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THE SALAF'S GUIDE

TO THE
UNDERSTANDING OF
AL-QADAA WALQADAR

(Fate in Islam - Abridged)
Based on works of noble sheikh:
Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

The Meaning of al-Qadaa and al-Qadar:...................................3


Al-Qadar is an Article of faith:....................................................3
The Qadar mentioned in the Quran:..........................................5
Al-Qadar mentioned in the Sunnah:..........................................5
The Four Aspects Of Qadar:.......................................................6
Al-Ilm [Allah SWTs Knowledge].................................................7
Al-Kitabah (The Writing)..........................................................17
Other Writings of Taqdeer:.......................................................21
1. The Taqdeer al-Umuri (Covering the persons life span):. .22
3. The Daily Taqdeer:...........................................................23
What is the relation between all of the levels of the written
Taqdeer?.................................................................................. 23
Al-Masheeah : The Will of Allah...............................................27
Understanding Masheeah (Will) and Iradah (What Allah wants):
................................................................................................ 31
1. Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah or the Universal will:....................31
2. Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah or Judicial will:............................32
Al-Khalq : The Creation............................................................38
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In The Name of Al-Qadar !.......................................................46


Blaming Al-Qadar : Is There Evidence?....................................51
Should Al-Qadar be discussed in the first place?.....................65

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THE ESSENTIALS OF BELIEF


IN FATE (QADAA AND
QADAR) IN ISLAM
The Meaning of al-Qadaa and al-Qadar:
Al-Qadar is the ability of Allah SWT 1, where He knew,
wrote, willed and created all things in due proportion and
according to a precise measure. Allah SWT knew that all things
will

happen

before

bringing

them

to

existence

and

in

accordance with pre-destined proportions and measures which


Allah SWT had written in a Book called al-Laouh ul Mahfoudh
(the Preserved Tablet).
Al-Qadaa

is

accomplishment

the
of

all

perfectly

precise

execution

things

pre-destined

to

and

occur,

in

accordance with Allah SWTs all-encompassing Knowledge,


Writing and Will.
When

mentioned

separately,

Qadaa'

and

Qadar

are

synonymous but when mentioned together, Qadaa' stands for

1 As said by Imaam Ahmed bin Hambal and reported by Imaam Ibn


Qayyim al-Jawziyyah in his book: Shifaaul Aleel Fee Massail al-Qadaa
wal Qadar wal Hikmah wat-Taleel (The cure for the Ailing: Explaining
matters of al-Qadaa and al-Qadar, Wisdom and Cause), p.88
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the pre-destination of events, and when the pre-destined


matter takes place - it is called Qadar.

Al-Qadar is an Article of faith:


Yahya bin Ya'mur (a famour Tabi'ee and a narrator of
Hadeeth) set out on a pilgrimage to Mekkah along with Humaid
b. Abdur Rehman Himyari, and said, "Should we meet one of
the Companions of the Messenger of Allah SWT, we will ask him
about Taqdeer (Qadar)." Incidentally they met Abdullah, the son
of Umer ibn Khattab R.A. and said to him, "O Abu AbdarRehman, there have appeared in our land (such people) who
recite the Holy Quran and peruse knowledge. They claim that
there is no such thing as Divine Decree and events are not preDestined".
He (Abdullah ibn Umer R.A.) said, "When you happen to meet
such people tell them that I have nothing to do with them and
they have nothing to do with me. And verily they are in no way
responsible for my (belief)". Abdullah ibn Umar swore by Him
(the Lord) (and said): If any one of them (who does not believe
in the Divine Decree) had with him gold equal to the bulk of
(the mountain) Uhud and then, it (in the way of Allah), Allah
would not accept it unless he affirmed his faith in Divine
Decree". He further narrated the hadith of Jibril that his father
Umer Ibn Khattab R.A. communicated to him.

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On the authority of `Umar (ra) who said:


While we were one day sitting with the Messenger of Allah (

)there appeared before us a man dressed in extremely white

clothes and with very black hair. No traces of journeying were


visible on him, and none of us knew him. He sat down close by
the Prophet ( )rested his knees against the knees of the
Prophet ( )and placed his palms over his thighs, and said: "O
Muhammad! Inform me about Islam." The Messenger of Allah (
)replied: "Islam is that you should testify that there is no

deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His

Messenger (), that you should perform salah (ritual prayer),


pay the zakah, fast during Ramadan, and perform Hajj
(pilgrimage) to the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), if you can
find a way to it (or find the means for making the journey to
it)." He said: "You have spoken the truth." We were astonished
at his thus questioning him ( )and then telling him that he
was right, but he went on to say, "Inform me about Iman
(faith)." He (the Prophet) answered, "It is that you believe in
Allah and His angels and His Books and His Messengers and in
the Last Day, and in fate (qadar), both in its good and in its evil
aspects." He said, "You have spoken the truth." Then he (the
man) said, "Inform me about Ihsan." He (the Prophet)
answered, "It is that you should serve Allah as though you
could see Him, for though you cannot see Him yet He sees
you." He said, "Inform me about the Hour." He (the Prophet)
said, "About that the one questioned knows no more than the
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questioner." So he said, "Well, inform me about its signs." He


said, "They are that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress
and that you will see the barefooted ones, the naked, the
destitute, the herdsmen of the sheep (competing with each
other) in raising lofty buildings." Thereupon the man went off. I
waited a while, and then he (the Prophet) said, "O `Umar, do
you know who that questioner was?" I replied, "Allah and His
Messenger know better." He said, "That was Jibril. He came to
teach you your religion." (40 Hadith of Imam Nawawi Hadith
No. 2)

