2001) - 130,000

Final Fantasy X-2 Original Soundtrack (2003)


- 82,350

"Real Emotion/1000 no Kotoba" (vocals by Kumi


Koda, for Final Fantasy X-2, 2003) - 280,000

Final Fantasy X-2 International + Last Mission


OST (2004) - 9,879

"Redemption" (vocals by Gackt, for Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII, 2006) - 125,000

Final Fantasy POTION: Relaxin' With Final Fantasy


(2001) - 6,550

"Kiss Me Good-Bye" (vocals by Angela Aki, for


Final Fantasy XII, 2006) - 60,000

Square Vocal Collection (2001) - 4,550

"Why" (vocals by Ayaka, for Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII, 2007) - 60,000

Final Fantasy & Final Fantasy II Original Soundtrack (2002) - 3,900


Final Fantasy XI Original Soundtrack (2002) 13,250

"Hoshi no Nai Sekai" (vocals by Aiko, for Final


Fantasy Crystal Chronicles: Ring of Fates, 2007) 110,000

20020220 Music from Final Fantasy (2002) - 7,610 My Hands, the Leona Lewis theme song for the North
American and European versions of Final Fantasy XIII,
The Black Mages (2003) - 23,526
was never released as a single, though the album it was
taken from, Echo (2009), sold over 1 million copies in
The Black Mages II: The Skies Above (2004) - Europe,* [90] including over 600,000 in the United King11,890
dom.* [91]
Final Fantasy III Original Soundtrack (2006) 17,843

1.5.6 Artists inspired by Final Fantasy music


Final Fantasy XII Original Soundtrack (2006) 31,547
Final Fantasy XIII Original Soundtrack (2010) 16,000 (rst-day sales)* [88]

Owen Pallett
Piano Squall

1.5. MUSIC OF THE FINAL FANTASY SERIES

1.5.7

See also

1.5.8

References

57

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Retrieved 2008-04-04.

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[2] Berardini, Csar A. (2006-04-26). An Introduction to


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[3] Vestal, Andrew. Final Fantasy Series. The History of


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[17] Eng, Kei (1992). Final Fantasy V: Original Sound Version Liner Notes. Final Fantasy Music Online. Archived
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[35] Niizumi, Hirohiko (2004-11-01).Nobuo Uematsu leaving Square Enix. GameSpot. Archived from the original
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58

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

[36] Twelve Days of Final Fantasy XII: Hitoshi Sakimoto


Interview Part I. IGN. 2006-10-24. Archived from the
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[53] Gann, Patrick (1997). Final Fantasy Tactics Original


Soundtrack Review. RPGFan. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2007-04-14.

[37] Final Fantasy XII Collector's Edition Bonus DVD


(DVD). Tokyo: Square Enix. 2006. Retrieved 2014-0225.

[54] Vardaro, Richard.Final Fantasy Tactics Advance OST


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[38] Twelve Days of Final Fantasy XII: Hitoshi Sakimoto


Interview Part II. IGN. 2006-10-25. Archived from the
original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2008-04-09.

[55] 01 Feb 2009 - Sakimoto Leads FFTA Spino Crystal Defenders. Square Enix Music Online. 2009-0201. Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved
2009-05-04. |rst1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)

[39] Gantayat, Anoop (2006-05-09). E3 2006: FFXIII Sta


Check. IGN. Archived from the original on 2013-02-07.
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[40] Conrmed: Nobuo Uematsu Not On FFXIII. Square
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[41] Final Fantasy XIII Theme Song Announced. Square
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[42] Final Fantasy XIV. Square Enix. 2009-06-02.
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2009-06-03.

[56] Maas, Liz; Schweitzer, Ben; Van, Tim; Winkler, Chris.


Final Fantasy XI OST. RPGFan. Archived from the
original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2008-03-28.
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[43] In-Game Credits.

[59] Jeriaska; Kumi, Tanioka (2008-03-29). Interview with


Kumi Tanioka. RPGFan. Archived from the original
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[44] Final Fantasy XIV Soundtrack To Include Dalmaud


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2013-07-08.

[60] Gann, Patrick (2009-03-21). Final Fantasy Crystal


Chronicles: Echoes of Time OST. RPGFan. Archived
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[45] Kohler, Chris (2004). More Compilation of Final Fantasy VII details. GameSpot. Archived from the original
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[46] GameSpot site sta (2003). Kingdom Hearts II's Tetsuya Nomura Q & As. GameSpot. Retrieved 2006-0810

[61] Gann, Patrick. Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles Opening Theme Sound of the Wind. RPGFan. Archived
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[47] V-Jump, ed. (2005).Final Fantasy VII Advent Children


Prologue (in Japanese). Shueisha. p. 50. ISBN 4-08779339-7. Retrieved 2014-02-25.

[63] Thomas, Damian (2007-09-25). The Final Fantasy


Retrospective Video Game, Part X. GameTrailers.
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[48] "Crisis Core -Final Fantasy VII-


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[64] Hamauzu, Masashi (1997). Chocobo no Fushigina


Dungeon Coi Vanni Gialli Liner Notes (Media notes).
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[49] Winkler, Chris (2006-03-26). Dirge of Cerberus Final Fantasy VII OST. RPGFan. Archived from the
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[65] Thomas, Damian (2002-05-19). Chocobo's Mysterious


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the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2009-02-19.

[50] Dunham, Jeremy (2003). Final Fantasy X-2 Developer


Interview. IGN. Archived from the original on 201302-07. Retrieved 2006-07-16.

[66] Chris. Chocobo and the Magic Books Original Soundtrack: Review by Chris. Square Enix Music Online.
Archived from the original on 2012-03-23. Retrieved
2009-02-26.

[51] Miscellaneous Final Fantasy CDs. music.info.


Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved
2008-04-18.
[52] Winkler, Chris (2006-12-13). Square Enix announces
FF Tactics for the PSP and Another New FFT Game.
RPGFan. Archived from the original on 2012-02-23. Retrieved 2007-01-10.

[67] Seiken Densetsu Sound Collections. RPGFan. 200111-16. Archived from the original on 2012-09-21. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
[68] Gann, Patrick (2001-03-23).Final Fantasy USA Mystic
Quest Sound Collections. RPGFan. Archived from the
original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2009-05-04.

1.5. MUSIC OF THE FINAL FANTASY SERIES

[69] Coleman, Christpher.Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within


by Elliot Goldenthal. RPGFan. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
[70] Aevloss. Final Fantasy Unlimited Music Adventure
Verse 2 :: Review by Aevloss. Square Enix Music
Online. Archived from the original on 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
[71] Square Enix Music Download. Square Enix. Archived
from the original on 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
[72] Radd, David (2007-09-14). Game Daily: OC Remix
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2007-11-17.
[73] Doremi Music Web Site (in Japanese). DOREMI
Music Publishing. Archived from the original on 201301-20. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
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Retrieved 2009-04-10.

59

[86] NBCOlympics.com 2008 Beijing Summer Olympic


Games | Free Online Videos, Olympic Event | Athlete Interviews | NBC Olympics. Nbcolympics.com. Retrieved
2008-09-14.
[87] Greening, Chris. Square Enix Album Sales. Square
Enix Music Online. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
[88] "FF XIII TOP3 " (in
Japanese). Oricon. 2010-01-28. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
(Translation)
[89] PSquaresoft Online Store Opening in Early December
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[90] IFPI Platinum Europe Awards - 2010. International
Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
[91] Certied Awards Search. British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2011-08-05.

1.5.9 External links

[75]
(in Japanese). Yamaha Music Media. Archived
from the original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2008-09-14.

Ocial Square Enix Final Fantasy music site

[76] Gann, Patrick. Final Fantasy XI OST Premium Box


. RPGFan. Archived from the original on 2013-01-25.
Retrieved 2008-03-28.

Masashi Hamauzu's Square Enix North America


prole

[77] Matsuzaki, Kimberly; O'Donnell, Ryan (2005-07-15).


Video Games Live from 1UP.com. 1UP.com.
Archived from the original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved
2009-01-13.
[78] Daiker, Brandon (2006-05-27). Play! A Video Game
Symphony. N-Sider. Archived from the original on
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[79] Symphonic Game Music Concerts. 2009-04-02.
Archived from the original on 2009-04-22. Retrieved
2009-04-10.
[80] Video-game Concerts Bring New Life To Hallowed
Halls. Game Informer Online. 2009-03-26. Archived
from the original on 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
[81] Symphonic Fantasies - Orchestral Live Album Featuring
Video Game Music. Symphonic Fantasies. Archived
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[82] Uematsu's Music. Square Enix. Archived from the
original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
[83] Uematsu's Music. Square Enix. Archived from the
original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
[84] Distant Worlds: Music from Final Fantasy. Square
Enix. 2007-10-15. Archived from the original on 200710-17. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
[85] Fans Speak: Final Fantasy Radio Returns to AOL.
Square Enix. 2006-07-24. Archived from the original on
2013-01-25. Retrieved 2009-04-10.

Nobuo Uematsu's ocial website

Hitoshi Sakimoto's ocial website

Chapter 2

Main series
2.1 Final Fantasy (video game)
FF1redirects here. For other uses, see FF1 (disambiguation).
Final Fantasy ( Fainaru
Fantaj ) is a fantasy role-playing video game created by
Hironobu Sakaguchi, developed and rst published in
Japan by Square (now Square Enix) in 1987. It is the
rst game in Square's Final Fantasy series. Originally released for the NES, Final Fantasy was remade for several video game consoles and is frequently packaged with
Final Fantasy II in video game collections.
The story follows four youths called the Light Warriors,
who each carry one of their world's four elemental orbs
which have been darkened by the four Elemental Fiends.
Together, they quest to defeat these evil forces, restore
light to the orbs, and save their world.

ful information, while others own shops that sell items


or equipment. Dungeons appear in areas that include
forests, caves, mountains, swamps, underwater caverns
and buildings. Dungeons often have treasure chests containing rare items that are not available in most stores.
The game's menu screen allows the player to keep track of
their experience points and levels, to choose which equipment their characters wield, and to use items and magic.
A character's most basic attribute is their level, which can
range from one to fty, and is determined by the character's amount of experience. Gaining a level increases the
character's attributes, such as their maximum hit points
(HP), which represents a character's remaining health; a
character dies when they reach zero HP. Characters gain
experience points by winning battles.* [3]

The game received generally positive reviews, and it is regarded as one of the most inuential and successful roleplaying games on the Nintendo Entertainment System,
playing a major role in popularizing the genre. Critical
praise focused on the game's graphics, while criticism
targeted the time spent wandering in search of random
battle encounters to raise the player's experience level.
By March 2003, all versions of Final Fantasy have sold a
combined total of two million copies worldwide.

2.1.1

Gameplay

Final Fantasy has four basic game modes: an overworld


map, town and dungeon maps, a battle screen, and a menu
screen. The overworld map is a scaled-down version of
the game's ctional world, which the player uses to direct
characters to various locations. The primary means of
travel across the overworld is by foot, but a canoe, a ship,
and an airship become available as the player progresses.
With the exception of some battles in preset locations or
with bosses, enemies are randomly encountered on eld
maps and on the overworld map when traveling by foot,
canoe, or ship, and must either be fought or ed from.* [3]

The Light Warriors battle Lich, Fiend of Earth

Combat in Final Fantasy is menu-based: the player selects an action from a list of options such as Fight, Magic,
and Item. Battles are turn-based and continue until either side ees or is defeated. If the player's party wins,
each character gains experience and gold; if it ees, it
is returned to the map screen; and if every character in
the party dies, the game is over.* [3] Final Fantasy was
the rst game to show the player's characters on the right
The game's plot develops as the player progresses through side of the screen and the enemies on the left side of the
towns and dungeons. Some town citizens oer help- screen, as opposed to a rst-person view.* [4]
60

2.1. FINAL FANTASY (VIDEO GAME)


The player begins the game by choosing four characters
to form a party, and is locked into that choice for the duration of the game.* [5] Each character has anoccupation
, or character class, with dierent attributes and abilities
that are either innate or can be acquired.* [5] There are
six classes: Fighter, Thief, Black Belt, Red Mage, White
Mage, and Black Mage.* [5] Later in the game, the player
has the option to have each character undergo a class
upgrade"; whereby their sprite portraits mature, and some
classes gain the ability to use weapons and magic that they
previously could not use.* [3] The game contains a variety of weapons, armor, and items that can be bought or
found to make the characters more powerful in combat.
Each character has eight inventory slots, with four to hold
weapons and four to hold armor. Each character class has
restrictions on what weapons and armor it may use. Some
weapons and armor are magical; if used during combat,
they will cast spells. Other magical artifacts provide protection, such as from certain spells. At shops, the characters can buy items to help themselves recover while they
are traveling. Items available include potions, which heal
the characters or remove ailments like poison or petrication; Tents and Cabins, which can be used on the world
map to heal the player and optionally save the game; and
Houses, which also recovers the party's magic after saving. Special items may be gained by doing quests.* [3]
Magic is a common ability in the game, and several character classes use it. Spells are divided into two groups:
White, which is defensive and healing, and Black, which
is debilitating and destructive. Magic can be bought from
White and Black magic shops and assigned to characters
whose occupation allows them to use it. Spells are classied by a level between one and eight, with four White
and four Black spells per level. Each character may learn
only three spells per level. White and Black Mages can
potentially learn any of their respective spells, while Red
Mages, the Ninja and the Knight cannot use most highlevel magic.* [3]

2.1.2

Plot

Setting
Final Fantasy takes place in a fantasy world with three
large continents. The elemental powers on this world
are determined by the state of four orbs, each governing
one of the four classical elements: earth, re, water, and
wind. The world of Final Fantasy is inhabited by numerous races, including Humans, Elves, Dwarves, Mermaids,
Dragons, and Robots. Most non-Human races have only
onetownin the game, although individuals are sometimes found in Human towns or other areas as well. Four
hundred years prior to the start of the game, the Lefeinish people, who used the Power of Wind to craft airships
and a giant space station (called the Floating Castle in the
game), watched their country decline as the Wind Orb
went dark. Two hundred years later, violent storms sank a

61
massive shrine that served as the center of an ocean-based
civilization, and the Water Orb went dark. The Earth Orb
and the Fire Orb followed, plaguing the earth with raging
wildres, and devastating the agricultural town of Melmond as the plains and vegetation decayed. Some time
later, the sage Lukahn tells of a prophecy that four Light
Warriors will come to save the world in a time of darkness.

Story
The game begins with the appearance of the four youthful
Light Warriors, the heroes of the story, who each carry
one of the darkened Orbs. Initially, the Light Warriors
have access to the Kingdom of Coneria and the ruined
Temple of Fiends. After the Warriors rescue Princess
Sara from the evil knight Garland, the King of Coneria
builds a bridge that enables the Light Warriors' passage
east to the town of Pravoka. There the Light Warriors
liberate the town from Bikke and his band of pirates, and
acquire the pirates' ship for their own use. The Warriors
now embark on a chain of delivery quests on the shores
of the Aldi Sea. First they retrieve a stolen crown from
the Marsh Cave for a king in a ruined castle, who turns
out to be the dark elf Astos. Defeating him gains them
the Crystal, which they return to the blind witch Matoya
in exchange for a herb needed to awaken the Elf Prince
cursed by Astos. The Elf Prince gives the Light Warriors
the Mystic Key, which is capable of unlocking any door.
The key unlocks a storage room in Coneria Castle which
holds TNT. Nerrick, one of the Dwarves of the Cave of
Dwarf/Dwarf Village, destroys a small isthmus using the
TNT, connecting the Aldi Sea to the outside world.* [4]
After visiting the near-ruined town of Melmond, the
Light Warriors go to the Earth Cave to defeat a vampire
and retrieve the Star Ruby, which gains passage to Sage
Sarda's cave. With Sarda's Rod, the Warriors venture
deeper into the Earth Cave and destroy the Earth Fiend,
Lich. The Light Warriors then obtain a canoe and enter Gurgu Volcano and defeat the Fire Fiend, Kary. The
Floater from the nearby Ice Cave allows them to raise an
airship to reach the northern continents. After they prove
their courage by retrieving the Rat's Tail from the Castle
of Ordeal, the King of the Dragons, Bahamut, promotes
each Light Warrior. A kind gesture is repaid by a fairy,
receiving special liquid that produces oxygen, and the
Warriors use it to help defeat the Water Fiend, Kraken,
in the Sunken Shrine. They also recover a Slab, which allows a linguist named Dr. Unne to teach them the Lefeinish language. The Lefeinish give the Light Warriors access to the Floating Castle that Tiamat, the Wind Fiend,
has taken over.* [4] With the Four Fiends defeated and
the Orbs restored, a portal opens in the Temple of Fiends
which takes them 2000 years into the past. There the
Warriors discover that the Four Fiends sent Garland (now
the archdemon Chaos) back in time and he sent the Fiends
to the future to do so, creating a time loop by which he

62

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

could live forever.* [6] The Light Warriors defeat Chaos,


thus ending the paradox, and return home. By ending the
paradox, however, the Light Warriors have changed the
future to one where their heroic deeds remain unknown
outside of legend.* [4]

ada, based on a story by Sakaguchi.* [1]* [11] Ishii heavily


inuenced the game's setting with his idea of the crystals.* [8] He also suggested illustrator Yoshitaka Amano
as character designer, but Sakaguchi declined at rst as
he had never heard the artist's name before. When Sakaguchi showed Ishii some drawings on magazine clippings
and told him that this was the art style he was looking
2.1.3 Development
for, Ishii revealed to him that these were actually created by Amano, hence leading to his involvement in the
game.* [8] The music for Final Fantasy was composed
by Nobuo Uematsu and marked his 16th video game
music composition.* [4] Iranian-American programmer
Nasir Gebelli was hired to code the game. He initially
tried to understand all aspects of the gameplay but was
soon advised by Sakaguchi to just program the design
concepts so he did not have to explain everything to
Gebelli in detail.* [8] Among the other developers were
graphic designer Kazuko Shibuya, programmers Kiyoshi
Yoshii and Ken Narita, as well as debugger Hiroyuki
Ito.* [12]* [13]* [14]* [15]* [16] When the project started
to show promise, designer Hiromichi Tanaka and his
B-Teamjoined to aid development.* [8]* [10] The lack
Hironobu Sakaguchi thought that Final Fantasy would be his - of faith in Sakaguchi's team as well as its unpopularity
within the company motivated the sta members to give
nal game.
their best.* [10]
Hironobu Sakaguchi had intended to make a role-playing Sakaguchi took an in-development ROM of the game
game (RPG) for a long time, but his employer Square to Japanese magazine Famicom, but it would not review
refused to give him permission as it expected low sales it. Video game magazine Famitsu, however, gave the
of such a product.* [7] Moreover, only three of his col- game extensive coverage. Only 200,000 copies were to
leagues volunteered to join this project headed by him be shipped, but Sakaguchi pleaded with the company to
because he was thought of as a rough bossin spite of make 400,000 to help spawn a sequel, and the managehis unsuccessful creations.* [8] However, when the RPG ment agreed.* [10] Following the successful North AmerDragon Quest was released and proved to be a hit in ican localization of Dragon Quest, Nintendo of America
Japan, the company reconsidered its stance on the genre translated Final Fantasy into English and published it in
and approved Sakaguchi's vision of Fighting Fantasy, an North America in 1990. The North American version
RPG inspired by Ultima and Wizardry.* [7]* [8] The ti- of Final Fantasy met with modest success, partly due to
tle was later changed to Final Fantasy as the game was Nintendo's then-aggressive marketing tactics. No version
thought to be the company's nal project under the threat of the game was marketed in the PAL region until Final
of bankruptcy.* [9] Sakaguchi also explained that the new Fantasy Origins in 2003.* [17]
title stemmed from his personal situation: had the game
not sold well, he would have quit the games industry and
gone back to university.* [10]
Final Fantasy was developed by a team of seven core
sta members within Square referred to as the ATeam.* [10]* [11] Sakaguchi convinced fellow game designers Koichi Ishii and Akitoshi Kawazu to join the
project. Kawazu was mainly responsible for the battle
system and sequences, which he based heavily on the
tabletop game Dungeons & Dragons and the RPG Wizardry. For example, enemies' weaknesses to elements
such as re and ice had not been included in Japanese
RPGs up until that point. Kawazu had grown fond of
such aspects of Western RPGs and decided to incorporate them into Final Fantasy. He also advocated the
player's option to freely choose their own party member
classes at the beginning of the game as he feels the
fun in an RPG begins when you create a character.* [7]
The scenario was written by freelance writer Kenji Ter-

2.1.4 Versions and re-releases

Final Fantasy has been remade several times for dierent


platforms, and has frequently been packaged with Final
Fantasy II in various collections.* [4] While all of these
remakes retain the same basic story and battle mechanics,
various tweaks have been made in dierent areas, including graphics, sound, and specic game elements.
Final Fantasy was rst re-released for the MSX2 system and was published by Microcabin in Japan in June
1989.* [19] It had access to almost three times as much
storage space as the Famicom version, but suered from
problems not present in Nintendo's cartridge media, including noticeable loading times. There were also minor graphical upgrades, much improved music tracks and
sound eects.

2.1. FINAL FANTASY (VIDEO GAME)

63

Japan and North America in 2007,* [32] and in PAL territories in 2008.* [33] The PSP version features higherresolution 2D graphics, full motion video sequences, a
remixed soundtrack, and a new dungeon as well as the
The WonderSwan Color remake was released in Japan on bonus dungeons from Dawn of Souls. The script is the
December 9, 2000,* [19] and featured many new graphi- same as in* the Dawn of Souls version, aside from the new
cal changes. The 8-bit graphics of the original Famicom dungeon. [34]
game were updated, battle scenes incorporated full back- Square Enix released the original NES version of the
ground images, and character and enemy sprites were re- game on the Wii's Virtual Console service in Japan on
drawn to look more like the ones from the Super Fami- May 26, 2009,* [35] in North America on October 5,
com Final Fantasy games.* [21]
2009* [36] and in the PAL region as an import on May
*
In Japan, Final Fantasy and Final Fantasy II were re- 7, 2010. [37]

In 1994, Final Fantasy III, a compilation of Final Fantasy and Final Fantasy II, was launched for the Famicom.* [20] This version was only released in Japan and
had very few graphical updates.

released both separately and as a combined game for the


PlayStation. The collection was released in Japan in 2002
as Final Fantasy I & II Premium Package and in Europe and North America in 2003 as Final Fantasy Origins. This version was similar to the WonderSwan Color
remake* [22] and featured several changes such as more
detailed graphics, a remixed soundtrack, added full motion video sequences, art galleries of Yoshitaka Amano's
illustrations and a memo save function.* [23] On December 18, 2012 the port was re-released as part of the Final
Fantasy 25th Anniversary Ultimate Box release.* [24]

On February 25, 2010, Square Enix released the iOS version of Final Fantasy, based on the PSP port with touch
controls, worldwide.* [38] On June 13, 2012, Square Enix
released the Windows Phone version, which is based on
the iOS version.* [39]* [40] On July 27, 2012, Square Enix
released an Android port, largely based on the iOS version though lacking the new dungeons of the 20th anniversary edition.* [41]

2.1.5 Reception

Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls is, like Final Fantasy
Origins, a port of the rst two games in the series and
was released for the Game Boy Advance in 2004. The
Dawn of Souls version incorporates various new elements,
including four additional dungeons, an updated bestiary,
and a few tweaks.* [25]

Final Fantasy has been well received by critics and commercially successful; the original release sold 400,000
copies.* [10] As of March 31, 2003, the game, including all re-releases at the time, had shipped 1.99 million
copies worldwide, with 1.21 million of those copies being shipped in Japan and 780,000 abroad.* [48] As of
Square Enix released a version of Final Fantasy for November 19, 2007, the PlayStation Portable version has
two Japanese mobile phone networks in 2004; a version shipped 140,000 copies.* [49]
for NTT DoCoMo FOMA 900i series was launched in
Editors at IGN ranked Final Fantasy the 11th best game
March under the title Final Fantasy i* [26] and a subon the NES, calling the game's class system diverse, and
sequent release for CDMA 1X WIN-compatible phones
praising its convenient use of vehicles as a means of travwas launched in August.* [27] Another titular version was
eling across the world map.* [50] GamesRadar ranked it
released for SoftBank Yahoo! Keitai phones on July 3,
the eighth best NES game ever made. The sta felt that
2006.* [28] Graphically, the games are superior to the
while Dragon Warrior introduced gamers to the genre, Fioriginal 8-bit game, but not as advanced as many of the
nal Fantasy popularized it.* [51] In 2004, readers of Retro
more recent console and handheld ports.
Gamer voted Final Fantasy 93rd top retro game, with the
Square Enix planned to release this version for North sta noting that despite poor visuals and a relatively
American mobile phones in 2006,* [29] however, it was simple quest, many still consider the original to be the
2010 before it was released, in collaboration with Namco. best (with the exception of FFVII).* [52] In 2006, FiIt retains the game diculty and MP System from the nal Fantasy appeared in the Japanese magazine Famitsu 's
original Famicom version. Other elements such as up- Top 100 games list, where readers voted it the 63rd best
dated graphics, spell names, monster names, bosses, game of all time.* [53] GameFAQs users made a similar
items and areas are borrowed from the Game Boy Ad- list in 2005, which ranked Final Fantasy at 76th.* [54] It
vance / Wonderswan Color versions (however this version was rated the 49th best game made on a Nintendo system
does not feature additional areas and monsters present in in Nintendo Power 's Top 200 Games list.* [55] In 2008,
the GBA version). Game data is saved as in the origi- Nintendo Power ranked it the 19th best Nintendo Enternal Famicom version (by using Tent, Sleeping Bag and tainment System video game, praising it for setting up the
Cottage or by going into an inn). However there are now basics of console role-playing games, along with Dragon
three save game slots and a Temporary Saveoption Warrior, and citing examples such as epic stories, leveling
available in the game.* [30]
up, random battles, and character classes.* [56]
For the 20th anniversary of Final Fantasy, Square Enix Final Fantasy was one of the most inuential early conremade Final Fantasy and Final Fantasy II for the sole role-playing games, and played a major role in lePlayStation Portable.* [31] The games were released in gitimizing and popularizing the genre.* [57] According

64

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

to IGN's Matt Casamassina, Final Fantasy 's storyline


had a deeper and more engaging story than the original
Dragon Quest (known as Dragon Warrior in North America).* [58] Modern critics have pointed out that the game
is poorly paced by contemporary standards, and involves
much more time wandering in search of random battle encounters to raise their experience levels and money than it
does exploring and solving puzzles. Other reviewers nd
the level-building and exploration portions of the game
as the most amusing ones.* [23] In 1987, Famitsu initially
described the original Final Fantasy as one of many
that imitated the Dragon Quest formula.* [59] The game
is considered by some to be the weakest and most dicult
installment of the series.* [21]

quels on the PlayStation Portable: Dissidia Final Fantasy


and Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy. Warrior of Light, based
on Yoshitaka Amano's design of the lead character, and
Garland are the respective hero and villain representing
Final Fantasy. Warrior of Light is voiced by Toshihiko
Seki in the Japanese version and Grant George in the English version, while Garland is voiced by Kenji Utsumi in
the Japanese version and Christopher Sabat in the English
version.* [67] Both games add background information to
the world of Final Fantasy. For instance, Dissidia 012
Final Fantasy names the world of Final FantasyWorld
Ain order to distinguish it from World B, the world of
Dissidia.* [68]

The subsequent versions of Final Fantasy have garnered


2.1.7 See also
mostly favorable reviews from the media. Peer Schneider
of IGN enjoyed the WonderSwan Color version, praising
its graphical improvements, especially the environments, 2.1.8 References
characters, and monsters.* [21] Famitsu scored this version a 30 out of 40.* [60] Final Fantasy Origins was gen- [1] Interview with Hironobu Sakaguchi. Shkan Famitsu.
ASCII Corporation. 1998-06-05. Archived from the origerally well-received; GamePro said the music was faninal on 2011-02-06. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
tastic, and that the graphics had asuitably retro cute*
ness to them. [61] Reviews for Final Fantasy I & II: [2] " ". Sony. Sony. Retrieved
Dawn of Souls were generally positive, with Jeremy Dun2010-08-26.
ham of IGN giving particular praise to the improved English translation, saying it was better than any previous [3] Final Fantasy Explorer's Handbook (instruction manual).
Square. 1989. NES-FF-USA.
version of the game.* [62] The PlayStation Portable version was not as critically successful as the previous re[4] Final Fantasy Retrospective: Part I. GameTrailers.
leases; GameSpot's Kevin VanOrd cited the visuals as its
2007-07-15. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
strongest enhancement, but stated that the additional random enemy encounters and updated graphics did not add [5] Final Fantasy Explorer's Handbook (instruction manual).
much value.* [63] The Dawn of Souls package was rated
Square. 1989. p. 80. NES-FF-USA.
76th in Nintendo Power 's Top 200 Games list.* [55]

2.1.6

Legacy

[6] Square (1990-07-12).Final Fantasy. Nintendo Entertainment System. Nintendo. Garland: Remember me,
Garland? Your puny lot thought it had defeated me. But,
the Four FIENDS sent me back 2000 years into the past.
/ From here I sent the Four FIENDS to the future. The
FIENDS will send me back to here, and the Time-Loop
will go on. / After 2000 years, I will be forgotten, and the
Time-Loop will close. I will live forever, and you shall
meet doom!!

A soundtrack album was released together with the score


of Final Fantasy II in 1989.* [64] Some of the game's
tracks became mainstays to the Final Fantasy series:
the Prelude, the arpeggio played on the title screen;
the Opening Theme, which is played when the party
crosses the bridge early in the game and later referred to [7] Parish, Jeremy (2012-10-15). What's the Deal with
as the Final Fantasy theme; and theVictory Fanfare,
Square Enix's Akitoshi Kawazu?". 1UP.com. Retrieved
which is played after every victorious battle. The opening
2013-07-06.
motif of the battle theme has also been reused a number
of times in the series.* [4] The theme song that plays when [8] Giord, Kevin (2011-12-21). Hironobu Sakaguchi
on Final Fantasy I's Roller-Coaster Development.
the player characters rst cross the bridge from Coneria
1UP.com. Retrieved 2013-09-02.
has become the recurring theme music of the series, and
has been featured in most numbered Final Fantasy titles [9] Kohler, Chris (2009-07-23).Why's It Called 'Final Fanexcept Final Fantasy XIII. Final Fantasy was also the batasy'? Uematsu Explains. Wired. Retrieved 2013-09sis for the series nale of a video game-themed cartoon
02.
series Captain N: The Game Master entitled The Fractured Fantasy of Captain N.* [65] 8-Bit Theater, a sprite- [10] Fear, Ed (2007-12-13). Sakaguchi discusses the development of Final Fantasy. Develop. Intent Media.
based webcomic created by Brian Clevinger, parodies the
Retrieved 2008-10-16.
game, and has become very popular in the gaming com*
munity since it started in March 2001. [66]
The video game has spawned two direct cross-over pre-

[11] Square (1990-07-12).Final Fantasy. Nintendo Entertainment System. Nintendo. Scene: opening sta credits.

2.1. FINAL FANTASY (VIDEO GAME)

[12] Square (2003-04-08).


Final Fantasy Origins.
PlayStation. Square Enix U.S.A., Inc. Scene: Final Fantasy sta credits.
[13] Job. Creator's Voice: Final Fantasy III. Nintendo.
Archived from the original on 2006-08-31.
[14] Sato, Yoshi (2007-12-19). More Details on Final Fantasy IV's Sequel. 1UP.com. UGO Networks. Retrieved
2011-02-06.

65

[33]Final Fantasy Anniversary Edition for PSP. GameSpot.


Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[34] Masae, Nakamura (2007-04-23). Final Fantasy Preview. GameSpy. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
[35] VC " [VC Final Fantasy].
Nintendo. Retrieved 2009-10-05.

[36] Discover New Worlds, Hidden Words and the First Final
Fantasy". Nintendo of America. 2009-10-05. Retrieved
2009-10-05.
[15] Bozon, Mark (2009-01-13). Interview With a Legend
. IGN. IGN Entertainment, Inc. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
[37] Final Fantasy on Virtual Console
[16] Studio BentStu.
Final Fantasy IX Ultimania (in
Japanese). Square Enix. pp. 578582.

[38] Lanxon, Nate (2010-02-25).Final Fantasy now available


on iPhone. Wired. Retrieved 2010-02-25.

[17] Berardini, Csar A. (2006-04-26). An Introduction to


Square-Enix. TeamXbox. Retrieved 2008-10-16.

[39] Acevedo, Paul (2012-06-13). At last, Final Fantasy appears on the Windows Phone Marketplace. WPCentral.
Retrieved 2012-06-13.

[18] http://www.siliconera.com/2014/09/17/
final-fantasy-1-coming-nintendo-3ds-eshop-3d-support/ [40] Final Fantasy xBox Live Windows Phone Game.
BestWP7Games. 13 June 2012.
[19] Final Fantasy Tech Info. GameSpot. Retrieved 200812-23.
[41] Gray, Nick (2012-07-27). Final Fantasy for Android now Available on Google Play for $6.99. An[20] Final Fantasy I & II [pre-owned]". Play-Asia. Retrieved
droidandMe. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
2008-12-22.
[42] http://www.gamerankings.com/nes/
[21] Schneider, Peer (2001-02-12).Final Fantasy (Import)".
522595-final-fantasy/index.html
IGN. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[43] Final Fantasy. GameRankings. CBS Interactive. Re[22] Shoemaker, Brad (2003-04-08). Final Fantasy Origins
trieved 27 November 2012.
Review. GameSpot. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
[44] Final Fantasy. Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved
[23] Dunham, Jeremy (2003-04-15). Final Fantasy Origins
28 November 2012.
Review. IGN. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[45] Final Fantasy. Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved
[24] Gantayat, Anoop (August 31, 2012). Full Final Fantasy
28 November 2012.
25th Anniversary Ultimate Box Game List. Andriasang.
[46] Final Fantasy. Allgame. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved
Retrieved September 2, 2012.
28 November 2012.
[25] Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls Developer Interview. GameSpot. 2004-11-29. Retrieved 2008-12-22. [47] Final Fantasy. IGN. IGN Entertainment Games. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
[26] Tsukioka, Aki (2004-02-24). Square Enix to Launch
DoCoMo Sites for World-Famous Game Titles. Japan [48] Titles of game software with worldwide shipments exceeding 1 million copies. Square Enix. p. 27. Retrieved
Corporate News Network. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
2008-10-16.
[27] KDDI Announces Three New CDMA 1X WIN Models
[49] FY2007 First-Half Period Results Brieng Session.
. KDDI. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
Square Enix. 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2009-01-13.
[28] " for MOBILE (in
[50] 11. Final Fantasy Top 100 NES Games. IGN. ReJapanese). Square Enix. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
trieved 2010-03-22.
[29] Square Enix to Showcase All Encompassing Line-up at
[51] Best NES Games of all time. GamesRadar. 2012-04E3 2006. Square Enix. 2006-04-24. Retrieved 200816. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
10-16.
[52] Retro Gamer 8, page 60.
[30] Namco Games - Final Fantasy mobile. Namco. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
[53] Edge Sta (2006-03-03). Japan Votes on All Time Top
100. Edge. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[31] Lumb, Jonathan (2007-01-17). Final Fantasy Remakes
Coming to PSP. 1UP.com. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
[54] Fall 2005: 10-Year Anniversary Contest - The 10 Best
Games Ever. GameFAQs. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[32] Square Enix ships remastered edition of Final Fantasy
to retail. Square Enix. 2007-06-26. Retrieved 2008- [55] Michaud, Pete (January 2006).NP Top 200. Nintendo
10-16.
Power 199: 4243.

66

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

[56]Nintendo Power - The 20th Anniversary Issue!" (Magazine). Nintendo Power 231 (231). San Francisco: Future
US. August 2008. p. 71.
[57] Final Fantasy (Final Fantasy I)". IGN. Retrieved 200812-22.
[58] Casamassina, Matt (2005-07-19). State of the RPG:
GameCube. IGN. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[59] Fujii, Daiji (2003). Entrepreneurial Choices of Strategic Options in Japan's RPG Development (PDF). p.
14. Archived from the original on 2008-12-30. Retrieved
2006-08-12.

2.1.9 External links


Quotations related to Final Fantasy at Wikiquote
Final Fantasy guide at StrategyWiki

2.2 Final Fantasy II


For the North American release of the 1991 Super NES
game, see Final Fantasy IV.

Final Fantasy II (II Fainaru


Fantaj Ts) is a fantasy role-playing video game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) in 1988
Fox, Fennec (2003-04-07). Final Fantasy Origins. for Nintendo's Famicom as the second installment of the
GamePro. Archived from the original on 2008-09-18. Final Fantasy series. The game has received numerous
enhanced remakes for the WonderSwan Color, the Sony
Retrieved 2008-10-16.
PlayStation, the Game Boy Advance, the PlayStation
Dunham, Jeremy (2004-11-30). Final Fantasy I & II: Portable, and multiple mobile and smartphone types. As
Dawn of Souls. IGN. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
neither this game nor Final Fantasy III were initially released outside of Japan, Final Fantasy IV was originally
VanOrd, Kevin (2007-06-25). Final Fantasy Anniverreleased in North America as Final Fantasy II, so as not
sary Edition Review. GameSpot. Retrieved 2008-12to
confuse players. The most recent releases of the game
22.
are enhanced versions for the iOS and Android, which
Schweitzer, Ben; Gann, Patrick. All Sounds of Final was released worldwide in 2010 and 2012, respectively.

[60] - . Weekly
Famitsu. No.915 Pt.2. Pg.112. 30 June 2006.
[61]

[62]

[63]

[64]

Fantasy I - II. RPGFan. Retrieved 2008-07-09.

The game's story centers on four youths whose parents


[65] Final Fantasy Retrospective - Part X. GameTrailers. were killed during an army invasion by the empire of
Palamecia. Three of the four main characters join a re2007-09-25. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
bellion against the empire, embarking on missions to gain
[66] Maragos, Nich (2005-11-07). Will Strip For Games: new magic and weapons, destroy enemy superweapons,
Gaming Comics Online. 1UP.com. Retrieved 2008- and rescue leading members of the resistance. The Game
12-23.
Boy Advance remake adds a bonus story after the game
is completed.
[67] Niizumi, Hirohiko (2008-08-06). Dissidia: Final Fantasy Hands-On. GameSpot. Retrieved 2008-12-23.

Final Fantasy II introduced many elements that would


later become staples of the Final Fantasy franchise, in[68] Square Enix (March 22, 2011). Dissidia 012 Final Fan- cluding chocobos and the recurring character Cid. It also
tasy. PlayStation Portable. Square Enix. Report 7: eliminated the traditional experience point leveling sysWorld: A / Place: Town on the Hawk's Wing / Forgotten
tem of the previous and later games in the series, instead
Memories 07- So what you just told is all memory
introducing an activity-based progression system where
you have inherited?" / Yes. Memory succession is a dying
art. In order to preserve this memory for a longer time, I the characters' statistics increase according to how they
thought it best to leave it in writing. /Do you think there are used or acquired. Despite being a sequel to Final Fanis any relation between your memory and the Five Fiends tasy, the game includes no characters or locations from
wreaking havoc on our world now?" / That, I cannot say the rst game. Final Fantasy II received little attention
with any certainty. But there are curious similarities as at the time from non-Japanese reviewers, though its reto where things happened. / Where the rip in time-space makes have garnered favorable reviews.
occurred, and where the Four Fiends now dwell... The
scenery in both locations match with what remain in my
memory. /Thank you for sharing your story. It shall be
passed on as recorded./ Lukahn, please let me ask you
one question before we nish. The Warrior of Light, the
one you predicted would save the world from this calamity
with crystal in hand, is he really coming? / I am called
an oracle, but I am actually a historian./History must
always converge. I feel faint signs of it coming from the
distant worlds. / The Warrior of Light shall come indeed.
/ And he shall liberate this world... no, the people of this
world from the cycle of positivity.