The Qadar mentioned in the Quran:


- Verily,

We

have

created

all

things

with

Qadar. Soorah al-Qamar (54):49


- Did we not create you with a fluid of no value?
Then We placed it in a place of safety (womb), for a
known period (determined by gestation)? So We did
measure, and We are the best to measure. Soorah
al-Mursalat (77):20-23
- He has created everything, and has measured it
exactly according to its due measure. Soorah alFurqan (25):2

Al-Qadar mentioned in the Sunnah:


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The Messenger of Allah SWT, , said: No slave will (truly)

believe until he believes in al-Qadar, its good and bad from


Allah and until he knows that what has befallen him was not
going to pass him by, and what has passed him by was not

going to befall him. (Sunan at-Tirmidhee and authenticated by


al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmidhee no.1743)
The Hadeeth related by Tawoos (Ibn Kayesaan al-Yamani)
who said that: I found some Companions of Allah SWTs
Messenger as saying: Everything is by Qadar (measure).

And he further said: I heard Abdullah bin Umer - radiyallahu


anhu - as saying: There is a measure for everything - even for
incapacity and capability. (Sahih Muslim, English trans., Vol.4,
No.6419)
Abu Hurairah R.A. reported that the polytheists of the

Quraish came argue with Allah SWTs Messenger about


Qadar and then this verse was revealed: The Day when they
will be dragged in the Fire on their faces (it will be said
to them) Taste you the touch of Hell. Certainly, We
have created all things with Qadar." [Soorah al-Qamar
(54):48]

The Four Aspects Of Qadar:


In order to correctly understand the issue of Qadar, the
following four terms need to studied in detail:www.australianislamiclibrary.org | Al-Qadaa Wal Qadar

1. Al-Ilm (Knowledge)
2. Kittabah (Writing)
3. Masheeah (Will)
4. Al-Khalq (Creation)
Sheikh-ul-Islam, Ibn Taymiyyah has summarized these ranks
in his famous book on the creed (Aqeedah) of the AhlusSunnah, Al-Aqeedah al-Wasitiyyah.

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THE FIRST ASPECT OF QADAR KNOWLEDGE


Al-Ilm [Allah SWTs Knowledge]
In this regard it is essential to believe that...
1. Allah knows everything about His Creation, even before
He created them
2. Allah alone chooses on whom to bestow guidance, the
choice being related to his Knowledge
3. Allah knows the outcome of His choice
Allahs Knowledge encompasses everything. He knew what
had occurred and what will occur, and all that did not occur. He
knew everything about His creation even before He created it.
In His Eternal Knowledge is the provision, life-spans, sayings,
moves and deeds of His creation; and knows who among them
is obedient or disobedient, and who will be among the people of
al-Jannah (Paradise) or the people of an-Nar (Hell-Fire). The
following Quranic verses further emphasize this point:
- Verily

Allah

SWT

is

the

All-Knower

of

everything. [Soorah al-Anfaal (8):75]

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- And that Allah SWT surrounds (comprehends) all


things in His Knowledge. [Soorah at-Talaq (65):12]
- With Him alone are the keys of the Ghayb (all that
is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows
whatever there is on the earth and in the sea; not a
leaf falls but He knows it. There is not a grain in the
darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but
is written in a Clear Record.[Soorah al-An'aam (6):
59]
- Allah knows that the disbelievers (Kuffar) on the Day of
Judgement will wish to return to the life of this world, so
that they may do deeds of righteousness. However Allah
SWT knows that even .if they were returned (to the
world), they would certainly revert to that which
they

were

forbidden.

And

indeed

they

are

liars Soorah a-Anaam (6):28


- Allah says about the disbelievers who do not tolerate
listening to His Guidance, that was brought to them by the

Prophet : Had Allah SWT known of any good in


them, He would have made them listen, and even if

he makes them listen they would have turned away,


averse (to the truth). [Soorah al-Anfaal (8):23]
And the people of al-Jannah (Paradise) and an-Naar (Fire) are
known to Allah SWT:

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Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that one day the

Prophet was sitting with a wooden stick in his hand with


which he was scratching the ground. He raised his head and
said, There is none of you, but has his place assigned either in
the Fire or in Paradise. They (the Companions) inquired, O

Allah SWTs Messenger !Why should we carry on doing good


deeds, shall we depend (upon Qadar) and give up work? The
Prophet said: No, carry on doing good deeds, for everyone
will find it easy (to do) such deeds that will lead him towards

that for which he has been created. Then he recited the


verse: As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to

Allah and fears Him, and believes in al-Husna 2. We will make


smooth for him the path of Ease (goodness). [Soorah al-Lail
(92):5-7] (Sahih Muslim, English trans., vol.4, no.6400)
Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet was asked about the

children of the Mushrikeen (polytheists) whereupon he said:


Allah SWT alone knows what they would be doing (were they
to live). (Sahih al-Bukhari, English trans., Vol.8. No.596 and
Sahih Muslim, English trans., Vol.4, No.6433)
Commenting on this Hadeeth, Sheikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah
said: Allah SWT knows who among them will be a Kaafir or a

Mumin once they reached the age of puberty. (Reported in alFatawa, vol.4, p.246)
2 The truth, that is Tawheed and the path of righteousness that it

prescribes, or a reward from Allah that will compensate the believer for
that which he spends in Allah's way
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He also said, It cannot be ruled out whether a particular


child from the children of the Mushrikeen will be in the Hell or
Paradise. As it is mentioned in many Hadeeth, that on the Day
of Judgment they will be subjected to trials in which they will be
ordered to comply with or abstain from certain commands.
Those who will obey will enter al-Jannah and those who disobey
will enter an-Naar (Reported in al-Fatawa, vol.4, p.303 &
vol.24, p.372)
Allah alone knows the actions of all children, if they were to

live and grow up, as the Messenger of Allah SWT, , explained,


No child is born except on Fitrah (Islam). It is his parents who
make him a Jew or a Christian, just as you help the animals give
birth to their young ones, do you find any deficiency in them
before

you

mutilate

them

(cut

their

ears

after

birth)

yourselves? The Companions said, What do you think about

the one who dies in infancy. The Prophet said, Allah SWT

knows what they would be doing (were they to live) (Sahih alBukhari, English trans., Vol.8, No.597 and Sahih Muslim, English
trans., Vol.4, No.6428).
Allah knew that from the offspring of Adam there would be
Prophets, Messengers and righteous people. None knew this,
not even the angels, as Allah SWT says: And (remember)
when your Rabb said to the angels: Verily! I am going
to place (mankind) generation after generation on earth.
They said: Will You place therein those who will make
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mischief and shed blood, while we glorify you with


praises and thanks (Exalted be You from that which they
associate with You as partners) and sanctify You. He (Allah
SWT) said, I know that which you do not know.
[Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 30]
Allah knows who deserves Guidance and who does not, as He
says: Have you seen him, who takes his own lust (vain
desires) as his ilah (god), and Allah (knowing him as
such) left him astray, and sealed his hearing and his
heart, and put a cover on his sight; Who then will guide
him after Allah? Will you then not remember. [Soorah alJathiyah (45): 23]
Most of the Mufasireen (Scholars of Tafseer) have explained
this verse to mean that, Allah SWT knows in advance, that the
condition of such a person suits his Dhalal (misguidance) and
demand it. Allah SWT, in His Foreknowledge knows all of the
sayings and actions of such a person (even before this person
was created). Allah SWT, the Most High, puts things in its
proper and suitable place for he knows who is not worthy of
being guided. And so the above verse confirms both the Qadar
(pre-destination) and the Hikmah (wisdom).
Similarly Allah knows who is suitable to bear and deliver His
message, as He says: Thus We have tried some of them
with others, that they might say, Is it these (poor
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believers) that Allah has favoured from among us? Does


not Allah know best those who are grateful? [Soorah alAn'aam (6): 53]
Had their hearts been grateful, submitting and loving as the
hearts of the poor believers, Allah SWT would have favoured
them too. But the favours of Allah SWT only suit their proper
places (which Allah SWT knew in his Foreknowledge). The
choice is always linked to His Knowledge, as He says, Allah
SWT

knows

best

with

whom

to

place

His

Message. [Soorah al-An'aam (6): 124]


- And your Rabb creates whatsoever He wills and
chooses.

No

choice

have

they (in

any

matter).

Glorified be Allah SWT and Exalted above all that


they associate as partners (with Him). And your Lord
knows what their breasts conceal, and what they
reveal. [Soorah al-Qasas (28): 68-69]
- And

indeed

We

have

bestowed

aforetime

on

Ibraheem his (portion of) guidance, and We were


well-Acquainted with him (as to his belief in Tawheed,
etc.). [Soorah al-Anbiyaa' (21): 51]
Not only is Allah all-Knowing and all-Wise about His choice,
but also of the Consequences and the Noble aims of His
Commands and Legislation, as He says:

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- Jihaad (fighting in Allah SWTs cause) is ordained for


you (Muslims), though you dislike it, and it may be
that you dislike a thing which is good for you and
that you like a thing that is bad for you. Allah
knows but you do not know. [Soorah al-Baqarah (2):
216]
This verse calls upon Muslims to abide by the command of
Allah SWT although it may be difficult for them, and that they
should accept his Qadaa'.
A good example related to the issue of Foreknowledge,
Choice and Consequence is the Duaa of al-Istikharah, whereby
a Muslim asks for Allah SWTs guidance in a certain affair
saying:
O Allah, I ask your guidance due to Your Knowledge, and
appeal to You to help me due to Your Ability, and ask You from
Your great Favor, for You are Able and I am not, You know and I
dont know, and You know all hidden matters. O Allah SWT, if
You know that this matter (whatever it may be) is good for me
in my Deen (religion), my livelihood, the aftermath of my
matter (also said: for my life in the Hereafter) - its short term
and long term; then decree it for me and make it easy for me,
and bestow blessings for me in it. And if You know that this
matter is bad for me in my Deen, my livelihood, the aftermath
of my matter - its short term and long term, then keep it away
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from me, and turn me away from it and decree for me the good
wherever it is and contend me with it. (Sahih al-Bukhari,
English trans., Vol.2, No.263, Sunan Abu Dawood, English
trans., Vol.1, No.1533)
Man needs to know what benefits him. He is not sure
whether he can achieve what he wants. He does not whether it
is difficult or not. He cannot achieve the most desirable
outcome, if Allah SWT does not guide him with His Knowledge,
helps him due to His Ability and makes it easy for him due to
His Favour. The believer thus supplicates (makes Duaa') to Allah
SWT to make him content with his choice, or to turn him away
from his choice, for Allah SWT alone knows by his infinite
Wisdom what is good for His creation. To summarize, man
seeks....
1. Istikharah (before he makes a decision)
2. Ridha or content (after he makes the decision)
Only that happens what Allah SWT has already decreed,
However.....
* Part of the success that Allah SWT bestows upon His slaves
is to guide him to Isthikharah before what has been decreed
happens, and to the contentment after it happens.