2.2.1 Gameplay
Final Fantasy II features gameplay similar to that of its
predecessor, Final Fantasy. The player can freely roam
an overworld containing several towns and dungeons. A
menu-based system allows the player to outt each character with equipment and up to twooften disposable
items for battle. Magic spells are assigned to the character
from the item menu, and certain spells, such as Cure

2.2. FINAL FANTASY II


, can be used outside of battle.* [3] The player can also
save their progress on the overworld. Weapons, armor,
items, and magic spells can be purchased at shops, and
townspeople provide useful information for the player's
progression through the game. One new feature is the
Word Memorysystem: when in conversation with nonplayer characters (NPCs), the player canaskabout and
memorizespecial keywords or phrases, which can later
be repeated to other NPCs to gain more information or
unlock new actions. Similarly, there exist a handful of
special items that can be shown to NPCs during conversation or used on certain objects, which have the same effect.* [4] Characters and monsters are no longer separated
into separate windows in the battle screen as they were in
the rst Final Fantasy, and players can see their current
and total hit points below the battle. Players can also ght
with less than four characters in their party, which was not
possible in the rst game. Final Fantasy II introduced the
chocobo, the signature Final Fantasy mascot, which lets
characters ride to a location at great speed without being
attacked by enemies. The recurring character Cid was
also introduced in II; a character of the same name has
appeared in every main-series game since.* [5]

67
points (MP) increase with their use; a character who
takes a heavy amount of damage in a battle might earn
an increase in maximum HP, while a character who
uses a lot of MP during battle might increase their
maximum MP.* [6] This experience system had several
unintended consequences that allowed characters to gain
much more experience than intended, such as players
having their characters attack each other and repeatedly
cast spells, thus causing their HP and abilities to grow
extensively.* [5] Final Fantasy II uses the same turnbased battle system seen in the original Final Fantasy,
with battle parties consisting of up to four characters at
a time. The game introduces a back rowin battle,
within which characters or enemies are immune to most
physical attacks, but can be harmed with bows and
magical attacks.* [3]

2.2.2 Plot
Characters

Yoshitaka Amano's artwork of the main characters Leon, Firion,


Maria, and Guy

The ill-fated opening battle in the Famicom version

On the overworld and within dungeons, random encounters with enemies can be fought to improve each
character's attributes.* [6] Unlike the original Final
Fantasy, players could not upgrade their characters'
classes. The game is also one of the few games in the
series to not use experience-based levels. Instead, each
character participating in battle develops depending
on what actions they take. For instance, characters
who frequently use a particular type of weapon will
become more adept at wielding a weapon of that type,
and will also increase in physical strength and accuracy.
Attributes include hit points, magic points, magic power,
stamina, strength, spirit, agility, intelligence, and evasion.
Players can also increase their ability to wield certain
types of weapon, and repeated use in combat causes the
ability to level up.* [5]* [6] Hit points (HP) and magic

Final Fantasy II features four playable characters as well


as several secondary characters who are only briey controlled by the player. Primary characters include Firion
( Furionru, Frionielin the Japanese
release), a resident of the country of Fynn and the main
hero; Maria ( ), a soft-spoken archer and dedicated enemy of the Empire; Guy ( Gai, Gus
in the remake for the PlayStation), a simple monk who
communicates with animals; and Leon (
Reonharuto, Leonhartin the Japanese release),
a conicted dark knight who is missing for most of the
game.* [5]* [7] Five playable characters temporarily join
the party to assist Firion, Maria, and Guy in their missions
for the rebellion. These are Gordon ( Gdon),
the prince of Kas'ion and a member of the rebellion; Josef
( Yzefu), a villager in the town of Salamand;
Leila ( Reira,Reilain the Japanese release), a
pirate; Minwu ( Min'u, Minduin the PlayStation remake and Ming-Wuin the Japanese release),
who is a White Mage with the rebellion, and Ricard Highwind ( Richdo Haiuindo,

68

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

Garethin the PlayStation remake and Richardin Hilda on board is captured by the Dreadnought. When
the Japanese release), who is the rst dragoon to appear the Dreadnought lands to stock up on supplies, the party
in the series.* [5]
rescues Hilda and throws the Sunre into the airship's enWhile Final Fantasy was mostly focused on gameplay, gine. Before escaping from the explosion, the party enHironobu Sakaguchi decided for the second installment counters a dark knight whom Maria thinks she recognizes
to put more emphasis on character development. Care as Leon.
was taken to make the characters feel like real human beings, able to experience various emotions that the player
could similarly feel, such as sadness or happiness.* [8] Final Fantasy II also had playable characters die as part of
the normal storyline. Music composer Nobuo Uematsu
was initially opposed to the creation of these death scenes,
but eventually agreed with Sakaguchi's ideas. In terms of
gameplay, once a guest character would die in a scripted
event, the player would have no means to revive them or
recover their equipment and weapons.* [8]
Firion and the Emperor of Palamecia (
Paramekia Ktei) (named Mateus ( Matiusu)
in Kenji Terada's novelization of the game) are the respective hero and villain representing Final Fantasy II in
Dissidia Final Fantasy, a ghting game featuring characters from across the series. Firion is voiced by Hikaru
Midorikawa in the Japanese version and by Johnny Yong
Bosch in the English version; Mateus is voiced by Kenyu
Horiuchi in the Japanese version and Christopher Corey
Smith in the English version. In the PlayStation's opening FMV of Final Fantasy II, Firion is also voiced by
Yukimasa Obi, while Maria is played by Noriko Shitaya, Guy by Kenta Miyake, and Leon by Takayuki Yamaguchi.

On his deathbed, the King of Fynn tasks the party to seek


the help of the seemingly extinct dragoons of Deist. In
Deist, the party nds only a mother with her son, learning that all but one of the Dragoons are dead, partly as
a result of Imperial poison. After placing an egg of the
last wyvern in a cavern, the party returns to Altair and
rescues Hilda from the Empire a second time, before successfully reclaiming Fynn from the Imperial forces. They
then travel west in search of a powerful magic item, joining forces with the last surviving dragoon on the way. The
party returns to Fynn and sees that many towns have been
destroyed by a cyclone summoned by the Emperor. The
party calls upon the newly born last wyvern to take them
to a castle inside the cyclone, where they confront and
kill the Emperor. Back at Fynn, everyone celebrates the
Empire's defeat, but a mortally wounded Fynn soldier arrives and reveals that Leon has taken the throne and plans
to destroy the Rebels with the Imperial army.

The party enters the castle of Palamecia and confronts


Leon. However, the Emperor reappears in the throne
room in a new demonic form, revealing he has returned
from Hell with the intention of destroying the entire
world. The party and Leon escape Palamecia Castle with
the wyvern, as the castle is replaced with the palace of
Hell, Pandaemonium. Leon agrees to help the group seal
the Emperor away. The party travels to the Jade Passage,
an underground passage to the underworld, and nds the
Story
portal to Pandaemonium, where they nally defeat the
Final Fantasy II begins as Firion, Maria, Guy and Leon Emperor.
are attacked by Palamecian Black Knight soldiers and left The Dawn of Souls remake of the game for the Game Boy
for dead. Firion, Maria, and Guy are rescued by Princess Advance includes an additional mission that takes place
Hilda, who has established a rebel base in the town of Al- after the game, called Soul of Rebirth. The story
tair after her kingdom of Fynn was invaded by the Em- of the bonus mission follows several characters who died
peror. Hilda denies their request to join the rebel army during the story of the game as they travel through alterbecause they are too young and inexperienced. The three nate versions of several locations in the game and defeat
set o for Fynn in search of Leon; there they nd a dy- another version of the Emperor.
ing Prince Scott of Kashuan, Hilda's anc, who informs
them that a former knight of Fynn, Borghen, betrayed
the rebellion and became a General in the Imperial army. 2.2.3 Development
The party returns to Altair to inform Hilda. She allows
the group to join the rebellion and asks them to jour- During the development of the rst installment in the
ney north to nd mythril, a metal which could be used series, Square's management decided to manufacture
to create powerful weapons. The party makes its way 400,000 copies of the game to make a sequel possinorth to the occupied village of Salamand, saves the vil- ble.* [9] As there were no concrete ideas for Final Fantasy
lagers forced to work in the nearby mines, and retrieves II from the start, it was eventually taken in a new directhe mythril.
tion and included none of the previous game's characters
For their next mission, the party is sent to the city of Bafsk
to prevent the construction of a large airship known as
the Dreadnought; however, it takes o just as they arrive.
After retrieving the Sunre, a weapon which can blow up
the Dreadnought, they watch helplessly as an airship with

or locations.* [5]* [9] Hironobu Sakaguchi, who had previously served as the main planner for Final Fantasy, assumed the role of director to accommodate for the larger
development team.* [1] Using the experience gained from
the rst installment, which focused more on tting story

2.2. FINAL FANTASY II


ideas into their new gameplay system and game world,
the developers fully crafted the story of Final Fantasy
II rst. The gameplay was then built around the narrative.* [10] The experience system was designed to be a
more realistic advancement system than that of the rst
game. Several members of the original sta from the rst
game reprised their jobs for Final Fantasy II. Sakaguchi
again created the plot for the title, with the actual scenario written by Kenji Terada.* [1]* [11] Nobuo Uematsu
composed the music, as he had for the rst game, while
Yoshitaka Amano was again the concept artist.* [5] As
with the original, Final Fantasy II was programmed by
Nasir Gebelli.* [12] Midway through the development of
the game, Gebelli was forced to return to Sacramento,
California from Japan due to an expired work visa. The
rest of the development sta followed him to Sacramento
with necessary materials and equipment and nished production of the game there.* [13] The game was released
one day less than a year after the rst game came out.* [5]
In April 1989, the game was novelized by its original scenario writer Kenji Terada under the title Final Fantasy II:
Muma no Meiky (lit. The Labyrinth of Nightmares
). It was published in Japan exclusively by Kadokawa
Shoten.* [14]

2.2.4

Music

The music for Final Fantasy II was later arranged by


Tsuyoshi Sekito for the WonderSwan Color, PlayStation,
and Game Boy Advance remakes. Although the two
soundtracks were composed separately, the soundtrack to
II has only been released as a combined album with the
soundtrack to Final Fantasy I. They were rst released as
All Sounds of Final Fantasy III in 1989, which was then
republished in 1994.* [15] An arranged album of music
from the two soundtracks titled Symphonic Suite Final
Fantasy was also released in 1989, while Final Fantasy &
Final Fantasy II Original Soundtrack, a combined soundtrack album for the PlayStation versions of the games,
was released in 2002 and re-released in 2004.* [16]* [17]
The music of Final Fantasy II has also appeared in various ocial concerts and live albums, such as 20020220
music from Final Fantasy, a live recording of an orchestra performing music from the series including several
pieces from the games.* [18] Additionally, several songs
from the game were performed as part of a medley by
the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra for the Distant Worlds - Music from Final Fantasy concert tour,* [19]
while a dierent medley of songs from the game were
performed by the New Japan Philharmonic Orchestra in
the Tour de Japon: Music from Final Fantasy concert series.* [20]

2.2.5

Versions and re-releases

69
Unreleased English version
Following the successful North American release of the
original Final Fantasy by Nintendo in 1990, Square Soft,
Square's North American subsidiary, began work on an
English language localization of Final Fantasy II, to be
called Final Fantasy II: Dark Shadow Over Palakia. Assigned to the project was Kaoru Moriyama, whose later
work included script translations for Final Fantasy IV and
Secret of Mana (known as Seiken Densetsu 2 in Japan).
Although a beta version was produced, and the game was
advertised in several Square Soft trade publications, the
long development time, the age of the original Japanese
game and the arrival of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, the NES's successor console, led Square
Soft to cancel work on the Final Fantasy II localization
in favor of the recently released Final Fantasy IV (which,
to avoid confusing North American players, was retitled
Final Fantasy II to reect the jump in releases).* [5]* [21]
Although a prototype cartridge of the NES Final Fantasy II was produced (with the subtitle Dark Shadow over
Palakia), the project was, by Moriyama's own admission,
still far from complete;We had so very limited memory
capacity we could use for each game, and it was never really translatingbut chopping up the information and
cramming them back in... [Additionally] our boss had
no understanding in putting in extra work for the English
version at that time.* [21] In 2003, when the game was
nally released to English-speaking audiences as part of
Final Fantasy Origins, it was released with a brand new
translation under the supervision of Akira Kashiwagi. A
fan translation of the game was also created prior to the
release of Origins, and makes use of an original translation as the existence of the prototype cartridge was not
common knowledge at the time.* [21]
Re-releases
In addition to its original Famicom release, Final Fantasy
II was re-released on the WonderSwan Color in 2001,
and both singularly and as part of a collection with Final Fantasy I for the PlayStation in 2002. It was released
on the Game Boy Advance in 2004 as part of Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls, on the PlayStation Portable in
2007, and for the Japanese Wii Virtual Console on June
16, 2009.* [22]
The Final Fantasy III collection included the original
game with only minor changes. The WonderSwan Color
remake of the game was rst released on May 3, 2001,
and later included as a bundle with a special Final Fantasy II edition of the console.* [23] It included completely
redone graphics in the manner of the 16-bit generation Final Fantasy games and includes larger character sprites,
remixed music by Tsuyoshi Sekito, and full graphical
backgrounds in battle mode.* [24] The PlayStation version featured even more graphical updates over the WonderSwan version, and the soundtrack was again remixed

70

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

by Tsuyoshi Sekito to a higher quality so as to utilise the


audio capabilities of the PlayStation. Sekito also composed a few new tracks to be used in the new cutscenes.
It was published both individually (in Japan only) and
alongside Final Fantasy I in a collection entitled Final
Fantasy Origins (or Final Fantasy I+II Premium Collection in Japan); this was the rst release of the game outside of Japan.* [25] On December 18, 2012 the port was
re-released as part of the Final Fantasy 25th Anniversary
Ultimate Box package.* [26]

A typical battle scene from the Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of
Souls remake

Final Fantasy II was again released in a new format in


2004 for the Game Boy Advance as part of Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls. The primary change for
this version was the addition of a bonus storyline entitled Soul of Rebirth accessible to the player after completing the game.* [27] In 2004 and 2006, Square Enix
released a version of Final Fantasy II for three Japanese
mobile phone networks.* [28] To celebrate the Final Fantasy series' 20th anniversary, the game was released in
Japan for the PlayStation Portable in 2007.* [29] The
remake features improved graphics, the cutscenes and
soundtrack from Final Fantasy Origins, and the bonus
quest and dungeons from Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of
Souls. It additionally includes two new dungeons in which
more character-specic equipment can be found, alongside powerful enemies and a new boss.* [30] The release
for the Japanese Virtual Console on June 16, 2009 for the
Wii, December 11, 2013 for the Wii U and on February
12, 2014 for the Nintendo 3DS is identical to the original Famicom release, incorporating none of the updates
of the later versions.* [22] On February 25, 2010, Square
Enix released a port of the PSP version modied with
touchscreen controls for the iOS platform.* [31] Following this, a touchscreen port was brought to Android in
2012 through the Google Play store.* [32]

and 200,000 abroad.* [33] Despite having only been released in June of that year, as of September 2007 the
PlayStation Portable version had shipped 90,000 copies in
Japan and 70,000 in North America.* [34] Despite these
high sales, the game had sold the least copies of any of
the rst ten main Final Fantasy series.* [33]
The game's re-releases have been more heavily reviewed.
Famitsu magazine scored the WonderSwan version of the
game a 30 out of 40,* [35] and GameSpot noted the Dawn
of Souls ' mostly outdated graphics but praised its length
and bonus content.* [36] IGN noted the great improvement in the translation of the story over Final Fantasy I
and the addition of later Final Fantasy features, such as
being able to save anywhere in the overworld map without a tent or cabin.* [37] The Dawn of Souls release was
named the IGN Game Boy Game of the Monthfor
March 2004, and the package was rated 76th in Nintendo
Power 's Top 200 Games list.* [38]* [39] The dialogue system was thought to be time consuming and stilted, but was
still a milestone for interactivity. The story was considered to be much more involved and deep than the rst
Final Fantasy, as it involved romance and the death of
characters. The game's plot was thought by some reviewers to mirror elements of Star Wars: A New Hope in its
use of an orphan joining a rebellion against an empire
that was building a massive ship, with a captive princess
inside.* [5] GameSpy praised the addition of the ability
to save the game at any time, calling the feature crucial
for a game on a handheld game console, and in contrast
to GameSpot, praised the graphics, saying that while they
were primitive, they werewell-suitedto the Game Boy
Advance.* [40]
The PSP version was met with average reviews.
GameSpot called the level up systemchaoticand noted
that unlike previous versions, this was shipped without a
version of Final Fantasy I. IGN also complained about
the gameplay, saying, If you're the type of player who
puts a higher emphasis on more satisfying gameplay experiences [...] then FF2 denitely isn't the upgrade it
appears to be.Both sources praised the graphics, however.* [41]* [42] GameSpy, however, while echoing similar complaints about thequirky and sometimes confusingleveling system and praises for the graphics, also applauded the supposed decrease in diculty of the game,
which in the reviewers' opinion eliminated the necessity
to abuse the leveling system in order to progress in the
game as the player had to do in the original game.* [43]

2.2.7 See also


2.2.8 References

2.2.6

Reception

As of March 31, 2003, the game, including all re-releases


at the time, had shipped 1.28 million copies worldwide,
with 1.08 million of those copies being shipped in Japan

[1] Interview with Hironobu Sakaguchi. Shkan Famitsu.


ASCII (company). 1998-06-05. Archived from the original on 2011-02-06. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
[2] " II. Sony. Sony. Retrieved

2.2. FINAL FANTASY II

2010-08-26.
[3] Final Fantasy Origins instruction manual. Square Enix.
2003. p. 17. SLUS-05141.
[4] Final Fantasy Origins instruction manual. Square Enix.
2003. pp. 15, 22. SLUS-05141.
[5] Final Fantasy Retrospective: Part II. GameTrailers.
2007-07-23. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
[6] Final Fantasy Origins instruction manual. Square Enix.
2003. p. 22. SLUS-05141.

71

[22] VC II (in Japanese).


Nintendo. Retrieved 30 November 2009.
[23] Wonderswan Gamer (2006-01-19). Final Fantasy II
Boxset. Wonderswan Gaming. Retrieved 2006-09-04.
[24] fastbill1. Final Fantasy II. PortableReview.com.
Archived from the original on 2007-12-25. Retrieved
2006-09-04.
[25] Triche, Stephen (2002). Final Fantasy Origins.
gamevortex.com. Retrieved 2006-03-08.

[7] Final Fantasy Origins instruction manual. Square Enix.


2003. p. 15. SLUS-05141.

[26] Gantayat, Anoop (August 31, 2012). Full Final Fantasy


25th Anniversary Ultimate Box Game List. Andriasang.
Retrieved September 2, 2012.

[8] DeWoody, Lucas (2005-08-12). The Fantasy BeginsHistory of Square Vol. 2. Advanced Media Network.
Advanced Media. p. 2. Retrieved 2007-07-07.

[27] Gantayat, Anoop (2004-07-02). Final Fantasy Pushed


Back. IGN. Retrieved 2006-09-03.

[9] Fear, Ed (2007-12-13). Sakaguchi discusses the development of Final Fantasy. Develop. Intent Media.
Retrieved 2008-10-16.

[28] Final Fantasy mobile. Square Enix. Retrieved 200703-20.

[13] Mielke, James; Hironobu Sakaguchi. EGM (232). [...]


So for Final Fantasy II and III, our sta actually brought
all the equipment, everything that was necessary to nish
those games, to Sacramento, because (Gebelli) couldn't
come back to Japan. [...] We nished Final Fantasy II
and III in Sacramento, California. [Laughs]

[33] Titles of game software with worldwide shipments exceeding 1 million copies. Square Enix. 2004-02-09. p.
27. Retrieved 2008-03-01.

[14] Yahoo! Japan sta (N/A). "


2 ". Yahoo! Japan: Books. Retrieved 201001-12. Check date values in: |date= (help)

[35] - II.
Weekly Famitsu. No.915 Pt.2. Pg.112. 30 June 2006.

[29] Final Fantasy for PSP. Famitsu. Retrieved 2007-0320.


[10] Kent, Steven (2001).The Mainstream and All Its Perils
. Ultimate History of Video Games. Three Rivers Press.
[30] Square-Enix to remake FF I and II for anniversary.
pp. 541542. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
IGN. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
[11] Square (1988-12-17). Final Fantasy II. Famicom.
[31] Lanxon, Nate (2010-02-25).Final Fantasy now available
Square Co., Ltd. Scene: sta credits.
on iPhone. Wired. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
[12] Lau, John (2005-01-22).The Secret of Nasir. University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 2007-07-16. [32] https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.
square_enix.android_googleplay.finalfantasy2
Retrieved 2008-07-14.

[15] Gann, Patrick; Schweitzer, Ben. All Sounds of Final


Fantasy I - II. RPGFan. Retrieved 2008-07-09.
[16] Gann, Patrick.Final Fantasy Symphonic Suite. RPGFan. Retrieved 2008-07-09.
[17] Final Fantasy I II Original Soundtrack. RPGFan.
Retrieved 2008-09-14.
[18] 20020220 - Music from FINAL FANTASY. RPGFan.
Retrieved 2007-04-01.
[19] Distant Worlds - Music from Final Fantasy - Album Information. Square Enix Music Online. Retrieved 200802-22.
[20] Album Information - Tour de Japon: Music from Final
Fantasy DVD. Square Enix Music Online. Retrieved
2008-02-22.
[21] Collette, Chris.
Spotlight: Final Fantasy II.
LostLevels.org. Retrieved 2006-08-25.

[34] FY2007 First-Half Period Results Brieng Session.


Square-Enix.com. 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2009-01-13.

[36] Massimilla, Bethany (2004-11-29). Final Fantasy 1 &


2:Dawn of Souls. GameSpot. Retrieved 2006-08-31.
[37] Dunham, Jeremy (2004-11-30). Final Fantasy I & II:
Dawn of Souls. IGN. Retrieved 2006-08-31.
[38] IGN Sta (2004-11-30). GBA Game of the Month:
November 2004. IGN. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
[39] Michaud, Pete (January 2006).NP Top 200. Nintendo
Power 199: 4243.
[40] Vassar, Darryl (2004-12-01).Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn
of Souls. GameSpy. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
[41] VanOrd, Kevin (2007-08-03).Final Fantasy II Review
. GameSpot. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
[42] Dunham, Jeremy (2007-07-26). Final Fantasy II Review. IGN. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
[43] Graziani, Gabe (2007-07-26). Final Fantasy II.
GameSpy. Retrieved 2009-12-02.

72

2.2.9

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

External links

Quotations related to Final Fantasy II at Wikiquote

2.3 Final Fantasy III


For the North American release of the 1994 SNES
game, see Final Fantasy VI.
Final Fantasy III ( III
Fainaru Fantaj Sur ) is a role-playing video game developed and published by Square in 1990 for the Famicom
as the third installment in the Final Fantasy series. It is
the rst numbered Final Fantasy game to feature the jobchange system.
The battle screen, showing the party battling three monsters. Like
The story revolves around four orphaned youths drawn
to a crystal of light. The crystal grants them some of its
power, and instructs them to go forth and restore balance
to the world. Not knowing what to make of the crystal's
pronouncements, but nonetheless recognizing the importance of its words, the four inform their adoptive families
of their mission and set out to explore and bring back balance to the world.
The game was originally released in Japan on April 27,
1990. It had never been released outside of Japan until a remake was released on the Nintendo DS on August 24, 2006. At that time, it was the only Final Fantasy game not previously released in North America or
Europe.* [14] There had been earlier plans to remake the
game for Bandai's WonderSwan Color handheld, as had
been done with the rst, second, and fourth installments
of the series, but the game faced several delays and was
eventually canceled after the premature cancellation of
the platform. The Nintendo DS version of the game was
positively received internationally, selling over one million copies in Japan.
It was also released for the many other systems: the
Japanese Virtual Console version (Famicom version) on
July 21, 2009 (Wii) and January 8, 2014 (Wii U), an iOS
port of the Nintendo DS remake on March 24, 2011,
an Android version on March 12, 2012, a PlayStation
Portable version on late September 2012 (Downloadable
only version outside of Japan via PlayStation Network)
and Android-based Ouya console on April 2013.

2.3.1

Gameplay

The gameplay of Final Fantasy III combines elements of


the rst two Final Fantasy games with new features. The
turn-based combat system remains in place from the rst
two games, but hit points are now shown above the target
following attacks or healing actions, rather than captioned
as in the previous two games. Auto-targeting for physical
attacks after a friendly or enemy unit is killed is also fea-

earlier games in the series, Final Fantasy III displays battle messages in text windows, such as theMissdisplayed in the central
box. Like later games in the series, animated messages or symbols
are also shown on the character in question.

tured for the rst time. Unlike subsequent games in the


series, magical attacks are not auto-targeted in the same
fashion.* [15]
The experience point system featured in Final Fantasy
makes a return following its absence from Final Fantasy
II. The character class system featured in the rst game
also reappears, with some modications. Whereas in the
original game the player chooses each character's class
alignment at the start of the game and is then locked
into that class for the duration of the game, Final Fantasy III introduces thejob systemfor which the series
would later become famous. Jobs are presented as interchangeable classes: in the Famicom version of the game,
all four characters begin as "Onion Knights", with a variety of additional jobs becoming available as the game
progresses. Any playable character has access to every
currently available job and can change from job to job
at will.* [16] Switching jobs consumescapacity points
which are awarded to the entire party following every battle, much like gil. Dierent weapons, armor and accessories, and magic spells are utilized by each job. A character's level of prociency at a particular job increases
the longer the character remains with that job. Higher
job levels increase the battle statistics of the character
and reduce the cost in capacity points to switch to that
job.* [15]
Final Fantasy III is the rst game in the series to feature
special battle commands such as Stealor Jump,
each of which is associated with a particular job (Steal
is the Thief's specialty, whilst Jumpis the Dragoon's
forte). Certain jobs also feature innate, non-battle abilities, such as the Thief's ability to open passages that would
otherwise require a special key item.* [17] Final Fantasy
III is also the rst game in the series to feature summoned
creatures, which are called forth with the Summon

2.3. FINAL FANTASY III

73

skill.* [16]

they defeat the Cloud of Darkness.

2.3.2

Story

Plot

Setting
One thousand years before the events in the game, on a
oating continent hovering high above the surface of an
unnamed planet, a technologically advanced civilization
sought to harness the power of the four elemental crystals
of light. They did not realize that they could not control such fundamental forces of nature. This power of
light would have consumed the world itself had the light
crystals not had their natural counterparts: the four dark
elemental crystals. Disturbed by the sudden interruption
of the careful balance between light and dark, four warriors were granted the power of the dark crystals to recapture the power of the light crystals. These so-called Dark
Warriors succeeded in their quest, and restored harmony
to the world. But their victory came too late to save the
doomed civilization, whose culture was reduced to ruin,
though their oating continent remained. On that continent, the circle of Gulgans, a race of blind soothsayers
and fortune-tellers, predicted that these events will ultimately repeat.* [18]
Characters

An earthquake opens up a previously hidden cavern in Altar Cave near the village of Ur on the oating continent.
Four young orphans under the care of Topapa, the village
elder, explore the earthquake's impact and come across a
crystal of light. The crystal grants them a portion of its
power, and instructs them to go forth and restore balance
to the world. Not knowing what to make of the crystal's
pronouncements, but nonetheless recognizing the importance of its words, the four inform their adoptive family
of their mission and set out to explore an overworld outside the area in which they were brought up, in order to
bring balance back to the world.* [18]
Their adventures lead them to discover that there lies a
whole world beyond the boundaries of the oating continent upon which they were living. In the world below,
they discover a warlock named Xande, one of three apprentices to the legendary Archmage Noah, is trying to
possess the crystals of light, so as to bring forth chaos and
disorder. The four warriors eventually arrive at the Crystal Tower where they discover that the Cloud of Darkness
is the source of the recent events. The Cloud attempts to
create a similar situation to the Flood of Light a millennia
earlier so that the world is pulled into the void. The Light
Warriors traverse into the domain of the dark crystals to
free the imprisoned Dark Warriors and defeat the Cloud
of Darkness, thereby restoring the crystals and balance to
the world. In the DS remake, there are also severalside
queststhat can also be completed.* [18]

Final Fantasy III focuses around four orphans from the remote village of Ur, each starting o as an Onion Knight in
the original game, but as Freelancers in the Nintendo DS
remake, which also individualized the party members,
giving them unique appearances (designed by Akihiko The story is virtually the same in the DS version, but with
Yoshida), backstories, personalities and names:
some major dierences in the introductory sequence:
Luneth ( Rnesu) who symbolizes courage, an Luneth goes to the Altar Cave alone, but while exploring
adventurous orphan boy raised in the village of Ur; Arc he trips and falls into a hole created by the earthquake. He
( Aruk) who symbolizes kindness, Luneth's is then beset by goblins, and while he is frantically searchchildhood best friend and a timid yet intelligent young ing for a way out, he comes upon the wind crystal. It tells
man; Rea () who symbolizes aection, a girl him that he has been chosen as a Warrior of Light, desraised in the village of Kazus who tires of her father's tined to restore balance to the world, and there are three
blacksmith training and often runs away from home; and others like him, but before Luneth can ask it to elaborate,
Ingus ( Ingusu) who symbolizes determination, he is teleported to the surface. He returns to Ur, but Elder
a loyal soldier serving the King of Sasune, with a (mutual) Topapa does not elucidate much on the matter. Going to
a corner of town, Luneth nds his friend Arc being bulsoft spot for the princess Sara.* [19]
Xande ( Zande) is the antagonist the party seeks lied by some of the kids. When Luneth intervenes, Arc
to stop for most of the game, though he is eventually re- runs away, heading for the village of Kazus.
vealed to merely be a pawn of the Cloud of Darkness (
Kurayami no Kumo): a malevolent and vicious
deity who wishes to push the world into a state of chaos
and destruction by upsetting the balance between light
and darkness, allowing the Void to consume the world.
Appearing in a female-like form, the Cloud of Darkness
refers to herself in rst-person plural because her two tentacles have minds of their own. Although she initially defeats the Light Warriors, they are resurrected with Unei
and Doga's help, and, with help from the Dark Warriors,

Luneth chases Arc to Kazus and, upon reuniting with Arc,


discovers that the rumors of a curse on Kazus are not
false. The people there are see-through, and one such person, Cid of Canaan, instructs the two boys to take his airship and look for Rea, the mythril smith Takka's adoptive daughter. They nd her on the airship, and accompany her to Castle Sasune as per her suggestion. There,
they meet Ingus, a soldier of Sasune who has somehow
escaped the curse. He joins the trio after an audience
with the king, who instructs them to nd his daughter,

74

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

Sara. They catch up to her in the Sealed Cave, and with


her, battle the monster who cast the curse: the Djinn. Just
as Sara seals the Djinn away, however, Luneth, Arc, Rea and Ingus all disappear before her eyes. As it transpires, the wind crystal had summoned the four youths
in order to grant them a portion of its power. After this,
Luneth's party reunites with Sara at Castle Sasune. She
completes the process of dispelling the Djinn's curse, but
becomes depressed when Luneth reveals that he and his
companions must leave at once. After Sara stops crying long enough to see them o, they go back to Kazus,
where Takka drags Rea home. The three boys consult
with Cid, and then Takka, who builds a mythril ram on
the ship. It should be noted that Rea is not with him
when he returns, and when the party once more nds her
aboard Cid's airship, the player would be able to piece together why: she had told Takka that she is a Warrior of
Light like the boys, and therefore has to leave. The new
introductory sequence ends with the airship being used to
demolish the boulder in Nelv Valley.

2.3.3

Development

Director and story writer Hironobu Sakaguchi, designer Hiromichi Tanaka, character designer Yoshitaka
Amano, scenario writer Kenji Terada, and music composer Nobuo Uematsu returned from the two previous Final Fantasy games to contribute to the development of Final Fantasy III.* [2]* [20] As with the previous two installments of the series, Final Fantasy III was programmed
for the Famicom by Nasir Gebelli. It was the last original
Final Fantasy title on which Gebelli worked.* [21] Midway through the development of the game, Gebelli was
forced to return to Sacramento, California from Japan
due to an expired work visa. The rest of the development sta followed him to Sacramento with necessary
materials and equipment and nished production of the
game there.* [22] At 512k, the completed game was one
of the largest ever released for the Famicom/NES.* [23]
Like many console role-playing games of the era, Final
Fantasy III is noted for its diculty.* [23]
Square developed and released Final Fantasy III during
the same period that Nintendo released its 16-bit Super
Famicom console, intended as the successor to the original 8-bit Famicom. Designer Hiromichi Tanaka said that
the original game was never released outside of Japan because Square was focused on developing for Nintendo's
new console.
Square planned to localize and release the game outside Japan, but the game's localization's plans were
scrapped.* [24]
Cancelled WonderSwan Color remake
Bandai unveiled their WonderSwan Color handheld system in 2000 and had immediately headed up a deal with

Square to release enhanced remakes of their rst three


Final Fantasy titles on the new console.* [25] Although
Final Fantasy and Final Fantasy II were both released
within a year of the announcement, Final Fantasy III was
ultimately delayed from its late 2001 release date, even
after Bandai picked up the game's publishing rights.* [26]
While a port of Final Fantasy IV was eventually released
for the WonderSwan Color, Square remained silent regarding Final Fantasy III. Although the game was never
formally cancelled, the ocial website was taken ofine once production of the WonderSwan Color consoles
ceased in 2002.* [27]
In 2007, Hiromichi Tanaka explained in an interview that
the WonderSwan Color remake had been abandoned because the size and structure of the coding of the original
Famicom game was too dicult to recreate on the WonderSwan Color:
3D remake
Following the failure to remake the game for the WonderSwan Color, and Square's merger with former competitor
Enix to form Square Enix in 2003, the company posted
assurance that the game's promised remake would not
be completely forgotten, and there was speculation that
it might nd its way to Sony's PlayStation or Nintendo's
Game Boy Advance as its predecessors had.* [28] Square
Enix considered porting the game to the PlayStation 2,
but was eventually convinced by Nintendo to develop the
title for their new handheld system, the Nintendo DS, a
decision that would later be positively reinforced by the
commercial success of the Nintendo DS.* [29] The Final
Fantasy III remake was rst announced on October 24,
2004, but detailed information did not emerge for a year.
Hiromichi Tanaka headed the project as both the executive producer and director. His guidance and supervision
were needed because the remake was not a mere graphical update as Final Fantasy and Final Fantasy II 's remakes were, but a total overhaul using the Nintendo DS's
3D capabilities. Along with 3D graphics, a full motion
video opening scene was produced for the game, similar
to those found in the ports of the 2D Final Fantasy games
for the PlayStation. Programming was handled by developer Matrix Software.* [1]
The remake was produced by Tomoya Asano and codeveloped by Square Enix and Matrix Software. Ryosuke
Aiba (Final Fantasy XI) served as art director, and
Akihiko Yoshida (Final Fantasy XII) redesigned the original characters for use in 3D, and designed the look of the
new playable characters.* [30] The formerly generic and
nameless party characters were replaced with more concrete characters with new personalities and background
stories, and additional scenes were added to develop their
individuality; however, the main storyline was not altered
signicantly.* [31] Along with these four, additional characters (calledsub-characters) also join the party temporarily, like in the original. Unlike the original, however,

2.3. FINAL FANTASY III

75
released on September 20, 2012 although it was to be a
downloadable only version outside of Japan where it was
released later that month. In April 2013, Square Enix
released a high-denition port of the remake for the Ouya
console, as a launch title.* [37] A Windows Phone version
was also released on December 27, 2013. Square Enix
also announced an HD release based on the Nintendo DS
version for Steam, which released on May 27, 2014.* [38]

2.3.4 Music
Main article: Music of Final Fantasy III
Hiromichi Tanaka and Tomoya Asano

these characters may randomly participate in battle.* [32]


The remake features a redesigned job system, which rebalances the classes, adds new abilities and adds a new
Freelancerclass which replaces the Onion Knight
as the default job at the beginning of the game (Onion
Knight is retained as a secret class). It also includes new
events, a new crystal and dungeon, and the removal of capacity points. Unlike the original Famicom version, most
of the jobs remain useful for the entire game. The ultimate jobsthe Ninja and the Sageand some of the
lesser-used jobs, like the Geomancer, were redesigned to
have the same level of abilities as the Warrior. Another
addition are special job-specic items available only if a
character has fully mastered a certain job.* [33]
In place of capacity points, each character incurs a small
temporary penalty for switching jobs. This penalty decreases the character's statistics for the next zero to ten
battles. This period is called a Job Transition Phase
and its length is based on how similar the new job is to
the old job, and how procient the character already is at
the new job.* [33]
The remake takes advantage of the Wi-Fi feature of the
Nintendo DS in the form of a Mail/Mognet system similar
to Final Fantasy IX. Various moogles in the game allow
the player to send email to others. Players are also able
to send mail to various characters in the game as well as
to other players.* [19] Side quests can also be unlocked
using this system, such as the quest to unlock the Onion
Knight.* [34] An interruption-save option is also available
that lets the player turn o the DS and continue when
turning it back on. Like in the original, there is no way to
make permanent saves while inside a dungeon.* [35]
An iOS port of the DS remake was released on March 24,
2011 on the App Store. Both the gameplay and graphics
were improved, and the sound was remastered. However,
the Mail/Mognet to other players was removed, with the
Onion Knight job available via another quest.* [36]* [36]

The music of the Final Fantasy III was composed by regular series composer Nobuo Uematsu. Final Fantasy III
Original Sound Version, a compilation album of almost
all of the music in the game, was released by Square/NTT
Publishing in 1991, and subsequently re-released by NTT
Publishing in 1994 and 2004.* [39] A vocal arrangement
album entitled Final Fantasy III Yky no Kaze Densetsu,
or literally Final Fantasy III Legend of the Eternal Wind,
contains a selection of musical tracks from the game, performed by Nobuo Uematsu and Dido, a duo composed of
Michiaki Kato and Shizuru Ohtaka. The album was released by Data M in 1990 and by Polystar in 1994.* [40]
Selected tracks the game were featured in various Final
Fantasy arranged music compilation albums, including Final Fantasy: Pray and Final Fantasy: Love
Will Grow (with lyrical renditions performed by singer
Risa Ohki),* [41]* [42] and the second and third albums
from Uematsu's progressive metal group, The Black
Mages.* [43]* [44] Several tracks from the game were subsequently remixed and featured in later Square or Square
Enix titles, including Chocobo Racing* [45] and Final
Fantasy Fables: Chocobo's Dungeon.* [46] Several pieces
from the soundtrack remain popular today, and have been
performed numerous times in Final Fantasy orchestral
concert series such as the Tour de Japon: Music from Final Fantasy concert series and the Distant Worlds - Music
from Final Fantasy series.* [47]* [48]
The score was arranged for the Nintendo DS remake by
Tsuyoshi Sekito and Keiji Kawamori, working under Uematsu's supervision.* [49] The soundtrack was released as
an album by NTT Publishing in 2006 as Final Fantasy
III Original Soundtrack, with revamped versions of the
tracks plus some additional tracks.* [50]

2.3.5 Reception

The Famicom version Final Fantasy III was considered a


typical RPG of its day, with a high degree of diculty
requiring a signicant amount of grinding.* [23] In 2006,
readers of the Japanese gaming magazine Famitsu voted
An Android port of the DS remake was released in June the original Final Fantasy III the eighth-best video game
2012 on Google Play. A PlayStation Portable version was of all-time.* [62] As of March 31, 2003, the game had

76

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

shipped 1.4 million copies in Japan.* [63]


The DS remake met with high sales. IGN notes thatinterest in FFIII should come as no surprise given...the popularity of the DS.* [64] The game sold 500,000 units
within the rst week in Japan, beating Square Enix's original prediction that they would only sell 350,000.* [65] As
of August 6, 2007, the game has sold 990,000 units in
Japan and 460,000 units in North America.* [66] As of
August 8, 2008, it has sold 480,000 units in Europe.* [67]
Reviews of the DS remake of Final Fantasy III have been
mostly positive, with the game holding an aggregate score
of 77% on GameRankings.* [51] 1UP.com described the
gameplay as an RPG for dedicated RPG enthusiasts,
and noted that while the job system had been heavily improved over the original title, it still felt at times very
limiting.The review however stated that it was important to remember Final Fantasy III as a slice of history and a missing piece of a blockbuster series,citing
that hardcore RPG playersmay enjoy the title more
than other Final Fantasy games and calling itone of the
best portable RPGs to date.* [53] GameSpy argued that
one's enjoyment hinged entirely on your desire to play
a game with decidedly archaic game mechanics that may
seem primitive and uninvitingcompared to other recent
Square Enix titles, noting the game wasquite challengingand adding that some people live for this stu,
but others may be annoyed at the game's often unfriendly
nature.* [58]
GameTrailers noted that while the plot was simple and the
party members generic, the game's scenarios were top
notch.It additionally noted that while players should expect to have to do some grinding, the game oers lots
of little areas to explore.* [51] IGN described the game
as one that may be amazingly frustrating for the now
mainstream Final Fantasy fan,and noted that while the
unique concept of the job system was one that simply blew gamers' mindsat the time, in the contemporary environment, comparing it to Final Fantasy XII 's
license board system was literally no contest.The review additionally argued that the remake hampered the
game, citing that battles that would takemere seconds to
scroll throughwere nowlengthened to nearly a minute.
Another complaint was in the game's presentation on the
Nintendo DS, noting that the handheld's top screen was
inactive for 75% of the game,and that even displaying only artwork on the screen during those periods would
have been a preferable outcome. However IGN described
the game asgraphically phenomenal and...set to a simply
beautiful musical score.They also stated that the transition from 2D to 3D was a good call.* [60]

2.3.6

Legacy

Fantasy III (
III Yky no Kaze Densetsu Fainaru Fantaj Suryori), a manga serialization of Final Fantasy III illustrated
by Yu Kinutani. Based on the original story by Kenji
Terada, the manga chronicles the events that take place
throughout the course of the game. It was subsequently
collected into three tankbon under Kadokawa Shoten's
Dragon Comics imprint: Legend of the Eternal Wind 1,
2, and 3.* [68]
The Onion Knight and the Cloud of Darkness are the respective hero and villainess representing Final Fantasy
III in Dissidia Final Fantasy, where they are voiced by
Jun Fukuyama and Masako Ikeda, respectively, in the
Japanese version, and by Aaron Spann and Laura Bailey,
respectively, in English.* [69] The characters reprise their
roles in the sequel, Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy.* [70]

2.3.7 See also


2.3.8 References
[1] Creator's Voice - Final Fantasy III (in Japanese).
Nintendo. 2006-08-10. Archived from the original on
2006-08-13. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
[2] Interview with Hironobu Sakaguchi. Shkan Famitsu.
ASCII Corporation. 1998-06-05. Archived from the original on 2011-02-06. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
[3] Final Fantasy III(in Japanese). Square Enix. Retrieved
2008-07-11.
[4] Spencer (2009-06-26). Final Fantasy III Heads To Virtual Console In July. Siliconera. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
[5]
" III
DS Lite ". Famitsu (in Japanese). 2006-0712. Retrieved 2007-10-26.
[6] Gantayat, Anoop (2006-08-24). FIII Mania in Japan.
IGN. Retrieved 2007-10-26.
[7] Final Fantasy III. Nintendo. 2007. Archived from
the original on 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2007-10-26.
[8] Final Fantasy III Conrmed for Australia. IGN. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
[9] Final Fantasy III for DS. GameSpot. Retrieved 201003-26.
[10] Final Fantasy III Now Available On iPhone/iPod Touch
. IGN. 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2012-07-03.
[11] FINAL FANTASY III - Android Apps on Google Play
. Google Play. Retrieved 2012-07-03.
[12] Moriarty, Colin (2012-06-12).Final Fantasy III Coming
to... PSP?!". IGN. Retrieved 2012-07-03.
[13] Ouya launching with Final Fantasy III. Gamespot.
Retrieved 2012-07-31.

From 1991 to 1992, Kadokawa Shoten's Famicom gaming magazine, Maru Katsu Famicom ( [14] Gantayat, Anoop (2004-10-07). Miyamoto Speaks to
Final Fantasy Producer. IGN. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
) published Legend of the Eternal Wind, from Final

2.3. FINAL FANTASY III

[15] Square Enix (1990). Final Fantasy III instruction manual.