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* Part of Allah SWTs humiliation of His slave when he does


not make Isthikharah before what has been decreed happens,
is that he is not content with what has happened.
In the year of al-Hudayebiyah, the pagan Arabs of the
Quraish prevented the Prophet and his Companions from
entering Meccah to performing Umrah. Instead they imposed
severe conditions on the Muslims and the Prophet accepted
them, knowing that Allah would never abandon the believers
and that the final victory would be theirs. On their way back to
Medinah, when the Companions (Sahabah) were overwhelmed
with grief and distress, Allah SWT revealed the verse, Verily!
We

have

given

you

(O

Muhammed)

manifest

victory [Soorah al-Fath (48):1]


Allah

thus

rewarded

the

Muslims

for

their

patience,

because.... He knew what you knew not, and He granted


besides that a near victory". [Soorah al-Fath (48):27]
See ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoom (english trans.) p.348 and Fath
al-Bari (7/378-381)
Some of the consequences of this treaty were that people
came near to Islam and the Muslims were able to speak about
their religion with proofs and evidences. And in just two years,
there came into the fold of Islam as many as the people who
entered before. The Kaaba was open to anyone who wished to
visit it since the time of the Prophet Ibraahim. The arrogance
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and animosity of the Quraish drove many people towards Islam,


who believed that the Muslims too had the right to visit the
Kaaba.
Some important points of this section are:* Allah SWT knew all about the conditions and affairs of His
slaves even before their creation.
* He tests them with His trials and commands, as He
says, Verily! We have made that which is on earth as an
adoration for it, in order that We may test them
(mankind)

as

to

which

of

them

are

best

in

deeds [Soorah al-Kahf (18): 7]


* They will then either deserve His praise or His blame, His
reward or His punishment- all according to their deeds, and
identical to what Allah knew in His Foreknowledge.
* They did not deserve any Reward of Punishment while it
was still Knowledge with Him, until what was known to Allah
became manifest by Mans own doing.
* He sent His Messengers to cut off all of mans excuses
"And We have made some of you as a trial for others
" Soorah al-Furqan (25):20

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..and to establish proof against themselves, lest the should


say, How can You, O Allah SWT punish us for what we did not
do?
* When a believers seeks Allah SWTs guidance and is
patient with the immediate outcome, Allah rewards them with
contentment

and

perfectly

beneficial

and

successful

aftermath (as in the case of Isthikharah and the treaty of


Hudaibiyah).
* The Believers acknowledge Allah SWTs Favor upon them
and are always grateful to Him. The ungrateful are the ones like
those mentioned in the Quran, When harm touches man,
he calls upon Us (for help), then when We offer him a
favor from Us by rescuing him from harm, he would say,
Only because of knowledge (I possess) that I achieved
it. [Soorah az-Zumar (39): 49]
Remember: IT IS ONLY A TRIAL

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THE SECOND ASPECT OF QADAR WRITING


Al-Kitabah (The Writing)
Al-Kitaabah means that Allah wrote everything about His
creation; their livelihood, provision, life-spans, deeds, etc. All
this is written in Umm al-Kitaab (lit. Mother of all books 3), also
known as al-Lauhul Mahfoudh (the Preserved Tablet)
Do you not know, that Allah knows all that is in the
heaven and in the earth? Verily! It is all in the Book.
Verily! That is easy for Allah. [Soorah al-Hajj (22): 70 ]
{The above verse combines the two aspects of Qadar Knowledge and Writing}
* The Quran itself is written in al-Lauh al-Mahfoudh, as Allah
says: Indeed this Quran is in Ummul Kitaab before Us,
Exalted and full of Wisdom. [Soorah az-Zukhruh (43): 3 ]
and Nay! This is a Glorious Quran, (inscribed) in alLauh al-Mahfoudh (the Preserved Tablet). Soorah al-Buruj
(85): 22

3 This expression is used to define something as the original


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* Even the minutest detail has been recorded in the


Preserved Tablet, as Allah says: And nothing is hidden from
your Rubb (so much as) the weight of an atom on the
earth or in the heaven; whatever is less or greater than
that except that it is (written) in a Clear Record. [Soorah
Yunus (10): 61]
* Everything was written fifty thousand years before the
creation of the heaven and earth, as the Messenger of Allah
(salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said: Allah had written the
ordained measures (and their due proportions) of the creation,
fifty thousand years before the creation of the heavens and the
earth as His Arsh (Throne) was on water.
Sahih Muslim (english trans.) vol.4, no.6416. This Hadeeth
indicates that the Arsh of Allah was created before the writing
in the clear Book took place.
* Allah ordered al-Qalam (the pen) to write all the records till
the Day is established, of all pre-ordained measures: Narrated
Abee Hafsaa: Ubadah Ibn as-Samit said to his son - O son! You
shall not get the true sense of Eeman (faith) until you
acknowledge that what has befallen you was not to escape you
(or miss you), and what missed you was not to befall you; I
heard the Prophet saying: (As soon as Allah created the Pen,
He commanded it saying, Write. It said, What should I write,
my

Rabb

(Lord)?.

Allah

said,

Write

the

record

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of

all
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preordained matter until the commencement of the Hour.