[16] Roschin, Oleg; Vitaglione, Erik.Final Fantasy III. The
World of Final Fantasy. UGO.com Games. Retrieved
2008-07-11.
[17] Final Fantasy III Cheats. GameSpy. Retrieved 200807-11.
[18] Square (1990-04-27). Final Fantasy III. Nintendo
Famicom. Square.
[19] Final Fantasy III Instruction Book. Square Enix. 2006. p.
51.
[20] Square (1990-04-27). Final Fantasy III. Famicom.
Square Co., Ltd. Scene: sta credits.
[21] Lau, John (2005-01-22).The Secret of Nasir. University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 2007-07-16.
Retrieved 2008-07-14.

77

[36] "IIIiPhone
". Famitsu (in Japanese). Enterbrain. 201102-24. Retrieved 2011-02-27.
[37] Karmali, Luke (2012-07-31).Final Fantasy III Launching on Ouya - IGN. IGN. Retrieved 2012-10-22.

[38] http://www.destructoid.com/
final-fantasy-iii-coming-to-steam-with-achievements-and-enhanced-graphic
phtml
[39] Gann, Patrick; Schweitzer, Ben (2006-06-17). Final
Fantasy III OSV. RPGFan. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
[40] Gann, Patrick (2000-05-06). Final Fantasy III Yky
no Kaze Densetsu. RPGFan. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
[41] Gann, Patrick.Final Fantasy Vocal Collections II [Love
Will Grow]". RPGFan. Retrieved 2008-07-24.
[42] Gann, Patrick. Final Fantasy Vocal Collections I -Pray". RPGFan. Retrieved 2008-07-24.

[22] Mielke, James; Hironobu Sakaguchi. EGM (232). [...]


So for Final Fantasy II and III, our sta actually brought
all the equipment, everything that was necessary to nish
those games, to Sacramento, because (Gebelli) couldn't
come back to Japan. [...] We nished Final Fantasy II
and III in Sacramento, California. [Laughs]

[43] Jones, Jesse. Final Fantasy ~ The Black Mages II: The
Skies Above. RPGFan. Retrieved 2008-07-14.

[23] Rob Fahey (2007-03-13).


Fantasy Reborn.
Eurogamer. Retrieved 2008-03-10.

[45] Kie. Chocobo Racing Original Soundtrack: Review by


Kie. Square Enix Music Online. Retrieved 2009-02-26.

[44] Castonguay, Logan. Final Fantasy ~ The Black Mages


III: Darkness and Starlight. RPGFan. Retrieved 200807-14.

[46] Jeriaska (2008-03-14).Chocobo's Mysterious Dungeon


[24] http://www.siliconera.com/2013/06/24/
~Labyrinth of Forgotten Time~ OST. RPGFan. Reflyer-shows-square-planned-on-localizing-final-fantasy-iii-for-the-nes-too/
trieved 2009-02-26.
[25] Harris, Craig (2000-09-08). Final Fantasy Goes Won[47] Album Information - Tour de Japon: Music from Final
derSwan Color. IGN. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
Fantasy DVD. Square Enix Music Online. Retrieved
2008-02-22.
[26] Joseph Witham (2003). Final Fantasy III Still WonderSwan Bound. RPGamer. Retrieved 2006-09-04.
[48] Distant Worlds - Music from Final Fantasy - Album Information. Square Enix Music Online. Retrieved 2008[27] Eve C. (2002). WSC FFIII Vanishes, FFI-II Remake In
02-22.
The Works. RPGFan. Retrieved 2006-09-04.
[28] Andrew Long and Jesse Kanda (2003). Final Fantasy
III Finally On Deck. RPGamer. Retrieved 2006-09-04.

[49] Final Fantasy III. Square Enix. 2006-01-01. Retrieved


2006-08-31.

[29] Nix (2006-09-24). TGS 2006: Square on Final Fantasy


III. IGN. Retrieved 2006-09-25.

[50] Gann, Patrick (2006-10-05). Final Fantasy III OST.


RPGFan. Retrieved 2008-03-27.

[30] Square Enix; Matrix Software (2006-11-14).Final Fantasy III. Nintendo DS. Square Enix Co., Ltd. Scene:
sta credits.

[51] Final Fantasy III - DS. GameRankings. Retrieved


2008-07-16.
[52] Final Fantasy III. Metacritic. Retrieved 2008-07-16.

[31] Final Fantasy III Review. PALGN. Retrieved 200807-16.

[53] Parish, Jeremy (2006-11-10). Final Fantasy III (Nintendo DS)". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2008-07-16.

[32] Final Fantasy III Review. Eurogamer. 2006-12-14.


Retrieved 2008-07-16.

[54]30 Point Plus: III. Weekly


Famicom Tsshin (299): 38. 1994-09-09.

[33] Schmidt, Ken (2006-11-15). Final Fantasy III Ocial


Strategy Guide. Brady Games. ISBN 0-7440-0848-4.

[55] Final Fantasy - famitsu Scores Archive. Famitsu Scores


Archive. Archived from the original on 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2008-07-16.

[34] Shoemaker, Brad (2006-07-20). Final Fantasy III Update. GameSpot. Retrieved 2006-08-31.
[35] Final Fantasy III. Computer and Video Games. Retrieved 2008-07-16.

[56] Gaming Everything Blog Archive Famitsu review


scores (9/11/12) LittleBigPlanet Vita, Final Fantasy III
PSP. Gaming Everything. 2012-09-11. Retrieved
2012-10-22.

78

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

[57] Review: Final Fantasy III. GamePro. 2006-11-14.


Archived from the original on 2008-09-16. Retrieved
2008-07-16.
[58] Final Fantasy III (DS)". GameSpy. Retrieved 2008-0715.

since been rereleased for many other platforms with varying modications. The game was re-titled Final Fantasy
II during its initial release outside of Japan as the original Final Fantasy II and Final Fantasy III had not been
released outside of Japan at the time. However, later localizations used the original title.

[59] Final Fantasy III. GameTrailers. Retrieved 2008-0715.

The game's story follows Cecil, a dark knight, as he


tries to prevent the sorcerer Golbez from seizing pow[60] Bozon, Mark (2006-11-14). Final Fantasy III Review erful crystals and destroying the world. He is joined on
this quest by a frequently changing group of allies. Fi. IGN. Retrieved September 2009.
nal Fantasy IV introduced innovations that became sta[61]Final Fantasy III review. Nintendo Power: 103. January ples of the Final Fantasy series and role-playing games in
2007.
general. Its "Active Time Battle" system was used in ve
[62] Carless, Simon (2006-03-03).Famitsu Reveals Top 100 subsequent Final Fantasy games, and unlike prior games
Reader-Voted Games of All Time. Gamasutra. Re- in the series, IV gave each character their own unchangeable character class.
trieved 2008-07-16.
With its character-driven plot, use of new technologies
and critically acclaimed score by Nobuo Uematsu, Final
Fantasy IV is regarded as a landmark of the series and
the role-playing genre. The various incarnations of the
[64] FFIII Mania in Japan. IGN. 2006. Retrieved 2007- game have sold more than four million copies worldwide.
01-31.
An enhanced remake, also called Final Fantasy IV, with
3D graphics was released for the Nintendo DS in 2007
[65]Final Fantasy Tops Half Million. IGN. 2006. Retrieved
and 2008. A sequel, Final Fantasy IV: The After Years,
2007-01-31.
was released for Japanese mobile phones in 2008, and
[66] Annual Report 2007. Square Enix. 2004-08-06. worldwide via the Wii Shop Channel on June 1, 2009. In
Archived from the original on 2008-12-06. Retrieved 2011, both Final Fantasy IV and The After Years were
2008-12-20.
released for the PlayStation Portable as part of the compilation Final Fantasy IV: The Complete Collection, which
[67] Annual Report 2008. Square Enix. 2008-08-08.
Archived from the original on 2008-12-06. Retrieved also included a new game, set between the two; Final Fantasy IV: Interlude. Ports of the Nintendo DS remake were
2008-12-20.
released for iOS in 2012, for Android in 2013 and for
[68] Windows in 2014.
[63] Titles of game software with worldwide shipments exceeding 1 million copies. Square Enix. 2004-02-09. p.
27. Retrieved 2008-03-01.

(in Japanese). eBook Japan Initiative. Archived from the


original on 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
[69] Square Enix (2009-08-25). "Dissidia Final Fantasy".
PlayStation Portable. Square Enix.

2.4.1 Gameplay

[70] Square Enix (2011-03-22). "Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy".


PlayStation Portable. Square Enix.

2.3.9

External links

Ocial North American website


Ocial European website
Ocial Japanese website (Japanese)

2.4 Final Fantasy IV


Final Fantasy IV ( IV
Fainaru Fantaj F) is a role-playing video game devel- A battle scene from the Super Nintendo version of the game: the
oped and published by Square (now Square Enix) in 1991 party engages a Blue Dragon on the Moon
as a part of the Final Fantasy series. The game was originally released for the Super Famicom in Japan and has In Final Fantasy IV, the player controls a large cast of

2.4. FINAL FANTASY IV


characters and completes quests to advance the story.
Characters move and interact with people and enemies
on a eld map, which may represent a variety of settings,
such as towers, caves, and forests. Travel between areas occurs on a world map. The player can use towns
to replenish strength, buy equipment, and discover clues
about their next destination.* [2] Conversely, the player
ghts monsters at random intervals on the world map and
in dungeons. In battle, the player has the option to ght,
use magic or an item, retreat, change character positions,
parry, or pause. Certain characters have special abilities.* [2] The game was the rst in the series to allow the
player to control up to ve characters in their party; previous games had limited the party to four.* [3]
Player characters and monsters have hit points (HP),
with the characters' HP captioned below the main battle screen. Attacks reduce remaining HP until none are
left, at which point the character faints or the monster
dies. If all characters are defeated, the game must be
restored from a saved game le.* [2] The player can restore the characters' hit points by having them sleep in an
inn or use items in the party's inventory, such as potions,
as well as using healing magic spells. Equipment (such
as swords and armor) bought in towns or found in dungeons can be used to increase damage inicted on monsters or minimize damage received.* [2] The player can
choose whether characters appear on the front line of a
battle or in the back. A character's placement impacts
damage received and inicted depending on the type of
attack.* [2] The game's story is linear; the player can usually advance the game through only one path, although
limited side quests are available.* [4]
Final Fantasy IV introduced Square's Active Time Battle
(ATB) system, which diered from the turn-based designs of previous RPGs. The ATB system centers on the
player inputting orders for the characters in real time during battles.* [5] The system was used in many subsequent
Square games.* [3]
Each character has certain strengths and weaknesses; for
instance, a strong magic user may have low defense, while
a physical ghter may have low agility. Like other Final
Fantasy games, characters gain new, more powerful abilities with battle experience. Magic is classied as either
Whitefor healing and support; Blackfor oense;
or Summon(or call) for summoning monsters to
attack or carry out specialized tasks.* [2] A fourth type,
"Ninjutsu,consists of support and oensive magic and is
available to only one character. Magic users, who account
for eight of the twelve playable characters, gain magic
spells at preprogrammed experience levels or xed story
events. The game includes balanced point gains, items,
and rewards to eliminate long sessions of grinding.* [6]
Due to the Super Nintendo's greater processing power,
Final Fantasy IV contains improved graphics when compared to previous Final Fantasy titles, all of which were
released on the NES. The game employs the Super Nintendo's Mode 7 technology to give enhanced magic spell

79
visuals and to make airship travel more dramatic by scaling and tilting the ground for a bird's eye view.* [7]

2.4.2 Plot
Setting
Most of Final Fantasy IV takes place on Earth, also
known as the Blue Planet,* [8] which consists of a surface world (or Overworld), inhabited by humans, and
an underground world (or Underworld), inhabited by the
Dwarves. An articial moon orbits the planet, upon
which the Lunarians live. The Lunarians are a race of
beings originally from a world which was destroyed, becoming the asteroid belt surrounding the Blue Planet, and
are identied by a moon-shape crest on their foreheads.
They created the articial moon, resting until a time when
they believe their kind can co-exist with humans.* [3] A
second, natural moon orbits the Blue Planet as well, although it is never visited in the game.
Characters
Main article: Characters of the Final Fantasy IV series
Final Fantasy IV oers twelve playable characters, each
with a unique, unchangeable character class. During the
game, the player can have a total of ve, or fewer, characters in the party at any given time. The main character,
Cecil Harvey, is a dark knight and the captain of the Red
Wings, an elite air force unit of the kingdom of Baron.
He serves the king alongside his childhood friend Kain
Highwind, the commander of the Dragoons. Rosa Farrell is a white mage and archer, as well as Cecil's love
interest. The Red Wings' airships were constructed by
Cecil's friend, the engineer Cid Pollendina.* [3]
During his quest, Cecil is joined by others, including
Rydia, a young summoner from the village of Mist;
Tellah, a legendary sage; Edward Chris von Muir, the
prince of Damcyan and a bard; Yang Fang Leiden, the
head of the monks of Fabul; Palom and Porom, a white
mage and a black mage, twin apprentices from the magical village of Mysidia; Edward EdgeGeraldine, the
ninja prince of Eblan; and Fusoya, the guardian of the
Lunarians during their long sleep.
Zemus is the main antagonist of the game. He wishes to
destroy the human race so that his people can populate
the earth. He uses Golbez to do this by controlling him
and Kain with his psychic powers to activate the Giant of
Babil, a huge machine created to carry out the genocide.
Story
Final Fantasy IV begins as the Red Wings are attacking
the city of Mysidia to steal their Water Crystal. When Ce-

80
cil, Captain of the Red Wings, afterwards questions the
king's motives, he is stripped of his rank and sent with
Kain, his friend and Captain of the Dragoons, to deliver
a package to the Village of Mist.* [9] There, Kain and
Cecil watch in horror as monsters from inside the package destroy the village. A young girl, Rydia, is the only
survivor and summons an earthquake in anger, separating
Cecil and Kain.* [10] Cecil awakens afterward and takes
the wounded Rydia to a nearby inn. Baron soldiers come
for Rydia but Cecil defends her,* [11] and she joins him
on his journey.
It is revealed that Rosa, Cecil's love interest, had followed
him and is extremely ill with a fever. Soon after this, Cecil and Rydia meet Tellah, who is going to Damcyan Castle to retrieve his eloping daughter, Anna.* [12] However,
Anna is killed when the Red Wings bomb the castle. Edward, Anna's lover and the prince of Damcyan, explains
that the Red Wings' new commander, Golbez, did this to
steal the Fire Crystal for Baron as they had stolen the Water Crystal from Mysidia.* [13] Tellah leaves the party to
seek vengeance on Golbez for Anna's death.* [14] After
nding a cure for Rosa, the party decides to go to Fabul to
protect the Wind Crystal. Here they meet Master Yang, a
warrior monk serviced to the kingdom and the protection
of the crystal. The Red Wings attack, and Kain reappears
as one of Golbez's servants. He attacks and defeats Cecil;
when Rosa intervenes, Golbez kidnaps her and Kain takes
the crystal.* [15] On the way back to Baron, the party is
attacked by Leviathan and separated.
Cecil awakes alone near Mysidia. When he enters the
town, he nds that its residents hold him in utter contempt
for the prior attack on their town. Through the Elder of
Mysidia, he learns that to defeat Golbez, he must climb
Mt. Ordeals and become a Paladin.* [16] Before embarking on his journey, he is joined by the twin mages, Palom
and Porom. On the mountain he encounters Tellah, who
is searching for the forbidden spell Meteor to defeat Golbez.* [17] Casting aside the darkness within himself, Cecil becomes a Paladin, while Tellah learns the secret of
Meteor. Upon reaching Baron, the party discovers an
amnesiac Yang and restores his memory. The party then
confronts the King, only to discover that he had been replaced by one of Golbez's minions.* [18] After defeating
him, Cid arrives and takes them to one of his airships, the
Enterprise. On the way, the party enters a room boobytrapped by Cagnazzo, where Palom and Porom sacrice
themselves to save Cecil, Tellah, Cid, and Yang.

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES


to Baron.
In Baron, Kain reveals that Golbez must also obtain four
subterraneanDark Crystalsto achieve his goal of reaching the moon.* [21] The party travels to the underworld
and encounter the Dwarves, who are currently ghting
the Red Wings. They defeat Golbez thanks to a sudden
appearance by Rydia, now a young woman due to her
time spent in the Feymarch, the home of the Eidolons.
However, the party ultimately fails to prevent Golbez
from stealing the Dwarves' crystal. With the help of the
Dwarves, they enter the Tower of Babil in order to obtain the crystals Golbez has stored there, only to nd that
they have been moved to a surface portion of the tower.
Yang later sacrices himself in order to stop the tower's
cannons from ring on the Dwarves. After escaping a
trap set by Golbez, the party ees the underworld aboard
the Enterprise, with Cid sacricing himself to reseal the
passage between the two worlds and to prevent the Red
Wings from continuing their pursuit.* [22] The party, now
joined by Edge, the prince of Eblan, travels back to the
Tower of Babil in order to take back the stolen crystals.
Upon reaching the crystal room, however, the party falls
through a trap door to the underworld. Meeting with the
Dwarves once again and nding Cid to be alive, the party
sets out to retrieve the eighth crystal before Golbez can.
When the crystal is obtained, Golbez appears and reveals
he still has control over Kain, while taking the crystal for
himself.* [23] After learning of the Lunar Whale, a ship
designed to take travelers to and from the moon, the party
is rejoined by Cid. They travel to the surface and board
the Lunar Whale.* [24]

On the moon, the party meets the sage Fusoya, who explains that Cecil's father was a Lunarian.* [25] Fusoya
also explains that a Lunarian named Zemus plans to destroy life on the Blue Planet so that the Lunarians can
take over, using Golbez to summon the Giant of Babil, a colossal robot.* [26] The party returns to Earth and
the forces of the two worlds attack the Giant, including
Palom and Porom, who have been revived. After the
party breaks the robot, Golbez and Kain confront them,
only to have Fusoya break Zemus' control over Golbez,
in turn releasing Kain. Cecil learns that Golbez is his
older brother.* [27] Golbez and Fusoya head to the core
of the moon to defeat Zemus, and Cecil's party follows.
In the moon's core, the party witnesses Golbez and Fusoya kill Zemus, but then quickly fall to his resurrected
form, the spirit Zeromus.* [28] Cecil and his allies defeat
Fusoya and Golbez opt to
On the airship, Kain appears and demands Cecil retrieve Zeromus. Following the battle,
*
leave
Earth
with
the
moon.
[29]
*
the nal crystal in exchange for Rosa's life, [19] which
the party obtains with assistance from a bedridden Ed- During the epilogue, the majority of the cast reunites to
ward. Kain then leads the party to the Tower of Zot, celebrate Cecil and Rosa's wedding and their coronation
where Rosa is imprisoned. At the tower's summit, Gol- as Baron's new king and queen, while Kain is seen atop
bez takes the crystal and attempts to ee. Tellah casts Mt. Ordeals, having vowed to atone for his sins.
Meteor to stop Golbez, sacricing his own life in the process. However, the spell only weakens Golbez, ending
his mind control of Kain.* [20] Kain helps Cecil rescue
Rosa, who teleports the party out of the collapsing tower

2.4. FINAL FANTASY IV

2.4.3

Development

After completing Final Fantasy III in 1990, Square


planned to develop two Final Fantasy games one for
the Nintendo Entertainment System and the other for
the forthcoming Super Nintendo Entertainment System,
to be known as Final Fantasy IV and Final Fantasy V
respectively.* [30] Due to nancial and scheduling constraints, Square dropped plans for the NES game and continued development of the SNES version, retitled Final
Fantasy IV. A mock-up screenshot of the cancelled title
was produced for a Japanese magazine, but little other
information exists about it.* [30] Final Fantasy IV director Hironobu Sakaguchi has stated that the NES version
was approximately 80% complete and certain ideas were
reused for the SNES version.* [31]
Final Fantasy IV was lead designer Takashi Tokita's rst
project at Square as a full-time employee. Before this,
Tokita wanted a career as a theater actor, but working on
the game made him decide to become agreat creatorof
video games.* [32] Initially Hiromichi Tanaka, the main
designer of Final Fantasy III, was also involved in the development of the game. However, Tanaka wanted to create a seamless battle system that had no separate battle
screen and was not menu-driven, and since Final Fantasy
IV was not going in that direction, he changed development teams to work on the action RPG Secret of Mana
instead.* [33] The development team of Final Fantasy IV
contained 14 people in total, and the game was completed
in roughly one year.* [34]
Initial ideas were contributed by the game's director,
Hironobu Sakaguchi, including the entire story and the
name of Baron's royal air force, the Red Wings
.* [1]* [35] The Active Time Battle (ATB) system was
conceived and designed by Hiroyuki Ito when he was inspired while watching a Formula One race and seeing racers pass each other at dierent speeds. This gave him the
idea of dierent speed values for the individual characters.* [36]* [37] The system was developed by Kazuhiko
Aoki, Ito and Akihiko Matsui.* [38] As the game's lead
designer, Tokita wrote the scenario and contributed pixel
art.* [39] He stated that there was a lot of pressure and
that the project would not have been completed if he did
not work diligently on it. According to Tokita, Final Fantasy IV was designed with the best parts of the previous
three installments in mind: the job system of Final Fantasy III, the focus on story of Final Fantasy II, and the
four elemental bosses acting as symbols for the game
as in the rst installment.* [34] Other inuences include
Dragon Quest II.* [40] The themes of Final Fantasy IV
were to go from darkness to lightwith Cecil, a focus on family and friendship among the large and diverse
cast, and the idea thatbrute strength alone isn't power.
*
[35] Tokita feels that Final Fantasy IV is the rst game
in the series to really pick up on drama,* [34] and the rst
Japanese RPG to featuresuch deep characters and plot.
*
[41]

81
The game's script had to be reduced to one fourth of its
original length due to cartridge storage limits, but Tokita
made sure only unnecessary dialoguewas cut, rather
than actual story elements. As the graphical capacities of
the Super Famicom allowed Yoshitaka Amano to make
more elaborate character designs than in the previous installments, with the characters' personalities already evident from the images, Tokita felt the reduced script length
improved the pacing of the game.* [34]* [42] Still, he acknowledges that some parts of the story were unclear
or were not looked at in depthuntil later ports and
remakes. One of the ideas not included, due to time and
space constraints, was a dungeon near the end of the game
where each character would have to progress on their own
this dungeon would only be included in the Game Boy
Advance version of the game, as the Lunar Ruins.* [34]

Music
Main article: Music of Final Fantasy IV
The score of Final Fantasy IV was written by longtime
series composer Nobuo Uematsu. Uematsu has noted
that the process of composing was excruciating, involving trial and error and requiring the sound sta to spend
several nights in sleeping bags at Square's headquarters.
His liner notes were humorously signed as being written at
1:30 AM in the oce, naturally.* [43] The score was
well received; reviewers have praised the quality of the
composition despite the limited medium.* [4]* [44] The
trackTheme of Lovehas even been taught to Japanese
school children as part of the music curriculum.* [45] Uematsu continues to perform certain pieces in his Final
Fantasy concert series.* [46]
Three albums of music from Final Fantasy IV have been
released in Japan. The rst album, Final Fantasy IV:
Original Sound Version, was released on June 14, 1991
and contains 44 tracks from the game. The second album, Final Fantasy IV: Celtic Moon, was released on October 24, 1991, and contains a selection of tracks from
the game, arranged and performed by Celtic musician
Mire Breatnach. Lastly, Final Fantasy IV Piano Collections, an arrangement of tracks for solo piano performed
by Toshiyuki Mori, was released on April 21, 1992 and
began the Piano Collections trend for each successive Final Fantasy game. Several tracks have appeared on Final
Fantasy compilation albums produced by Square, including The Black Mages and Final Fantasy: Pray. Independent but ocially licensed releases of Final Fantasy IV
music have been orchestrated by such groups as Project
Majestic Mix, which focuses on arranging video game
music.* [47] Selections also appear on Japanese remix albums, called djin music, and on English remixing websites such as OverClocked ReMix.* [48]

82

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

North American localization

1999, this version was released a second time in Japan


as part of the Final Fantasy Collection package, which
Because the previous two installments of the Final Fan- also included the PlayStation versions of Final Fantasy V
tasy series had not been localized and released in North and Final Fantasy VI.* [55] Fifty-thousand limited edition
America at the time, Final Fantasy IV was distributed as copies of the collection were also released and included a
Final Fantasy II to maintain naming continuity.* [49] This Final Fantasy-themed alarm clock.* [56]
remained the norm until the release of Final Fantasy VII The PlayStation port was later released with Chrono Trigin North America (after the release of Final Fantasy VI ger in North America as part of Final Fantasy Chronicles
under the title of Final Fantasy III) and subsequent re- in 2001 and with Final Fantasy V in Europe and Australia
leases of the original Final Fantasy II and III on various as part of Final Fantasy Anthology in 2002.* [57] The
platforms. Final Fantasy II has since gone under the title English localizations feature a new translation, although
Final Fantasy IV.
certain translated lines from the previous localization by
The English localization of Final Fantasy IV retains the
storyline, graphics, and sound of the original, but the
developers signicantly reduced the diculty for beginning gamers.* [50] Square were worried that western fans
would nd it dicult to adjust to the game's complexity due to not having played the previous two entries,
so decreased the overall depth considerably.* [51] Other
changes include the removal of overt Judeo-Christian religious references and certain potentially objectionable
graphics. For example, the magic spell Holywas renamedWhite, and all references to prayer were eliminated; the Tower of Prayers in Mysidia was renamed the
Tower of Wishes. Direct references to death were also
omitted, although several characters clearly die during the
course of the game.* [52] The translation was changed in
accordance with Nintendo of America's censorship policies (at a time before the formation of the ESRB and its
rating system).* [53]

2.4.4

Re-releases

See also: Final Fantasy Chronicles, Final Fantasy IV (3D


remake) and Final Fantasy IV: The Complete Collection
In addition to its original release, Final Fantasy IV has
been remade into many dierent versions. The rst of
these was Final Fantasy IV Easytype, a modied version
of the game which was released for the Super Famicom
in Japan. The Easytype was designed to be even easier
than its North American counterpart. In this version, the
attack powers of weapons have been enhanced, while the
protective abilities of certain accessories and armor are
amplied.* [50]
A PlayStation port debuted in Japan on March 21, 1997.
Ported by Tose and published by Square, it was designed
and directed by Kazuhiko Aoki, supervised by Fumiaki
Fukaya, and produced by Akihiro Imai.* [54] This version
is identical to the original game, although minor tweaks
introduced in the Easytype are present. The most notable
changes in the PlayStation release are the inclusion of a
full motion video opening and ending sequence, the ability to move quickly in dungeons and towns by holding the
Cancel button, and the option of performing a memo
save anywhere on the world map.* [54] On March 11,

Kaoru Moriyama, such as You spoony bard!", were


kept, as they had become fan favorites.* [58] A remake
for the WonderSwan Color, with few changes from the
PlayStation version, was released in Japan on March 28,
2002. Character sprites and backgrounds were graphically enhanced through heightened details and color shading.* [59]
Final Fantasy IV was ported again by Tose for the Game
Boy Advance and published as Final Fantasy IV Advance
(IV Fainaru
Fantaj F Adobansu). It was released in North America
by Nintendo of America on December 12, 2005; in Japan
by Square Enix on December 15, 2005; in Australia on
February 23, 2006; and in Europe on June 2, 2006. In
Japan, a special version was available which included a
limited edition Game Boy Micro with a themed face plate
featuring artwork of Cecil and Kain.* [60] The enhanced
graphics from the WonderSwan Color port were further
improved, and minor changes were made to the music.
The localization team revised the English translation, improving the ow of the story, and restoring plot details
absent from the original.* [50] The abilities that were removed from the original North American release were
re-added, while spells were renamed to follow the naming
conventions of the Japanese version, changing Bolt2
toThundarafor example.* [52] A new cave at Mt. Ordeals was added featuring powerful armor and stronger
weapons for ve additional characters, as was the Lunar Ruins, a dungeon accessible only at the end of the
game.* [50]
The game was remade with 3D graphics for the Nintendo
DS as part of the Final Fantasy series' 20th anniversary,
and was released as Final Fantasy IV in Japan on December 20, 2007, in North America on July 22, 2008, and in
Europe on September 5, 2008.* [61] The remake adds a
number of features not present in the original, such as
voice acting, minigames, and some changes to the basic
gameplay. The game was developed by Matrix Software,
the same team responsible for the Final Fantasy III DS remake, and was supervised by members of the original development team: Takashi Tokita served as executive producer and director, Tomoya Asano as producer and Hiroyuki Ito as battle designer. Animator Yoshinori Kanada
storyboarded the new cutscenes.

2.4. FINAL FANTASY IV


The original version of the game was released on the Wii
Virtual Console in Japan on August 4, 2009, in North
America on March 8, 2010 and in PAL regions on June
11, 2010.* [62] An enhanced port for i-mode compatible
phones was released in Japan on October 5, 2009. It retains features introduced in the Wonderswan Color and
Game Boy Advance ports, while incorporating enhanced
character graphics on par with those found in The After
Years, as well as an exclusive extra dungeonavailable
after completing the game.* [63]
Along with Final Fantasy IV: The After Years, the game
was released for the PlayStation Portable as part of the
compilation Final Fantasy IV: The Complete Collection.
This version used updated 2D graphics, as opposed to the
3D graphics seen in the DS remake. The collection also
includes a new episode called Final Fantasy IV: Interlude,
which takes place between the original game and The After Years. Masashi Hamauzu arranged the main theme
for the game.* [64] It was released in Japan on March
24, 2011, in North America on April 19, 2011, in Europe on April 21, 2011, and in Australia on April 28,
2011.* [65] On December 18, 2012 the PlayStation port
was re-released as part of the Final Fantasy 25th Anniversary Ultimate Box Japanese package.* [66]
In December 2012, the Nintendo DS version of Final
Fantasy IV was released for the iOS and Android(June
2013) mobile platforms, introducing an optional easier
diculty level.* [67] On September 17, 2014, with no
prior advertisement, Final Fantasy IV was also released
for Microsoft Windows.* [68]

2.4.5

Reception

83
and battles.On the other hand, Martin Alessi, who disliked role-playing games, gave it a 7. They gave the game
an award for 1991's Best RPG Video Game, stating that
theMode 7 is great here and Square does a spectacular
job in using it to zoom in and away from the planetand
that the quest is huge and also one of the most dicult
ever attempted in a video game.* [81]
GamePro rated it a perfect 5 out of 5 score in its March
1992 issue.* [69] The reviewer Monty Haul stated that
it truly redenes the standards for fantasy adventure
games,proclaiming that one-dimensional characters,
needless hack 'em combat, and linear gameplay will be
things of the past if other RPGs learn a lesson or two from
this cart,concluding that itis one small step for Square
Soft, and one giant leap for SNES role-playing games.
*
[81] In the November 1993 issue of Dragon, Sandy Petersen gave it an Excellentrating. He criticized the
stylizedcombat system and the graphics asinferiorto
Zelda, but praised how every spell has a dierent onscreen eectand the diculty for being just about
rightwhere bossesnearly beat you every timeunlike
other RPG's such as Ultima where enoughadventuring
makes it possible to trashenemies with ease.He
praised thegreatmusic, preferring it over Zelda, stating what itlacks in graphics, it more than makes up for
in sound.He praised the story in particular, noting that,
in a departure from other RPGs where the party always
sticks together through thick and thin,the characters
have their own motives for joining and leaving the group,
with one that even betraysthem. He stated that it is
likefollowing the storyline of a fantasy novel,comparing it to The Lord of the Rings and Man in the Iron Mask,
concluding that, because the characters often spoke up
for themselves,he got much more attachedto the
party than in any other computer game.* [73]

The game was critically acclaimed upon release.* [81]


Famitsu 's panel of four reviewers gave it ratings of 9, 9,
10, and 8, adding up to an overall score of 36 out of 40,
one of the highest scores it awarded to any game in 1991,
second only The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past.* [76]
In its November 1991 issue, Nintendo Power proclaimed
it set a new standard of excellencefor role-playing
games.* [85] They praised the battles as being more
interesting than in previous RPGsbecause the player
must make snap decisionsand theenemies don't wait
for you to make up your mind,and concluded that the
story, graphics, play and sound will keep fans riveted.
*
[81] Electronic Gaming Monthly ' panel of four reviewers gave it ratings of 8, 9, 7, and 8, out of 10, adding up
to 32 out of 40 overall.* [74] In its December 1991 issue,
Ed Semrad, who gave it a 9, stated thatSquare has just
redened what the ultimate RPG should be like,noting
the spectacular Mode 7 eects, outstanding graphics
and a quest unequalled in a video game,concluding that
it makes use of all the Super NES has to oerand
is the best made to date!" Ken Williams (as Sushi-X),
who gave it an 8, stated that it is a totally awesome
RPG,the storyline is actually coherent and the plot
moves along with a combination of speaking sequences

Retrospectively, major reviewers have called Final Fantasy IV one of the greatest video games of all time, noting that it pioneered many now common console roleplaying game features, including the whole concept of
dramatic storytelling in an RPG.* [86]* [87] Reviewers have praised the game for its graphics, gameplay and
score,* [50]* [86] and have noted that Final Fantasy IV
was one of the rst role-playing games to feature a complex, involving plot.* [6]* [44] However, retrospective reviews have heavily criticized the game's original SNES
release for the poor quality of its English-language translation.* [44]* [50]
It has been included in various lists of the best games of
all time. Nintendo Power included it in the 100 Greatest Nintendo Gameslists, placing it ninth in 1997's issue 100,* [88] and twenty-eighth in 2005's issue 200.* [89]
IGN included it in its top 100 lists of the greatest games
of all time, ranking it #9 in 2003, as the highest-ranking
RPG,* [90] and at #26 in 2005, as the highest rated Final Fantasy title on the list.* [91] In 2007, it was ranked
at #55, behind Final Fantasy VI and Final Fantasy Tactics.* [92] Famitsu released a reader poll in 2006 ranking

84

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

it as the sixth best game ever made.* [93] It was also list 2.4.7 See also
among the best games of all time by Electronic Gaming
Monthly in 2001* [94] and 2006,* [95] Game Informer in 2.4.8 References
2001* [96] and 2009,* [97] GameSpot in 2005,* [98] and
[1] Interview with Hironobu Sakaguchi. Shkan Famitsu.
GameFAQs in 2005,* [99] 2009* [100] and 2014.* [101]
Final Fantasy Collection sold over 400,000 copies in
1999, making it the 31st best selling release of that year
in Japan.* [102] Weekly Famitsu gave it a 54 out of 60
points, scored by a panel of six reviewers.* [56] The Game
Boy Advance version, Final Fantasy IV Advance, was met
with praise from reviewers,* [70] although a few noted the
game's graphics do not hold up well to current games, especially when compared to Final Fantasy VI.* [50]* [103]
Reviewers noted that some fans may still nitpick certain
errors in the new translation.* [86] The Nintendo DS version of the game was praised for its visuals, gameplay
changes and new cutscenes.* [104]* [105]* [106] It was a
nominee for Best RPG on the Nintendo DS in IGN's 2008
video game awards.* [107]

ASCII Corporation. 1998-06-05. Archived from the original on 2011-02-06. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
[2] Square Co., ed. (1991). Final Fantasy II instruction manual. Square Co. p. 74. SFS-F4-USA-1.
[3] Final Fantasy Retrospective: Part III. GameTrailers.
2007-07-30. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
[4] Review of Final Fantasy IV. AllRPG. 2003-06-14.
Archived from the original on 2007-07-06. Retrieved
2006-09-12.
[5] Final Fantasy Advance instruction manual. Square Enix.
2005. p. 22. AGB-BZ4E-USA.
[6] Alley, Jake (2001-10-29).Birth of the plot-driven RPG
. RPGamer. Retrieved 2006-09-10.
[7] Palley, Steve (2005-09-09). Sail to the Moon: Final
Fantasy II. GameSpot. Retrieved 2006-03-07.

2.4.6

Legacy

In Japan, 1.44 million copies of Final Fantasy IV 's Super


Famicom version were sold.* [108] By March 31, 2003,
the game, including the PlayStation and WonderSwan
Color remakes, had shipped 2.16 million copies worldwide, with 1.82 million of those copies being shipped in
Japan and 340,000 abroad.* [109] As of 2007 just before
the release of the Nintendo DS version, nearly 3 million
copies of the game had been sold around the world.* [3]
By May 2009, the DS version of the game had sold 1.1
million copies worldwide.* [110]

[8] Fusoya: Long ago, the world that lay between the Red
Planet and the Great Behemoth stood at the verge of destruction, both terrible and complete. The last survivors
of that devastation boarded a ship and escaped to the Blue
Planet. / Cecil: Blue Planet? / Fusoya: The one that you
call home. But your planet was still in the midst of its evolution, you see. And so those travelers created a second
moon for the planet, and there they settled into a long and
quiet slumber. Square Enix (2008-07-22).Final Fantasy
IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
[9] King of Baron: This is most unfortunate, but I can place
no trust on one who oers none in return. I hereby relieve
you of command of the Red Wings. / Cecil: My liege!
/ King: You will go now to the Valley of Mist instead.
There is a task I would have you do. A phantom creature haunts the borders of that land-the Eidolon of Mist.
You will slay it and deliver this ring to the village that lies
beyond they will know its meaning. Be gone by rst
light in the morning! Square Enix (2008-07-22). Final
Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.

Final Fantasy IV: The After Years, the sequel to Final


Fantasy IV, is set seventeen years after the events of the
original. The rst two chapters of the game were released
in Japan in February 2008 for NTT DoCoMo FOMA
903i series phones, with a release for au WIN BREW
series phones slated for Spring 2008. The game revolves [10] Rydia: Mother, you can't die! Just because your dragon
did... Square Enix (2008-07-22). Final Fantasy IV DS
around Ceodore, the son of Cecil and Rosa, with most
. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
of the original cast members returning, some of whom
are featured in more prominent roles than before, among [11] Ocer of Baron: Our orders come directly from His
other new characters.* [111]* [112] After the mobile reMajesty's own mouth. Surrender the girl, and he will parlease, it was hinted that The After Years would be redon all you've done. The inhabitants of Mist represent a
leased outside of Japan.* [113] On March 25, 2009, an
threat to us all. They must not be allowed to live! Square
Enix (2008-07-22). Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo
announcement was made by Satoru Iwata during NinDS. Square Enix.
tendo's GDC 2009 Keynote speech that the U.S. would
see The After Years released later that year on the Wii's [12] Tellah: My daughter Anna was tricked by a silver-tongued
WiiWare service.* [114] The rst two chapters were rebard. He's taken her to Damcyan Castle. I fear I've little
leased on June 1, 2009 in North America and June 5,
time. I sense something sinister. Square Enix (2008-072009 in PAL territories, with the additional chapters be22).Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
ing released in the following months.* [115]* [116]
A two-volume novelization of Final Fantasy IV was released in Japan on December 25, 2008.* [117]* [118]

[13] Edward: The Red Wings laid siege to us, led by a man
named Golbez. Square Enix (2008-07-22). Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.

2.4. FINAL FANTASY IV

[14] Tellah: Tears do not bring back the dead, boy! Anna's
death must be avenged. I'll nd this Golbez! Square Enix
(2008-07-22). Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS.
Square Enix.

85

was hoping I'd get to see your kids someday, but, well-someone's got to keep Yang company! You get yourselves
back to Baron. Talk to my boys there! / Rydia: But Cid!
You'll die! / Cid: And so young, too! Square Enix (200807-22). Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square
Enix.

[15] Kain: It's been some time, Cecil. / Cecil: Kain! You're
alive! / Kain: I am. / Cecil: You'll ght, then? / Kain: Of
course. That's the very reason I've come. But, Cecil...The [23] Golbez: Kain...Return to me, my pawn...Deliver to me
the Crystal... / Cecil: Golbez! / Cecil: Kain! / Rosa:
one I'll ght is you! / Cecil: Kain!? / Kain: A duel,
Don't listen! Resist him! / Kain: It's alright. I...I'm back
Cecil! / Cecil: What do you mean? / Kain: Draw your
in control of myself. / Edge: You lthy double-crosser! /
blade! Square Enix (2008-07-22).Final Fantasy IV DS
Rosa: Kain. What are you doing!? /Golbez: You under. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
estimate the strength of my abilities. I had but slackened
[16] Elder: First you must ascend the mountain and trade your
your friend's leash, waiting for the proper moment to pull
dark sword for one of light. Should the hallowed light
it taut. With this nal Crystal, the Tower of Babil will be
deem you worthy, you will be made a paladin--a warrior
made complete. Come, Kain. / Cecil: Kain! Don't listen
of virtue. But know it will be no easy trail. Many are the
to him! Kain! / Kain: The Crystals are all assembled.
man who have scaled the mountain, but not one has reWe can open the way to the moon at last! Square Enix
turned. Will you try where all others have failed? / Cecil:
(2008-07-22). Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS.
I will! Square Enix (2008-07-22).Final Fantasy IV DS
Square Enix.
. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
[24] Elder: She is risen! The promised Ship of Light... The
[17] Cecil: Weren't you planning to go after Golbez?. /Tellah:
Lunar Whale! Square Enix (2008-07-22).Final Fantasy
Yes, but my magic is no match for a man of his strength.
IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
I've been searching for the legendary magic of Meteor. It
has been long sealed away, and I know not where. But [25] 'Cecil: And the Lunar Whale, where did it come from?
/ Fusoya: Ah, the ship...My younger brother Kluya built
I feel a powerful aura radiating from this place. I believe
that vessel long ago, and ew it to the Blue Planet. He took
the spell I seek may well rest within this mountain. Square
with him several of our secrets, such as the ones employed
Enix (2008-07-22). Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo
in your Devil's Road and in airships--a gift to your people.
DS. Square Enix.
Kluya was fascinated by your planet and wished to know
[18] Cecil: What have you done with the king!? / King of
more about it. And while he was there, he fell in love
Baron: Would you like to go and see him, that king of
with a woman of your planet. Square Enix (2008-07-22).
yours? You best not mistake me for another Scarmiglione.
Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
How one as weak as he came to be crowned an archend
is something I will never know. Mwa ha ha! / Cecil: Then [26] Fusoya: He thought it t that we should simply raze all
existing life on the Blue Planet and claim it as our own. /
you're one of them! / King of Baron: Behold! I am the
Rydia: That's horrible... / Fusoya: Yes. And so I used
Drowned King, Cagnazzo--archend of water and sworn
my powers to force him into hibernation with the others.
servant of Golbez! Square Enix (2008-07-22). Final
But as he slept, his will grew stronger and took on a conFantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
sciousness all its own. It reached out to men with tainted
[19] Cecil: Where's Rosa? She's safe, I trust. / Kain: Heh.
hearts on your planet, twisting them into beings yet darker
Worried about her, are you? If you wish to see Rosa alive,
still. And through them, he began to gather the Crystals.
fetch me the Earth Crystal from the land of Troia.Square
/ Cecil: So he was manipulating Golbez! / Edge: Does
Enix (2008-07-22). Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo
this guy have a name? / Fusoya: His name is Zemus. The
DS. Square Enix.
Crystals function as a source of energy you see. I fear he
has gathered them in order to activate the interdimenional
[20] Golbez: So, the old man's interference severed my hold
elevator within the Tower of Babil. With it, he will be able
over you. No matter. Your purpose is served. Do not
to transport the Giant of Babil to your planet and use it to
think this aront will be forgiven. / Cecil: Why...why now
extinguish all life there.Square Enix (2008-07-22).Final
stay your hand?/Golbez: You're--You..But--how?...? We
Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
will nish this another time. Square Enix (2008-07-22).
Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
[27] Golbez: My father... His name was Kluya. / Rosa: That
you're Cecil's own... / Edge: Brother!? Square Enix
[21] Cecil: Kain, we've lost the Earth Crystal. Golbez holds
(2008-07-22). Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS.
all them now. / Kain: No. he holds four. / Rosa: You
Square Enix.
mean to say there are more? / Cid: Come to think it, I've
heard tales of others! You speak of the Dark Crystals? / [28] Zeromus: I am the wellspring of darkness, fed by ZeKain: I do. / Kain: There is more. He said when all of
mus's unbridled hate. I am He who is called Zeromus...
the Crystals were gathered, the way to the moon would be
I am He who know naught but hate! Square Enix (2008opened. Square Enix (2008-07-22). Final Fantasy IV
07-22). Final Fantasy IV DS. Nintendo DS. Square
DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
Enix.
[22] Cid: Once you breach surface, I'll seal o that hold for
good--with this! / Rosa: No! Not you too! / Cid: I

[29] Golbez: I cannot return. Not after I have done. And I


would very much like to meet my father's people. At least

86

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

one time. Square Enix (2008-07-22). Final Fantasy IV


DS. Nintendo DS. Square Enix.
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[32] Hayashi, Koichiro (2004-10-17).Square Enix Discusses
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[49]Fantasy Quest: Interview with Ted Woolsey. Super


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[53] GameSpy Sta (2003-06-14). 25 Dumbest Moments


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[35] Final Fantasy IV Fan-Powered Q&A Part 2. Square


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[54] Square Enix sta, ed. (2001). Final Fantasy Chronicles


instruction manual. Square Enix. p. 54. SLUS-01360.