Furthermore, Ubadah Ibn as-Samit said, O my son! I have
heard Allahs Messenger saying, He who dies believing in other
than this is not from me (i.e. is not on the Prophets way of
belief).
Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan at-Tirmidhi and Musnad Ahmed
bin Hambal
* These records are perfect and have missed nothing. Allah,
the Exalted has said referring to the answer of Moosa to the
Pharaoh: He

(the

Pharoah)

said,

What

about

the

generations of old? He (Moosa) said, The Knowledge


thereof is in a record with my Rabb, He is neither
unaware not does He forget. [Soorah Ta-Ha (20): 51-52]
* All our deeds have been pre-recorded in the Preserved
Tablet. Whatever the Pen wrote is certainly to be executed. The
Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said to Abu Hurairah, The
Pen has turned dry after writing what you are going to
confront. [Saheeh al-Bukhari vol.4, p.9, no.13]
Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajar commented: This means that the pen
has turned dry after writing the predestined matters. Execution
of all matters is in accordance with what the Pen wrote in the
Preserved Tablet. [Fath al-Bari, vol.9, p.119]

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* When

Umer

ibn

al-Khattab

was

asked

about

the

verse: When your Lord drew forth from the Children of


Adam from their loins, their descendants (offspring), and
made them testify concerning themselves, (saying): "Am
I not your Lord (Who cherishes and sustains you)?" They
said: "Yes! we testify to it" That was in case you should
say

on the Day of Judgment: "Certainly we were

unaware of all this." [Soorah al-A'raf (7): 172 ]


He said: When Allahs Messenger was asked about then I
heard him say: [Allah created Aadam, He passed His Hand over
his back, and brought forth from it his offspring, saying: I have
created these for Paradise and they will do the deeds of AhlulJannah. He then passed His Hand over his back and brought
forth from his offspring saying: I have created these for Hell,
and they will do deeds of Ahlun-Naar.
Sheikh al-Albani commented that on the Hadeeth in which
the Prophet said, that Allah said, I have created these (men)
for ParadiseI have created these (men) for Hell.
The Sheikh said: Many people may understand that these
Hadeeth indicate that man has no choice with respect to his
deeds, while others may think that being from the people of
Paradise or the people of Hell, is an arbitrary matter or just
sheer luckIt us known that Allah is Perfect in His Names and

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Attributes, ad that: There is nothing like unto Him (Soorah


ash-Shura 42:11)
It is in accordance with Allahs Knowledge, Wisdom and
Justice that He chose people for Paradise or Hell-Fire. He Knew
that those who were chosen for paradise will obey Him when
they are commanded to do so, and those created for Hell will
disobey Allahs commandments(therefore Allahs choice is in
accordance with what Allahs Knowledge and this has already
been written)... Eeman (belief) necessitates the admittance to
Paradise, and Kufr (disbelief) necessitates punishment in the
Hell. Both Eeman and Kufr, are matters of choice for mankind.
Allah, the Exalted does not force anyone to adopt either choice,
as He says: Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and
whosoever wills let him disbelieve. [Soorah al-Kahf (18):
29]
Because His choice is all-Just and Wise, Allah, Exalted be He,
cannot be questioned about it. [Sheikh al-Albani in Silsilatul
Ahadeeth as-Saheehah, vol.4, p.76-80]
{Note: Some of these points have already been discussed
under Knowledge}
* The Pen mentioned above was the first to be created, but
there is evidence in the Hadeeth for the presence of more than
one Pen. One of the Hadeeth that mentions the pre-recording in
the plural form is mentioned below:
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Jabir reported that Suraqah bin Maalik came and said: O


Messenger of Allah! Explain our Deen to us as if we have been
created just now. Whatever we do today, is it because of the
fact that the pens have turned dry (having written the records)
and the destinies have begun to operate? Or is it something
that just happens (without pre-destination)? Thereupon, the
Messenger said, Nay! Surely it is because of what has been
recorded by the pens after they have dried and the destinies
have begun to operate
Saheeh Muslim vol.4, no.6402 & 6403. See the Explanation
of al-Aqeedah at-Tahawiyyah, p.267-268

Other Writings of Taqdeer:


There is evidence from the Quran and Sunnah, that apart
from the writing of Taqdeer that Allah commanded on al-Laauh
al-Mahfoudh (The Preserved Tablet) there are other writings of
Taqdeer, among them are:1.

The Taqdeer al-Umuri (Covering the persons life

span):
The Persons livelihood, life-term, deeds and his status in the
Hereafter (wretched or blessed) are written while in the
mothers womb at an early stage of his development. This is
confirmed in the Hadeeth related by Abdullah bin Masood who
said, that the Messenger of Allah (salallahu alaihi wa salalam)
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said: The creation of everyone of you is collected for the first


forty days in his mothers womb in the form of a Nutfah after
which it turns into a Alaqa for an equal period. Then it becomes
a Mudhqah for a similar period and then Allah sends an angel
with four words recording: the persons provision, his life term,
his deeds, or whether he will be of the wretched or the blessed
(in the Hereafter).
Sahih al-Bukhari vol.8, p.387, no.593 and Sahih Muslim vol.4,
p.1391, no.6390
2. The Annual Taqdeer:
This Taqdeer takes place on the night of decree (Lailat alQadr), Allah, the Exalted says: Therein (that night) is decreed
every matter of ordainment
Soorah ad-Dukhaan (44): 4
Also Ibn Abbas said: On the night of Decree, everything that
occurs over the whole (coming) year from the matters of death,
births, provisions, and the rain would be recorded from the
Record of the Mother of the Book; it would even be said that
such and such a person would perform Hajj. {2}
3. The Daily Taqdeer:
It directs the pre-ordained Taqdeer according to its previously
appointed

terms

and

on

its

specific

times.

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27

says: Whosoever is in the heavens and on the earth ask


of Him (for their needs). Every day He has a matter to
bring forth. [Soorah ar-Rehman (55): 29]
The Prophet said explaining the verse: Everyday Allah has a
matter to bring forth, that He may forgive a sin for someone,
relief the hardship of someone, lift (in honor) some and lower
(in disgrace) others.
Sunan Ibn Majah and Abee Aasim in as-Sunnah no.301
and authenticated by al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Majah
no.202

What is the relation between all of the levels of the


written Taqdeer?
*

Sheikh ul-Islam Ibn Taimeeyah and Ibn Qaiyyim al-

Jawziyyah, may Allah be pleased with them both, stressed that


the Taqdeer

in

the Preserved Tablet is a

general and

comprehensive one that covers everything, while the other


writings of Taqdeer are special and specific details for the
Taqdeer of the Preserved Tablet. {3}
The writing of the Preserved Tablet is Preserved, i.e. is not
subject to any change whatsoever because it is based on
Allahs Knowledge [Ibn Taimeeyah in al-Fatawa, vol.8, p.840]

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In other books (or writings), however changes may occur, as


in the case of the books handled by the angels, as Allah
says: Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He
wills); and with Him is Ummul Kitaab (the Preserbved
Tablet). [Soorah Ar-Ra'd (13): 39]
Also the Messenger of Allah said: He who loves that his
sustenance be expanded, and his life term prolonged, should
join the tie of kinship. [Saheeh al-Bukhari vol.8, p.11-12, no.15
and Saheeh Muslim vol.4, p.1359-1360]
Sheikh ul-Islam Ibn Taimeeyah explained that: Provisions
and life terms are of two kinds:
The unchanged record written in Ummul Kitaab
That made known to the angels by Allah (these records
being subject to increase or decrease). This is why Allah
says, Allah blots out what He wills and confirms
(what He wills); and with Him is Ummul Kitaab (the
Preserbved Tablet). [Soorah Ar-Ra'd (13): 39]
In the angels books, both the life span and provisions
increase and decrease due to specific reasons. Thus, Allah
commands the angel to write the provision and life span of one
of His slaves. If the slave joins the tie of kinship, Allah
commands the angel to increase the slaves sustenance and
life term {4} by specific increments. The angel does not know
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the actual outcome of extension in the life term, or that related


to the increase in provisions. He (Allah) knows the out come
(i.e. the pre-appointed term which is not to be prolonged nor
delayed. [al-Fatawa, vol.8, p.517 and p.540]
Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar said: For example, to say to the angel
that the age of such and such person is hundred years if he
joins the tie of his kinship, and sixty years if he severs it. In the
Foreknowledge of Allah it is known whether he will join or sever
the tie of kinship; and whatever is in Allahs Knowledge is not
subject to extension or delay. However, the angels knowledge is
the one subject to the increase or decrease. This is what is
referred to in Allahs saying: Allah blots out what He wills
and confirms(what He wills); and with Him is Ummul
Kitaab (the Preserbved Tablet). [Soorah Ar-Ra'd (13): 39]
Therefore the blotting and confirming is relevant to the
knowledge of the angels, but what is recorded in Ummul Kitaab
is relevant to Allahs Knowledge, where there is absolutely no
blotting [Fath ul-Bari, vol.10, p.430]
Some important points of this section are:* That Allah commanded the pen to write everything in
minute details on al-Lauhul Mahfoudh (the Preserved Tablet).
What is written on it will never change.

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* It is in the Foreknowledge of Allah that who from His


creation will be obedient to Him and who will be the
disobedient, accordingly He termed them as Ahlul-Jannah and
Ahlul-Nar, all this being written on al-Lauhul Mahfoudh.
* There is evidence of writings other than the one on alLauhul Mahfoudh, these are however subject to change.
F

[1]
[2]This explanation of Ibn Abbas is mentioned in as-Syoutis
Ad-Durr al-Manthour [6/25] and al-Shawkanis Fathul-Qadeer
[4/572]
[3]Ibn Taimeeyah in al-Aqeedah al-Wasitiyyah. See its
explanation by Muhammed Khaleel Harraas, p.221, Daar alHijrah (1993) edition, Riyadh. Ibn Qaiyyims explanation is in
Shifaaul Aleel, p.173.
[4] Because the slave obeyed Allah in keeping the tie to his
kinship, his life will be extended to a pre-ordained term,
otherwise if he severs his tie with his kinship, he would not
reach such an age. In all cases it is written in Ummul-Kitaab
whether he will keep or sever his tie. The same holds true
regarding his sustenance. [See. At-Tahawiyyah, p.143

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THE THIRD ASPECT OF QADAR: THE


WILL OF ALLAH
Al-Masheeah : The Will of Allah
* It is essential to believe that Allah has willed everything
that goes on in the universe. His Will and His pre-ordaining
power effectively covers everything. Whatever He Wills, will
occur and whatever He does not Will, will never take place.
* Speaking about the people of the Book, Allah warned the
Prophet not to follow their desires and commanded him to
follow what Allah has brought down to him, the Quran. And
said, If Allah willed, He would have made you one
nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given
you. [Soorah al-Maaidah (5): 48]
Had Allah wished to have us follow one Book, one legislation
and one Messenger, at all times and all places, He would have
done that. But Allah willed to test his slaves with trials that
distinguish between the obedient and the disobedient. He is allJust and all-Wise in His Masheeah.
* A number of Quranic verses, refer to the Masheeah of
Allah, among them

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The Prophet Ibraahims sayings to his people, I fear not


those whom you associate with Allah in worship (Nothing
can happen to me) except when my Rabb (Allah) wills
something. My Rabb comprehends in His Knowledge
everything. [Soorah al-An'aam (6): 80]
The Prophet Shuaib said: And it is not for us to return to
it (your religion of Kufr) unless Allah, our Rabb should will.
Indeed

our

Rabb

comprehends

all

things

in

His

Knowledge. In Allah (alone) we put our trust. [Soorah alA'raf (7): 89]
The Prophet Ibraahims saying: Enter Egypt, if Allah
wills, in security. [Soorah Yusuf (12): 99]
The Prophet Moosa said to al-Khidr: If Allah wills, you will
find

me

patient,

and

will

not

disobey

you

in

ought. [Soorah al-Kahf (18): 69]