[36] Studio BentStu.


Final Fantasy IX Ultimania (in
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[56] Final Fantasy Collection Coming. IGN.com. Retrieved


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[57] Final Fantasy Anthology:


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[63] Spencer (2009-10-05). There May Be A Reason To


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[58] Famous Moments in Final Fantasy. FFCompendium.


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[39] " 3IV
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[40]Final Fantasy IV Interview. Nintendo Power (Nintendo
Power) 1 (228). May 2008. ISSN 1041-9551.
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[42] Final Fantasy IV Fan-Powered Q&A Part 1. Square
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10-12. Retrieved 2009-12-11.

[47] KFSS Studios (2002).Music Store. MajesticMix.com.


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[68] Chalk, Andy (17 September 2014). Final Fantasy IV


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[69] Final Fantasy II Reviews and Articles for SNES - GameRankings


[70] Final Fantasy IV Advance Reviews and Articles for Game
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[94] Top 100 Games of All Time, Electronic Gaming Monthly,
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[95] The Greatest 200 Videogames of Their Time.
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[97] Game Informer's Top 200 Games of All Time, Game Informer, 2009

[75] SUPER FAMICOM -


IV. Weekly Famicom Tsshin. No.225.
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[99] Fall 2005: 10-Year Anniversary ContestThe 10 Best
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. GameSpy. Retrieved 2006-03-01.
[88] Nintendo Power September, 1997. Nintendo. 1997.
[89] Nintendo Power November 2005. Nintendo. 2005.
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IGN. Retrieved 2006-09-09.

[111] Marcos, Antoine (2007-12-13). Final Fantasy IV The


After on mobile. Retrieved 2007-12-13.
[112] Sato, Yoshi (2007-12-19). More Details on Final Fantasy IV's Sequel. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
[113] O'Connor, Michael (2008-09-20). Final Fantasy IV sequel coming to the west?". The Gaming Vault. Retrieved
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[92] IGN's Top 100 2007 | 55 Final Fantasy II. IGN. 2007. [114] 1UP Sta (2009-03-25). GDC 2009: Nintendo's Iwata
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Keynote Liveblog!". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2009-08-10.

88

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

[115] Famitsu.com (2007-12-21). A new tale about the moon


is spun on mobile phones Final Fantasy IV the After:
Tsuki no Kikan(Interview and Pictures)". Retrieved
2007-12-21.
[116] Square Enix Announces New Downloadble Titles for
Nintendo's Wii (Press release). Square Enix. 2009-0325. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
[117] Final Fantasy IV Novel Vol.1 (in Japanese). 2008-12-25.
p. 240. ISBN 4-7575-2458-7.

tales as a new villain appears, setting into action a mysterious chain of events that threatens the fate of the Blue
Planet.* [3] Largely utilizing assets, locations, and mechanics from its predecessor, the title nevertheless incorporates higher quality character graphics and several new
gameplay systems.* [7]* [8]

2.5.1 Gameplay

[118] Final Fantasy IV Novel Vol.2 (in Japanese). 2008-12-25.


p. 256. ISBN 4-7575-2459-5.

2.4.9

External links

Nintendo Final Fantasy IV Advance Ocial Website. Archived from the original on 2008-01-29.
Square Enix Final Fantasy IV Advance Ocial
Website (Japanese)
Square Enix Final Fantasy IV for Mobile Ocial
Website (Japanese)

2.5 Final Fantasy IV: The After


Years

A battle from the WiiWare version of the game, showcasing the


Age of the Moonsystem with four party members. The text
colors of the abilities shown in the lower part of the screenshot
indicate their eectiveness: white abilities remain unchanged, red
Final Fantasy IV: The After Years is an episodic role- abilities are weaker and green abilities are stronger than normal.

playing video game co-developed by Matrix Software and


Square Enix, and the sequel to the 1991 title Final Fantasy IV. Originally released in Japan as a mobile game in
2008, an enhanced WiiWare port of the title was released
in North America, Europe and Japan in 2009.* [3]* [4]* [5]
In 2011, the game was bundled with Final Fantasy IV
as the PlayStation Portable compilation Final Fantasy IV:
The Complete Collection, which also included a new game;
Final Fantasy IV: Interlude, which served as a bridge between the original game and The After Years. Using the
same style as the Nintendo DS version of Final Fantasy
IV, this game was remade for Android and iOS platform.* [6]
Its initial mobile release in 2008 for Japanese feature
phone users were under the title Final Fantasy IV the After: Tsuki no Kikan (IV
- - Fainaru Fantaj F Ji Afut -Tsuki
no Kikan-, lit. Final Fantasy IV the After: Return of
the Moon). The Japanese WiiWare port and PlayStation Portable compilation Final Fantasy IV: The Complete
Collection later adapted the Western title, renaming the
game to Final Fantasy IV the After Years: Tsuki no Kikan
(IV
- - Fainaru Fantaj F Ji Afut Iyzu -Tsuki
no Kikan-).

Final Fantasy IV: The After Years uses most of the gameplay features of Final Fantasy IV, including random encounters and the Active Time Battle (ATB) system, which
originated with Final Fantasy IV. It also retains a number of the graphical enhancements from the WonderSwan
Color and Game Boy Advance versions of Final Fantasy IV, while further improving the quality of character
sprites to a level comparable with those of Final Fantasy
VI.* [7]
The battle system uses a new feature called the Age of
the Moon, reecting the game's lunar phases changing
with each rest at an inn, or over a set period of in-game
time. The altering phases change physical and magical attack powers for both player characters and enemies. Certain rare monsters also only appear during certain lunar
phases.* [8] The game also introduces a new type of combination attack known as a Bandability. Similar to
the Double and Triple Techs of Chrono Trigger, these allow two or more characters to coordinate separate commands into a single new attack at the cost of MP from
all involved. Band abilities are extremely powerful, and
there are over 70 dierent combinations in all.* [8]

Set 17 years after Final Fantasy IV, The After Years fol- 2.5.2
lows the original cast and their descendants in episodic

Plot

2.5. FINAL FANTASY IV: THE AFTER YEARS


Setting
Following the events of the original Final Fantasy IV, the
second moon leaves the Blue Planet's orbit, and a period
of peace begins as Damcyan, Eblan, and the Village of
Mist are rebuilt, while the Kingdom of Baron comes under the rule of Cecil and his wife, Rosa. However, seventeen years later, the second moon reappears, much closer
to the planet than it was the rst time, and the unchanging
Crystals begin to emit a soft light. The meaning behind
these events, however, remains unknown.* [3]
Most of the cast from the original game return, with many
of Final Fantasy IV 's NPCs now playable. A number of
entirely new characters are also introduced.* [7] Amongst
these new additions are Ceodore Harvey, Prince of Baron
and son to Cecil and Rosa; the Hooded Man, a wandering swordsman enshrouded in purple robes who seems
strangely familiar with Cecil's previous adventure; the
Mysterious Woman, a female antagonist able to summon Eidolons, who attacks the kingdoms in search of the
Crystals,* [3] and theMan in Black, a man with powerful black magic who refuses to reveal his past. The
storyline of the game unfolds through episodic chapters,
released roughly once a month, each primarily focused
on a specic character. These chapters utilize foreshadowing, clihangers, ashbacks, and a nonlinear narrative structure to build the world setting and both explore
and expand upon the mysterious events befalling the Blue
Planet. The nal chapter, which is considerably longer
than all others, draws all of the chapters together, linking
them up into one unifying narrative.

89
tacked by a group of monsters, and is about to be killed
when he is rescued by a Hooded Man. As the two head towards Mysidia, the game intercuts to Mt. Ordeals, where
Kain is heading out towards Baron. Along the way, he
gathers the Crystals of Air, Earth, Fire and Water at the
request of the Mysterious Woman. Eventually, he kidnaps Rosa as well, stating that he is planning to kill Cecil
so he can have Rosa for himself. Meanwhile, Ceodore,
the Hooded Man, and Edward intercept Kain in front of
Cecil's throneroom. At this point, it is revealed that the
Hooded Man is in fact the real Kain, and the Kain that
has taken the crystals and Rosa is Kain's dark half.
After their duel, the true Kain wins and becomes a Holy
Dragoon. Kain, Ceodore, Rosa and Edward continue on
their way to meet Cecil as the rst episode ends.

The second episode begins with Rydia, Luca and Edge


on board an airship in the subterranean world. The Man
in Black mysteriously appears from nowhere and takes
control of the airship, directing it towards Baron. As the
party approaches the castle, they witness meteors from
the second moon bombard the world. They return to
Baron Castle to nd it sealed by a magical force eld.
The four travel the world searching for their lost friends,
encountering the Mysterious Woman again, and helping
Rydia search for her missing Eidolons. After breaking
the Mysterious Woman's control over Titan, Shiva, Ramuh, and Ifrit, the party are able to enter Baron Castle
and nd Cecil threatening Ceodore, Rosa and Kain. After freeing Cecil from the Mysterious Woman's control,
the Man in Black reveals himself to be Golbez, Cecil's
brother. By this stage, the second moon is getting closer
to the Blue Planet and the party realize they have to nd
a way to stop it. Boarding the Lunar Whale they land
Synopsis
on the second moon and descend into its depths. During
the descent, the party encounters several bosses from the
The story begins as characters from the original game be- other Final Fantasy games. Eventually, they encounter
gin to notice the re-appearance of the second moon. This Cecil's evil side, the Dark Knight. Once the Dark Knight
is of great concern to Cecil and Rosa who remember their is defeated, Cecil returns to the Light.
previous ordeal. Meanwhile, Ceodore sets out with Biggs
and Wedge, members of the Red Wings, as part of his Once the party reach the lowermost depths of the second
initiation into the famous air force. Ceodore is a nervous moon, they discover the Mysterious Woman is not a sinyoung man who is afraid he will never step out of the gle individual. Each Mysterious Woman was part of a
shadow of his famous parents. As his test begins, he de- group of beings created to retrieve the crystals. Venturscends into a cave to obtain the Knight's Emblem, which ing further, they encounter an entity known as The Creturns out to be a rat's tail. Wedge and Biggs explain that ator. He reveals that his race died out due to a failure to
the purpose of the test was to show him that he already evolve. The Creator decided that the universe should not
had what it takes to be a Red Wing, he just needed to be allowed to be overrun with inferior species so he creprove it to himself. As the Red Wings set o, the game ated the crystals and sent them to various life-sustaining
cuts to Baron, where Cecil, Rosa, and Cid are defend- worlds as a way to monitor the progress of life on each
ing the city from an onslaught of monsters. After sur- planet. He determined if the world did not evolve to its
viving several waves of attacks they meet the Mysterious fullest potential it must be destroyed, which is what is curWoman. Cecil asks Cid to take Rosa to safety as he con- rently happening to the Blue Planet. After the party defronts the intruder. The woman summons Bahamut and feats the Creator, the moon starts to break apart. The
Mysterious Women turn on their fatherand defeat
defeats Cecil.
the Creator so the party can escape. As the Creator dies
Meanwhile, the airship carrying Ceodore also encoun- he thanks the party for defeating him, indicating he may
ters monsters. The airship crashes killing everyone but have felt some regret for his actions. Once the party reCeodore. Realizing he is now the last of the Red Wings, turns to the Planet, they return to their various homes to
he sets out on the long journey home. However, he is at-

90

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

resume their lives. Cecil informs Ceodore that he shall male characters in order to make their clothing less reserve in the Red Wings under the command of Kain. Ce- vealing.
cil also orders all of Baron's airships to be disarmed and
instead be used to help the other kingdoms rebuild after
2.5.4 Releases
the devastation caused by the second moon.

2.5.3

Development

First announced shortly before the release of the


enhanced remake of Final Fantasy IV for the Nintendo
DS, executive producer Takashi Tokita stated that while
directing the remake, there was talk of creating an after story, as well as discussion about working on a new
mobile title. Tokita, who had grown attached to the characters, having also previously worked as scenario writer
for the original game, decided that releasing the sequel
in mobile format would be a good idea, as it would allow
players to access the game only a short while after completing the DS remake. By releasing it in episodic format,
he also hoped that players would anticipate future chapters in much the same way as an anime or manga series,
rather than tiring of the game after completing it all at
once.* [9]
Although the look and feel of the game has remained
largely unchanged from that of the original Final Fantasy IV, new gameplay elements were incorporated, and
Kazuko Shibuya, 2D sprite artist for the rst six Final
Fantasy games, returned to create new, higher quality
character graphics. Yoshitaka Amano also returned as
image illustrator, with character designs by Akira Oguro,
a previous colleague of Tokita's and storyboard artist for
Square Enix. Much of Nobuo Uematsu's original musical for Final Fantasy IV is also included, although new
compositions are also used.* [10]
After the mobile release, sta involved in the development of the game hinted that the title could get a release
outside of Japan.* [11] A rating by the ESRB for a Wii
game titled Final Fantasy IV: The After Years was discovered in late February 2009, leading to speculation regarding a North American localization of the game distributed via WiiWare.* [12] This was ocially conrmed
at the 2009 Game Developers Conference.* [4] Square
Enix also trademarked The After Years in Europe, hinting at a release in that territory as well.* [13] This was
conrmed with the opening of the ocial site, which provided a PEGI rating for the title.* [14]

Originally released to the Japanese mobile phone market as Final Fantasy IV the After: Tsuki no Kikan, the
rst two installments of the episodic game, Prologue
and Ceodore's Tale, were published simultaneously
for each individual platform. A series of eight supplemental tales were then released in intervals of about four
weeks. These were followed by a seminal installment,
Shketsu Hen 'Tsuki no Inryoku'" (lit.Gathering Tale:
Gravitation of the Moon), which required that the player
has completed the supplemental Kain's Tale. The
game's nale was released in two parts as Shsh Zenpen 'Shingetsu'" (lit. Last Chapter Part One 'The True
Moon'") and Shsh Khen 'Hoshikui'" (lit. Last
Chapter Part Two 'The Planet Eater'").
An enhanced port of the game was published through
the WiiWare service in 2009. Although it retained the
episodic format used in the mobile version, the release
structure was modied. The player purchases the main
story consisting of the Prologue, Ceodore's Tale
and Kain's Tale, while the additional supplemental
installments were subsequently released as add-ons. The
penultimate episode and the two-part nale were combined into a single nal installment called The Crystals: The Planet Eater. In both versions, the player is
able to save their settings as well as their characters' status and equipment at the end of gameplay, and can also
further explore each tale to discover new items and complete special tasks. The complete game was bundled with
Final Fantasy IV and a new scenario (Final Fantasy IV:
Interlude) as the PlayStation Portable compilation Final
Fantasy IV: The Complete Collection, released in 2011. A
3D remake in the same vein as the 3D remake of Final
Fantasy IV was released for iOS and Android on November 24, 2013.

2.5.5 Reception

On August 1, 2008, Square Enix issued a press release


announcing that Final Fantasy IV: The After Years had
reached a benchmark of one million downloads (not including downloads of the free prologue chapter) in the
*
The WiiWare port of the game features several graphical rst ve months following its initial release. [15] As of
enhancements over the mobile version, including larger March* 25, 2009, it has exceeded three million paid downscreen resolution, clearer menu screens and fonts, and im- loads. [4]
proved character portraits. The English localization fol- Reviews of the WiiWare port of the game have been genlows the precedents set by the DS remake of Final Fan- erally positive, with an overall score of 75% at Gamtasy IV, featuring similar writing and making use of the eRankings.com.* [16] IGN gave the game an 8 out of
same translations of names and terminology. A few ed- 10, calling the story engrossing but mysteriousand
its have been made to the English version, including the stating that the gameplay, graphics, and presentation,
modication of Ceodore's ocial character artwork to whiledated,arepart of the charm.* [17] However,
Westernize his face, as well as alterations to several fe- GameSpot gave the game a score of only 5.5 out of 10,

2.6. FINAL FANTASY V

91

saying that it had a disjointed, poorly constructed nar- [17] Jeremy Dunham (2009-06-17). Final Fantasy IV: The
After Years Review. IGN. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
rativeand an excessively high encounter rate, and criticized recycledcontent such as the music, graphics,
environments, and story.* [18] Jason Schreier of Kotaku [18] Lark Anderson (2009-06-17). Final Fantasy IV: The
After Years Review for Wii. GameSpot. Retrieved
also gave the game an extremely negative review, calling
2009-06-21.
*
itthe worst Final Fantasy game. [19] The After Years
was nominated for Game of the Year by Nintendo Power, [19] http://kotaku.com/5924569/
as well as WiiWare Game of the Year.* [20]
forget-mystic-quest-this-is-the-worst-final-fantasy-game

2.5.6

See also

2.5.7

References

[20] Nintendo Power 250th issue!. South San Francisco, California: Future US. 2010. p. 73.

2.5.8 External links

[1] http://dlgames.square-enix.com/ff/ff4tay/en/
[2] Yin-Poole, Wesley (26 September 2013). FF4: The
After Years iOS and Android port out this winter.
Eurogamer. Gamer Network. Retrieved 29 September
2013.
[3] A new tale about the moon is spun on mobile phones
Final Fantasy IV the After: Tsuki no Kikan[Interview
and Pictures]". 2007-12-21. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
[4] Square Enix Announces New Downloadble Titles for
Nintendo's Wii (Press release). Square Enix. 2009-0325. Retrieved 2009-03-25.

Ocial North American website


Ocial Japanese website (WiiWare version)
Ocial Japanese website (feature phone version)
Ocial Japanese website (smart phone version)
Final Fantasy Wiki page

2.6 Final Fantasy V

[5] Dprez, Rgis (2009-07-08). FFIV The After Years:


new images. Gamekyo. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

[10]
[11]
[12]

Final Fantasy V (V Fainaru


Final Fantasy 4: The After Years coming to iOS, Android Fantaj Faibu) is a medieval-fantasy role-playing video
game developed and published by Square (now Square
this winter [Update]
Enix) in 1992 as a part of the Final Fantasy series. The
V-Jump Magazine, February 2008 Issue
game rst appeared only in Japan on Nintendo's Super
Famicom
(known internationally as the Super Nintendo
Famitsu Magazine, March 2008 Issue
Entertainment System). It has been ported with minor
Famitsu.com (2007-12-28). Takashi Tokita Talks Fi- dierences to Sony's PlayStation and Nintendo's Game
nal Fantasy IV the After: Return of the Moon". Retrieved Boy Advance. An original video animation produced in
2008-03-20.
1994 called Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals serves
as
a sequel to the events depicted in the game. It was reYoshi Sato (1up.com) (2007-12-19). More Details on
leased for the PlayStation Network on April 6, 2011 in
Final Fantasy IV's Sequel. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
Japan. An enhanced port of the game, with new high resO'Connor, Michael (2008-09-20). Final Fantasy IV se- olution graphics and touch-based interface, was released
quel coming to the west?".
for iPhone and iPad on March 28, 2013 with Android
Hateld, Daemon (2009-02-27). Final Fantasy IV Se- released on September 25, 2013.
quel Heads to Wii. IGN. Retrieved 2009-02-27.

[13] Spencer (2009-02-23). FFIV Sequel Coming Here As


Final Fantasy IV: The After Years?". Siliconera. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
[14] Ocial United Kingdom Final Fantasy IV: The After
Years site
[15] Square Enix (2008-08-01).i EZweb

IV
5 100
" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2008-08-03.

The game begins as a wanderer named Bartz investigates


a fallen meteor. There, he encounters several characters,
one of whom reveals the danger facing the four Crystals
that control the world's elements. These Crystals act as
a seal on Exdeath, an evil sorcerer. Bartz and his party
must keep the Crystals from being exploited by Exdeath's
inuence and prevent his resurgence.

Final Fantasy V has been praised for the freedom of


customization that the player has over the characters,
achieved through the greatly expanded Job System. Despite being released only in Japan, the Super Famicom
version sold more than two million copies. The PlaySta[16] Final Fantasy IV: The After Years for Wii. tion version has earned "Greatest Hits" status, selling
GameRankings. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
more than 350,000 copies.

92

2.6.1

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

Gameplay

Final Fantasy V includes many standard role-playing elements as well as renovated features introduced in earlier Final Fantasy games. Players navigate from a topdown perspective; a traversable overworld connects the
various towns, dungeons, and other points of interest.
The player can traverse the overworld by foot, Chocobo,
hydra-guided ship, wind drake, or airship, depending on
the situation. Most towns contain scattered inns for resting, shops for purchasing equipment, and people from
whom the player can gain information. The player may
also embark on several side quests that become available
as the story progresses.* [6] Characters grow in strength
by gaining experience points from random encounters
with monsters on the overworld or in a dungeon. Experience culminates in a level up, in which character The Job System is a dening feature of Final Fantasy V
attributes, such as hit points or magic power, increase.
A menu-based management system allows the player to
equip, heal, and change each character's selected job out- points.* [7] Characters gain job levels after accumulating
side of battle as well as to save the game's progress.* [7] AP; as with regular levels, the required amount of expeFinal Fantasy V is the second Final Fantasy game to use rience increases after each job level. AP and job levels
the Active Time Battle (ATB) system, in which time ows do not transfer from class to class. As job levels increase,
continuously for both the player and enemies during com- new skills become available for the character to use in a
bat.* [7] This system was rst established in Final Fantasy new form of customization; characters learn job-specic
IV, but in that game there was no way to visibly anticipate abilities that may be transferred to a new job. For examwhich character's turn would come up next.* [8] In Final ple, a character with the Knight job who has also earned
Fantasy V, the player can see which playable character's job levels as a Black Mage may set Black Magic as a secturn is next in battle, in the form of a time gaugeor ondary command, enabling both Black Mage and Knight
ATB Barwhich lls according to a character's speed. abilities in battle. The nature of these abilities varies;
When the selected character's turn arrives, the player can while some serve as special commands in battle, others
execute one of several commands, such as attacking the may be innate to the class or activated automatically when
enemy with an equipped weapon, using a special ability conditions are met, such as the Thief's Cautionskill,
*
sysor item, or changing the character's row position.* [9] The which prevents rear attacks from enemies. [11] This
*
tem
allows
for
deeper
customization
of
characters.
[12]
ATB mechanic with a gauge, as seen in Final Fantasy V,
is used in four of the following titles in the series.* [1]

2.6.2 Plot
Job System
Setting
See also: Final Fantasy character classes
The main feature of the gameplay of Final Fantasy V
is the Job System. Players can freely select jobs (also
called classes) for their characters to master, allowing each character to gain special abilities and potentially
master all 22 jobs (26 in the Game Boy Advance version).
Each character begins with only the Freelancerclass;
to gain access to new jobs, players must acquire crystal
shards.* [7] This system is basically an improved version
of the one in Final Fantasy III; several older jobs were either reused or revamped for Final Fantasy V, such as the
Black Mage and Thief. The game also introduces several classes to the series, including the Blue Mage, Time
Mage, and Mime.* [10] Each of these classes has been
featured in numerous Final Fantasy installments since.

The backstory of Final Fantasy V is revealed in phases


through cutscenes and interactions with non-playable
characters. One millennium before the events of the main
story, a powerful mage named Enuo imperiled the world
using the power of an evil entity called theVoid. The
people retaliated by using twelve legendary weapons to
vanquish Enuo; however, the Void itself could not be destroyed. Consequently, the people split the world's four
elemental Crystals into two sets, eectively creating two
worlds. The Void then became sealed in a dimensional
cleft between the two worlds.* [13]

Nearly a thousand years passed without incident, and


both worlds prospered due to the powers of their Crystals of Wind, Water, Fire, and Earth. New kingdoms
Once the player gains access to the job system, char- and towns ourished, and travel by ship acted as a critiacters begin to earn a separate form of experience cal means of commerce and communication. However, a
Ability Points in conjunction with regular experience sinister force was stirring in the second worldever since

2.6. FINAL FANTASY V


the Void incident, malicious demons had been sealed inside a tree in the Great Forest of Moore. The corrupted
amalgamation of spirits emerged as Exdeath, the game's
primary antagonist. When Exdeath attempted to claim
the world for himself, a group of heroes called theFour
Warriors of Dawn(Galuf, Xezat, Dorgann, and Kelger)
sealed him within the rst world using its Crystals, and
peace returned for another thirty years.* [14]

93
Story
Final Fantasy V begins on a day when the world's wind
currents begin to slow and stale. Deeply troubled by this
occurrence, the king of Tycoon makes ready to travel to
the Wind Shrine on the back of his drake, quelling the
worries of his daughter, Princess Lenna. Upon arriving
at the Shrine, the king bears witness to the Wind Crystal
shattering before his eyes.

Meanwhile, a young traveller named Bartz, resting in the


woods near Tycoon, witnesses a meteorite plunge to the
planet's surface just outside the castle. Bartz promptly investigates, discovering Lenna lying unconscious from attack. After rescuing her, they discover an old man in the
debris with partial amnesia named Galuf. Lenna explains
that she had been on her way to the Wind Shrine after her
father. Galuf suddenly recalls that it was his original destination as well, opting to accompany her. Though the
trio part ways, Bartz soon encounters Lenna and Galuf
again assaulted by monsters in a quaking valley. The three
travel together, nding all land routes blockaded by the
upheavals caused by the meteorite's fall. Exploring an
underground cavern, they encounter a den of pirates and
their leader, Faris. With the help of the pirate captain, the
Concept art of the playable characters of Final Fantasy V by group makes its way to the Wind Shrine to discover the
Yoshitaka Amano; from left, Bartz, Krile, Lenna, and Faris
shattered Crystal, but no sign of the missing king. The
shards react to their presence, however, and an image of
that they must proFinal Fantasy V features ve player characters, though Tycoon appears, explaining to them
*
tect
those
Crystals
that
yet
remain.
[18]
only four of which are playable at a given time. Bartz
Klauser is a traveling adventurer who becomes involved Eventually, the party comes to discover that the Crystals
in the story when he investigates the site of a meteorite formed a seal upon Exdeath; with them destroyed, not
strike. Lenna Charlotte Tycoon is a princess of Tycoon only would the dark essence be released, but over time
who follows her father to investigate the Wind Shrine's the planet itself would become uninhabitable.* [19] The
Crystal. Early on, Bartz nds her unconscious and saves party attempts to save the crystals of Water, Fire, and
her from goblins. Galuf Doe is a mysterious old man Earth; but by the machinations of human folly or the
who was discovered unconscious near the meteorite with inuence of the sealed Exdeath, they fail. Having been
a case of amnesia. Faris Scherwiz is a pirate captain who freed, Exdeath defeats the party and returns to his homecaptures Bartz, Lenna, and Galuf when they try to steal world. Galuf's granddaughter Krile arrives by meteorite,
her ship; she is revealed to be Sarisa Scherwill Tycoon in restoring Galuf's memory completely; he recalls he origidisguise. Krile Mayer Baldesion is the granddaughter of nated from the same world as Exdeath, pursuing him back
Galuf who journeys with him to the planet and receives home with Krile. Bartz and the others resolve that the
ght is not Galuf's alone, together traveling to the distant
his abilities.* [15]
Most of the main characters were involved with or re- planet world, where Exdeath is already wreaking havoc
lated to the original Four Warriors of Dawn, such as Dor- in pursuit of that world's Crystals. The trio is captured,
gann Klauser (Bartz's father), Kelger Vlondett, and Xezat but Galuf rescues them and defeats Exdeath's lieutenant,
Matias Surgate; Galuf was the fourth warrior. The game Gilgamesh, in the process. They are blown to a distant
also contains several supporting characters, including en- continent when a magical barrier is activated during their
but make their way to Val Castle, Galuf's kinggineer Cid Previa, his grandson Mid Previa, and turtle escape,
*
dom.
[20]
sage Ghido. One of Exdeath's henchmen, Gilgamesh, is
Characters

a recurring mini-boss in the second half of the game. Gilgamesh has also appeared in newer Final Fantasy titles,
such as Final Fantasy VIII, Final Fantasy XII,* [16]* [17]
Final Fantasy XIII-2 as downloadable content, and Final
Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn. Concept art for the characters was designed by Yoshitaka Amano; he has oered
such artwork for every main Final Fantasy installment
since the original.

The party meets Xezat, one of Galuf's companions and a


former Warrior of Dawn, and learn that Bartz's father was
part of their group. Joining forces, they deactivate the
barrier around Exdeath's castle, but at the cost of Xezat's
life. They then learn of Exdeath's origins, traveling to the
Guardian Tree to dispel the seals. Exdeath anticipates the
party's actions and torches Moore Forest, ensnaring the
group. Krile arrives to help, but is herself trapped by the

94

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

warlock's powers. At the sight of his granddaughter's capture, Galuf frees himself and battles Exdeath to the point
of death, refusing to fall until the creature ees. Collapsing from his wounds, Galuf dies despite the party's efforts to save him, imparting his abilities to Krile.* [21]
The party pursues Exdeath to his tower and defeats him,
but the remaining Crystals shatter and the worlds are reunited.

tal, Square employed a team of 45 people to create the


game, and 16 MB of space were used to accommodate
for the sprites, animations, and detailed background. According to GamePro in a May 1993 issue, the Japanese
authorities had asked Square not to release the game during a school day because schoolchildren would skip class
to wait in line for the game.* [30]

For a time, it seems Exdeath has been truly destroyed,


and the party celebrates in Tycoon. Bartz, however, is
contacted by the sage Ghido. Meeting with him, a thorn
suddenly leaps from Faris' palm, manifesting as Exdeath,
now resurrected and fully in command of the Void. With
it, he removes entire towns and kingdoms from existence,
tossing them into a tear in reality.
Fortunately for the party, the reunication of worlds has
opened the pathways to ancient sites where weapons and
powers used to quell Enuo's rise a thousand years past
lay in wait. So armed, the party enters the Rift, seeking out Exdeath at the center of the inter-dimensional
nexus where they, too, fall prey to the Void. With help
from their fallen allies, the party survives and is returned
before Exdeath, now manifested as a demonic sylvan,
battling him until he weakens and is swallowed by his
own power. He then transforms into Neo Exdeath, intent on destroying the very essence of reality, himself
with it.* [22] Exdeath is ultimately defeated, and, using
the power of the Crystal shards, the heroes seal the Void
once more and restore the reunied world and its Crystals. The game's ending varies based on how many party
members are still alive at Neo Exdeath's defeat, detailing
the events after the world's resurrection. At the end, the
remaining group visits the Guardian Tree, and nd that
the fallen party members have returned to life.* [23]

2.6.3

Development

Final Fantasy V was one of the rst games to be fan-translated


in its entirety

The ocial English translation of Final Fantasy V began shortly after the release of the Japanese version. The
game was to be titled "Final Fantasy III" in North America, but the project fell through.* [31] Square then announced that due to its diering tone and much higher
diculty from the rest of the series, they would be releasing it in North America as a standalone game with
a yet-to-be-determined title, rather than part of the Final Fantasy series.* [32] This plan was quickly aborted.
Translator Ted Woolsey explained in a 1994 interview,
"[Final Fantasy V is] just not accessible enough to the
average gamer.* [33] Rumors circulated that a second
attempt at localization would be made and that the game
would be titled Final Fantasy Extreme, but this attempt
was also canceled. A third attempt was made to port the
game to Microsoft Windows-based personal computers
for North American release by developer Top Dog Software, but this was canceled.* [31] Another attempt to port
the game to Windows for North America was handled
by Eidos Interactive" circa 1998 (but it is unclear whether
this is the same version Top Dog Software was working
on or an actual fourth attempt).* [34] The continual canceling of the localization angered fans and led to Final
Fantasy V becoming one of the rst games to receive a
complete fan translation.* [31]

Final Fantasy V was directed by Final Fantasy series


creator Hironobu Sakaguchi who, prior to the release
of Final Fantasy IX, called it his favorite Final Fantasy game.* [24]* [25] The character, image, and title
logo designs were created by series illustrator and image designer Yoshitaka Amano, while the actual character sprites were designed by Kazuko Shibuya.* [26] The
monsters were designed by Tetsuya Nomura.* [24]* [27]
Amano has stated that he counts his depictions of both
Faris from Final Fantasy V and Terra from Final Fantasy VI among his favorite Final Fantasy designs.* [28]
The writing of the scenario text was a collaborative eort
between Sakaguchi and Yoshinori Kitase.* [3] Sakaguchi
conceived the plot and was in charge of it, while Kitase
tried to include more humor to lighten up the relatively
serious story.* [3]* [29] The Job System was designed by
Hiroyuki Ito, who worked on the game as a battle planner Music
alongside Akihiko Matsui.* [1]* [2]* [24] Mode 7 eects
were used in the airship sequences, which moving in the Main article: Music of Final Fantasy V
airship would cause the planet to rotate on its axis. In to-

2.6. FINAL FANTASY V


The game's soundtrack was composed by Nobuo Uematsu and consists of 56 tracks.* [35] A two-disc album
was released alongside the game totaling 67 tracks.* [36]
Uematsu had originally calculated that the game would require more than 100 pieces of music, but he managed to
reduce the number to 56.* [37] The songDear Friends
would become the title piece in the 2004 concert tour
Dear Friends -Music from Final Fantasy-, chosen to reect Uematsu's appreciation for his music's worldwide
fan support.* [38] The song Clash on the Big Bridge
would later be arranged by Hitoshi Sakimoto for the Final
Fantasy XII Original Soundtrack in 2006.* [39]
The album Final Fantasy V: 5+1 was released in 1992
and contained ve songs from the original score as well as
a previously unreleased Super Famicom version ofMatoya's Cavefrom the original 1987 Final Fantasy for the
Nintendo Entertainment System.* [40] A collection of arranged tracks, Final Fantasy V Dear Friends; a 13-track
disc, Piano Collections Final Fantasy V; and a short series
of remixes, Final Fantasy V: Mambo de Chocobo, were
all released in 1993.* [41] Finally, many of the original
songs were included on the North American Final Fantasy Anthology Soundtrack, together with the two-game
compilation.* [42]

2.6.4

Ports and remakes

Final Fantasy V was ported by Tose to the Sony


PlayStation and re-released in Japan on March 19, 1998;
it was included in the 1999 release of Final Fantasy Collection, alongside Final Fantasy IV and Final Fantasy
VI.* [43]* [44] The PlayStation version boasted two new
full motion video opening and ending sequences and a
memo-savefeature, but the game otherwise remained
unchanged.* [7]* [45] Square released 50,000 limited edition copies of the collection which included a Final Fantasy-themed alarm clock.* [44] In the same year, Square
released the PlayStation compilation Final Fantasy Anthology in North America, which included Final Fantasy V, as well as the PlayStation version of Final Fantasy VI. This would mark the rst time the game was
published outside Japan, nearly seven years after its initial release.* [46] In 2002, Square released this version of
the game in Europe and Australia, this time alongside
Final Fantasy IV.* [47]* [48] The English version of the
game received changes from its original format - most
notably, Faris was given a Cornish pirateaccent and
there was a dierent interpretation of character names,
such as the names Bartzas opposed to Butzand
Gillas opposed to Guido, the ocial romanizations in Japan.* [49] On December 18, 2012 the port was
re-released as part of the Final Fantasy 25th Anniversary
Ultimate Box Japanese package.* [50]

95
to save their games, a graphical error would occur.* [51]
Square then released a statement that only the look of the
save screen was corrupted, and saving was still possible,
and if players wished, repeatedly going into and out of
the save screen would make a normal screen eventually
appear.* [51] This incompatibility was xed for the PAL
and Greatest Hits releases of Final Fantasy Anthology.
Final Fantasy V was ported a second time by Tose to
the Nintendo Game Boy Advance as Final Fantasy V
Advance, which was released on October 12, 2006, in
Japan, November 6, 2006, in North America, and April
20, 2007, in Europe.* [52] Similar to the Game Boy Advance re-releases of its predecessors, this version features updated graphics, though the changes are very subtle.* [53] Additional features include four new jobs (Gladiator, Cannoneer, Necromancer, and Oracle), a new dungeon called The Sealed Temple, and a new optional
boss from the back story of Final Fantasy V, Enuo, which
was designed by Tetsuya Nomura, the monster designer
of the original game.* [53]* [54] In addition, the game included a bestiary, a quick save function, music player, and
additional equipment in the style of previous Game Boy
Advance re-releases.* [55] Like the remakes of its predecessors, Final Fantasy V Advance featured a new English
translation.* [53]
The original version of the game was released on the
Virtual Console in Japan in January 2011 for the Wii and
in March 2014 for the Wii U, and the PlayStation version
of the game was re-released on the PlayStation Network
as a PSone Classic in Japan on April 6, 2011, in Europe
on April 13, 2011 and in North America on November
22, 2011.
On April 27, 2010, Square Enix producer Shinji
Hashimoto stated that the development of a remake of
Final Fantasy V for the Nintendo DS is at present undecideddue to technical issues.* [56] However, on
June 24, 2010, he added that a remake for the Nintendo
3DS is being considered, but he would rst have tolook
and see how 3DS does, how it evolves, and then make a
decision. In December 2012 Square Enix announced
that an updated version of the game will be released on
the IOS AppStore.* [57] The enhanced port, which was
developed by Matrix Software, was released on March
28, 2013 on iOS devices, with an Android release on 26
September.* [58] The game features new high resolution
graphics with sprites designed by Kazuko Shibuya, who
did the original game's artwork, new gameplay features
such as movement in eight directions and auto-battle, and
contains the Sealed Temple and super-boss Enuo from the
Game Boy Advance release.* [58]

2.6.5 Sequel

Following the release of the PlayStation 2, Sony reported


that the new system had compatibility issues with the Main article: Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals
Final Fantasy V half of Final Fantasy Anthology.* [51]
The game experienced a bug where if players attempted In 1994, Square released an original video animation se-

96

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

quel to Final Fantasy V, simply titled Final Fantasy. Produced by animation studio Madhouse, the anime was released in four 30-minute VHS tapes in Japan and was set
two hundred years after the game.* [59]* [60] The story
focuses on four warriors, one of them the descendant of
Bartz,* [61] protecting the Wind Crystal from the villain
Deathgyunos, who pursues it to achieve godhood.* [62] It
was localized by Urban Vision in 1998 and released in
two VHS volumes for North America under the title Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals.* [63]

2.6.6

Reception

Final Fantasy V has sold 2.45 million units on the Super


Famicom,* [73] (including 2 million copies during its rst
two months of release* [30]) while the Japanese Game
Boy Advance version has sold nearly 260,000 copies as of
December 2007.* [74] Final Fantasy Collection sold over
400,000 copies in 1999, making it the 31st best selling
release of that year in Japan.* [75] The North American
release of Final Fantasy Anthology sold 364,000 copies
as of 2004.* [72]* [76]

features. They further stated that while the game's characters seemed unlikable and that the plot feltpredictable
or trite, they felt the game was still more sophisticated
than most games at the time, giving the game a score of
8.5.* [70] Nintendo Power stated thatwhile playing Final
Fantasy V is a chore on the PlayStation, it's good fun on
the GBA because of the vastly improved translation and
new features, further calling it thedenitiveversion
of one of the series' best titles.* [80] IGN gave the game a
score of 8.5, calling it amust-ownfor the portable system and describing it further as always an entertaining
and surprisingly deep role-playing game.* [81] 1UP.com
stated the port of the game from the Super Famicom to
the Game Boy Advance was rock solid, and added
that while the game's story started o at a slow pace, it
gradually improved. The review further praised the addition of features and removal of questionable ones that had
been added to the Anthology version of the game.* [66]
GameDaily gave the game a score of 7/10, noting that
while enjoyable, the high encounter rate, the necessity to
constantly engage in battle to gain abilities through the job
system, and other aspects made the game feel repetitive
at times.* [71]

While not initially released in North America, the


game received mixed reception from import reviews. 2.6.7 Notes
1UP.com's sta stated that while the game's story was
very weak, the gameplay was another story, heav- [1] Unless otherwise noted, review scores are for the Game
Boy Advance version.
ily praising the job system and the feature to combine
abilities from dierent job classes, and gave it a score of
B-.* [25] Allgame's review shared similar sentiments re2.6.8 References
garding the storyline and job system, adding praise for
the addition of hidden events and items for players to [1] Boulette, Bryan. Square Enix's Finest. RPGamer.
search for, giving the game a score of 3.5 out of 5.* [67]
CraveOnline. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
RPGamer found that the game improved on the visual
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1. RPGamer. Retrieved 2011-02-21.
Final Fantasy IV, but the maddeningly high encounter
rate,average sound selection, andwashed outcolor [3] Parish, Jeremy (2010-02-24). Final Fantasy: Kitase's
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September 11, 2010.
5/10.* [77]
Critics likewise gave mixed reviews of the Anthology version of the game. GameSpot criticized the game for havingpaper-thin charactersand a cliche plot, augmented
by a lack of character development during the game's
fetch quests. They went further to say that the translation was terrible and overshadowed by the two previous
fan eorts.* [12] IGN called Final Fantasy V's graphics
datedbut citedincredibly engrossingjob system as
the game's highlight and praised its music.* [78] Electronic
Gaming Monthly repeated the sentiments towards the job
system, adding that while the game suered from long
load times periodically, Final Fantasy V was the main
reason to buy the collection.* [79]
In comparison, reviews of the Game Boy Advance rerelease of the game were mostly positive. GameSpot's review regarded the game more favorably than its PlayStation counterpart, calling it better than everand citing
the strong localization of the script and extensive special

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2009.

[43] Final Fantasy V. GameSpot. Retrieved April 18, 2013.

[50] Gantayat, Anoop (August 31, 2012). Full Final Fantasy 25th Anniversary Ultimate Box Game List. Andriasang. Archived from the original on September 2, 2012.
Retrieved September 2, 2012.
[51] Wanlin, Matthew. Square Responds to PlayStation 2
Incompatibilities. RPGamer. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
[52] Alfonso, Andrew (2006-10-16). Final Fantasy V Advance Hands-On. IGN. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved
2008-07-29.
[53] Dunham, Jeremy (January 8, 2007). Final Fantasy V
Advance Review. IGN. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved
July 29, 2008.
[54] Gann, Patrick (December 4, 2006). Final Fantasy V
Advance. RPGFan. Retrieved November 7, 2010.

[67] Borowski, David.Final Fantasy V. Allgame. All Media


Group. Retrieved 2009-07-03.
[68]Final Fantasy V Advance Review. Electronic Gaming
Monthly (January 2007) (Zi Davis). p. 111.
[69] [story-spoiler Famitsu: Final Fantasy XIII Misses Perfect Score [Story Spoiler!"]. Kotaku. 2009-10-08.
Archived from the original on August 4, 2011. Retrieved
2011-04-23.
[70] Kasavin, Greg (2006-11-15).Final Fantasy V Advance
. GameSpot. Retrieved July 29, 2008.
[71] Faylor, Chris (2006-11-08).Final Fantasy V Advance.
GameDaily. AOL. Archived from the original on October
25, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-03.

[55] Nintendo Power sta (2006-11-06). One of the forgottenFINAL FANTASY games is nally being brought
back to life for Game Boy Advance. Nintendo Power, Issue 208. Archived from the original on 2006-11-16. Retrieved 2007-07-27.

[72] Sta (2006-03-03).Japan Votes on All Time Top 1000


. Edge. Retrieved 2008-07-11.

[56] Final Fantasy V and VI Have Technical Issueson


DS. Archived from the original on April 30, 2010.

[74]Nintendo GBA Japanese Ranking. Japan Game Charts.


2008-07-08. Archived from the original on December 30,
2008. Retrieved 2008-07-11.

[57] Eddie Makuch (December 21, 2012). Final Fantasy V


coming to iOS. GameSpot. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
[58] Mark Brown (March 27, 2013). Final Fantasy V gets
swish new graphics in pricey iOS remake. Pocket
Gamer. Retrieved March 27, 2013.

[73] Japan Platinum Game Chart. The Magic Box. Retrieved 2009-07-02.

[75] 1999 Top 100 Best Selling Japanese Console Games.


The Magic Box. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
[76]US Platinum Videogame Chart. The Magic Box. 200712-27. Retrieved 2006-08-11.

2.7. FINAL FANTASY VI

[77] Long, Andrew. Final Fantasy VImport Retroview.


RPGamer. Retrieved August 11, 2006.
[78] Reyes, Francesca (1999-10-07). Final Fantasy Anthology. IGN. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved 2006-07-27.
[79] Hsu, Dan; Che Chou; Crispin Boyer; Chris Kohler
(November 1999). Electronic Gaming Monthly (124):
248.
[80]Quote from Chris Homan. Nintendo Power (212)
(Future US). p. 99.

99
instance, it was ranked as the number one RPG of all time
by IGN.* [7] Its Super Nintendo and PlayStation versions
have sold over 3.48 million copies worldwide to date as a
stand-alone game, as well as over 750,000 copies as part
of the Japanese Final Fantasy Collection and the North
American Final Fantasy Anthology. Final Fantasy VI has
won numerous awards since its release.

2.7.1 Gameplay

[81] Dunham, Jeremy (2007-01-08). Final Fantasy V Advance. IGN. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved 2009-07-03.

Like previous Final Fantasy installments, Final Fantasy VI consists of four basic modes of gameplay: an
overworld map, town and dungeon eld maps, a battle
screen, and a menu screen. The overworld map is a
2.6.9 External links
scaled-down version of the game's ctional world, which
the player uses to direct characters to various locations.
Ocial Final Fantasy V website (US Anthology ver- As with most games in the series, the three primary means
sion)
of travel across the overworld are by foot, chocobo, and
Nintendo's Ocial Final Fantasy V Advance website airship. With a few plot-driven exceptions, enemies are
randomly encountered on eld maps and on the overworld
Ocial Final Fantasy V Advance website (Japanese) when traveling by foot. The menu screen is where the
player makes such decisions as which characters will be
in the traveling party, which equipment they wield, the
magic they learn, and the conguration of the gameplay.
2.7 Final Fantasy VI
It is also used to track experience points and levels.* [8]
Final Fantasy VI ( VI
Fainaru Fantaj Shikkusu, also known as Final Fantasy
III for the SNES version) is a role-playing video game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) for
the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) platform. Released in 1994, it is the sixth title in the mainline Final Fantasy series. Set in a fantasy world with a
technology level equivalent to that of the Second Industrial Revolution, the game's story focuses on a group of
rebels as they seek to overthrow an imperial dictatorship.
The game features fourteen permanent playable characters, the most of any game in the main series.
It was ported by Tose with minor dierences to Sony's
PlayStation in 1999 and Nintendo's Game Boy Advance
in 2006, and it was released for the Wii's Virtual Console
in Japan in March 15, 2011, followed by the PAL region
on March 18, 2011 and North America on June 30, 2011.
The game was known as Final Fantasy III when it was rst
released in North America, as the original Final Fantasy
III had not been released outside of Japan at the time.
However, most later localizations used the original title.
Final Fantasy VI was the rst game in the series to be
directed by someone other than producer and series creator Hironobu Sakaguchi; the role was lled instead by
Yoshinori Kitase and Hiroyuki Ito. Yoshitaka Amano,
a long-time contributor to the Final Fantasy series, returned as the image and character designer, while regular
composer Nobuo Uematsu wrote the game's score, which
has been released on several soundtrack albums.

The game's plot develops as the player progresses through


towns and dungeons. Town citizens will oer helpful
information and some residents own item or equipment
shops. Later in the game, visiting certain towns will activate side-quests. Dungeons appear as a variety of areas, including caves, sewers, forests, and buildings. These
dungeons often have treasure chests containing rare items
that are not available in most stores. Some dungeons feature puzzles and mazes, which require the player to divide
the characters into multiple parties.* [8]

Combat

Final Fantasy VI was released to critical acclaim and is


seen as a landmark title for the role-playing genre; for A battle in Final Fantasy VI

100

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

Combat in Final Fantasy VI is menu-based, in which the


player selects an action from a list of such options as
Fight, Magic, and Item. A maximum of four characters
may be used in battles, which are based on the series' traditional Active Time Battle (ATB) system rst featured in
Final Fantasy IV. Under this system, each character has
an action bar that replenishes itself at a rate dependent
on their speed statistic. When a character's action bar is
lled, the player may assign an action. In addition to standard battle techniques, each character possesses a unique
special ability. For example, Locke possesses the ability
to steal items from enemies, while Celes' Runic ability allows her to absorb most magical attacks cast until her next
turn.* [9]
Another element is a powerful attack substitution that occasionally appears when a character's health is low. Similar features appear in later Final Fantasy titles under a variety of dierent names, including Limit Breaks, Desperation Moves, Trances, and Overdrives.* [10] Characters
are rewarded for victorious battles with experience points
and money, called gil (Gold Piece (GP) in the original
North American localization). When characters attain a
certain amount of experience points, they gain a level,
which increases their statistics. An additional player may
play during battle scenarios, with control of individual
characters assigned from the conguration menu.* [9]

Customization
Characters in Final Fantasy VI can be equipped with a
wide variety of weapons, armor and accessories (known
asRelics) to increase their statistics and obtain special
abilities. Most of this equipment can be used by several
dierent characters, and each character may equip up to
two Relics. Relics have a variety of uses and eects, some
of which alter basic battle commands, allow characters to
use multiple weapons, provide permanent status changes
during battle or use protective magical spells in response
to being near death.* [11]
Although only two characters start the game with the ability to use magic, almost every character can learn to do
so. Characters may equip magicite, which enables the
summoning of espers, this game's incarnation of summoned monsters (including several recurring summons
such as Ifrit, Shiva, Bahamut and Odin, along with many
new summons exclusive to Final Fantasy VI), as well as
that of specic magic spells. If a character has a piece of
magicite equipped, he or she will gain Magic Acquisition Pointsafter most battles. As a character gains magic
AP, he or she gradually learns spells from the magicite
equipped and will gain additional statistic bonuses when
leveling up, depending on the magicite.* [12]

2.7.2

Plot

Setting
Final Fantasy VI takes place on a large, unnamed world.
During the course of the game, its geography and landscape change due to various developments in the game's
plot. During the rst half of the game, the world is divided into three major continents and referred to as the
World of Balance. The northern continent is punctuated
by a series of mountain ranges and contains many of the
locations accessible to the player. Most of the southern
continent has been taken over by the Empire, while the
eastern continent is home to a large patch of land called
the Veldt where monsters from all over the world can be
found. Halfway through the game, the world's geographical layout is altered, resulting in its three large continents splitting into several islands of various size situated
around a larger continent at their center. This altered layout of the game's locations is referred to as the World of
Ruin.
In contrast to the medieval settings featured in previous Final Fantasy titles, Final Fantasy VI is set in a
steampunk environment. The structure of society parallels that of the latter half of the 19th century, with opera
and the ne arts serving as recurring motifs throughout
the game,* [13] and a level of technology comparable to
that of the Second Industrial Revolution. Railroads and
steamships are in use, and a coal mining operation is run
in the northern town of Narshe.* [14] Additionally, several examples of modern engineering and weaponry (such
as a chainsaw, drill and automatic crossbow) have been
developed in the Kingdom of Figaro. However, communication systems have not reached signicant levels of development, with letters sent by way of carrier pigeon serving as the most common means of long-distance communication.
A thousand years before the events of the game, three
entities known as the Warring Triad initiated a conict
that would come to be called the War of the Magi. This
quarrel grew to catastrophic proportions, unleashing magical energy into the world which transformed aicted humans into espersmagical beings who themselves were
used as soldiers in the war. Eventually realizing the horric calamity wrought by their hands, the Triad returned
free will to the espers and sealed their own powers, becoming stone statues. Their only request was that the espers ensure their power remain locked away so it might
never be used again.* [15] The espers carried their stone
gods to a hidden land, sealing both the statues and themselves o from the realm of humans. The concept of
magic gradually faded to legend and myth as mankind
built a society extolling science and technology.* [14] At
the game's opening, the most advanced nation is the Empire, a cruel and expanding dictatorship led by Emperor
Gestahl and his clownish general Kefka. Approximately
eighteen years before the events of the game begin, the
barrier between the espers' land and the rest of the world
weakened. Soon after, Gestahl takes advantage of this

2.7. FINAL FANTASY VI


and attacks the espers' land, capturing several of them.
Using the espers as a power source, Gestahl initiated
a research program to combine magic with machinery
and infuse humans with magical powers, the result being a craft known as Magitek. Kefka became the
rst experimental prototype of a line of magically empowered soldiers called Magitek Knights, drastically impairing his sanity.* [16] Magitek innovations have allowed
the Empire to supplement its forces with mechanical infantry, armed with Magitek-powered weaponry.* [17] At
the opening of the game, the Empire is on the verge of rediscovering the full potential of magic by reopening the
gateway to the world of the espers. However, Gestahl's
military dominion is opposed by the Returners, a rebel
organization seeking to overthrow the Empire and free
its territories.

Characters
Main article: Characters of Final Fantasy VI
Final Fantasy VI features fourteen permanent playable
characters, the most of any game in the main series,
as well as several secondary characters who are only
briey controlled by the player. The starting character, Terra Branford, is a reserved half-human, half-esper
girl who spent most of her life as a slave to the Empire, thanks to a mind-controlling device, and is unfamiliar with love.* [18] Other primary characters include
Locke Cole, a treasure hunter and rebel sympathizer with
a powerful impulse to protect women; Celes Chere, a former general of the Empire, who joined the Returners after being jailed for questioning imperial practices; Edgar
Figaro, a consummate womanizer and the king of Figaro, who claims allegiance to the Empire while secretly
supplying aid to the Returners;* [19] Sabin Rene Figaro,
Edgar's brother, who ed the royal court in order to pursue his own path and hone his martial arts skills; Cyan
Garamonde, a loyal knight to the kingdom of Doma who
lost his family and friends as a result of Kefka poisoning the kingdom's water supply; Setzer Gabbiani, a habitual gambler and thrill seeker and owner of the world's
only airship; Shadow, a ninja mercenary, who oers his
services to both the Empire and the Returners at various stages throughout the game; Relm Arrowny, a young
but tough artistic girl with magical powers; Strago Magus, Relm's elderly grandfather and a Blue Mage; Gau, a
feral child surviving since infancy in the harsh wilderness
known as the Veldt; Mog, a Moogle from the mines of
Narshe; Umaro, a savage but loyal sasquatch also from
Narshe, talked into joining the Returners through Mog's
persuasion; and Gogo, a mysterious, fully shrouded master of the art of mimicry.

101
with Emperor Gestahl. The supporting character Ultros
serves as a recurring villain and comic relief throughout
the game. A handful of Final Fantasy VI characters have
reappeared in later games, such as Secret of Evermore.
Additionally, Final Fantasy SGI, a short tech demo produced for the Silicon Graphics Onyx workstation, featured polygon-based 3D renderings of Locke, Terra, and
Shadow.* [20]
Story
Final Fantasy VI begins with Terra Branford participating in an Imperial raid on Narshe in search of a recently
unearthed frozen esper (later identied as Tritoch; Valigarmanda in the GBA retranslation) found in the city's
mines. The esper kills her controllers and the Imperial
control over her is broken, but she is unable to remember anything about her past.* [21] Locke Cole, a treasure hunter, promises to protect her until she can regain her memories and helps her escape to the hideout
of the Returners, a group of militants opposing the Empire. Along the way, they pass through the Kingdom of
Figaro and meet Edgar Roni Figaro, the king, and his
estranged brother, Sabin Rene Figaro, who join them.
Banon, the leader of the Returners, asks for Terra's help
in their struggle against the Empire, and she agrees.* [22]
Just as the resistance is preparing to return to Narshe to
investigate the frozen esper, the Empire attacks South Figaro. Locke heads to the besieged town to slow the Empire's advance, while the rest of the group makes their
way via rafting down the nearby Lethe River. However,
Sabin is separated from the group after a battle with Ultros, self-proclaimed octopus royaltyand a recurring
antagonist, forcing the various members of the Returners
to nd their own ways to Narshe in three dierent scenarios controlled by the player. In Locke's scenario, he
must escape the imperial occupied town of South Figaro
without detection. Sabin has been swept to a distant continent and must nd a way back while Terra, Edgar, and
Banon will continue to oat down the Lethe River back
to Narshe.
Eventually, the original party reunites in Narshe. Locke
brings with him Celes Chere, one of the Empire's own
generals, whom he saved from execution for defying the
Empire's ruthless practices. Sabin brings with him Cyan
Garamonde, whose family was killed during the Empire's
siege of Doma Castle when Kefka ordered the water supply poisoned, and Gau, a feral child he befriended on the
Veldt. In Narshe, the Returners prepare to defend the
frozen esper from the Empire. After the player successfully thwarts the Imperial invasion, Terra approaches the
frozen esper, prompting her to transform into an esperlike form herself. She ies away, confused and horried
by her own transformation.* [23]

Most of the main characters in the game hold a signi- The Returners set out to search for Terra and eventually
cant grudge against the Empire and, in particular, Kefka, trace her to the city of Zozo, though they are still shocked
who serves as one of the game's main antagonists along by her apparent existence as an esper. There, they also

102
meet the esper Ramuh, who tells them that if they free
various other espers from the Magitek Research Facility
in the Empire's capital, Vector, they may nd one who can
help Terra.* [24] Vector is on the southern continent, to
which the Empire does not allow maritime access, so the
Returners go to the Opera House and recruit Setzer Gabbiani, who is believed to be the owner of the Blackjack,
the only airship in the world. They then travel to Vector
and attempt to rescue several espers, including Maduin,
who is revealed to be Terra's father. However, the espers are already dying from the experiments at Vector,
and choose instead to give their lives to transform into
magicitethe crystallized remains of the espers' essences
that form when they die and allow others to use their powers.* [25] The dying espers bestow their magicite upon the
Returners.* [26] Before the group can then escape, Kefka arrives and causes the Returners, including Locke, to
momentarily doubt Celes' loyalty, much to her anguish.
However, she provides proof to them of her support by
covering for the group while the rest escape.* [27] The rest
of the group then returns to Zozo, where Terra reacts to
the magicite of her father, prompting her to gain knowledge of her past and accept herself as the half-human,
half-esper child of Maduin and a human woman.* [28]

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES


forts, they are unable to prevent Kefka and Gestahl from
gaining the power of the statues. Now empowered, Kefka promptly kills Gestahl and moves the statues out of
their proper alignment, upsetting the balance of magical
power and causing the destruction of most of the surface
world. In the disaster, the Returners are separated from
one another as Setzer's airship is torn apart.

One year later, Celes awakens from a coma on a deserted


island and learns that the world has been devastated by
Kefka. Much of its human population has died and its
plant and animal life are slowly being killed by sickness
to punctuate humanity's despair.* [33] Celes sets out from
the Solitary Island to try to reunite with as many of her
friends as she can nd. One by one, in a series of mostly
optional side-quests, the player has the opportunity to reunite the group, all still alive, as well as new allies Umaro
and Gogo. Together, the reunited Returners launch a new
oensive against Kefka, using the Falconan airship that
belonged to a deceased friend of Setzer'sto reach Kefka's Tower and inltrate it. Inside, the Returners battle
their way through Kefka's defenses and destroy the three
statues, the source of Kefka's newfound power. When destroying the statues, once the source of all magic, does not
cause any noticeable reaction, the party realizes that KeAfter reuniting with Terra, the Returners decide that it is fka has successfully drained the Warring Triad of power
time to launch an all-out attack on the Empire, and Banon and has become the source of all magical power.
asks Terra to attempt contacting the espers' land in or- Making a nal stand against Kefka, the characters deder to gain their support.* [29] Terra succeeds in making stroy him, but since the gods' power had come to reside in
contact, and when the espers learn that the others cap- him all magicite begins to shatter and Kefka's magicallytured by the Empire previously have now perished, they
maintained tower begins to crumble. Terra leads the charbecome infuriated and enter the human world, where they acters out as she begins to weaken due to her half-esper
destroy much of Vector. When the Returners arrive in the
heritage.* [34] However, before her father's magicite shatcapital, they nd Emperor Gestahl claiming to no longer ters, his spirit informs her that by holding to the human
have the will to ght, inviting the Returners to a banquet
side of herself, she may survive the passing of magic. In
to negotiate peace. Gestahl asks Terra to deliver a truce the end, the party escapes Kefka's Tower aboard the Falto the espers on his behalf, to which she agrees.* [30] Accon. Terra survives, and the group observes the world's
companied by Locke, Shadow (a ninja mercenary hired communities rejuvenating themselves.
by the Empire for the mission), Generals Celes and Leo,
the player must then guide Terra to the remote village
Thamasa in search of the espers, where they meet Strago 2.7.3 Development
Magus and his granddaughter, Relm Arrowny, who also
accompany them.
Creation
Soon, they nd the espers and Terra convinces them to
accept a truce with Gestahl. However, during the negotiations, Kefka attacks the espers, killing each of those
still alive and capturing the magicite that remains from
their essence. Additionally, he kills General Leo, who is
appalled by Kefka's dishonorable tactics and attempts to
defend the espers. The Returners reunite, now aware that
the peace was a ploy for Gestahl to obtain magicite and
the stone statue remains of the Warring Triad within the
espers' now-unsealed land.* [31]* [32] Kefka and Gestahl
travel through the open gate to the esper world, nd the
Warring Triad, and prompt the island on which the esper
world is located to detach and y in the sky as an ominous Floating Continent. The Returners attempt to stop
them from causing further damage, but despite their ef-

Final Fantasy VI entered development after the release of


its predecessor Final Fantasy V in December 1992.* [1]
The development of the game took just one year to be
completed.* [35] Series creator and director Hironobu
Sakaguchi could not be as intimately involved as in previous installments due to his other projects and his promotion to Executive Vice President of the company in
1991.* [1]* [36]* [37] For that reason, he became the producer and split director responsibilities for Final Fantasy VI up between Yoshinori Kitase and Hiroyuki Ito:
Kitase was in charge of event production and the scenario, while Ito handled all battle aspects.* [1]* [38] Sakaguchi supervised Kitase's cutscene direction and ensured that the project would coalesce as a whole. The
idea behind the story of Final Fantasy VI was that every

2.7. FINAL FANTASY VI

103

character is the protagonist. All members of the development team contributed ideas for characters and their
episodesfor the overall plot in what Kitase described
as a hybrid process.* [1] Consequently, Terra and
Locke were conceived by Sakaguchi; Celes and Gau by
Kitase; Shadow and Setzer by graphic director Tetsuya
Nomura; and Edgar and Sabin by eld graphic designer
Kaori Tanaka.* [1]* [38] Then it was Kitase's task to unite
the story premise provided by Sakaguchi with all the individual ideas for character episodes to create a cohesive
narrative.* [1]* [39] The scenario of Final Fantasy VI was
written by a group of four or ve people, among them Kitase who provided key elements of the story, such as the
opera scene and Celes' suicide attempt, as well as all of
Kefka's appearances.* [36]* [40]* [41]

tured several changes from the original Japanese version.


The most obvious of these is the change of the game's
title from Final Fantasy VI to Final Fantasy III; because
only two games of the series had been localized in North
America at the time, Final Fantasy VI was distributed
as Final Fantasy III to maintain naming continuity. Unlike Final Fantasy IV (which was rst released in North
America as Final Fantasy II), there are no major changes
to gameplay, though several changes of contents and editorial adjustments exist in the English script. In a January
1995 interview with Super Play magazine, translator Ted
Woolsey explained thatthere's a certain level of playfulness and ... sexuality in Japanese games that just doesn't
exist here [in the USA], basically because of Nintendo
of America's rules and guidelines.* [47] Consequently,
Yoshitaka Amano, a long-time contributor to the Final objectionable graphics (e.g. nudity) were censored and
Fantasy series, returned as the image and character de- building signs in towns were changed (such as Bar being
allusions (e.g. the
signer. His concept art became the basis for the mod- changed to Caf), as well as religious
*
[48]
spell
Holy
was
renamed
Pearl).
els in the full motion videos produced for the game's
PlayStation re-release.* [42] Tetsuya Takahashi, one of Also, some direct allusions to death, killing actions, and
the graphic directors, drew the imperial Magitek Ar- violent expressions, as well as oensive words have been
mors seen in the opening scene. By doing so, he dis- replaced by softer expressions. For example, after Edgar,
regarded Sakaguchi's intention to reuse the regular de- Locke and Terra ee on chocobos from Figaro Castle,
signs from elsewhere in the game.* [38]* [43] The sprite Kefka orders two Magitek Armored soldiers to chase
art for the characters' in-game appearance was drawn by them by shouting Go! KILL THEM!", in the Japanese
Kazuko Shibuya.* [44] While in the earlier installments, version. It was translated asGo! Get them!" Also, when
the sprites were less detailed on the map than in battle, Fi- Imperial Troopers burn Figaro Castle, and Edgar claims
nal Fantasy VI's had an equally high resolution regardless Terra is not hidden inside the castle, Kefka repliesthen
of the screen. This enabled the use of animations depict- you can burn to deathin the Japanese version, which
ing a variety of movements and facial expressions.* [45] was replaced in the English version by Then welcome
Though it was not the rst game to utilize the Super Nin- to my barbecue!". Similarly, as Magitek soldiers watch
tendo's Mode 7 graphics, Final Fantasy VI made more ex- Edgar and his guests escape on Chocobos, one swears in
tensive use of them than its predecessors. For instance, Japanese,Son of a bitch!", which was translated by Ted
unlike both Final Fantasy IV and Final Fantasy V, the Woolsey asSon of a submariner!".* [48] The localization
world map is rendered in Mode 7, which lends a some- also featured changes to several names, such as Tina
what three-dimensional perspective to an otherwise two- being changed to Terra. Finally, dialogue text les
dimensional game.* [46]
had to be shortened due to the limited data storage space
available on the game cartridge's read-only memory.* [47]
As a result, additional changes were rendered to dialogue
Localization
in order to compress it into the available space.* [47]
The PlayStation re-release featured only minor changes
to the English localization. The title of the game was reverted to Final Fantasy VI from Final Fantasy III, to unify
the numbering scheme of the series in North America and
Japan with the earlier release of Final Fantasy VII. A few
item and character names were adjusted, as in the expansion ofFenix DowntoPhoenix Down. Unlike the
PlayStation re-release of Final Fantasy IV included in the
later Final Fantasy Chronicles compilation, the script was
left essentially unchanged.* [42] The Game Boy Advance
re-release featured a new translation by a dierent translator, Tom Slattery.* [49] This translation preserved most
Graphics for the North American releases were edited to cover of the character names, location names, and terminology
up minor instances of nudity. From left to right: Japanese SFC from the Woolsey translation, but changed item and spell
and GBA, North American SNES, and Western GBA releases.
names to match the conventions used in more recent titles
in the series.* [50] The revised script preserved certain
The original North American localization and release of quirky lines from the original while changing or editing
Final Fantasy VI by Square for the Super Nintendo fea-

104

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

others, and it cleared up certain points of confusion in the has been performed at Play! A Video Game Symphony
original translation.* [51] The Wii Virtual Console release in Stockholm, Sweden on June 2, 2007, by the group
used the Final Fantasy III name of the SNES game.
Machinae Supremacy.* [59]
Nobuo Uematsu's rock band, The Black Mages, released
a progressive metal version of Dancing Mad on their
2.7.4 Music
eponymous rst album in 2003. Their 2008 album, subtitled Darkness and Starlight, is so named after its
Main article: Music of Final Fantasy VI
premiere track: a rock opera version of the entire opera
from FFVI, including the Aria di Mezzo Carattere perThe soundtrack for Final Fantasy VI was composed by formed by Etsuyo Ota.
long-time series contributor Nobuo Uematsu. The score
consists of themes for each major character and loca- In 2012 a Kickstarter for OCRemix.org with an original
tion, as well as music for standard battles, ghts with goal of $30,000 was funded at $153,633 for the creation
boss enemies and for special cutscenes. The extensive of a multiple CD album of remixes of the music from
use of leitmotif is one of the dening points of the au- FFVI. Andrew Aversa directed the creation of the album
dio tracks. The "Aria di Mezzo Carattere" is one of which contains 74 tracks from 74 artists, each with its
the latter tracks, played during a cutscene involving an own unique*style. The album is free and available at its
opera performance. This track features an unintelligible homepage. [60]
synthesized voicethat harmonizes with the melody,
as technical limitations for the SPC700 sound format
2.7.5 Re-releases
chip prevented the use of an actual vocal track (although
some developers eventually gured out how to overcome
PlayStation
the limitation a few years later). The orchestral album
Final Fantasy VI Grand Finale features an arranged verFinal Fantasy VI was ported to the Sony PlayStation by
sion of the aria, using Italian lyrics performed by Svetla
Tose and re-released by Square in Japan and North AmerKrasteva with an orchestral accompaniment. This verica in 1999. In Japan, it was available both by itself
sion is also found in the ending full motion video of the
and as part of Final Fantasy Collection, while in North
game's Sony PlayStation re-release, with the same lyrics
America it was available only as part of Final Fantasy Anbut a dierent musical arrangement. In addition, the
thology. In Europe it was sold by itself. Fifty thousand
album Orchestral Game Concert 4 includes an extended
limited-edition copies of the Japanese version were also
version of the opera arranged and conducted by Ksuke
released in Japan and included a Final Fantasy-themed
Onozaki and performed by the Tokyo Symphony Orchesalarm clock.* [61]
tra, featuring Wakako Aokimi, Tetsuya no, and Hiroshi Kuroda on vocals.* [52] It was also performed at the Final Fantasy VI 's PlayStation re-release is very simiMore Friendsconcert* [53] at the Gibson Amphitheatre lar to the original Japanese release as seen on the Super
in 2005 using a new English translation of the lyrics, an Famicom. With the exception of the addition of two full
album of which is now available.* [54] "Dancing Mad", motion video opening and ending sequences and new efaccompanying the game's nal battle with Kefka, is 17 fects used for the start and end of battles, the graphics,
minutes long and contains an organ cadenza, with varia- music and sound are left unchanged from the original
tions on Kefka's theme. TheEnding Themecombines version. The only notable changes to gameplay (in adevery playable character theme into one composition last- dition to loading times not present in the cartridge versions) involve the correction of a few software bugs from
ing over 21 minutes.* [55]
the original and the addition of a new memo save
The original score was released on three Compact Discs
feature, allowing players to quickly save their progress
in Japan as Final Fantasy VI: Original Sound Verto the PlayStation's RAM.* [62] The re-release included
sion.* [55] A version of this album was later released in
other special features, such as a bestiary and an artwork
North America as Final Fantasy III: Kefka's Domain, this
gallery.* [63] On December 18, 2012 the port was reversion of the album is the same as its Japanese counterreleased as part of the Final Fantasy 25th Anniversary
part, except for dierent packaging and small dierences
Ultimate Box Japanese package.* [64]
in the translation of some track names between the album
and newer releases.* [56] Additionally, Final Fantasy VI:
Grand Finale features eleven tracks from the game, ar- Game Boy Advance
ranged by Shir Sagisu and Tsuneyoshi Saito and performed by the Ensemble Archi Della Scala and Orchestra Final Fantasy VI was ported a second time by Tose and
Sinfonica di Milano (Milan Symphony Orchestra).* [57] re-released as Final Fantasy VI Advance by Square Enix
Piano Collections: Final Fantasy VI, a second arranged al- in Japan on November 30, 2006, by Nintendo in North
bum, features thirteen tracks from the game, performed America on February 5, 2007, and in Europe on July 6,
for piano by Reiko Nomura.* [58] More recently,Danc- 2007,* [65] for the Game Boy Advance. This was the last
ing Mad, the nal boss theme from Final Fantasy VI, Game Boy Advance game released in Asia. It includes

2.7. FINAL FANTASY VI


additional gameplay features, slightly better visuals, and
a new translation that follows Japanese naming conventions for the spells and monsters. It does not, however,
have the full-motion videos from the PlayStation version of the game. Four new espers are in this re-release:
Leviathan, Gilgamesh, Cactuar, and Diabolos. Two new
areas include the Dragons' Den dungeon, which includes
the Kaiser Dragon, a monster coded but not included in
the original, and a Soul Shrine, a place where the
player can ght monsters continuously. Three new spells
also appear, and several bugs from the original are xed.
In addition, similarly to the other handheld Final Fantasy
re-releases, a bestiary and a music player are included. Interestingly, even in the Japanese version, the music player
is in English and uses the American names, e.g. Strago
over Stragus.* [66] The package features new artwork by
series veteran and original character and image designer
Yoshitaka Amano.* [67]
Virtual Console
The original Super Famicom version was released for the
Wii Virtual Console in Japan on March 15, 2011,* [68]
in PAL territories (Europe and Australia) on March 18,
2011, and in North America on June 30, 2011.* [69] The
game was released in the West with its original North
American title of Final Fantasy III.* [70] The game is also
available on the WiiU Virtual Console in Japan.
PlayStation Network
Final Fantasy VI was released as a PSone Classic in Japan
on April 20, 2011, and in PAL territories on June 2,
2011.* [71] It was released in North America on December 6, 2011.* [4]
Android and iOS
Takashi Tokita, a director and producer at Square Enix,
announced on October 10, 2013 that the company will
be releasing a mobile-optimized version of Final Fantasy
VI for iOS and Android operating systems in the winter
of 2013.* [72]* [73] The versions include remade graphics.* [74] The game was released on Android on January
15, 2014,* [75] while the iOS version was released on
February 6, 2014.* [6]

2.7.6

Reception

Final Fantasy VI received critical acclaim and was commercially successful upon releaseit is now considered
to be one of the greatest video games of all time, and on
many major gaming sites such as IGN, the best in the Final Fantasy series. As of March 31, 2003, the game had
shipped 3.48 million copies worldwide, with 2.62 million of those copies being shipped in Japan and 860,000

105
abroad.* [93] Final Fantasy Collection sold over 400,000
copies in 1999, making it the 31st-best-selling release of
that year in Japan.* [94] Final Fantasy Anthology has sold
approximately 364,000 copies in North America.* [95]
The game garnered rave reviews upon its original release. GamePro rated it as 5 out of 5, stating that characters, plotlines, and multiple-choice scenarios all combine to form one fantastic game!"* [90] Electronic Gaming
Monthly granted it an overall score of 36 out of 40,* [84]
or 9 out of 10 average, and named it game of the month,
commenting that RPGs with this much depth and realism come once in a blue moon.* [96] It won several
awards from Electronic Gaming Monthly in their 1994
video game awards, including Best Role-Playing Game,
Best Japanese Role-Playing Game, and Best Music for
a Cartridge-Based Game.* [92] Additionally, they later
ranked the game ninth in their 1997 list of the 100 greatest console games of all time.* [97] Famitsu scored it
37 out of 40, making it one of their two highest-rated
games of 1994 (along with Ridge Racer).* [87] For their
part, Nintendo Power declared the game the RPG hit
of the decade, noting its improved sound and graphics over its predecessors, and the game's broadened thematic scope.* [98] Moreover, they suggested that with
so much story and variation of play ... fans may become
lost in the world for months at a time.* [99] In 1997,
they ranked it as the eighth greatest Nintendo game, saying it had everything you could wantheroes, worldshattering events, magic, mindless evil plus Interceptor the wonder dog!"* [100] In 2010, Nintendo Power
listed the ending to Final Fantasy VI as one of the best
nales, citing the great character moments that cement
them as some of the most memorable Final Fantasy protagonists ever; they also listed the opera scene as being a demonstration of how touching and emotional roleplaying games can be.* [101]
The game was still earning rave reviews after the release
of its PlayStation version, with GamePro and Electronic
Gaming Monthly rating it 4 out of 5 and 9.5 out of 10, respectively.* [97] Final Fantasy Collection received 54 out
of 60 points from Weekly Famitsu, scored by a panel of
six reviewers.* [61] In 1999, IGN described the graphics
of the PlayStation re-release asbeautiful and stunning
, reecting that, at the time of its release, "Final Fantasy III... represented everything an RPG should be,
inspiring statistic growth systems that would later inuence titles like Wild Arms and Suikoden. Moreover, they
praised its gameplay and storyline, claiming that these aspects took all ... preceding RPG concepts and either
came up with something completely new or rened them
enough to make them its own, creating an atmosphere
in which "[players] won't nd it dicult to get past the
simplistic graphics or seemingly out-dated gameplay conventions and become involved ....* [102] RPGamer gave
a perfect rating to both the original game and its PlayStation re-release, citing its gameplay as self-explanatory
enough that most any player could pick up the game and

106
customize their characters' equipment, while praising
its music asa 16-bit masterpiece. Alternatively, they
describe the game's sound eects as limited and the game
itself as lacking in replay value due to havingone ending,
one [fundamental] path through the plot, and ... [mandatory] sidequests. Additionally, they regarded the game's
English translation as unremarkable, being better
than some but worse than others, and oered similar
comments for its gameplay diculty. However, they referred to the game's storyline as its "... most unique aspect, citing its large cast of characters, nearly all of
whom receive a great deal of development, and thesurprisingly large number of real world issues, the vast majority of which have not been addressed by any RPG before or since, ranging from teen pregnancy to suicide.
Overall, RPGamer regarded the game as anepic masterpieceandtruly one of the greatest games ever created
.* [103]* [104]
The game's release for the Game Boy Advance also garnered praise. In 2007, the Game Boy Advance re-release
was named eighth best Game Boy Advance game of all
time in IGN's feature reecting on the Game Boy Advance's long lifespan.* [105]
Final Fantasy VI is often regarded as one of the best titles in the series and one of the best role-playing video
games ever created. In 2005, IGN placed Final Fantasy VI 56th on their list of the 100 greatest games, as
the second highest ranked Final Fantasy title on the list
after Final Fantasy IV.* [106] In 2006, Nintendo Power
ranked it as the 13th top 200 game on any Nintendo platform, suggesting that it might be the bestFinal Fantasy ever.* [107] That same year, readers of the Japanese
magazine Famitsu voted it as the 25th best game of all
time.* [108] In 2008, Final Fantasy VI took the #1 spot
on G4 TV'sTop Must Own RPGslist.* [109] That same
year, ScrewAttack named Final Fantasy VI the third best
SNES game, beaten only by The Legend of Zelda: A Link
to the Past and Super Metroid.* [110] In 2009, Final Fantasy VI was inducted into the IGN Videogame Hall of
Fame, becoming the second Final Fantasy game to do so
(the only other Final Fantasy to do so was the original
Final Fantasy).* [111] In 2012, also IGN put Final Fantasy VI as number one on their list of the top role-playing
video games, stating: There are too many moments in
Final Fantasy VI worthy of celebration to name them all.
Biggs and Wedge leading Terra through the snow. The
poisoning of Doma. Sandy boots. The destruction of the
world. A tragic opera. Ultros! We hold these close to
our hearts, and that's not even including Espers and the
most poignant character themes in the series to date. So
cheers, Final Fantasy VI. May your name follow us as we
all tumble towards the future of art, entertainment, narrative, and everything that keeps us gaming.* [7] In an updated version of theTop 100list in 2007, IGN ranked
Final Fantasy VI as the ninth top game of all time, above
all other Final Fantasy games in the series. They continued to cite the game's character development, and espe-

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES


cially noted Kefka as one of the most memorable bad
guys in RPG history.* [112] In 2009, Game Informer
put the SNES version of Final Fantasy III eighth on their
list of the top games of all time, opining that it perfected the 2D role-playing game.* [113] It fell from its
seventh place ranking the sta gave it in 2001.* [114] In
2012, the sta of GamesRadar ranked it as the ninth best
SNES game, stating that for it to remain so eective
and so moving for so long after its 1994 release means it
is a true work of art, and demands to sit high atop any list,
regardless of platform (we did already name it the 14th
best game of all time).* [115]

2.7.7 Legacy
Final Fantasy VI: The Interactive CG Game (also known
as the Final Fantasy SGI demo, or Final Fantasy x, not
related to the actual 10th game in the Final Fantasy series, Final Fantasy X) was a short game demo produced
by Square using characters and settings from Final Fantasy VI. Produced using new Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI)
Onyx workstations acquired by Square, the demo was
Square's rst foray into 3D graphics, and many assumed
that it was a precursor to a new Final Fantasy title for
the Nintendo 64 video game console, which also used
SGI hardware.* [20] Square, however, had not yet committed to Nintendo's console at the time of the demo's
production, and much of the technology demonstrated in
the demo was later put to use in the rendering of FMV
sequences for Final Fantasy VII and subsequent games
for the PlayStation. The demo itself featured Terra Branford, Locke Cole, and Shadow in a series of battles. The
game was controlled largely through mouse gestures: for
example, moving the cursor in the shape of a star would
summon a dragon to attack.* [20]
On April 27, 2010, Square Enix producer Shinji
Hashimoto stated that the development of a remake of
Final Fantasy VI for the Nintendo DS was undecided
due totechnical issues.* [116] Later, however, Square
discussed remaking VI as well as V for the Nintendo
3DS.* [117]

2.7.8 See also


2.7.9 References
[1]The Making Of... Final Fantasy VI. Edge (Future Publishing) (251): 124127. March 2013.
[2] Nintendo Web Site. Nintendo. 2006. Archived from
the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2006-10-11.
[3] News Final Fantasy VI and Parasite Eve II now available on European PlayStation Store. EL33TONLINE.
Retrieved 2013-03-07.
[4] Announcing Square Enix's Winter of RPGs Campaign
. Retrieved November 3, 2011.