The Prophet Muhammed

(salallahu

alaihi wa salalam)

said: And never say of anything that I shall do such and


such

tomorrow,

except (with

the

saying) -

If

Allah

wills!. [Soorah al-Kahf (18): 23-24]


Allah said about the people of al-Jannah (Paradise), Abiding
therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth
endure, except as your Lord wills, a gift without an
end. [Soorah Hud (11): 108]
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Allah gives power to whom He wills, lifts up in honor or


degrades and He alone gives victory or defeat to whom He
wills, as He said: Say (O Muhammed (salallahu alaihi wa
salalam), O Allah! Possessor of the Kingdom, You give the
kingdom to whom You will, and take the kingdom from
whom you will; You honor whom You will, and You
humiliate whom You will. In your Hand is the good.
Verily! You are able to do all things. [Soorah al-Imran (3):
26]
If

Allah

wills,

He

can

prevent

anything

from

taking

place: But if it had been Allahs will, He Himself could


certainly have punished them (i.e. the Kuffar). But He (lets
you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But
those who are killed in the Way of Allah, He will never
let their deeds be lost.[Soorah Muhammed (47): 4]
"And such We have appointed for every Prophet an
enemy, devils among mankind and jinn, inspiring one
another with adorned speech as a delusion (or by way of
deception). If your Rabb had so willed, they would have
not

done

it,

so

leave

them

alone

with

their

fabrications. [Soorah al-An'aam (6): 112]


If we had willed, We would have given each person
his guidance. [Soorah As-Sajdah (32): 13]

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"What Allah does not will shall never take place:


Say (O Muhammed (salallahu alaihi wa salalam), If Allah has
so willed, I should not have recited it to you nor would
He have made it known to you.[Soorah Yunus (10): 16]
If Allah wills, He can seal the heart from guidance. Abdullah
bin Amr bin al-Aas said, that he heard Allahs Messenger
saying, All the hearts of the offspring of Aadam are between
two fingers of Ar-Rehmans Fingers, as one heart. He turns it (in
any direction) as He wills. Then Allahs Messenger said, O
Allah! The Turner of the hearts, turn our heart towards Your
obedience. [Saheeh Muslim vol.4, p.1397, no.6418]
Mans will is true and real, but it does not escape Allahs will,
as He says: And they will not receive admonition unless
Allah wills. [Soorah al-Muddaththir (74): 56]
And you cannot will unless Allah wills. Verily! Allah is
ever all-Knowing, all-Wise. [Soorah al-Insan (76): 30]
* The above evidences from the Quran and Sunnah confirm
the absolute Masheeah (universal will) of Allah, as well as the
will of humans, and that the later is not independent from
Allahs will. Allah tells us that everything in the Universe is by
His will, and what He did not will, would not take place. He also
confirms that if He wills, the outcome would be different from
what exists. If He wills He would not be disobeyed, and that He
would have gathered His creation on guidance - making them
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one nation. This is because, He is the only Owner and the only
Rabb, as He says:
Verily, your Rabb creates whatever He wills and
chooses. [Soorah al-Qasas (28): 68]
And We cause whom We will, to remain in the
wombs for an appointed term. [Soorah al-Hajj (22): 5]
To Allah belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the
earth,

He

creates

female (offspring) upon

what
whom

He
He

wills.

He

bestows

wills,

and

bestows

male (offspring) upon whom He wills, or He bestows both


males and females, and He renders barren whom He
wills. He is all-Knowing, all-Able. [Soorah ash-Shura (42):
50]
Allah guides to His Light whom He wills. [Soorah anNur (24): 35]
Verily! Allah does what He wills. [Soorah al-Hajj (22):
14 ]
And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens His
breast to Islam, and whomsoever He wills to send
astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if
he is climbing up to the sky. [Soorah al-An'aam (6): 125]

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Ibn Abbas said: It means that Allah opens up ones heart for
the acceptance of and belief in Tawheed. See Tafseer Ibn
Katheer for the quoted verse
On the other hand, whomsoever He wills to lead astray, He
would make his chest strictly closed from knowing Allah and
loving Him. This is a Just punishment for those who do not
properly estimate Allah, and those who deny Allahs favors.
Allah shuts the doors of His Guidance to them and this is why
their breasts become confined and restricted.. The Guidance is
a favor from Allah; He makes it settle in the person who is
suitable to recognize it and give thanks to his Creator, by
obeying Him and worshipping Him alone. [Shifaaul Aleel,
vol.1, p.274-278]

Understanding Masheeah (Will) and Iradah (What Allah


wants):
In order to understand correctly the relation between
Masheeah and Iradah, two terms need to be explained; ? AlIradah al-Kawniyyah ? Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah
1. Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah or the Universal will:
It is the will (Masheeah) of Allah in which His intention is
carried out. It is not necessary that all actions of His creation
are liked by Him, rather many of their acts are disliked by Him,
but He willed for them to pass. This is Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah.
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For Example: Allah created Shaitaan, yet He hates him.