2.7. FINAL FANTASY VI

[5] Final Fantasy VI. play.google.com. Square Enix Co.,


Ltd. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
[6] Final Fantasy VI on the App Store. 2014-02-06. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
[7] Final Fantasy VI#1 RPG. IGN. 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
[8] Square Enix sta, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology instruction manual. Square Enix. p. 39. SLUS00900GH.
[9] Final Fantasy VIBattle Systems. Square Enix. 2002.
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2006-07-21.
[10] IGN Presents: The History of Final Fantasy VII. IGN.
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[11] Square Enix sta, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology instruction manual. Square Enix. p. 49. SLUS00900GH.
[12] Square Enix sta, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology instruction manual. Square Enix. p. 47. SLUS00900GH.
[13] Square Co (1994-10-11). Final Fantasy III. Super
Nintendo Entertainment System. Square Soft. (NPC in
Jidoor) You like art? No? Philistines!
[14] Square Co (1994-10-11). Final Fantasy III. Super
Nintendo Entertainment System. Square Soft. (Game
opening) Long ago, the War of the Magi reduced the
world to a scorched wasteland, and magic simply ceased
to exist. 1000 years have passed... Iron, gunpowder and
steam engines have been rediscovered, and high technology reigns...
[15] Square Co (1994-10-11). Final Fantasy III. Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Square Soft. Left
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all-out war. Those unlucky humans who got in the way
were transformed to Espers, and used as living war machines. / Right Statue: The goddesses nally realized
that they were being laughed at by those who had banished them here. In a rare moment of mutual clarity, they
agreed to seal themselves away from the world. With their
last ounce of energy they gave the Espers back their own
free will, and then transformed themselves... ...into stone.
Their only request was that the Espers keep them sealed
away from all eternity. / Center Statue: The Espers created these statues as a symbol of their vow to let the goddesses sleep in peace. The Espers have sworn to keep the
goddesses' power from being abused.
[16] Square Co (1994-10-11). Final Fantasy III. Super
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Not to worry. The Slave Crown on her head robs her of
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an organization opposed to the Empire. I am his contact
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/ Ramuh: Her very existence strikes fear into her own
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/ Ramuh: When she accepts this aspect of herself, I think
she'll be all right. / (Unidentied character) We have to
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total... / Unspecied character: Pardon!? / Ramuh:
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That's what's left of us when we... pass away. Square Co
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[26] (An Esper) Our friends are all gone... We haven't much
time left... We have no choice but to entrust you with
our essences... / Esper: You want to help me... But...
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[27] Kefka: So that's it! Magicite... ... / Kefka: General Celes!! The game's over. Bring me those Magicite shards! /
Locke: Celes! You... deceived me!? / Celes: Of course
not! Have a little faith! / Kefka: G'hee, hee, hee! She has
tricked you all! Celes, that's so... YOU! / Celes: Locke...

108

[28]

[29]

[30]

[31]

[32]

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

Please believe me... / Locke: I... ... ... / Kefka: NOW!! [34] Celes: Terra! What's wrong? The Magicite... Magic is
/ Kefka: Exterminate all of them! / Celes: Locke... Let
disappearing from this world... / Edgar: The Espers...
me protect you for once... Maybe now... Now you'll beThey no longer exist... / Celes: You mean Terra, too? /
lieve me... / Kefka: Celes! W... What are you doing?
Terra: Come with me. I can lead you out with my last
Stop it!!! Square Co (1994-10-11). Final Fantasy III
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[89] VI.
Weekly Famitsu. No.915 Pt.2. Pg.19. 30 June 2006.

[68] Gantayat, Anoop (2011-02-25). Final Fantasy VI Set


for Virtual Console. andriasang.com. Retrieved 201102-26.

[90] Scary Larry (November 1994). Final Fantasy III.


GamePro (IDG Communications) 64 (11): 192194.

[91] Mueller, Greg (2007-02-13).Final Fantasy VI Advance


for Game Boy Advance Review. GameSpot. Retrieved
[69] Final Fantasy VI Finally Hits The U.S. Virtual Console
2014-04-28.
. Siliconera. Siliconera. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
[92]Electronic Gaming Monthly's Buyer's Guide. 1995.
[70] Spencer. Final Fantasy VI Moogle Slamming Virtual
Console In North America. Siliconera. Siliconera. Re- [93] Titles of game software with worldwide shipments exceeding 1 million copies. Square Enix. 2004-02-09. p.
trieved 2011-04-18.
27. Retrieved 2008-03-01.
[71] Hindman, Heath.Final Fantasy VI Joins Series Brethren
on PSN. PlayStationLifeStyle.net. AtomicOnline, LLC. [94] 1999 Top 100 Best Selling Japanese Console Games.
Retrieved 2011-04-18.
The Magic Box. Retrieved 16 August 2007.

110

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

[95] US Platinum Videogame Chart. The Magic Box. Re- [116] Final Fantasy V and VI Have Technical Issueson
trieved 2005-08-13.
DS. Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
[96]The EGM Hot 50. Electronic Gaming Monthly (Sendai [117] Tom Goldman. Square Considering Final Fantasy V &
VI Remakes On 3DS. Escapistmagazine.com. Retrieved
Publishing) 69 (4): 46. April 1995.
2013-03-07.
[97] Vestal, Andrew (1999-10-14).Final Fantasy Anthology
for PlayStation ReviewsPlayStation Final Fantasy Anthology Reviews. GameSpot. Retrieved 2006-07-16.
2.7.10 External links
[98] Final Fantasy III. Nintendo Power 65, page 27. October
1994.
[99] Now Playing. Nintendo Power 65, page 103. October
1994.
[100] 100 Best games of all time. Nintendo Power 100, page 89.
September 1997.
[101] Nintendo Power 250th issue!. South San Francisco, California: Future US. 2010. p. 49.
[102] Reyes, Francesca. Final Fantasy Anthology. IGN.
Retrieved 2006-06-19.
[103] Alley, Jake. Final Fantasy VIReview. RPGamer.
Retrieved 2006-07-01.

Square Enix's Ocial Final Fantasy VI Advance


website (Japanese)
Nintendo's Ocial Final Fantasy III (Virtual Console version) website (English)
Nintendo's Ocial Final Fantasy VI Advance website. Archived from the original on 2007-02-06.
(English)

2.8 Compilation of Final Fantasy


VII

The Compilation of Final Fantasy VII is a metaseries


produced by Square Enix. A subseries stemming from
the main Final Fantasy series, it is a collection of video
[105] Harris, Craig (2007-03-16).Top 25 Game Boy Advance games, animated features and short stories based in the
Games of All Time. IGN. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
world and continuity of Final Fantasy VII. Ocially an[106] IGN's top 100 games of all time. IGN. Archived from nounced in 2003 with the reveal of Final Fantasy VII:
Advent Children, the series' core products are three video
the original on 2013-11-03. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
games and one movie release. Alongside these are tie[107] NP Top 200. Nintendo Power 200. February 2006. pp. in products and spin-os including books, mobile games
5866.
and an original video animation. Advent Children and the
mobile title Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII and are se[108] Campbell, Colin (2006). Japan Votes on All Time Top
100. Next Generation Magazine. Retrieved 2006-03- quel and prequel to VII, respectively focusing on Cloud
Strife, the original game's main protagonist, and covert
11.
operatives known as the Turks. Crisis Core: Final Fan[109] Top 5 Must-Own RPGs. X-Play. Retrieved 2009-10- tasy VII follows the story of Zack Fair, an important mi13.
nor character in VII, while Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII, which acts as a sequel to Advent Children follows
[110] Top 20 SNES Games (101)". Gametrailers. April 7,
Vincent Valentine, one of the original's optional charac2008. Retrieved 2009-10-24.
ters.
[104] Lewis, Zachary. Final Fantasy VI Retroview.
RPGamer. Retrieved 2006-07-01.

[111] The Video Game Hall of Fame Final Fantasy III (US)".
IGN. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2014-04-28.

The series was conceived by Yoshinori Kitase, the original game's director, and Tetsuya Nomura, the main character designer. Nomura would become the main designer
[112] IGN's Top 100 Games of All Time. IGN. 2007. for each entry in the Compilation. Other returning sta
Archived from the original on 2013-11-12. Retrieved include writer Kazushige Nojima, art director Yusuke
2014-04-28.
Naora, composer Nobuo Uematsu. The video games belong to dierent genres, with none of them being tradi[113] The Game Informer sta (December 2009). The Top
tional role-playing games due to production pressures re200 Games of All Time. Game Informer (200): 4479.
lated to the genre. While the rst title revealed was AdISSN 1067-6392. OCLC 27315596.
vent Children, it ran into delays during post-production,
[114] Cork, Je (2009-11-16). Game Informer's Top 100 so the rst Compilation title to be released was the moGames of All Time (Circa Issue 100)". Game Informer. bile game Before Crisis.
Retrieved 2013-12-10.
[115] Best SNES games. GamesRadar. 2014-05-09. Retrieved 2014-05-13.

Of the core titles, Before Crisis is the only one still unreleased in the west due to issues with overseas platform
compatibility and sta changes. Reception of titles in the

2.8. COMPILATION OF FINAL FANTASY VII


Compilation has been mixed, with Advent Children being
praised for its visuals and criticized for its confusing nature. Before Crisis and Crisis Core have received praise,
while Dirge of Cerberus garnered a mixed response. The
presentation of the Compilation as a whole has met with
a mixed response. The series inspired the creation of
Fabula Nova Crystallis Final Fantasy, a similar subseries
of linked video games.

2.8.1

Titles

Video games
Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII is an action
role-playing video game split into 24 episodes,
with episode delivery working via a monthly
subscription-based distribution system.* [1]* [2] After going through beta testing in 2004, it was released on September 24, 2004 for NTT DoCoMo's
FOMA iMode, and on January 30 and April 5,
2007 for SoftBank Mobile and EZweb respectively.* [2]* [3] While planned for a western release,
this never came to pass.* [1]
Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII is an action
game featuring both rst and third-person shooter
elements. There was originally a multiplayer mode,
but this was removed in the western version.* [4]* [5]
It was released on January 26, August 15, and
November 17, 2006 in Japan, North America and
Europe respectively. The localized version received
an overhaul before release, as developers were not
pleased with the game as it has been released in
Japan.* [5] An International version, featuring the
improvements made to the localized version, was released in Japan on September 11, 2008 as part of
Square Enix's Ultimate Hits lineup.* [6] A mobile
spin-o taking place during the events of the game,
Dirge of Cerberus Lost Episode: Final Fantasy VII,
was released on August 22, 2006 in North America
and July 26, 2007 in Japan.* [7]* [8]

111
April 24 and 25, 2006 for Europe and North America respectively.* [12]* [13]* [14] It received a single special western cinema screening on April 3,
2006, at the Arclight Theatre in Los Angeles.* [15]
A director's cut of the lm, Advent Children Complete, was also produced, featuring graphical retouches, extra footage and rerecorded voice work
for the English and Japanese versions.* [16]* [17] A
Blu-ray exclusive, Advent Children Complete was released on June 2, 2009 in North America, on July
27, 2009 in Europe, and on October 7, 2009 in Australia.* [18]* [19] A demo for Final Fantasy XIII was
included in the package.* [20]
Last Order: Final Fantasy VII, an original video
animation detailing the destruction of the town of
Nibelheim, a key event in VII. Last Order was packaged with a limited edition of Advent Children called
Advent Pieces, released on September 14, 2005
in Japan and February 6, 2007 in North America.* [13]* [21] Advent Pieces was limited to a quantity of 77,777 copies. The OAV is no longer available to purchase.* [22]
Related media
Multiple pieces of tie-in media have been created for the
Compilation, nearly all relating to Advent Children. To
promote Advent Children Complete, a series of short stories were written by Kazushige Nojima under the umbrella title On a Way to Smile.* [18]* [23] The stories were
later collected into a single paperback volume and released on April 16, 2009.* [24] An animated adaptation
of one story,Case of Denzel, was included in all copies
of Advent Children Complete.* [16] Nojima also wrote Final Fantasy VII Lateral Biography: Turks ~The Kids Are
Alright~, a novel set a short time before Advent Children.
The novel was illustrated by Shou Tojima.* [25]
A mobile racing game based on a mini game from VII,
Final Fantasy VII: G-Bike, was released on October 30,
2014 for iOS and Android. A western release for the title is planned.* [26] It was developed by Japan-based developer CyberConnect2 as part of a planned subseries of
mobile games based on VII 's mini games.* [27] While related to VII and the Compilation due to its nature, the developers conrmed that it was not related to nor aected
the Compilation itself.* [28]

Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII is an action roleplaying game. Crisis Core has the player controlling Zack Fair in a real-time combat system enabling
the player to move Zack around, activate abilities
and attack or block attacks from enemies.* [9] It was
released on September 13, 2007 in Japan, and on
March 24 and June 20, 2008 in North America and
Europe respectively.* [10]* [11]
2.8.2
Films

Setting

See also: Final Fantasy VII characters and Plot of Final


Fantasy VII

Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children, the rst title


conceived for the Compilation, the second to be re- The setting of Final Fantasy VII is a world that has
leased, and a direct-to-DVD sequel to VII. It was been described as an industrial or post-industrial science
released in Japan on September 14, 2005, and on ction milieu.* [29] It is referred to as the Planet

112

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

by the series characters, and was retroactively named


Gaiain some Square Enix promotional material and
by game sta.* [30]* [31] The planet's lifeforce is called
the Lifrstream, a ow of spiritual energy that gives life to
everything on the Planet. Its processed form is known as
asMako.* [32]* [33]* [34] During VII and its prequels,
the Lifestream is being used by the megacorporation
Shinra as an energy source. This is in turn causing
the Planet to dangerously weaken, threatening the existence of everything and everyone on the planet.* [35] The
main narrative of VII focuses on an eco-terrorist group
known as AVALANCHE, chronicling their conict with
Shinra president Rufus Shinra and his subordinates, including the covert Turks, and SOLDIER, an elite ghting
force created by giving humans raw Mako.* [36] Eventually, all come under threat from Sephiroth, a member of
SOLDIER created through Shinra experimentation and
driven mad when he learns the truth about his origins,
and Jenova, an alien lifeform which seeks to destroy all
life on the Planet.* [37]* [38] Among the main characters
are Cloud Strife, an mercenary and self-proclaimed exSOLDIER, Aerith Gainsborough, a ower seller and last
member of an ancient tribe known as the Cetra,* [39] Tifa
Lockhart, Cloud's childhood friend, and Vincent Valentine, a former Turk who was made immortal by Shinra experimentation. During the conict, Sephiroth summons
a destructive spell called Meteor to mortally wound the
Planet. When Aerith attempts to summon Holy, a defense mechanism that can stop Meteor, she is killed by
Sephiroth. Eventually, the party are successful in defeating Sephiroth, and the Lifestream reinforces Holy, successfully stopping Meteor.* [40]
The Compilation titles act as continuations and expansions on the core narrative, with them focusing on various
characters. Advent Children begins two years after VII,
when people across the world are succumbing to a disease called Geostigma and Cloud, suering from guilt,
is forced to confront Kadaj, Loz and Yazoo, avatars of
Sephiroth's will.* [18]* [41] Before Crisis begins six years
prior to the events of VII, and follows the confrontations between the Turks and the original incarnation of
AVALANCHE.* [42] Crisis Core takes place in a similar
time period, but follows events from the point of view
of Zack, a SOLDIER who befriended Cloud and was
killed by Shinra troops after turning against the company.
Among the characters who interact with Zack is Genesis
Rhapsodos a member of SOLDIER who successfully
rebels and eventually decides to protect the Planet.* [43]
Dirge of Cerberus is set a year after Advent Children,
and focuses on Vincent's conict against Deepground, a
sect of SOLDIER that was trapped beneath Midgard during Meteor's descent. Last Order takes place during the
events at Nibelheim, where Jenova was originally stored
and Sephiroth rst found out about himself.

2.8.3

Production

Creation
The Compilation of Final Fantasy VII was created by
Yoshinori Kitase and Tetsuya Nomura, the respective director and character designer for Final Fantasy VII. It was
at one point dened by Square Enix as their rst step towards polymorphic content, a marketing and sales
strategy to "[provide] well-known properties on several
platforms, allowing exposure of the products to as wide
an audience as possible.* [44] Speaking on why VII had
been chosen for such a project, Kitase explained that the
ending left far more development opportunities open for
characters and setting than other games in the series.* [45]
The rst title to be conceived was Advent Children, original envisioned as a short lm presentation created by Visual Works, the animation studio behind CGI cutscenes
for the company's games. Early in pre-production, plans
to make Advent Children a video game rather than a lm
were considered, but due to several factors including Visual Works' lack of experience with actual game production, it remained a lm.* [46]* [47] One of the main conditions for the project's launch was to reunite the original
sta members of Final Fantasy VII; Nojima, art director
Yusuke Naora, composer Nobuo Uematsu. After Advent
Children began development, it was decided by the team
that one title was not enough to fully explore the VII universe. In response, Before Crisis, Dirge of Cerberus and
Crisis Core were conceived so as to embrace more aspects
of the world and characters.* [46] Nomura himself was
surprised at the creation of the games, having originally
assumed that the lm would be the sole product of the
project.* [48]
Development
Each title had a dierent impetus fueling its creation and
development: Before Crisis was thought up by Hajime
Tabata, a new employee at Square Enix's mobile division, when asked by Nomura to create a video game featuring the Turks.* [49] Dirge of Cerberus was inspired by
Vincent's choice of weapon, Kitase's love of rst-person
shooters, and the challenge it would provide developers.* [50]* [51] Prior to the series solidication and the
release of Advent Children and Before Crisis, the team
had considered other gun-wielding Final Fantasy protagonists for such a game.* [52] Crisis Core originated
simply as a Final Fantasy spin-o for the PlayStation
Portable, and after talks with Kitase and Nomura, it was
decided to make it another title in the Compilation, although it was originally going to be a remake of Before
Crisis.* [53]* [54] The creation of Before Crisis after Advent Children began a lettering formula for the series later
used by the sta as common abbreviations: 'AC' stood
for Advent Children, 'BC' for Before Crisis, 'CC' for Crisis
Core and 'DC' for Dirge of Cerberus. The sequence was
nearly disrupted when Crisis Core 's title was considered
as Before Crisis Core, but the "Before" part of the title was
soon dropped, coincidentally creating the sequence.* [55]

2.8. COMPILATION OF FINAL FANTASY VII


Before Crisis began development in 2002.* [31] The Compilation was rst unveiled in 2003 with the announcement
of Advent Children.* [56] None of the video game titles in
the series are traditional role-playing games like the original. The explanation for this was that traditional RPGs
took long production periods and a large sta, which
would have made the project stand out a bit too much.
One of the other considerations for the team was not to
make the titles lightweight as X-2 had been, due to backlash from parts of the fanbase. Conversely, making X2 reminded the team that they did not need to stick to
completely serious traditional RPGs, enabling the original creation of the Compilation.* [46] While Advent Children was the rst Compilation title to begin production, it
ran into problems during post-production, resulting in the
rst released title being Before Crisis, despite it being the
second title to begin development.* [56]* [57] Before Crisis was also originally planned for release in North America, but the mobile phones available in North America
at the time were not able to handle the game. In addition, the producer Kosei Ito left Square Enix in 2008 and
Tabata moved on to other projects, leaving its localization
unlikely.* [58] Japanese animation studio Madhouse created a commercial to promote Before Crisis. Due to its
success and sta feelings that important scenes from VII
represented in Advent Children had been needlessly disjointed, the studio was chosen to produce an animated
lm: this eventually became Last Order.* [59] Yoichi
Wada, then the president of Square Enix, has stated that
the Compilation could remain an active franchise until
2017, the twentieth anniversary of Final Fantasy VII 's release.* [60] After nishing work on Advent Children Complete, the team decided to take a break from the series,
although they stated that they still have various ideas for
future titles.* [61]

2.8.4

Reception

Compared to the original VII, which received nearuniversal critical acclaim and later cult status as a classic
game, the entries in the Compilation have often garnered a
mixed reception, and the Compilation as a whole has been
critiqued by some. In July 2007, Edge magazine stated
that the titles could be of a high quality, but there is
also a perversion of the original.* [68] RPG Site's Alex
Donaldson, during a review for Crisis Core, said that the
Compilation was too far detached from the lore of Final Fantasy VII.While critiquing Advent Children and
Dirge of Cerberus, and faulting Before Crisis 's lack of the
original game's characters, he felt that Crisis Core was the
Compilation 's rst classic FF7 spino.* [69] RPGFan 's Stephen Meyerink said that the Compilation titles
prior to Crisis Core had expanded, extended, and retconned [the story] into what some would call an unrecognizable mess.* [70] Alexa Ray Corriea, writing for
Polygon, was highly critical, saying that few of the Compilation titles were good, and only served tocheapen the

113
1997 [PlayStation] original.* [71]
Reviews for Advent Children have been mixed to positive: while critics have praised the presentation, graphics
and fan appeal, all reviews agree that the story's context
and delivery were confusing for people new to the series.* [72]* [73]* [74] While western critics were positive
about Last Order, the OAV received heavy fan criticism in
Japan due to its retconning of key events, which prompted
the team to ensure that the event was faithfully recreated
in Crisis Core.* [54]* [75]* [76] Before Crisis, due to remaining in Japan, has received limited attention in the
west, but previews have been highly positive, with many
praising the gameplay and graphics as being impressive
for a mobile game.* [22]* [77]* [78] Opinions for Dirge of
Cerberus were decidedly mixed. While many praised the
story and characters, with many praising the focus on
Vincent's character and development, were mixed to negative about the graphics and gameplay. Japanese magazine Famitsu notably gave the game a delayed a highly
critical review.* [79]* [80]* [4]* [81]* [82] Crisis Core was
generally praised, with many enjoying the story's intimate presentation of the characters and action-oriented
gameplay, despite some criticism for it being aimed at
fans of VII.* [83]* [84]* [85]* [86] Critics of the Compilation have generally cited Crisis Core as the best title of the
series.* [69]* [70]* [71]
Sales
Many of the titles have received strong sales. Through
2006, Advent Children met with high sales, with 1 million units sold in Japan, 1.3 million in North America, and
100,000 in Europe, making a total of 2.4 million copies
sold worldwide.* [87] The original version went on to sell
four million copies worldwide by 2009.* [18] Advent Children Complete also met with strong sales, selling 100,000
copies on its rst day of release in Japan,* [88] Advent
Children Complete was cited as a reason for the increase
in sales of the PlayStation 3 console.* [89]* [90] Before
Crisis registered 200,000 users on launch day, making it
the best-selling mobile game up until that time, and was
accessed 1.6 million times by June 2006.* [1]* [91] Dirge
of Cerberus shipped 392,000 units in its rst week, and
went on to sell 460,000 units were sold in North America and 270,000 units in Europe.* [92]* [93] Crisis Core
sold 350,000 copies in Japan on its release date, while it
sold 301,600 copies in its rst month of release in the
United States.* [94]* [95] It went on to sell 3.1 million
units worldwide.* [96]
Legacy
The process of thought behind the Compilation would
later inspire the creation of Fabula Nova Crystallis Final
Fantasy, a subseries of games linked by a common
mythos, and would use lessons learned from the Compilation production process.* [97] On an individual level,

114

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

Before Crisis 's popularity would inspire the creation of [17] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete Dated For
America. Kotaku. 2006-05-12. Retrieved 2010-08-04.
another mobile title within the Fabula Nova Crystallis
subseries: originally titled Final Fantasy Agito XIII, it
[18] Advent Children Complete North American Release
would later change platforms and be renamed Final
June. Square Enix. 2009-05-12. Archived from the
Fantasy Type-0.* [98]* [99]* [100]
original on 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2009-05-29.

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2009-02-14.
[68]Final Frontiers. Edge (177) (Future plc). July 2007.
pp. 7279.
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[50] Cheng, Justin (2005-05-19).E3 2005: Yoshinori Kitase


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Final Fantasy VII E3 2005 Interview. GameSpot. Retrieved 2010-07-20.

[71] Corriae, Alexa Ray (2014-09-18).We don't need a new


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[73] Santos, Carlo (2006-04-28). Anime News Network:


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[92] Top 10 Weekly Software Sales (January 2329, 2006)".


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[93] Annual Report 2007. Square Enix. 2004-08-06. Retrieved 2008-12-20.


[94] FFVII: Crisis Core sells 350,000 copies on rst day.
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[96] Results Brieng: Fiscal Year ended May 31, 2009.


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[98] " " XIII"".


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[79] Dunham, Jeremy (2006-08-11).Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII review. IGN. Retrieved 2010-07-10.

[99]Square Enix Presents: DK3713 Private Party 2008 -


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[80] Fahey, Rob (2006-11-16). Final Fantasy VII: Dirge of


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[100] Gantayat, Anoop (2011-01-28). Kitase and Toriyama
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[82] Dormer, Dan (2006-02-08). Famitsu Digs Into Dirge
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[83] VanOrd, Kevin. Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII for PSP
Review. GameSpotdate=2008-03-25. Retrieved 200902-13.

2.9 Final Fantasy VII Advent Children

Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children (Japanese:


VII
[84] Clements, Ryan (2008-03-19). IGN: Crisis Core: Final Hepburn: Fainaru Fantaj Sebun Adobento Chirudoren)
Fantasy VII Review. IGN. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
is a 2005 Japanese computer-animated science fantasy
[85] Villoria, Gerald (2008-03-19). GameSpy: Crisis Core: lm directed by Tetsuya Nomura, written by Kazushige
Nojima, and produced by Yoshinori Kitase and Shinji
Final Fantasy VII. GameSpy. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
Hashimoto. Developed by Visual Works and Square
[86] Simon, Parkin (2008-06-23).Crisis Core - Final Fantasy Enix, Advent Children is part of the Compilation of Final
VII Review (PSP)". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2009-08-17.
Fantasy VII series, which is based in the world and continuity
of the highly successful 1997 role-playing video
[87] Flash: Advent Children is Popular. Anime News Netgame Final Fantasy VII. Final Fantasy VII: Advent Chilwork. 2006-06-06. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
dren was released on DVD in Japan on September 14,
[88] Report: Final Fantasy VII ACC Sells 100K+ BDs on 1st 2005, and a year later in North America and Europe.
Day. Anime News Network. 2009-05-20. Retrieved
2009-08-04.

The lm stars Takahiro Sakurai, Ayumi Ito, Kenichi


Suzumura, Showtaro Morikubo, Maaya Sakamoto,
[89] Jenkins, David (2009-04-24). Japanese Hardware: Ad- Toshiyuki Morikawa and Shgo Suzuki. Advent Children
vent Children Pushes PS3 To Top. Gamasutra. Re- takes place two years after the events of the original game
trieved 2010-08-23.
and focuses on the appearance of a trio that kidnaps chil[90] Ashcraft, Brian (2009-04-22).Final Fantasy VII Advent dren infected with an unknown disease. Former Final
Children Complete Gave PS3 A Sales Bump. Kotaku. Fantasy VII hero Cloud Strife goes to rescue the children
Retrieved 2010-08-04.
while suering from the same disease.

2.9. FINAL FANTASY VII ADVENT CHILDREN


The lm received mixed to positive reviews, with critics
praising its animation and CGI work, but criticizing how
non-Final Fantasy VII gamers would not understand the
plot. It received the Maria Awardat the Sitges Film
Festival in 2005 and the Best Anime Featureat the
2007 American Anime Awards. As of May 2009, the
DVD and UMD releases had sold over 4.1 million copies
worldwide.

2.9.1

Plot

See also: Characters of the Final Fantasy VII series and


Final Fantasy VII Plot

Setting
Advent Children takes place two years following the
events of the 1997 role-playing video game Final Fantasy VII, during which the antagonist Sephiroth attempted
to absorb the Lifestream (the lifeblood and soul of the
planet) and be reborn as a god.* [1] He was defeated by
Cloud Strife and his companion but his nal spell, Meteor
destroyed the city of Midgar.

117
rives to rescue them, he is overpowered by Kadaj's gang,
but is rescued by his old comrade Vincent Valentine. Demoralized by his failure, Cloud asks if sin can ever be
truly forgiven, to which Vincent nonchalantly replies that
he has never tried to forgive. Cloud decides to keep
ghting and returns to the city, where Kadaj has summoned Bahamut SIN* [4] and other monsters to terrorize
the population. With the help of his companions from Final Fantasy VII, Cloud engages and defeats the monsters.
Kadaj confronts Rufus Shinra, who reveals he possesses
the box containing Jenova's remains. He attempts to destroy it, but Kadaj manages to save it and ees the city
with his companions. Yazoo and Loz are apparently destroyed along the way by an explosive planted by Shinra's
agents. Cloud chases Kadaj down and engages him in battle, ultimately subduing him. Outmatched, Kadaj opens
Jenova's box and fuses with its contents, transforming into
Sephiroth who then tells Cloud that he will be able to
use the life essences of Geostigma suerers to achieve
complete domination over the planet.* [5] He and Cloud
then ght, and throughout the whole encounter Sephiroth appears to have the upper hand, inging Cloud repeatedly into walls and nally impaling him through the
shoulder. He asks Cloud to tell him what he most cherishes, so that he can have the pleasure of taking it away.
To this, Cloud replies that he cherishes everything, then
pulls out Sephiroth's sword and deals him a hail of devastating blows. Sephiroth's spirit departs, leaving behind
the mortally wounded Kadaj. As he lies dying in Cloud's
arms, a healing rain starts falling across the land, curing
the people of their Geostigma. However, Yazoo and Loz
confront Cloud. Cloud charges at the two, who sets o a
massive explosion engulng the three.

The survivors of Midgar founded the new city of Edge


where Cloud and his childhood friend Tifa Lockhart now
run a courier service and are the caretakers of Denzel
and Marlene, both of whom are orphans. Cloud is still
haunted by his role in the death of Aerith Gainsborough,
who was killed on his watch by Sephiroth. In addition,
both he and Denzel are infected with a mysterious new
ailment known as Geostigma, which has no known
Cloud later has a vision of his deceased friends Aerith
cure. Recently, Cloud has moved out of the house and
and Zack Fair, who say that his time to join them has
isolated himself from his friends.
not yet come. He then awakens in the church, healed of
his injuries and surrounded by his friends. Behind them,
he sees Aerith and Zack leaving the church and hears
Story
Aerith's voice say, You see, everything's all right.He
agrees:
I know. I'm not alone... not anymore.
Cloud is contacted through Tifa and summoned to a
meeting with the Shinra Company's former president
Rufus Shinra, who was presumed killed in Final Fantasy
2.9.2 Voice cast
VII.* [2] Rufus asks for Cloud's help to stop Kadaj, Loz,
and Yazoo. The trio are physical manifestations of Sephi Takahiro Sakurai/Steve Burton as Cloud Strife. The
roth's surviving spirit, and are seeking to resurrect him usformer hero of Final Fantasy VII who has been ining the remains of the extraterrestrial villain Jenova.* [3]
fected with the new disease. Sakurai and Burton had
Cloud refuses to help and leaves.
already performed the role in the video game Kingdom Hearts.* [4] Nomura wanted Cloud and Vincent
Meanwhile, Kadaj and his colleagues are recruiting chilto have noticeably dierent voices because the chardren infected with Geostigma. Denzel falls in with the
acters were otherwise quite similar.
group, attracted by their promises of a cure for the disease. Loz follows Tifa and Marlene to Aerith's church,
Ayumi Ito/Rachael Leigh Cook as Tifa Lockwhere they had gone looking for Cloud, and attacks them.
hart.* [6] Nomura felt that Ito'shuskyvoice would
Tifa is knocked unconscious in the ght and Loz abducts
oer a good contrast with Maaya Sakamoto.* [7]* :22
Marlene for Kadaj. All the kidnapped children are taken
to the ruins of the mystical Forgotten City, where Kadaj
Maaya Sakamoto/Mena Suvari* [8] as Aerith Gainsembraces them as brethren and announces his intention
borough.
for them all to be reunited with Jenova. When Cloud ar-

118

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

Shgo Suzuki/Steve Blum as Vincent Valentine.


Since Vincent was older and more mature than
Cloud, his role was given to Suzuki, who has a very
low voice.* [7]* :49
Shotaro Morikubo/Steve Staley as Kadaj. Morikubo
had diculties voicing him because of the character's unstable personality and needed time to adjust
to the role.* [7]* :2631
Kenji Nomura/Fred Tatasciore as Loz. Nomura was
told by the sta to voice Loz as an idiotcharacter.* [7]* :5457
Yji Kishi/Dave Wittenberg as Yazoo.* [7]* :5457

Works had no experience with making a full game. The


creators had no prior experience working on lms, so they
fell back on their knowledge of in-game movies.* [12]
The lm was planned to focus on the characters of Cloud
and Tifa in a similar way to how other titles from Compilation of Final Fantasy VII centered on certain characters; for example, Before Crisis focuses on the Turks,
Crisis Core on Zack Fair, and Dirge of Cerberus on Vincent.* [11] Nomura says the lm was, in its rst manifestation, only going to be 20 minutes long. The original
story featured someone requesting a message to be sent
to Cloud; the message is then relayed to Cloud through
several children, and, when the message nally reaches
Cloud, it is revealed who the messenger is. Nomura
very much liked the original script, and it became the
foundation of the nal version. He decided to make the
project longer and more grand in scope when early word
of the lm generated great interest amongst Final Fantasy VII fans, the majority of whom wanted something
feature length. The lm's length was expanded to 100
minutes.* [13]

Toshiyuki Morikawa/George Newbern as Sephiroth.* [9] Morikawa was instructed to pronounce


Sephiroth's lines in such a way that his words would
convey his feelings of superiority. In tandem with
this, the voice director and Morikawa agreed to
make Sephiroth's voice sound always calm, as if he Takeshi Nozue and Nomura, who had rst worked tonever fears the slightest possibility of defeat.* [7]* :22 gether on the video game Kingdom Hearts, split the role
of directing, as Nomura felt this would add depth to the
lm. In designing the battle scenes they rst discussed
Yumi Kakazu/Christy Carlson Romano as Yue
the setting and layout, and then went to the sta with
Kisaragi.* [8]
their ideas, deciding which were the best and developing them further. The battle between Cloud's group and
Masahiro Kobayashi/Beau Billingslea as Barret Bahamut was the most dicult to design due to the size
Wallace.* [7]* :44
of the area and the number of objects the sta had to add
to the scene to keep it realistic. The alternating positions
of the characters, including Bahamut itself, took the sta
Keiji Fujiwara/Quinton Flynn as Reno.* [8]
a long time to complete in order to give the scene a sense
of ow.* [14] Nomura stated that the team decided not to
*
Taiten Kusunoki/Crispin Freeman as Rude. [8]
worry about making the ght sequences realistic, as they
felt this would restrict their ability to give the lm acool
Tru kawa/Wally Wingert as Rufus Shinra.* [8]
look. Therefore, they worked by creating their own
rules. Motion capture was used for many of the lm's
Kenichi Suzumura/Rick Gomez as Zack Fair.* [8]
battle scenes; maneuvers that were not physically possible
for live actors to perform were constructed digitally.* [15]

2.9.3

Production

Advent Children began as a short lm by Visual Works,


a company used by Square to develop CGI scenes for
their video games, based on Final Fantasy VII. Kazushige
Nojima, who had written the script for the game, was
brought on to write a 20-minute script, and he decided
to write a story about Cloud and Tifa and the kids
.* [10] The lm was developed as a part of the Compilation
of Final Fantasy VII, a set of dierent media content
intended to expand upon the world of Final Fantasy
VII.* [11] Square's research and development department
worked with Visual Works on the piece, and VII 's director Tetsuya Nomura joined the crew after VII 's producer
Yoshinori Kitase called him. Early in pre-production, the
team thought about making Advent Children into a game,
but Nomura decided against it, partially because Visual

While designing the characters, the sta discovered that


it was impossible to directly translate the Final Fantasy
VII designs into the lm, and thus some identifying characteristics had to be discarded.* [16] Cloud's redesign was
a combination of eight dierent designs, from his super
deformed appearance in the game to his more realistic
appearance in the lm. The diculties in making Sephiroth led the sta to reduce his appearances in the lm, as
it took them two years to develop and rene his look.* [14]
Nozue also had diculty developing a framework for
Tifa's body that was balanced, yet showed o her feminine qualities.* [7]* :24 In April 2003, it was decided
that Kadaj, Loz, and Yazoo would be manifestations of
Sephiroth's spirit his cruelty, strength, and allure respectively.* [7]* :2631 In contrast to Sephiroth, the trio
was meant to be younger than Cloud, so as to focus on
the next generationtheme.* [15] By October 2003,

2.9. FINAL FANTASY VII ADVENT CHILDREN

119

Nomura said that the lm was 10% complete, stating that and Sound, by Kyosuke Himuro and My Chemical Rowhile the script was written, not all the characters were mance singer Gerard Way.* [21] Waterwas replaced
designed.* [16]
with a new song,Anxious Heart.* [20] Tracks on the alNomura felt that Advent Children diered from bum included new versions of The Chase of Highway
Hollywood lms where the meaning of most scenes tends , Those Who Fight Further, Sign, Advent:
Angel, and On the Way to a Smile
to be explained. With Advent Children, however, the sta One-Winged
*
.
[22]
A
larger
album, Final Fantasy VII Advent Chilwanted viewers to be able to interpret scenes themselves,
dren
Complete:
Reunion Tracks, was released with 21
*
allowing them to come to dierent conclusions. [14]
tracks on September 16, 2009. This album contains the
Nojima described the theme of the lm as survival
.* [16] Other themes with which Nomura and Nojima tracks from the mini-album, as well as several pieces that
were lengthened for the Complete lm version but not rewere concerned include Cloud's feelings of guilt and
*
regret for not being able to save his friends Zack and arranged. [23] Reunion Tracks appeared* on the Oricon
charts for a single week at position #108. [24]
Aerith. These feelings are symbolized by a grey wolf
that appears whenever Cloud thinks about them. The
wolf disappears at the end of the lm as Cloud comes to
terms with his feelings.* [7]* :86 The word children 2.9.4 Promotion and release
was used in the title to refer to the lm's children, as they
Advent Children was the rst title announced in the Comrepresent the next generation.* [15]
pilation of Final Fantasy VII series, having been unveiled
at the 2003 Tokyo Game Show.* [7]* :74* [25] Its rst
trailer was featured in an updated version of the video
Music
game Final Fantasy X-2.* [26] However, the trailer used
*
Main article: Music of the Final Fantasy VII series a motion capture that was altered in the nal lm. [16]
Originally scheduled for a September 13, 2005 release
Advent Children
in North America and a September 14, 2005 release in
Japan,* [27]* [28] Square Enix changed the US release
The music of Final Fantasy VII Advent Children was com- date to a tentative November 2005 date, a move many felt
posed by Nobuo Uematsu, Keiji Kawamori, Kenichiro was an attempt on the part of the company to capitalise
Fukui, and Tsuyoshi Sekito, and arranged by Fukui, on the lucrative holiday market,* [29]* [30] although the
Sekito, Kawamori, Shir Hamaguchi, and Kazuhiko website The Digital Bits stated that the delays were due
Toyama. Upon hearing each track, Nomura would make to the extra time required to complete the bonus supplesome changes, and have the composers re-record the ments on the special edition DVD. The North American
piece.* [7]* :8890 The end theme,Calling, was writ- release date was again changed in early November, this
ten and performed by former Bowy vocalist Kyosuke time to January 2006. When fans noted that the 2005
Himuro. The soundtrack includes both pieces original E3 trailer had conrmed the simultaneous September reto the lm and arrangements of works from Final Fan- leases, Square Enix stated that the trailer was not the real
tasy VII, originally composed by Uematsu. Some of E3 trailer and was possibly a fake.* [31]
the arrangements, includingAdvent: One-Winged Angel, are performed by The Black Mages, a rock band An IGN article on February 13, 2006, revealed that April
25, 2006 was the new ocial North American release
formed by Uematsu, Fukui, and Sekito.* [17] Both the
*
pieces original to the lm and the lm arrangements date. [32] Later the same day, an article on 1UP.com
conrmed this date and the entire English voice cast.* [8]
cover a variety of musical styles, including orchestral,
then conrmed the information on their US
choral, classical piano, and rock music; Variety noted that Square Enix
website.* [33]
the styles vary between sparse piano noodlings, pop
metal thrashings and cloying power ballads.* [18] The Prior to the lm's release in Japan, Panasonic produced a
2005 soundtrack album Final Fantasy VII Advent Chil- cell phone identical to the one Cloud uses in the lm; the
dren Original Soundtrack collects 26 tracks of music from phone contained several features related to Advent Chilthe lm on two discs. It was published by Square Enix on dren such as wallpapers and ringtones.* [26] On the same
September 28, 2005. In addition to the regular release, a date the lm was released, Shueisha published a 118-page
limited edition was produced containing alternative cover guidebook titled Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Proart and a booklet of credits and lyrics.* [17] The sound- logue Book.* [34] In 2006, SoftBank Creative published a
track album reached position #15 on the Japanese Oricon guidebook entitled Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Remusic charts, and stayed on the charts for 10 weeks.* [19] union Files, which contains interviews with the lm's sta
*
A mini-album entitled Final Fantasy VII Advent Children and information regarding development of the lm. [35]
Complete Mini Album was released on April 10, 2009,
to coincide with the release of the Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete version of the lm.* [20] This version of the lm included a new ending theme, Safe

A limited edition of the lm entitled Final Fantasy VII


Advent Pieces was released in Japan at the same time as
Advent Children; only 77,777 sets were produced. The
edition contains various pieces of merchandising, a copy

120
of the script, the original Final Fantasy VII game, and
a strategy guidebook for the game. Another disc was
included in Advent Pieces containing the original video
animation Last Order: Final Fantasy VII.* [26] Nomura
stated that the reason for the name Advent Pieces was becauseadventmeansthe recognition and commemoration of something,whilepieceswas added in order
to bring special meaning to the release.* [7]* :101
A special one-time-only theatrical screening of the English version of the lm took place on April 3, 2006, at
the Arclight Theatre in Los Angeles. The event was promoted via email to those who subscribed to the Square
Enix mailing list.* [36] The screening included trailers
of Kingdom Hearts II and Dirge of Cerberus, and featured appearances from the English language cast and the
Japanese developers.
The European, Australian, and North American DVD release of the lm is a 2-disc set that contains several bonus
features, including Last Order. Sony later announced Final Fantasy VII Advent Children (Limited Edition Collector's Set) for release in North America on February 20,
2007.* [37] The set included more bonus material than
the previous DVD releases, including a copy of the script,
several postcards with imagery from the lm, and the rst
three stories from the On the Way to a Smile series.* [38]
Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children Complete

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES


in mid-2007, but Square announced at the 2007 Tokyo
Game Show that they would postpone the product until
2008.* [39] At the 2008 Square Enix DK3713 Party, it
was announced that Final Fantasy VII Advent Children
Complete would be released in March 2009 in Japan, although it didn't actually go on sale until April 16. A
separate bundle was sold that included a demo of Final
Fantasy XIII. Both editions included the rst HD trailers of Final Fantasy Versus XIII and Final Fantasy Agito XIII. On April 11 and 12, 2009, days before its release, Square Enix held four special screenings of Advent
Children Complete at the Ginza Sony Building in Tokyo.
There were 800 seats, but to be eligible, fans had to have
reserved the Blu-ray or the PlayStation 3 bundle at the
Square Enix e-store and be members of Square Enix's
online website.* [40]
Advent Children Complete is 25 minutes longer than the
original cut of the lm and also contains roughly one thousand revised scenes.* [41] Themes expanded in Advent
Children Complete include Cloud's development, Denzel's
background, and a more in-depth view of the Turks and
Rufus Shinra. As various titles from Compilation of Final Fantasy VII were released after the original lm's release, the sta wanted to add links to other titles in the
series. There is more violence in this version, specically more blood during the ghts, as the sta wanted
to bring a dirtierlook to the lm, with characters'
faces and clothes getting darker and dirtier throughout the
battles.* [42] Additionally, the ght between Cloud and
Sephiroth was expanded by several minutes, and includes
a scene in which Sephiroth impales Cloud on his sword
and holds him in the air, mirroring the scene in the game
where he performs the same action.* [43]

Advent Children Complete was released in North America on June 2, 2009,* [44] in Europe on July 27, 2009,
and in Australia on October 7, 2009. The North American and European versions do not come with the playable
demo of Final Fantasy XIII. Instead, they come with a
new trailer for the game.* [45] All Blu-ray disc also feature an animated piece entitledOn the Way to a Smile Episode: Denzel, as well as the story digestsReminiscence of Final Fantasy VII" andReminiscence of Final
Fantasy VII Compilation". The actors had to return for
additional dialogue recording. Nomura stated there were
no major problems with this process, noting that Sakurai
and Morikawa were already used to their characters from
voicing them in other media. However, some of the child
characters, most notably Denzel and Marlene, had to be
recast, as the original performers' voices now sounded too
old.* [43] For the English, the performers also returned to
In addition to new scenes, the director's cut added new details. In record the English release of Advent Children Complete,
this example, director's cut (above) adds a wound across Cloud's with the exception of the voice actors for some of the chilleft cheek and blood smears on his right arm.
dren (most notably Denzel and Marlene), who needed to
be recast because (like the original Japanese version) the
At the 2006 Tokyo Game Show, Square Enix showed a original performers' voices now sounded too old.* [46]
trailer of a director's cut of the lm, entitled Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete, for release on the Blu- Although Nomura stated that Advent Children Complete
ray format. Initially, the cut was expected for release did not represent the end of Compilation of Final Fantasy

2.9. FINAL FANTASY VII ADVENT CHILDREN

121

VII, as the sta still had more ideas, he said it marked 2.9.6
the end of the Advent Children sagaas there would be
no more re-releases or extended versions.* [47]
Sales

2.9.5

Tie-ins

Last Order: Final Fantasy VII


Main article: Last Order: Final Fantasy VII
Last Order: Final Fantasy VII is an OVA directed by
Morio Asaka, written by Kazuhiko Inukai, and animated
by Madhouse.* [7]* :9495* [48] It was originally released
in Japan on the Advent Pieces: Limited DVD, on September 14, 2005.* [49]* [50] It was released in North America on the Limited Edition Collector's Set on February
20, 2007.* [51] Thus far, it has not been released on any
DVD editions of the lm outside Japan or North America. There is currently no English dub for the lm, and
the North America version is subtitled.* [52]

On the Way to a Smile


On the Way to a Smile is a series of short stories that take
place between the time of Final Fantasy VII and Final
Fantasy VII Advent Children. Written by Kazushige Nojima, the rst story (Case of Denzel) was released
in episodic form on the ocial Japanese Advent Children
website. Case of Denzelis told indirectly from the
perspective of Denzel, who has requested an interview
with Reeve Tuesti in the hopes that he may become part
of Reeve's newly formed World Regenesis Organization,
an army devoted to rebuilding the planet. Denzel tells his
life story, including how he became an orphan, the events
leading up to his becoming aicted with Geostigma, and
how he came under the care of Tifa and Cloud.Case of
Denzelwas adapted into On the Way to a Smile - Episode:
Denzel, a short OVA that was released with Advent Children Complete.* [34]* [53]
The second short story is Tifa's account of the events
following Meteor's destruction, overlapping in part with
Denzel's story and her life with Cloud. A third On the
Way to a Smile story, Case of Barrettwas released
with the North American Limited Edition Collector's Set
of Advent Children. It involves Barret and his struggles
to try to nd a new energy source for the people of the
world.
To coincide with the release of Advent Children Complete in 2009, four more stories were written, Case of
Yue", Case of Red XIII, Case of Shinraand
Case of Lifestream - Black & White. All the stories
were released together as a separate product from Advent
Children Complete at the same time as the lm was released.* [54]

Reception

The DVDs releases of Advent Children sold over 410,000


copies in Japan during the rst week.* [55] Combined
with the UMD release, over 700,000 units were sold in
the rst three weeks.* [56] The DVD ranked a surprise#2 during its rst week in Nielsen VideoScan.* [57]
Nielsen's survey Top Selling Anime Releases of 2006
had Advent Children ranked at the top.* [58] In an Oricon
poll from 2005, the regular edition of the DVD ranked
twelfth on the best seller list in Japan, with a total of
209,759 copies sold. The limited edition ranked fteenth with 202,793 copies sold.* [59] In a 2006 survey by the Japan External Trade Organization, the DVD
ranked as the best-selling Japanese anime DVD in the
United States. In the 2007 poll, the DVD stayed at
tenth spot.* [60] The English language DVD sold 963,023
units, which translated to $14,860,534 in revenue, by the
fth week of release.* [61] In 2006, Square Enix and Sony
announced that the English language DVD and UMD releases combined had sold over 2.4 million units worldwide, with 1 million units sold in Japan, 1.3 million in
North America, and 100,000 in Europe.* [62] Without
giving specic numbers about the UMD sales, Square
Enix stated that it had enjoyed good sales, performing
better in North America than in Japan.* [63] By May
2009, sales had increased to over 4.1 million copies.* [64]
The English version of the lm achieved various bestseller ranks on Amazon.com.* [51] In ICv2's Top Ten
Anime Properties from 2006, Advent Children was featured at the top,* [65] and was one of the top three properties during 2007.* [66]
On its rst day of release, over 100,000 Blu-ray copies of
Advent Children Complete were sold in Japan.* [67] During its initial week, the Blu-ray was #2 on the bestseller
list,* [68] with 274,774 units sold.* [69] During 2009, the
regular version of Advent Children Complete sold 49,000
units in Japan, ranking second in the category Animation/Special Eects Blu-ray Discsfrom Oricon's survey 2009's Top-Selling Blu-ray Discs in Japan (Overall).* [70] It ranked eighth in the category Overall
Blu-ray Discs, by Yenwith 310 million yen (US$3.4
million) sold in 2009.* [71] Gaming sites Gamasutra and
Kotaku cited Advent Children Complete as one of the main
reasons why sales of the video game console PlayStation
3 radically increased during the lm's rst week of release.* [69]* [72]

Critical response
Advent Children has received mixed to positive reviews.
1UP.com's James Mielke, who scored it an A-", said
the quality and clarity of the CG visuals was genuinely
amazing.Mielke called itthe real Final Fantasy movie,
nding it more appealing than the rst CGI lm Final

122

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

Fantasy: The Spirits Within. However, he criticized the battle against Sephiroth. He still called the bonus fealm's music, calling ita bit sappy.* [73] While Anime tures disappointing however, claiming the label ComNews Network writer Carlo Santos praised the animation, pletewas misleading. However, he found the new OVA
calling itoutstanding, he criticized the lm's plot, ar- (On the Way to a Smile - Episode: Denzel) and the trailer
guing that people who had not played Final Fantasy VII of Final Fantasy XIII to be welcome additions.* [84]
would not understand the story. Santos also found the Kotaku writer AJ Glasser spoofed the director's cut verstory digest Reminiscence of Final Fantasy VII" to be sion in an article called "Final Fantasy VII Advent Chiljust as confusing as the movie and is more of a refresher dren Complete in 15 Minutes, claiming that the direcfor those who have played Final Fantasy VII.* [74] Ma- tor's cut failed to explain aspects of the lm that were not
nia Entertainment's John Eriani agreed, commenting that explained in the original version.* [85]
anybody who had not played Final Fantasy VII should
search for information about the game to understand the
lm's storyline.* [75] Fellow writer Dani Moure agreed Legacy
with Eriani, although he added that he liked how the
characters were further explored in the lm.* [76] Chris Advent Children received the Honorary Maria Award
Carle from IGN shared similar opinions, giving the sec- at the Festival Internacional de Cinema de Catalunya
tionThe Moviea seven, the lowest number he gave. He on October 15, 2005.* [86] The lm was also awarded
praised the sound and the English voice acting, but crit- best anime featureat the 2007 American Anime
icized the lack of commentary in the DVDs extras.* [77] Awards.* [87] IGN placed it second in the Top 10
He gave the lm an overallOutstandingscore of nine Straight-to-DVD Animated Movies.* [88] In 2007, the
" (Sonata of
out of ten.* [78] Todd Douglass Jr. from DVD Talk com- music video for the song "
mented that Advent Childrenis pretty much the lm that Temptation) by Korean singer Ivy recreated the ght
fans all over the world have been waiting for.Besides between Tifa and Loz. The director of the video stated
praising the animation and the appearances from vari- that it was just a parody of the lm but could not get in
ous Final Fantasy VII characters, Douglass felt Cloud's contact with Square Enix to get ocial permission.* [89]
character development was a highlight.* [79] RPGamer's The video was subsequently banned from airing on
Michael Beckett gave the lm a 4 out of 5, praising the Korean television after a copyright lawsuit by Square Enix
plot's tone, the characters' redesigns, and the setting. He cited plagiarism.* [90] OverClocked ReMix's four disc
also lauded the lm's ghting scenes, stating that the Final Fantasy VII unocial tribute album, Voices of the
lm feels very much like a love letter to the fans of Final Lifestream, has a disc entitled Advent, a name chosen
Fantasy VII.* [80] Conversely, Leslie Felperin of Variety to coincide with the release of the lm, with the music
had a negative opinion of the narrative, called some battle themed after the movie.* [91] Final Fantasy XIII director
sequencesirritating, and noted that the last battles have Motomu Toriyama stated that the lm showed battles
more ferocious antagonists.* [18] About.com's Roger Al- that have not been achievable in FF so far,and as such,
tizer also gave a more negative review, giving it 2 and a he created battles for Final Fantasy XIII that were similar
half stars out of 5, citing its plot and dialogue asweak to the ones in the lm.* [92]
and citing the visuals as one of its few pros.* [81]
The director's cut, Advent Children Complete, received an
overall 4.5 out of 5 by Blu-ray.com's Dustin Somner, who 2.9.7 References
argued that the plot is emotionally dense, the action is
explosively over-the-top, and the world in which the story [1] Square Co (September 7, 1997). Final Fantasy VII.
PlayStation. SCE America. Aeris: How do you intend
enfolds is rich with creativity.Somner highly recomto become one with the Planet? / Sephiroth: It's simple.
mended the Blu-ray to people who had already seen the
Once the Planet is hurt, it gathers Spirit Energy to heal
lm and fans of Final Fantasy VII, while non-fans would
the injury. The amount of energy gathered depends on
do best to rent it rst; I'd remind you to consider the
the size of the injury. ...What would happen if there was
near-perfect audio/video quality and perhaps take a leap
an injury that threatened the very life of the Planet? Think
of faith in adding the disc to your collection.* [82] In
how much energy would be gathered! Ha ha ha. And at
contrast to the original release, Joystiq's Andrew Yoon
the center of that injury, will be me. All that boundless
energy will be mine. By merging with all the energy of
found Advent Children Complete a better lm, feeling it
the Planet, I will become a new life form, a new existence.
was more accessible to people who had not played Final
Melding with the Planet... I will cease to exist as I am
Fantasy VII. Yoon also felt that the new scenes helped give
now. Only to be reborn as a 'God' to rule over every soul.
more depth to Cloud's development, to the point ofhu/ Aeris: An injury powerful enough to destroy the Planet?
manizing [him].Nevertheless, he found that Complete
Injure... the Planet? / Sephiroth: Behold that mural. The
contained some aws not present in the original version,
Ultimate Destructive Magic... Meteor.
such as the pacing of scenes that made the plot dicult
to follow.* [83] DVD Talk's Todd Douglass Jr. stated that [2] Square (June 24, 1998). "Final Fantasy VII". Microsoft
Complete wasthe best version of the lmdue to its auWindows (v1.0). Eidos Interactive. Scene: Diamond
dio quality, the new scenes, and the expansion of Cloud's
Weapon attack. Level/area: Disc 3.

2.9. FINAL FANTASY VII ADVENT CHILDREN

123

[3] Studio BentStu, ed. (2005). Final Fantasy VII Ultimania


(in Japanese). Square Enix. pp. 210215. ISBN 47575-1520-0.

[20] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete Mini Album. Square Enix Music Online. Retrieved April 21,
2009.

[4] Final Fantasy VII 10th Anniversary Ultimania (Revised


Edition) (in Japanese). Square-Enix. 2009. ISBN 9784-7575-2560-3.

[21] Gerard Way co-produced ending theme to Final Fantasy: Advent Children Complete. Destructoid. ModernMethod. 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2014-12-17.

[5] Sephiroth: What I want, Cloud, is to sail the darkness


of the cosmos with this planet as my vessel. Just as my
Mother did long ago. Then one day we'll nd a new planet,
and on its soil we'll create a shining future. (Final Fantasy
VII Advent Children)

[22] Chris. Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete


Mini Album :: Review by Chris. Square Enix Music
Online. Retrieved May 18, 2009.

[6] Final Final Fantasy VII Advent Children DVD Rachael


Leigh Cook. IGN. IGN Entertainment. April 7, 2006.
Retrieved August 1, 2010.

[23] Gann, Patrick (2009-09-30). Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children Complete Reunion Tracks. RPGFan. Retrieved 2014-12-17.
[24] Reunion Tracks/Final Fantasy VII Advent Children
Complete(in Japanese). Oricon. Retrieved 2014-12-17.

[7] SoftBank, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy VII Advent Children:


Reunion Files (in Japanese/English). Square-Enix. ISBN
4-7973-3498-3.

[25] TGS 2003: Final Fantasy VII: The Movie?". IGN. IGN
Entertainment. 2003. Retrieved August 11, 2006.

[8] FFVII Advent Children. 1UP.com. February 13, 2006.


Retrieved August 1, 2010.

[26] Crocker, Janet; Smith, Lesley; Henderson, Tim; Arnold,


Adam (December 2005). The Legacy of Final Fantasy
VII. AnimeFringe. p. 3. Archived from the original on
June 13, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2010.

[9] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children DVD Interview


Steve Burton (voice of Cloud)". IGN. IGN Entertainment.
April 7, 2006. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
[10] McLaughlin, Rus (April 30, 2008). IGN Presents: The
History of Final Fantasy VII. IGN. IGN Entertainment.
Retrieved September 14, 2008.
[11] Stone, Courtney (September 1, 2005).Kitase Discusses
Compilation of Final Fantasy VII. RPGamer. Retrieved
August 5, 2010.
[12] Kingdom Hearts II's Tetsuya Nomura Q & A.
GameSpot. CBS Interactive. 10 October 2003.
[13] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children (Limited Edition Collector's Set) (DVD). Japan: Square Enix. February 20,
2007.
[14] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Prologue (in Japanese).
Square-Enix. 2005. ISBN 4-08-779339-7.
[15] Tetsuya Nomura (Director) (April 25, 2006). Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Distance: The Making of Advent
Children (DVD). Square Enix.

[27] Advent Children Release Announced. Anime News


Network. March 5, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
[28] Advent Children Release. Anime News Network.
March 18, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
[29] Advent Children Delayed. Anime News Network. August 5, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
[30] Advent Children Delayed, Possible Theatrical Release
. Anime News Network. November 10, 2005. Retrieved
August 1, 2010.
[31] 3rd Advent Children Trailer. Anime News Network.
December 14, 2004. Retrieved August 6, 2010.
[32] Ocial Final Fantasy VII Release Date News. IGN.
IGN Entertainment. February 13, 2006. Retrieved June
6, 2007.
[33] Steven Burton, Rachael Leigh Cook and Mena Suvari
Lend Their Voices to the CG-Animated Action-Packed
Feature Film Based on the Best-Selling Playstation Game
Final Fantasy VII Advent Children. February 13, 2006.
Retrieved June 6, 2007.

[16] Kingdom Hearts II's Tetsuya Nomura Q & A.


GameSpot. CBS Interactive. October 10, 2003. Retrieved August 1, 2010.

[34] Advent Children Complete North American Release


June. Square Enix. May 29, 2009. Retrieved January
28, 2010.

[17] Gann, Patrick (October 30, 2005). Final Fantasy VII


Advent Children OST. RPGFan. Retrieved July 28,
2008.

[35] VII
~Reunion Files~ ( BOOKS) (in Japanese).
Amazon.com. ISBN 4797334983.

[18] Felperin, Leslie (September 1, 2005).Final Fantasy VII


Advent Children Review. Variety. Retrieved January 14,
2009.

[36] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Special Screening.


Anime News Network. March 26, 2006. Retrieved August
1, 2010.

[19]

(in Japanese). Oricon. Retrieved 2014-12-17.

[37] McCutcheon, David (December 15, 2006). Further Final Fantasy VII DVDs Due. IGN. IGN Entertainment.
Retrieved June 6, 2007.

124

[38] Carle, Chris (February 16, 2007). Double Dip Digest:


Final Fantasy VII Advent Children (Limited Edition Collector's Set)". IGN. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved January 17, 2008.

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[57] Advent Children #2 on VideoScan. Anime News Network. May 4, 2006. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
[58] Top Selling Anime Releases of 2006. Anime News
Network. June 14, 2006. Retrieved August 4, 2009.

[39] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete Blu-Ray


edition postponed. Newlaunches. Retrieved June 6,
2007.

[59] Top Japanese DVDs of 2005. Anime News Network.


December 31, 2005. Retrieved August 2, 2009.

[40] Ashcraft, Brian (March 9, 2009).Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete Special Screening For 800 People. Kotaku. Retrieved August 6, 2010.

[60] N. America's 2007 Anime Market Pegged at US$2.8


Billion (Update 3)". Anime News Network. April 1, 2009.
Retrieved August 2, 2009.

[41] My Chemical Romance Founder Co-Produces FFVII


ACC Song. Anime News Network. March 27, 2009.
Retrieved August 1, 2010.

[61] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children DVD Sales.


The Numbers. Retrieved August 5, 2010.

[42] Yoon, Andew (March 9, 2009). TGS07: Advent Children gets dirty on Blu-ray. Joystiq. Retrieved August
22, 2010.
[43]Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete. Famitsu
(in Japanese) (Enterbrain and Tokuma Shoten): 2930.
March 2009.
[44] Advent Children Complete North American Release
June. Square Enix. Retrieved May 29, 2009.
[45] Yin-Poole, Wesley (May 5, 2009). Kitase: No plans for
Blu-ray FFXIII demo outside Japan. VideoGamer.com.
Retrieved August 4, 2010.
[46] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete Dated For
America. Kotaku. May 12, 2006. Retrieved August 4,
2010.
[47] Yoon, Andew (March 25, 2009). Advent Children may
be done, but Final Fantasy VII isn't. Joystiq. Retrieved
August 22, 2010.
[48] Otakon Hosts Nana, Chobits Director Morio Asaka.
Anime News Network. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
[49] Calling FF Fans: Pieces of Advent Children. 1UP.com.
August 9, 2005. Retrieved August 12, 2010.

[62] Flash: Advent Children is Popular. Anime News Network. June 6, 2006. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
[63] Gantayat, Anoop (January 15, 2006). Final Fantasy VII
Reaches Platinum in Japan. IGN. IGN Entertainment.
Retrieved August 24, 2009.
[64] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete. Square
Enix. May 12, 2009. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
[65] ICv2's Ten Most Powerful. ICv2. July 12, 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
[66] ICv2: North American Anime DVDs Were Down 20%+
in 2007. Anime News Network. February 13, 2008.
Retrieved August 4, 2009.
[67] Report: Final Fantasy VII ACC Sells 100K+ BDs on 1st
Day. Anime News Network. April 20, 2009. Retrieved
August 4, 2009.
[68] Final Fantasy VII ACC Was #2 U.S. BD in First Week
. Anime News Network. June 18, 2009. Retrieved August
4, 2009.
[69] Jenkins, David (April 24, 2009). Japanese Hardware:
Advent Children Pushes PS3 To Top. Gamasutra. Retrieved August 23, 2010.

[50] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Advent Pieces: Limited. Play-Asia. Retrieved March 4, 2009.

[70] 2009's Top-Selling Blu-ray Discs in Japan (Overall)".


Anime News Network. December 24, 2009. Retrieved
December 25, 2009.

[51] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children (Limited Edition


Collector's Set) (2005)". Amazon.com. Retrieved March
4, 2009.

[71] 2009's Top-Selling Blu-ray Discs in Japan (Continued)".


Anime News Network. December 26, 2009. Retrieved
December 27, 2009.

[52] Last Order: Final Fantasy VII (DVD). Square Enix.


February 20, 2007. Retrieved March 10, 2009.

[72] Ashcraft, Brian (April 22, 2009). Final Fantasy VII


Advent Children Complete Gave PS3 A Sales Bump.
Kotaku. Retrieved August 4, 2010.

[53] Square Enix details FFVII Advent Children bonus content. Andriasang. March 4, 2009. Retrieved August 1,
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[73] Mielke, James (September 16, 2005). Final Fantasy


VII Advent Children review. 1UP.com. Archived from
the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved February 25,
[54] On the Way to a Smile
2008.
VII (in Japanese). Amazon.com. ISBN 4757524625.
[74] Santos, Carlo (April 28, 2006). Anime News Network:
Final Fantasy VII Advent Children review. Anime News
[55] Top Japanese DVDs of 2005. Anime News Network.
December 31, 2005. Retrieved August 16, 2010.
Network. Retrieved August 2, 2009.
[56] Maragos, Nich (January 18, 2006). Round-Up: 1M
Advent Children Sales, Nintendo At GDC, Telephia Signs
Jamdat. Gamasutra. Retrieved August 23, 2010.

[75] Eriani, John (May 25, 2006). Mania Entertainment:


Final Fantasy VII Advent Children review. Mania Entertainment. Retrieved August 4, 2009.

2.10. BEFORE CRISIS: FINAL FANTASY VII

[76] Moure, Dani (June 2, 2006). Mania Entertainment: Final Fantasy VII Advent Children review (2)". Mania Entertainment. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
[77] Carle, Chris (April 17, 2006).Final Fantasy VII Advent
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January 17, 2008.
[78] Final Fantasy VII Advent Children DVD. IGN. IGN
Entertainment. Retrieved January 17, 2008.
[79] Douglass Jr., Todd (April 21, 2006). DVD talk: Final
Fantasy VII Advent Children review. DVD Talk. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
[80] Beckett, Michael. Final Fantasy VII Advent Children
Sta Review. RPGamer. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
[81] Altizer, Roger. Final Fantasy VII Advent Children
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[82] Sommer, Dustin (May 27, 2009).Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Blu-ray Review. Blu-ray.com. Retrieved
August 3, 2010.
[83] Yoon, Andrew (May 29, 2009). Review: Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete. Joystiq. Retrieved
August 4, 2010.
[84] Douglass Jr., Todd (June 12, 2009). DVD talk: Final
Fantasy VII Advent Children Complete (Blu-ray)". DVD
Talk. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
[85] Glasser, AJ (May 25, 2009). Final Fantasy VII Advent
Children Complete in 15 Minutes. Kotaku. Retrieved
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[86] Festival Ocial Presentation. Sitges Film Festival.
April 10, 2005. Retrieved January 29, 2008.
[87] Carle, Chris (February 24, 2007).NYCC 07: American
Anime Award Winners Revealed. IGN. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved March 7, 2008.
[88] Top 10 Straight-to-DVD Animated Movies. IGN. IGN
Entertainment. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
[89] Ashcraft, Brian (March 3, 2007). Clip: Korean Video
Rips-O FF VII. Kotaku. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
[90] Ashcraft, Brian (April 10, 2007). Clip: Square Cracks
Down On Korean Video. Kotaku. Retrieved June 5,
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[91] Tracks: Voices of the Lifesteam. OverClocked ReMix.
Retrieved March 10, 2009.

125
Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children at the Internet
Movie Database
Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children at AllMovie
Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children (anime) at
Anime News Network's encyclopedia

2.10 Before Crisis: Final Fantasy


VII
Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII (
- VII- Bifoa Kuraishisu
-Fainaru Fantaj Sebun-) is an action role-playing mobile video game developed and released by Square Enix
for FOMA iMode, SoftBank Mobile and EZweb mobile phones. It was rst released for FOMA on September 24, 2004, and for SoftBank and EZweb on January
30 and April 5, 2007. Before Crisis is a prequel to the
1997 video game Final Fantasy VII, and forms part of the
Compilation of Final Fantasy VII, a metaseries expanding on and continuing the story established in VII. It It
takes place six years prior to the events of VII, and focuses
on the adventures of the Turks, a group of covert operatives working for the Shinra Electric Power Company,
and their ghts against both rebel group AVALANCHE
and their corrupt employers.
Before Crisis, the second title created for the Compilation,
was developed by Square Enix as a gameplay and multiplayer experience unique to mobile devices. The company's rst original Final Fantasy title for mobiles, it was
directed by Hajime Tabata as his rst major for Square
Enix. The initial concept was created by him at the request of Tetsuya Nomura for a game that had the Turks
as protagonists. The music was composed by Takeharu
Ishimoto, originally a sound arranger at the company. It
was highly successful upon release, registering 200,000
users and being accessed over one million times. Western critics have generally praised the title, but due to issues involving the capacity of mobile devices in the west,
it has not been released outside Japan.

2.10.1 Gameplay

Before Crisis is a real-time action role-playing game. The


[92] Bramwell, Tom (June 7, 2006). FF to look like Ad- game uses 2D graphics as the player moves along in a
*
vent Children?". Eurogamer. Gamer Network. Retrieved side-scrolling manner. [1] The player begins the game
by selecting their character, which can be a man or a
August 22, 2010.
woman, along with their name.* [2] Gameplay is divided
up between several modes of play. Episode Modein2.9.8 External links
volves the player playing through the game's main storyline, completing various objectives in order to continue
Advent Children website (Japanese)
on in the game. Free Modeallows players to roam
the town and speak with the townspeople. Players can
Advent Children Complete website (Japanese)
also play extra missions to gain Experience points (XP)
Advent Children Complete website (English)
and items, some of which are exclusive to Free Mode

126

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES


slot.* [6] In later versions of the game, an Easy Mode
was added, with the player able to switch between this
and the normal diculty in the game menu.* [7]

2.10.2 Plot
Setting and characters
Main article: Characters of the Final Fantasy VII series

A screenshot of Before Crisis showing one of the playable characters (left) and the on-screen display.

Before Crisis is set six years prior to the events of Final


Fantasy VII. The world on which Before Crisis is set,
calledthe Planetin-game andGaiaby game sta,* [8]
is divided into multiple regions run by a megacorporation called the Shinra Electric Power Company. Shinra
uses the energy of the Planet, known as the Lifestream,
to power the world, and as such is endangering the Planet
and its people. The events of Before Crisis frequently
overlap with those of Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII. The
exact setting is shortly after the end of a war between
Shinra and the people of Wutai. With Wutai defeated,
and the people of the world now dependent on Shinra's
energy, the company becomes the dominant economic,
military and political power in the world. Rising against
them is AVALANCHE, a rebel group who rightly believe
that Shinra's energy extraction is slowly killing the planet.

.* [1] Characters have hit points and magic points, and can
level up upon acquisition of experience, at which point
they can equip new weapons and armor.* [1] Players can
choose to manually attack an enemy during combat or
press the action key to automatically attack the nearest
enemy.* [3]
The playable characters and main protagonists are the
The Materia Generation Systemallows players to ac- Turks, a group of covert operatives working for Shinra.
quire Materia, objects tied to the game's magic system, The playable characters in-game are eleven new Turks:
by taking a picture with their camera phone. The game ten of them are designated by their weapon or ghting
synthesizes the picture down to its base color. Depending style and their gender, while the eleventh is known as
upon the dominant color, lighting, and other factors, the Legend (Male). Their true name can be selected by
game produces a Materia of a certain type. For exam- the player. One of the characters, Shuriken (Female),
ple, a dark green picture results in a Bio Materia, a blue later turns up in Crisis Core under the name Cissnei
picture results in a Cure Materia, etc. Once acquired, . The Turks are led by Veld, a veteran of the group, and
Materia can be leveled up as in Final Fantasy VII.* [1] later Tseng, a character who plays an important role in
Under certain circumstances, assistance in the form of other VII stories. Their primary antagonists all belong
summoned monsters, recurring gures in the Final Fan- to AVALANCHE. The three important AVALANCHE
tasy series, can be called in via the Materia system to deal characters are Elf, the leader of AVALANCHE and
damage to multiple enemies.* [4] Rank Points (RP) are Veld's daughter; Fuhito, a scientist who acts as the planawarded during the completion of objectives in all three ner for the group; and Shears, AVALANCHE's secondmodes of play. After a certain amount of RP has been in-command. Multiple characters from VII make appearacquired, special bonuses are unlocked, such as stronger ances either as cameos or supporting characters, such as
armor and weapons, and extra Materia slots. The player protagonists Cloud Strife, Tifa Lockhart, Aerith Gainsis also given a rank, based upon how long they have been borough, and Zack Fair; and originals antagonists Rufus
playing the game. The higher their rank, the better the Shinra, son of the company president; and Sephiroth, a
SOLDIER who would go rogue.
bonuses the player gets.
The game oers several online features between characters. Players can trade Materia with other players via
email.* [1] Players can summon a friend to cast magic by
lling the Materia aidmeter.* [5] Players can battle
each other 1-on-1 in Battle Squarearena located in
the Gold Saucer location. Players can collect battle points
(BP) in order to battle higher ranked players. In Battle
Tournamentmode, players can choose to use a handicap,
however the handicap will be determined randomly by a

Story
Before Crisis opens with the trainee Turks on a mission
in the city of Midgar to investigate AVALANCHE activities. With help from Reno, AVALANCHE retreat.
However, the attack proves to be a diversion for a greater
strike at the town of Junon, where President Shinra is
set to give a speech. President Shinra is shot, but sur-

2.10. BEFORE CRISIS: FINAL FANTASY VII


vives, and calls in Sephiroth. However, it transpires
that even the attack on the President was a diversion,
and AVALANCHE's real target was a weapon called the
Mako Cannon, which they planned to re at Midgar, destroying the city. Elf and Sephiroth do battle at the cannon, but the ght ends inconclusively, and AVALANCHE
withdraw. AVALANCHE next target Rayleigh a professor carrying data on the SOLDIER members and their
creation. The Turks are sent to protect Rayleigh, accompanied by several Shinra guards, including Cloud. Fuhito,
a scientist working for AVALANCHE, is able to corrupt
Rayleigh's data when the Turks disobey orders and save
Rayleigh instead of protecting the information. Using the
SOLDIER data, Fuhito develops an elite unit known as
the Ravens, using them to capture two SOLDIERs, Essai
and Sebastian. The Turks succeed in rescuing the pair,
and are then sent to destroy AVALANCHE, accompanied by Zack. Essai and Sebastian, however, are captured
once again, and turned into Ravens. Even though Zack is
able to bring them back to their senses, he is unable to
save them.
Meanwhile, President Shinra becomes suspicious of the
Turks activities, believing that someone within the organization is leaking sensitive information. He concludes
that it must be Veld, and removes him from command,
instead placing the company's security leader Heidegger in charge. In his rst operation however, Heidegger
nearly destroys Junon, and the President reinstates Veld.
In his rst mission back in command, Veld plans to defeat
AVALANCHE. An assault is launched at a Mako Reactor, during which Rufus Shinra is revealed to be the
traitor supporting AVALANCHE. He is captured by the
Turks and placed under house arrest. At the same time,
Shears defects to the Turks in an eort to save the gravely
ill Elf. Veld discovers that Elf is his daughter Felicia,
whom he thought dead in a botched Shinra operation, and
resigns from the Turks. With Elf continuing to weaken,
Fuhito takes over the command of AVALANCHE. It is
revealed that a Materia owned by Elf is Zirconiade, an
ancient and powerful summoned monster that Fuhito intends to use to destroy humanity and stop them harming
the planet. However, the Materia is broken, and is slowly
draining Elf's life energy. To save her, the four Support
Materia must be found. Fuhito holds one, and the Turks
and Shears hold another.
Meanwhile, not wishing that Rufus' betrayal become
known, the President orders the Turks' destruction. Despite this imminent threat, the Turks manage to nd two
more Support Materia. Under Fuhito's control, the remainder AVALANCHE is turned into a vicious army of
uncontrollable Ravens. In the nal battle, Fuhito summons Zirconiade, fusing the summon with his own body,
and Shears sacrices himself to save Elf. Fuhito transforms into a monster, but he is defeated by the Turks.
After the battle, Tseng falsely claims that both Veld and
Elf are dead, so as to protect them from being hunted
down by Shinra. The Turks are then reorganized, with

127
Tseng reinstated as their immediate leader, but they are
now sworn to loyalty to Shinra as part of the bargain for
their survival. The original Turks nd new lives for themselves in hiding, and are later seen helping in the evacuation of Midgar during the events of VII.

2.10.3 Development
Before Crisis was created as part of the Compilation of Final Fantasy VII, a multimedia series based in and on the
world and characters of VII. While the lm Final Fantasy
VII: Advent Children was originally to be the only product of the Compilation, the production team agreed that
one title was not enough to explore the world of VII in
full, so more titles were decided upon, including Dirge of
Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII and Crisis Core.* [9] Before
Crisis was originally conceived by Tetsuya Nomura, one
of the creative minds behind Final Fantasy VII and the
Compilation. His initial idea was for a game focused on
the Turks. He approached Hajime Tabata, who had only
recently joined the company's mobile games division, and
asked if the division could create a mobile game with
that premise. Nomura would end of designing the game's
characters.* [8]* [10] Production began in 2002.* [8] The
game's title was thought up by Tabata, and would go on
to establish a system of letter-based abbreviations used
by sta for titles in the Compilation.* [11] To help solidify their goal, the sta created a timeline for the world of
VII. Since there was little denite information concerning events prior to VII, they had a relative amount of creative freedom, including creating an early, more violent
incarnation of rebel group AVALANCHE.* [8] While the
second title created for the series, it was the rst to be
released when Advent Children was delayed during postproduction.* [12]
Before Crisis was the rst original video game developed by Square Enix exclusively for mobile phones, originally released on NTT DoCoMo's FOMA mobile devices.* [13]* [14] Their rst major mobile title, also in collaboration with NTT DoCoMo, was a remake of the original Final Fantasy. Using lessons learned from the development of the Final Fantasy port, the team worked hard
to make Before Crisis a uniquely mobile experience, with
gameplay features built to exploit mobile functions such
as the camera and network capacity.* [14] The camera
function used to generate Materia was based on a simple image recognition that species the Materia generated based on the picture's general color.* [14] One of the
challenges during development was to keep the framerate smooth during moments of high action, especially as
no two mobiles would have identical components.* [8] To
promote the game, Madhouse created a promotional animation featuring the various main characters.* [15] The
original version's beta test started in August 2004.* [1]
Following an announcement at the Tokyo Game Show in
2006, the game was released for two additional Japanese
mobile carriers: SoftBank Mobile in January 2007, and

128
EZweb in April 2007.* [16] In 2010, Tabata voiced an
interest in fully remaking Before Crisis for the Nintendo
3DS, revamping the narrative delivery and incoporating
the ability for a substantial number of players to enter
missions. This suggestion was positively received by Nomura and Yoshinori Kitase, but at the time Tabata was
busy developing Final Fantasy Type-0 (then Agito XIII)
and The 3rd Birthday.* [17]

Music
Main article: Music of the Final Fantasy VII series
The composer for Before Crisis was Takeharu Ishimoto,
who would go on to compose music for Crisis Core. Originally joining the company as a music arranger, he was
one of many sta who participated in a competition set
up by the game developers to nd a composer for Before
Crisis. His task was to create a piece of music that was
related to the world of VII, but still distinctive. It was
one of Ishimoto's rst jobs as the main composer for a
title.* [18] The music of Before Crisis was commercially
released along with the music from the original video animation Last Order: Final Fantasy VII in an album titled
Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII & Last Order: Final Fantasy VII Original Soundtrack. The majority of the tracks
of the album were composed by Ishimoto, apart from a
few reorchastrated themes from VII, the music of which
was written by regular Final Fantasy composer Nobuo
Uematsu.* [19]

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

2.10.4 Reception
Despite not being reviewed, Before Crisis has garnered
generally positive feedback from critics in previews and
features. AnimeFringe commented that the visuals
seemed remarkable goodand praised the game for
choosing to reverse the good and bad guy roles,by
making the Turks protagonists, and AVALANCHE antagonists.* [24] Cara Lee Haslam of RPGamer previewed
the game at E3 2006 and stated that the graphics are
really great, especially for a cell phone game,although
she also noted that the animation isn't the best.* [25]
GameSpot's Bethany Massimilla also previewed the game
at E3, calling itperfectly digestible in delivery,with its
use of episodic storytelling that comes in small bursts
in between action periods.She also stated that the game
had well-dened and detailed character portraits and
lean, lanky character models running around the city and
mako reactor, which had a simple layout but still looked
nice.Massimilla praised the animation assmoothand
felt thatthe controls were easy to learn and were responsive.Additionally, she thought the demo phone's vibrating function, set o when the player receives a call from
Tseng,was a really nice touch.* [5] Levi Buchanan of
IGN was generally positive, praising the dark art style,
and nding the short mission-based structure ideal for
mobile gameplay.* [3]

The game registered 200,000 users, making it the bestselling mobile game up until that time, and was accessed
1.6 million times.* [22]* [26] 1UP.com listed the game
as one of ve classic Japanese mobile games unlikely
to come to North America.* [13] Outside its immediate
reception, Before Crisis had an eect on other projects
within the Final Fantasy series. After the positive reception of Madhouse's animated commercial, they were choLocalization
sen by Square Enix to animate Last Order.* [15] The high
The game's release in the west was announced at the 2006 popularity of Before Crisis in Japan led Tabata to direct
Electronic Entertainment Expo, two years after its release Type-0, part of the Fabula Nova Crystallis Final Fantasy
*
*
*
in Japan. At the announcement, the localization was said subseries and then a title for mobiles. [27] [28] [29]
*
to be coming along nicely. [20] The stated reason
for the delay between the original and projected western
release was that mobile phones in the west were not yet 2.10.5 References
advanced enough for the game.* [21] One of the things
[1] Gantayat, Anoop (31 August 2004). Hands On: Before
planned for the western release was to bring the entire exCrisis Final Fantasy VII. IGN. Retrieved 16 December
perience over as quickly as possible, with plans for one to
2014.
three chapters released each month, and ne-tuning to be
done using the planned two-year gap between the original [2] "BC -FFVII- 2 10 16 !" (in
Japanese). ITmedia. 15 October 2004. Archived from the
and western releases. It formed part of a push by the comoriginal on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December
*
pany into the western mobile game market. [22] Despite
2014.
these announcements, no further progress has been made
and Before Crisis was never released in the west. The o- [3] Buchanan, Levi (9 May 2006). E3 2006: Before Crisis
cial reason for this, as stated by head of mobile operations
Hands-On. IGN. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
Keiji Fujita, was that mobile phones in the west were too
low-spec for Before Crisis, which could only run on high- [4] BEFORE CRISIS -FINAL FANTASY VII- Index(in
Japanese). ITmedia. Archived from the original on 14
end phones in Japan, making a port impossible. Another
May 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
possible reason suggested by Fujita was Ito's move from
Square Enix to Capcom in 2008, leaving no-one to man- [5] Masimilla, Bethany (10 May 2006). E3 06: Beage any future localization and porting eorts.* [23]
fore Crisis: Final Fantasy VII Hands-On Impressions.

2.11. FINAL FANTASY VII

129

[20] Palley, Stephen (1 November 2011). Final Fantasy


VII: Before Crisis bound for US mobiles. Gamespot.
" -FFVII-"
Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. Re" " (in Japanese). Famitsu. 28 April 2006.
trieved 16 December 2014.
Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved
4 April 2013.
[21] Hong, Quang; Sheeld (Business/Marketing), Brandon
(18 June 2006). Q&A: Kosei Ito Talks Mobile Final
i -FFVII-
Fantasy. Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 10
" (in Japanese). Famitsu. 28 April
November 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
2006. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
[22] Buchanan, Levi (6 July 2006). Interview with Square
Enix Mobile: Kosei Ito. IGN. Retrieved 11 August
Interview: Kosei Ito Q&A (in Japanese). ITmedia.
2006.
2004. Archived from the original on 17 August 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
[23] Spencer, Yip (4 April 2010). After Square Enix Announced It, What Ever Happened To Before Crisis: Final
Stone, Cortney (1 September 2005). Kitase Discusses
Fantasy VII?". Siliconera. Archived from the original on
Compilation of Final Fantasy VII. RPGamer. Archived
10 October 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 2
September 2007.
[24] Crocker, Janet; Smith, Lesley; Henderson, Tim; Arnold,
Adam (December 2005). The Legacy of Final Fantasy
Leo, Jon (1 November 2011). Fantasy Star: TalkVII. AnimeFringe. Archived from the original on 6
ing to Final Fantasy Scenario Director Hajime Tabata.
October 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
Gamespot. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014.
Retrieved 13 July 2014.
[25] Haslam, Cara Lee (12 May 2006). E3 Impression Final
Fantasy VII: Before Crisis. RPGamer. Retrieved 17
Studio BentStu, ed. (September 13, 2007). Final FanAugust 2010.
tasy VII 10th Anniversary (in Japanese). Square Enix.
pp. 813. ISBN 978-4-7575-2560-3.
[26] Winkler, Chris (14 October 2004). Before Crisis: FiGameSpot. Retrieved 17 August 2010.

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12] Watanabe, Yukari, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy VII Advent


Children Reunion Files (in Japanese). SoftBank. p.
74. ISBN 4-7973-3498-3.

nal Fantasy VII Registers 200,000 Users on Day One.


RPGFan. Retrieved 21 July 2012.

[27] " " XIII"".


Dengeki Online. 2 June 2006. Archived from the original
[13] Pereira, Chris (20 September 2012). Japanese Cell
on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
Phone Treasures: 5 Mobile Games We Won't Be Seeing.
1UP.com. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. [28]Square Enix Presents: DK3713 Private Party 2008 -
Retrieved 31 March 2013.
: ". Famitsu
PS3 (Enterbrain) (XIII): 29. 22 August 2008.

[14] Ito, Kosei; Diamante (Designer), Vincent (8 March 2005).


Postcard from GDC Mobile 2005: Final Fantasy for
Mobile: A Case Study. Gamasutra. Archived from the
original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 16 December
2014.

[29] Gantayat, Anoop (28 January 2011). Kitase and


Toriyama Talk FFXIII-2 and Fabula Nova Crystallis.
Andriasang.com. Archived from the original on 29 June
2014. Retrieved 12 December 2012.

[15] SoftBank, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy VII Advent Children:


Reunion Files (in Japanese/English). Square Enix. pp.
9495. ISBN 4-7973-3498-3.

2.10.6 External links

[16] " -FFVII- EZweb


" (in Japanese). Famitsu. 5 April 2007.
Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 23
April 2013.
[17] Pigna, Kris (30 September 2010).Square Enix Producer
Mulls Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII 3DS Remake.
1UP.com. Archived from the original on 31 December
2012. Retrieved 31 March 2013.

Ocial website (Japanese)

2.11 Final Fantasy VII

Final Fantasy VII ( VII


Fainaru Fantaj Sebun) is a 1997 role-playing video game
developed by Squaresoft. It is the seventh installment in
[18] " the Final Fantasy series and the game is the rst in the se". Famitsu. 23 March 2013. ries to use 3D computer graphics, featuring fully rendered
Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 16 characters on pre-rendered backgrounds, and was the
December 2014.
rst game in the main series to be released in Europe.
[19] Gann, Patrick (2008-03-14). Before Crisis -Final Fan- Final Fantasy VII follows protagonist Cloud Strife, a
tasy VII- & Last Order -Final Fantasy VII- OST. RPG- mercenary who initially joins the eco-terrorist rebel orFan. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Re- ganization AVALANCHE to stop the world-controlling
trieved 2008-07-29.
megacorporation Shinra from draining the life of the

130

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

planet for use as an energy source. As the story progresses, Cloud and his allies become involved in a larger
world-threatening conict, facing o against Sephiroth,
the game's main antagonist.

cally scaled environments, consisting of 2D pre-rendered


backgrounds which represent locations such as towns or
forests.* [5] Initially, the player is restricted to the city
of Midgar, but as the game progresses the entire world
*
Development of Final Fantasy VII began in 1994. The becomes accessible. [4] Progression through the game's
game was originally intended for release on the Super storyline is largely developed by way of scripted sepre-rendered cinematic cutscenes are
Nintendo Entertainment System, but was moved to quences, although
*
[6]
also
used.
the Nintendo 64. However, since the Nintendo 64's
cartridges lacked the required storage capacity, Square
decided to release the game for the CD-ROM based Battle system
PlayStation instead. Final Fantasy VII was directed by
Yoshinori Kitase, written by Kazushige Nojima and Kitase, and produced by Hironobu Sakaguchi. The music
was composed by Final Fantasy veteran Nobuo Uematsu,
while the series' long-time character designer, Yoshitaka
Amano, was replaced by Tetsuya Nomura.
Helped by a large pre-release promotional campaign, Final Fantasy VII became an immediate critical and commercial success. It was originally released in 1997 for the
Sony PlayStation, in 1998 for Microsoft Windows-based
personal computers, in 2009 on the PlayStation Network,
in 2012 on PC Digital Download, and in 2013 on Steam.
In 2014, the game was released for Android and iPhone
devices through the Japan-only streaming service Dive
In.* [3] On December 6, 2014, it was announced that
Final Fantasy VII would be released on the PlayStation 4,
with upscaled graphics.* [2] It has continued to sell solidly
10 million copies were sold by May 2010, making it
the best-selling title in the series. Final Fantasy VII was
praised for its graphics, gameplay, music and story. Criticism primarily pertained to its English localization.
It has retrospectively been acknowledged as the game that
popularized the Japanese role-playing video game style
outside of its home market, and has frequently ranked
highly on various top game lists. The popularity of the title led Square Enix to produce a series of prequels and sequels under the collective title Compilation of Final Fantasy VII.

2.11.1

Gameplay

See also: Gameplay of Final Fantasy


As with previous installments of the Final Fantasy series,
Final Fantasy VII consists primarily of three major areas:
an overworld map, eld maps, and a battle screen. The
overworld map is a 3D model, featuring a scaled-down
version of the game's ctional world, across which the
player travels between the game's locations.* [4] As with
preceding games in the series, the world map can be traversed by foot, on chocobos and in an airship or sea vessel (in this case, a submarine and a plane used as a boat).
It also includes an additional means of transportationa
buggy.* [4]
On eld maps, characters are directed across realisti-

Battle gameplay in Final Fantasy VII

The battle screen is a 3D representation of an area, such


as a building's interior or an open grassland, in which the
player commands the characters in battles against CPUcontrolled enemies.* [7] While characters are super deformed on maps, the character models are more realistic
and normal-scaled in combat.* [6] Final Fantasy VII is the
rst game in the series to have character models with fully
rendered polygons, rather than 2D sprites. During battle sequences, the game uses the series' traditional Active
Time Battle (ATB) system rst featured in Final Fantasy
IV. Unlike previous games in the series, which allow 4-5
playable characters to participate in battle, Final Fantasy
VII only allows three characters per battle.* [8]
Final Fantasy VII 's skill system is built around the use
of |Materiamagical orbs composed of condensed life
energy from the planet, that are placed in special slots on
weapons and armor, allowing players to customize their
party's ability to use magic, summons, and special abilities. However, most magic-based Materia also lowers an
equipped character's physical attributes. In addition, certain types of Materia can be combined in a xed number
of ways to enhance their eects or produce other abilities.* [9] Summon spells feature in the game, equippable
as Materia, with elaborately animated attacks. A modied form of Final Fantasy VI 's Desperation Attacks
appears in Final Fantasy VII as the Limit Break.Every playable character has a bar that gradually lls up
as they suer damage in battle. When the bar is completely lled, the character is able to unleash his or her

2.11. FINAL FANTASY VII


Limit Break, a special attack which generally inicts signicantly more damage on enemies than normal attacks,
or otherwise aids the party in battle.* [6] Unlike Materia,
each character has their own unique set of Limit Breaks,
which are divided into four levels of strength, although
one character, Cait Sith, has only two levels.* [10]

2.11.2

Plot

Setting
The game's setting is similar to that of Final Fantasy VI
insofar as it is a world with considerably more advanced
technology than the rst ve games in the series. Overall,
the game's technology and society approximates that of
an industrial or post-industrial science ction milieu.* [11]
The world of Final Fantasy VII, referred to in the game as
The Planet, but retroactively namedGaia, is composed of three main land masses. The eastern continent is
home to the city of Midgar, an industrial metropolis that
serves as the capital city and hosts the headquarters of the
Shinra Electric Power Company, which operates as the
planet's de facto world government. Other locations on
the eastern continent are Junon (Shinra's major military
base), Fort Condor (a fort with a huge condor covering up
a Mako reactor on top of it), a chocobo ranch, and Kalm
(a small town inspired by medieval Europe).
The western continent features the Gold Saucer (an
amusement park with Corel Prison below), Costa Del Sol
(a seaside resort), Gongaga (a small town containing the
remains of a destroyed Mako reactor), Nibelheim (a town
residing at the base of Mt. Nibel), Rocket Town (the location of Shinra's failed space rocket launch), and Cosmo
Canyon. The tribe inhabiting Cosmo Canyon emphasize
living in harmony with nature and dedicating themselves
to the planet's well-being.* [12] Their settlement features
an observatory and serves as a research facility for those
who wish to participate in a philosophy known as the
Study of Planet Life, a lifestyle that encourages deference for nature and teaches that the planet has a life and
energy of its own.* [12]
Wutai, a village inspired by pre-modern Japan and China,
is located on a large island o the western continent.
The northernmost continent is a heavily glaciated landmass, and its few settlements include Bone Village (an
excavation site), Icicle Inn (a ski resort town), the mythical City of the Ancients, and the Northern Crater,
where the game's climax takes place. There are also underwater locations accessible only by submarine; for example, a sunken Shinra plane transporter.
Characters
Main article: Characters of the Final Fantasy VII series
The nine main playable characters in Final Fantasy VII

131
are Cloud Strife, an unsociable mercenary who claims
to be a former 1st Class member of Shinra's SOLDIER
unit;* [13] Barret Wallace, the leader of the anti-Shinra
rebel group AVALANCHE; Tifa Lockhart, a martial
artist and a member of AVALANCHE, also a childhood
friend of Cloud's; Aerith Gainsborough,* [14] a ower
merchant who has been pursued by Shinra's special operations unit, the Turks, since childhood;* [15] Red XIII,
a wise lion-like creature who was experimented on by
Shinra scientists; Cait Sith, a fortune-telling robotic cat
who rides an animated moogle doll;* [16] Cid Highwind,
a pilot whose dreams of being the rst man in outer space
were not realized;* [17] Yue Kisaragi, a young ninja and
a skillful thief; and Vincent Valentine, a former member of Shinra's Turks unit, who was experimented on
30 years prior to the start of the game.* [18] The game's
main antagonist is Sephiroth, a former member of SOLDIER who reappears several years after he was thought
dead.* [19]
Story
The game begins with Cloud Strife, working as a
mercenary for hire, helping the eco terrorist group
AVALANCHE in a raid against the Mako reactors surrounding the Shinra-governed city of Midgar. Barret, the
group's leader, believes the Mako energy the reactors consume to be the planet's lifeblood, and Shinra's reactors
are killing the planet. Cloud's childhood friend, Tifa, is
also in the group. Although the rst mission is successful,
AVALANCHE is ambushed at the next reactor during a
subsequent raid. When the reactor explodes, Cloud drops
down into Midgar's slums. He is found by Aerith (aka
Aeris), a girl he briey met selling owers after his rst
mission with AVALANCHE.* [20] Prompted by the arrival of the Turks, who have been sent to capture Aerith,
Cloud agrees to act as her bodyguard and defends her
from their assault.* [21] Meanwhile, Shinra learns the location of AVALANCHE's hideout in Sector 7, and subsequently destroys it by dropping the upper plate of Sector
7 onto the slums, killing its population.* [22] The Turks
also capture Aerith, who is revealed to be the last surviving Cetra, an ancient near-dead tribe closely attuned
with the planet.* [23] President Shinra and Professor Hojo
believe Aerith is the key to nding thePromised Land,
a mythical land of fertility they see as an abundant source
of Mako.* [24] The remaining AVALANCHE members Cloud, Barret and Tifa - inltrate Shinra to rescue Aerith,
in the process encountering a specimen simply labeled
Jenova. Joined by Red XIII, a sentient tiger-like creature on whom Hojo had been conducting experiments, the
party rescues Aerith, but is captured by the Turks while
trying to escape and detained within the building. In the
morning, they nd their cells open and most of the personnel, including President Shinra, killed: the perpetrator appears to be Sephiroth, a legendary SOLDIER leader
who was presumed dead several years ago.The group discovers that the Jenova specimen is also missing,* [25] pre-

132
sumed stolen by Sephiroth.

Sephiroth killing Aerith. The scene was referred to by GameSpot


as the most shocking moment in video games.* [26]

While the president's son, Rufus Shinra, assumes control of the company, the party leaves Midgar and pursues
Sephiroth across the planet. They are joined by Cait Sith,
a cat-robot secretly controlled by repentant Turk Reeve
Tuesti;* [27] Yue Kisaragi, a teenage ninja from Wutai;
Vincent Valentine, a former Turk; and Cid Highwind, a
chain-smoking pilot. At a Cetra temple, the party encounters Sephiroth, who reveals his plan: if the world
is signicantly damaged, the Lifestream, made of pure
Mako energy, will gather in an attempt to heal the wound.
Sephiroth intends to use the legendary Black Materia to
cast a spell called Meteorto cause a massive injury,
enabling him to merge with the planet's Mako energy and
be reborn as a god.* [28] The party drives o Sephiroth,
acquiring the Black Materia, but Sephiroth manipulates
Cloud into giving him the Materia. While the party recovers from the encounter, Aerith sets o to stop Sephiroth on her own, following him to an ancient Cetra city.
The party follows, and nds Aerith praying to the planet
for aid. Just as they reach her, Sephiroth kills her. Cloud
and his allies track Sephiroth to the North Crater. During their journey, they nd out that Jenova is an interstellar creature who crashed on the planet roughly two thousand years ago, intent on taking over completely.* [29] Attempting to defend itself, the planet created giant monsters called Weapons. While most humans ed, the Cetra
managed to defeat Jenova and entomb its remains.* [30]
A few decades before the present, the remains of Jenova were unearthed by Professor Gast, a researcher for
Shinra. Mistaking Jenova for a Cetra, Gast attempted
to clone Jenova, assisted by Hojo. Even though Gast
abandoned the project, Hojo successfully managed to use
his assistant's unborn child for the experiment: the baby
was Sephiroth.* [31] Approximately ve years before the
present day, while on a Shinra mission with Cloud to
Cloud's and Tifa's hometown of Nibelheim, Sephiroth
encountered Hojo's failed test subjects and learned of his
origins. Mistakenly believing that Jenova and he were
Cetra, he was driven insane and destroyed Nibelheim as
an act of vengeance on the normal human population.

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES


Cloud and Tifa confronted Sephiroth during the massacre, after which Sephiroth vanished, presumed dead
until his reappearance in the present day.
When the party reaches the Northern Crater to confront
Sephiroth for killing Aerith, they learn that Sephiroth was
one of multiple Jenova clones that Hojo had created from
both animals and humans. Upon reaching Sephiroth,
who has been killing and absorbing the Jenova clones
to instigate a Reunionof Jenova's cells, he manipulates Cloud into helping him cast Meteor, then states that
Cloud is one of Sephiroth's clones, showing him memories of the Nibelheim incident with a black-haired SOLDIER in Cloud's place.* [32] The summoning of Meteor
activates the planet's Weapons, and during the subsequent
earthquake, Cloud is separated from his companions and
falls into the Lifestream. The rest of the party and the
Turks that had followed them to the Crater escape on
the airship, the Highwind, where the party members are
placed under arrest. As Meteor approaches the planet,
the Weapons turn on humanity in an attempt to return as
much Mako energy to the Lifestream as possible to aid the
planet. Shinra focuses its eorts on protecting humanity
from the Weapons and attempting to destroy Meteor directly, which eventually costs the lives of the majority of
Shinra's personnel.* [33] Tifa, Barret and the others are
sentenced to be executed, but escape.* [34] They nd a
catatonic Cloud at a hospital in a tropical resort, where
he washed up following the events at the North Crater.
Tifa stays behind to help Cloud recover, while the rest of
the party continue their ght against Shinra. An attack by
the Weapons destroys the island, and Cloud and Tifa both
fall into the Lifestream. There, Tifa helps Cloud reconstruct his memories and learns the truth about his past.
It is revealed that Cloud was not accepted into SOLDIER, and that the SOLDIER in Sephiroth's visions was
Aerith's rst love and Cloud's friend, Zack Fair. The two
were present during the Nibelheim incident, with Cloud
managing to fatally wound Sephiroth, who only survived
through Jenova's cells: Zack and Cloud were severely
wounded and later taken and used by Hojo to perfect his
SOLDIER and Jenova experiments. Zack tried escaping
with Cloud but was killed by Shinra soldiers. Cloud recovered, took Zack's sword and made his way to Midgar:
Cloud's own aspirations to SOLDIER and Zack's memories and stories combined, with the help of the Jenova
treatment, to create a false personality.* [29] Realizing
and accepting his past, Cloud is able to recover. After
Cloud and Tifa emerge from the Lifestream, the party regroup and learn that Aerith, in her nal moments, was attempting to use the White Materia to cast the spellHoly
, the only means of opposing Meteor. It turns out she was
successful in casting the spell, but Sephiroth has been preventing its release. The group decides to rst stop the
rampage of the Weapons. Alongside this, the party confront Hojo, revealed to be Sephiroth's father,* [31] as the
scientist attempts to aid his son by feeding Mako energy
to him. After mutating himself with Jenova cells, he is

2.11. FINAL FANTASY VII


killed in combat. After this, they launch their nal assault
on Sephiroth, who is defeated by Cloud after a series of
battles. The party escapes from the crater as Holy is released. Holy attempts to block Meteor under Midgar, but
Meteor has drawn too close for Holy to combat it alone.
Just before Meteor's impact, the Lifestream rises from the
planet to aid Holy in destroying Meteor.* [35] Five hundred years later, Red XIII is seen with two cubs looking
out over the ruins of Midgar, which are now covered in
greenery, showing the planet has healed.

133
the CD-ROM format would suit the project's needs.* [41]
Nintendo, for whom Square had developed previous titles in the Final Fantasy series, had decided to continue
to use cartridges for its upcoming Nintendo 64 console.
This eventually led to a dispute that resulted in Square
ending its relationship with Nintendo. Instead, they announced on January 12, 1996 that they would be developing Final Fantasy VII exclusively for Sony's PlayStation
console.* [47]
Design

2.11.3

Development

For the rst time since working on Final Fantasy on the


Famicom, Sakaguchi made the gameplay systems a priority over the story, as the team's main concern during
the development of the game was how to implement the
3D.* [48] The transition from 2D graphics to 3D environments overlaid on pre-rendered backgrounds was accompanied by a focus on a more realistic presentation. While
the extra storage capacity and computer graphics gave the
team the means to implement more than 40 minutes of
full motion video (FMV) movies, this innovation brought
with it the added diculty of ensuring that the inferiority of the in-game graphics in comparison to the FMV
sequences was not too obvious. Kitase has described the
process of making the in-game environments as detailed
as possible to bea daunting task.* [41] The series' longtime character designer, Yoshitaka Amano, was opening
art workshops and exhibitions in France and New York,
which limited his involvement in the game. As a result,
Tetsuya Nomura was appointed as the project's character
designer, while Amano aided in the design of the game's
However, several of the sta members were working in
world map.* [6]
parallel on Chrono Trigger, and development for Final
Fantasy VII was interrupted when the other project be- Several of Nomura's designs changed during developcame signicant enough to require the help of Kitase and ment from their initial conceptions. For example, Cloud's
other designers. Some of the ideas originally considered original design of slicked-back black hair with no spikes
for Final Fantasy VII ultimately ended up in Chrono Trig- was intended to serve as a contrast to Sephiroth's long,
ger instead. Other ideas, such as the New York setting owing silver hair. Nomura feared, however, that such
and the sorceress character Edea, were kept unused un- masculinity could prove unpopular with fans, and theretil the later projects Parasite Eve and Final Fantasy VIII fore he changed Cloud's design to feature a shock of
spiky, bright blond hair. Vincent changed from rerespectively.* [40]
searcher to detective to chemist, and nally to the gure
Development resumed in late 1995,* [41] and required the
of a former Turk with a tragic past. Nomura has indieorts of approximately 120 artists and programmers,
cated that Cid Highwind's ghting style resembles that of
using PowerAnimator and Softimage 3D software.* [42]
a Dragoon Knight, a character class which was chosen
It was the most expensive video game of its time, with a
because his last name is the same as that of two previous
budget of around US$45 million,* [43] equivalent to $64
Dragoon Knights featured in the Final Fantasy series, Rimillion in 2012.* [44] Kitase was concerned the franchise
card Highwind of Final Fantasy II and Kain Highwind of
might be left behind if it did not catch up to the 3D graphFinal Fantasy IV.* [6]
ics being used in other games,* [45] and production began after the completion of a short, experimental tech
demo called Final Fantasy SGI for Silicon Graphics' Onyx Music
workstations. The demo featured polygon-based 3D renderings of characters from Final Fantasy VI in a real time The music for Final Fantasy VII was composed by Nobuo
battle.* [46] This experiment led the development team Uematsu. Instead of recorded music and sound eects
to integrate these design mechanics into Final Fantasy for the game, Uematsu opted for sequenced PlayStation
VII. However, as a result of the high quantity of mem- format audio (similar to MIDI), using the PlayStation's
ory storage required to implement the motion data, only internal sound chip.* [6] Final Fantasy VII was the rst

Planning sessions for Final Fantasy VII began in 1994


after the release of Final Fantasy VI. At the time, the
game was intended to be another 2D project for the Super
Nintendo.* [36] Series creator Hironobu Sakaguchi originally planned for the story to take place in New York
in the year 1999, and as such, the original script of Final Fantasy VII, which was written by Sakaguchi, was
completely dierent from the nished product. Tetsuya
Nomura recalled how Sakaguchi wanted to do something like a detective story.The rst part of the story
involved a hot bloodedcharacter named Detective
Joewho was in pursuit of the main characters, after they
had blown up the city of Midgar, which had already been
developed for the story.* [37] The nal scenario was written by Kazushige Nojima and Yoshinori Kitase, based on
the story by Sakaguchi and Nomura.* [38] Masato Kato
was brought into the project later and wrote three scenes
for the game.* [39]

134

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

game in the series to include a track with digitized vo- of the game was downloaded 100,000 times during its
cals; specically in One-Winged Angel, which has rst two weeks of release, making it the fastest-selling
been described as Uematsu's most recognizable con- PlayStation game on the PlayStation Network.* [59]
tributionto the music of the Final Fantasy series.* [49]
Uematsu has said the soundtrack has a feel ofrealism,
which prevented him from using exorbitant, crazy music.* [50]
In early August 1996, a demonstration disc called
"Square's Preview" was released in Japan as a bonus packin with the PlayStation game Tobal No. 1.* [51] The
disc contained the earliest playable demo of Final Fantasy VII and previews of other upcoming games such as
Bushido Blade and SaGa Frontier. The demo allowed
players to play through the rst part of Midgar. However, there were some noticeable dierences from the nal version, namely that Aerith was featured in the initial
party and the ability to use Summons had not yet been
implemented.* [52]
Video Games Live rendition of the game's One Winged Angel
in 2009

2.11.4

Release
On July 4, 2012, Square Enix revealed that a PC rerelease was forthcoming. It was subsequently released on
August 14. The game features 36 new achievements to be
unlocked, Cloud Saves, and a Character Booster
feature. This remasterization for modern PCs was developed by DotEmu* [60]* [61] and is available exclusively
via the Square Enix store. The game can be played at
Full HD (1920x1080) resolution with upscaled original
graphics.* [62] The release is primarily aimed to port the
classic game into a downloadable game to be run on modern Windows OSs (XP/Vista/7) and DirectX 9.0c.* [63]

The game's release in North America was preceded by


a massive three-month marketing campaign, which consisted of three 30-second television commercials on major networks, a one-minute long theatrical commercial, a
holiday promotion with Pepsi, and printed ads in publications such as Rolling Stone, Details, Spin, Playboy and
comic books published by Marvel and DC Comics.* [53]
Several additions to gameplay and story were made
for the game's North American release, such as easier exchange of materia, arrows highlighting exits on
eld screens,* [5] and an extra cutscene, prompting a re- On July 4, 2013, the game was released on the Steam
release in Japan under the title Final Fantasy VII Inter- digital distribution platform for Windows PCs.* [64]
national.* [54] On December 18, 2012 this version was
re-released as part of the Final Fantasy 25th Anniversary
Ultimate Box Japanese package.* [55]
Soundtrack
In 1998, Final Fantasy VII was ported to Windowsbased PCs. This re-release featured smoother graphics,
Main article: Music of the Final Fantasy VII series
and also xed translation and spelling errors, as well as
gameplay-related glitches. However, the PC version suf*
fered from its own bugs, including errors in the display of The game's soundtrack was released on four CDs. [65]
A
single-disc
album
of
selected
tracks
from
the
Original
some FMVs when rendering in hardware mode on certain graphics chipsets.* [56] Since the original PC release Soundtrack and three arranged tracks, entitled Final Fan*
of the game, fans have created hundreds of mods for the tasy VII Reunion Tracks, was released separately. [66] Piano
Collections
Final
Fantasy
VII,
a
piano
arrangement
of
PC version of the game. The most prominent commu*
selected
tracks,
was
released
in
2003.
[67]
Several
tracks
nity being the Qhimm.com forum community, featuring
various mods including game patches (for better compat- from the game have been remixed in subsequent Square
ibility with modern Windows and graphics cards), PC- productions, including Final Fantasy IX, Final Fantasy
*
PS save game converter, save game editor, game train- VII: Advent Children, [68] Crisis Core: Final Fantasy
*
ers, character models, world map, cutscenes, music, and VII and Kingdom Hearts. [69] In 2012, music from the
soundtrack entered the Classic FM Hall of Fame at numbattle stages.* [57]
ber 16.* [70]
In addition to the PlayStation and PC releases, the game
was released onto the PlayStation Network in Japan on
April 10, 2009, in North America on June 2, 2009, and
in Europe and Australia on June 4, 2009. The Japanese 2.11.5 Reception
release is the International version.* [58] The PSN release

2.11. FINAL FANTASY VII

135

Initial reception and sales

Reviewers also praised the game's Windows conversion,


but criticized it for its lower-quality pre-rendered visuals and audio, and for its framerate and installation problems.* [87]* [89]* [105] Computer Games Magazine said
that "[no] game in recent memoryhad such a tendency to fail to work in any capacity on multiple [computers].* [90] Computer Gaming World complained that the
music, while beautifully composed, is butchered by being dependent on your sound card,* [89] and Next Generation Magazine found the game's pre-rendered backgrounds signicantly less impressive than those of the
PlayStation version.* [105] However, the latter magazine
found the higher-resolution battle visuals absolutely
stunning,* [105] and Computer Games Magazine said
that they "[show] o the power of [a] PC equipped with a
3D card.* [90] All three magazines concluded by praising the game despite its technical aws,* [89]* [90]* [105]
and PC Gamer summarized that, while Square apparently did only what was required to get its PlayStation
game running under Windows,Final Fantasy VII isstill
a winner on the PC.* [87]

Final Fantasy VII was both a critical and commercial success, and set several sales records. Within three days
of its release in Japan, the game had sold 2.3 million
copies.* [6] This popularity inspired thousands of retailers
in North America to break street dates in September to
meet public demand for the title.* [91] In the game's debut
weekend in North America, it sold 330,000 copies,* [92]
and had reached sales of 500,000 units in less than three
weeks.* [93] The momentum established in the game's
opening weeks continued for several months; Sony announced the game had sold one million copies in North
America by early December,* [94] prompting business
analyst Edward Williams from Monness, Crespi, Hardt
& Co. to comment, Sony redened the role-playing
game (RPG) category and expanded the conventional audience with the launch of Final Fantasy VII.* [94] As
of December 25, 2005, the game had sold over 9.8 million copies worldwide,* [95] making it the highest-selling
game in the Final Fantasy series.* [96] Final Fantasy VII
is credited asthe game that sold the PlayStation,as well
as allowing role-playing games to nd a place in markets
outside Japan. As of May 2010, it had sold 10 million
copies worldwide,* [97] making it the most popular title in
the series in terms of units sold.* [98]* [99]* [100]* [101]

Upon release, the game received widespread acclaim


from critics. It was referred to by GameFan asquite possibly the greatest game ever made,a quote which continues to feature prominently on the back cover of the game's
jewel case.* [102] GameSpot commented thatnever before have technology, playability, and narrative combined
as well as in Final Fantasy VII,expressing particular
favor toward the game's graphics, audio, and story.* [5]
IGN's Jay Boor insisted the game's graphics were light
years beyond anything ever seen on the PlayStation,
and regarded its battle system as its strongest point.* [8]
Computer and Video Games 's Alex C praised the story,
stating that the many characters that come and go
throughout the story are well developed, and players will
feel the ups and downs of the protagonists as if it were a
lm,and that thestructure of the story is such that, just
when you think you've seen it all, something even more
awesome comes along to totally knock your socks o.
*
[77] Edge noted,Theinteractive movie
has long been
a dirty term to anyone who values a playable videogame,
but FFVII succeeds in coming closer than any title yet,
with the highly complex, melodramatic story and excellently orchestrated chip musiccombining to make
players feel real empathy with the characters,a task
usually shied away from by the action/comedy-orientated
western graphic adventures.* [103] RPGamer praised
the game's soundtrack, both in variety and sheer volume,
stating that Uematsu has done his work exceptionally
wellandis perhaps at his best here.* [104] Electronic
Gaming Monthly 's panel of four reviewers gave the game
scores of 9.5 out of 10 each, adding up to a score of 38
out of 40 in total.* [79]

Final Fantasy VII has received some negative criticism


as well. Square's announcement that it would be produced for Sony rather than Nintendo and that it would not
be based on the Final Fantasy SGI demo was met with
discontent among some gamers.* [46]* [47] Ocial U.S.
PlayStation Magazine (OPM) and GameSpot questioned
the game's highly linear progression.* [5]* [86] OPM considered the game's translationa bit muddyand felt the
summon animations were repetitive.* [86] RPGamer
cited its translation as packed with typos and other
errors which further obscure what is already a very
confusing plot.* [106] GamePro also considered the
Japanese-to-English translation a signicant weakness in
the game,* [56] and IGN regarded the ability to use only
three characters at a time asthe game's only shortcoming.* [8]

Awards and accolades


Final Fantasy VII was given numerous Game of the Year
awards in 1997. It won in the Academy of Interactive
Arts & Sciences' rst annual Interactive Achievement
Awards in the categories Console Adventure Game
of the Yearand Console Role Playing Game of the
Year(it was also nominated in the categoriesInteractive Title of the Year, Outstanding Achievement in
Art/GraphicsandOutstanding Achievement in Interactive Design).* [107] In the Origins Award, it won in the
category Best Roleplaying Computer Game of 1997.
*
[108] It was also awarded theReaders' Choice All Systems Game of the Year,Readers' Choice PlayStation
Game of the Yearand Readers' Choice Role-Playing
Game of the Yearby EGM,* [109] which also gave it
other awards for Hottest Video Game Babe(for Tifa
Lockheart),Most Hyper for a Game,Best Ending
and Best Print Ad.* [110]

136

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

Since 1997, it has been selected by many game magazines as one of the top video games of all time, including
as 91st in EGM 's 2001 100 Best Games of All Time
,* [111] and as fourth in Retro Gamer 'sTop 100 Games
in 2004.* [112] In 2005, it was ranked as 88th in IGN's
Top 100 Games of All Time* [113] and as third in
PALGN's The Greatest 100 Games Ever.* [114] Final Fantasy VII was included in theThe Greatest Games
of All Timelist by GameSpot in 2006,* [26] and ranked
as second in Empire's 2006100 Greatest Games of All
Time,* [115] as third in Stu 's100 Greatest Gamesin
2008* [116] and as 15th in Game Informer 's 2009 Top
200 Games of All Time(down ve places from its previous best games of all time list* [117]).* [118] GameSpot
placed it at the top of its list of the most inuential games
ever made in 2001, and as second in 2002;* [119]* [120]
in 2007, GamePro ranked it 14th on the list of the most
important games of all time, and in 2009 it nished in
the same place on their list of the most innovative games
of all time.* [121]* [122] In 2012, Time named it one of
All-TIME 100 Video Games.* [123]

Technology.* [138] This port features the Final Fantasy


VII game scaled back to 2D, with some of the side quests
removed.* [138]
The game's popularity and open-ended nature also led
director Kitase and scenario writer Nojima to establish
a plot-related connection between Final Fantasy VII and
Final Fantasy X-2. The character Shinra from Final Fantasy X-2 proposes the concept of extracting the life energy from within the planet Spira. Nojima has stated
that Shinra and his proposal are a deliberate nod to the
Shinra Company, and that he envisioned the events of
Final Fantasy X-2 as a prequel to those in Final Fantasy VII.* [139] The FMV sequences and computer graphics used in Final Fantasy VII allowed Sakaguchi to begin production on the rst Final Fantasy lm, Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within.* [140] The game also introduced settings suused with modern-to-advanced technology into the Final Fantasy series, a theme continued
by Final Fantasy VIII and The Spirits Within.* [141]* [142]
Re-releases of Square games in Japan with bonus features would occur frequently after the release of Final
Fantasy VII International. Later titles that would be
re-released as international versions include Final Fantasy X (as "International"),* [143] Final Fantasy X-2 (as
"International + Last Mission"),* [144] Kingdom Hearts
(as "Final Mix"),* [145] Kingdom Hearts II (as "Final
Mix"),* [146] and Final Fantasy XII (as "International Zodiac Job System").* [147]

It has also appeared in numerous other greatest game lists.


In 2007, Dengeki PlayStation gave it the Best Story
, Best RPGand Best Overall Gameretrospective awards for games on the original PlayStation.* [124]
GamePro named it the best RPG title of all time in
2008,* [125] and featured it in their 2010 article The
30 Best PSN Games.* [126] In 2012, GamesRadar also
ranked it as the sixth saddest game ever.* [127] On the Several characters from Final Fantasy VII have also made
other hand, GameSpy ranked it seventh on their 2003 list
cameo appearances in other Square Enix titles, most noof the most overrated games* [128] (in 2011, Destructoid tably the ghting game Ehrgeiz and the popular Final
arguedwhy Final Fantasy VII is not overrated* [129]).
Fantasy-Disney crossover series Kingdom Hearts. AdFinal Fantasy VII has often placed at or near the top of ditionally, ghting video game Dissidia Final Fantasy
many reader polls of all-time best games. It was voted the includes Final Fantasy VII characters such as Cloud
Reader's Choice Game of the Centuryin an IGN poll in and Sephiroth, and allows players to ght with charac2000* [130] and placed second in theTop 100 Favorite ters from throughout the Final Fantasy series, and its
Games of All Timeby Japanese magazine Famitsu in follow-up, Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy, included Tifa as
2006 (it was also voted as ninth in Famitsu's 2011 poll of well. Aerith's death in the game has often been remost tear-inducing games of all time).* [131]* [132] Users ferred as one of the most emotional moments from any
of GameFAQs voted it theBest Game Everin 2004 and video game,* [26]* [148]* [149] while Sephiroth remains
in 2005,* [133]* [134] and placed it second in 2009.* [135] one of the most popular villains in video game hisIn 2008, readers of Dengeki magazine voted it the best tory.* [150]* [151]
game ever made,* [136] as well as the ninth most tearinducing game of all time.* [137]
Related media and merchandise

2.11.6

Legacy

In addition to the PlayStation and PC releases, the game


was released onto the PlayStation Network in Japan on
April 10, 2009, in North America on June 2, 2009,
and in Europe and Australia on June 4, 2009. The
Japanese release is the International version.* [58] The
PSN release of the game was downloaded 100,000 times
during its rst two weeks of release, making it the
fastest-selling PlayStation game on the PlayStation Network.* [59] The game has also inspired an unocial version for the NES by Chinese company Shenzhen Nanjing

Further information: Compilation of Final Fantasy VII


Compilation of Final Fantasy VII is the formal title for a
series of games, animated features and short stories based
in the world of Final Fantasy VII. The series consists of
several titles across various platforms, all of which are
extensions of the original story.* [152] The rst title in
the Compilation is the mobile game Before Crisis: Final
Fantasy VII, a prequel focusing on the Turks' activities
six years prior to the original game, including their rst
encounter with AVALANCHE.* [153] The CGI lm se-

2.11. FINAL FANTASY VII


quel Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children, set two years after the events of the game, was the rst title announced
in the series, but it was the second to be released. Special DVD editions of the lm included Last Order: Final
Fantasy VII, an original video animation that recounts the
destruction of Nibelheim.* [154] Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII and its mobile phone counterpart, Dirge
of Cerberus Lost Episode: Final Fantasy VII, are thirdperson shooters* [155] set three years after the events of
Final Fantasy VII and one after the events of Advent Children. Dirge focuses on Vincent Valentine, and goes into
more detail regarding his backstory than the original Final Fantasy VII. The most recent title is the PlayStation
Portable game Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII, an action
role-playing game that revolves around Zack's past.* [156]
Also included in the Compilation is On the Way to a Smile,
a collection of seven short stories written by Kazushige
Nojima, and set between the end of Final Fantasy VII
and the beginning of Advent Children. Originally only
three stories were released: Case of Barret, Case
of Tifaand Case of Denzel, but with the release of
Advent Children Complete, four more stories were written; Case of Nanaki, Case of Yue, Case of
Shinraand Case of Lifestream - White & Black.

137
As for a VII remake, all I can advise right now is to play
the PSN release that has come out for the time being.
Maybe we'll have some news for you at a later time. I'm
actually working on multiple projects right now, I don't
know exactly what new projects I'll be taking on after
XIII, but I am working on Final Fantasy Agito XIII, too.
Maybe I'll be able to focus a little more on that project
once XIII is complete.* [165] In January 2010, Tetsuya
Nomura said, Fans are looking forward to an oft rumored remake of FFVII, but I dont believe this will
happen for the time being.* [166] In February 2010, Kitase said that in order to give a PS3 port of Final Fantasy
VII a similar quality to Final Fantasy XIII, itwould take
as much as three or four times longer than the three and a
half years it has taken to put this Final Fantasy together!
So it's looking pretty unrealistic to happen!" Kitase also
commented that making games with the same style as Final Fantasy VII for the PS3 is very dicult, as it would
take the sta too much time to create the graphics; because of this, Final Fantasy XIII ismore linearthan previous titles.* [167] In a March 2010 interview, however,
Final Fantasy XIII director Motomu Toriyama stated,If
we had the manpower and the time to work on a project,
if we were to remake Final Fantasy VII with the quality of
Final Fantasy XIII it would become a tremendous project.
If we can get the number of people we need by all means
that would be the one I would really want to remake.
*
[168] In March 2010, CEO Yoichi Wada revealed they
were exploring the possibility of a remake, following the
high demand.* [169] However, in June 2012, the company announced that "[we] will only consider this once
a brand new game in the franchise exceeds the quality of
that found in FF7.* [170]

Releases not under the Compilation label include, Maiden


Who Travels the Planet, which follows Aerith's journey
in the Lifestream after her death at the hands of Sephiroth, taking place concurrently with the second half of the
original game.* [157] Final Fantasy VII Snowboarding is a
mobile port of the snowboard minigame featured in Final
Fantasy VII,* [158] which contains dierent course than
the original minigame.* [159] The game is downloadable
on V Cast-compatible mobile phones, and was rst made
available in 2005 in Japan and North America.* [160]
Due to the number of questions GamesRadar received
about the game's remake they featured it in their article about the reasons to hate Final Fantasy", wishPossible remake
ing it could be released so that fans would stop asking
them about it.* [171] GamesRadar also published an arWith the announcement and development of the Com- ticle called The truth about the Final Fantasy VII repilation of Final Fantasy VII, speculation spread that an make, stating despite the sta's comments they will not
enhanced remake of the original Final Fantasy VII would produce a remake; interviews from mid-2009 onwards
be released for the PlayStation 3. This speculation was gave gamers hope that it is still possible a remake will be
sparked at the 2005 E3 convention by the release of a released.* [172] In 2011, GameTrailers ranked it second
video featuring the opening sequence of Final Fantasy on a list of the games that most needed remakes,* [173]
VII recreated using the PlayStation 3's graphical capabil- whilst Cheat Code Central ranked it fourth on a simities.* [161] Further speculation was raised due to thank- ilar list.* [174] In 2011, NowGamer ranked it as numyou notes forthe Final Fantasy VII PS3 testing teamin ber one on the list they would like to be remade.* [175]
the credits of both Advent Children and Crisis Core. How- PSU.com ranked it as number one on such lists twice, in
ever, it was pointed out that the notes could have been 2008 (games to be revived for the PlayStation 3) and in
aimed at the testers for the PSN release of Final Fantasy 2011 (PSone classics to be remade).* [176]* [177]
VII, or that Advent Children and Crisis Core used graphical
assets from the PS3 demo.* [162]* [163] The initial specu- In 2014 a port of the original game was announced for
than a full remake, sparking widespread
lation was put to rest when Square Enix president Yoichi the PS4 rather
*
*
[178]
[179]* [180]
criticism.
Wada explained the presentation was intended only for
technological demonstration purposes,* [161] and an ofcial statement from the company said that no remake
2.11.7 References
was in development as part of the Compilation.* [164]
In 2009, Yoshinori Kitase said at the Games Convention,

[1] Yamaha Corporation licenses its XG Soft Synthesizer

138

CHAPTER 2. MAIN SERIES

to Square Soft. Yamaha Corporation. 21 April 1998.


Archived from the original on 2 February 2008. Retrieved
24 May 2010.

[18] Studio BentStu, ed. (2005). Final Fantasy VII Ultimania


(in Japanese). Square Enix. p. 46. ISBN 4-7575-15200.

[2] Moser, Cassidee (December 6, 2014). PSX 2014: FINAL FANTASY 7 TO RELEASE ON PLAYSTATION
4. IGN. Retrieved December 6, 2014.

[19] Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy VII


North American instruction manual. Square Electronic
Arts. p. 10. SCUS-94163.

[3] Ashcraft, Brian (September 9, 2014). Square Enix Will


Stream Final Fantasy for Smartphones in Japan. Kotaku.
Retrieved September 23, 2014.
[4] Final Fantasy VII North American instruction manual.
Sony Computer Entertainment. 1997. pp. 15, 4446.
SCUS-94163.
[5] Austin, Steve (September 27, 1997). Final Fantasy VII
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/ Cloud: Yeah, that's right. / Aerith: Then, get me out
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to become one with the Planet? / Sephiroth: It's simple.
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the injury. The amount of energy gathered depends on
the size of the injury. ...What would happen if there was
an injury that threatened the very life of the Planet? Think
how much energy would be gathered! Ha ha ha! And at
the center of that injury, will be me. All that boundless
energy will be mine. By merging with all the energy of
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Melding with the Planet... I will cease to exist as I am now.
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this? / Sephiroth: Ha, ha, ha...... I want to take you back
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on a scenario Kazushige Nojima had in mind when working on Final Fantasy VII. Crisis Core enjoyed strong sales,
selling over three million units worldwide.* [4] Critical reception was generally positive.

2.12.1 Gameplay

Crisis Core is an action role-playing game in which the


player controls Zack Fair. The player moves Zack
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