Likewise, He created the Kuffar, but He hates them. Whatever
Allah permits to exist, does not mean that He loves them. This
is Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah (or Universal will). Under this will,
Allah may decree to pass things which He does not command
His slaves to follow (like Kuffr and disobedience).
2. Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah or Judicial will:
It is that which is in accordance with Allahs legislation. It is
related to what Allah likes, whether it takes place or not.
For Example: The acts of obedience from the angels, prophets
and believers are loved by Allah and are passed by His
Universal will. Under Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah it is not necessary
that His commands will be executed. The Kuffar rebel against
Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah.
TABLE. 1

Masheeah

or

Al-

Iradah al-Kawniyyah

Pertinent

to

Allahs

creation and command

Al-Iradah

ash-

Shariyyah

Pertinant
Allahs
and

to

Lesiglation
Shareeah

(commands

and

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38

ordinances)

Allah

passes

what

He

It

wills. It is not necessary that which

is

only
Allah

that
loves

He likes what He creates, or and likes..


what is being carried out.
Shaytaan

is

created

ans

Allah hates him and his


followers.

He

hates

and

dislikes their deeds too. But


they take place because He
willed

so.

command

He
his

does

not

slaves

to

follow what He dislikes.

No creature can escape


this Universal will of Allah

His

legislative

commands

are

rebelled against by
the Kuffar and the
disobedient.

He

loves righteousness
but not everybody
complies
TABLE. 2
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Masheeah or al-

CASE

Iradah Kawniyyah

Existing

acts

of

Obedience

Non-Existing

acts

of

Obedience

Existing acts of Kuffr and


disbelief

Non-Existing

acts

Kuffr and disbelief

of

Al-Iradah ashShariyyah

He willed to pass

He loves them

He willed not to pass

He loves them

He willed to pass

He dislikes them

He willed not to pass

He dislikes them

* The relation between Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah and the AlIradah ash-Shariyyah is clear from the following verse: And
He likes not Kuffr for His slaves. [Soorah az-Zumar (39):
7]
So it is obvious that Allah does not like or love Kuffr, yet it
exists. This deals with Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah. It is linked to
the Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah by the fact that Allah willed for Kufr

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to take place. What He likes or dislikes, is different from His will


(Masheeah).
* The True believer follows, does not dispute and submits to
the legislative commands of Allah. This is the right of Al-Iradah
ash-Shariyyah upon every slave of Allah. In the light of AlIradah

al-Kawniyyah

and

Al-Iradah

ash-Shariyyah,

let

us

examine the response of Umer Ibn al-Khattab when he was


blamed for deciding not to enter ash-Shaam (Greater Syria)
because of a sudden outbreak of plague. He was told: Are you
running away from something which Allah has ordained? Omer
replied: Yes! We run away from that Allah has ordained (in the
case of plague) to another thing which Allah has ordained.
* Therefore if someone is touched by hunger, thirst or cold,
all of which are preordained by Allah, all are from the Qadar;
the response would be to eat, drink and put on clothes, thus
checking the Qadar with Qadar to the best of his ability. He
checks the fire with water or soil until it is extinguished. He
extinguishes the Qadar of Allah (fire) with another Qadar of
Allah (water). Similarly with illness, he checks it with another
Qadar, medicine. And if an enemy of Islam plots against the
Muslims, then this too is by the Qadar of Allah. It is incumbent,
however on every Muslim to check this Qadar with another
Qadar which Allah loves, and it is the Jihaad by the hand (by
enlisting in the Muslim army) or by spending wealth (to support
the Muslim soldiers).
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* In the case, where the Divine decree is to pass and it


cannot be checked. The slave of Allah must totally submit and
recognize the Might of Allah in His Rulings, Justice in His Decree
and Wisdom behind His Decision. That whatever befalls him is
not to miss him, and whatever missed him is not to befall him.
Examples of such a case would be an accident causing the
death of someone close, sudden loss of wealth or any other
calamity; where one is totally incapable of averting the harm
and thus can only be patient.
And Verily, when We cause man to taste of Mercy
from Us, he rejoices thereat, but when some ill befalls
them because of some deeds which their hands have
sent forth, then verily man (becomes) ingrate! [Soorah
ash-Shura (42): 48]
* Finally, Allah clarified that misfortunes and calamities are
linked to their causes from evil deeds and wrong doings. Allah
had decreed that calamities befall someone because of his
wrong doings. However, what reaches man of good, its causes
are limitless. The Favor of Allah could be because of some
action of His slave, or simply due to Allahs Mercy. It is
incumbent for the slave to be thankful to Allah and seek for His
forgiveness.
Whatever of good reaches you (victory, provisions,
health, etc.) is from Allah, but whatever calamities (fear,
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stress, illness, etc.) befall you is from yourselves. [Soorah


an-Nisaa' (4): 79]
"And whatever of misfortunes befall you, it is because
of what your hands have earned. [Soorah ash-Shura (42):
30]
Say,

Muhammed (salallahu

alaihi

wa

salalam) All

things are from Allah, so what is wrong with these


people that they fail to understand any word? [Soorah
al-A'raf (7): 78]
Some important points of this section.
All matters are under the Masheeah (will) of Allah. All
happens if Allah wills, otherwise it could never
happen

Mans will is true and real, but it does not escape


Allahs will2. Allah guides whom He wills and
misguides whom He wills, the choice being decided
by

His

Foreknowledge

and

Wisdom.

Both Iradah al-Kawniyyah and Iradah al-Sharriyyah


are part of Allahs Wisdom. Every thing that Allah
does (Universal will) or commands His slaves (Judicial
will) is for a good reason and according to His
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Wisdom, whether we are able to understand them or


not. As He says: Is not Allah the Best of
Judges?"

[Soorah

at-Tin

(95):

8]

Allah loves those who do good, act justly and follow


His way, Say (O Muhammed (salallahu alaihi wa
salalam) If you (really) love Allah, then follow
me, and Allah will love you. [Soorah al-Imran (3):
31]

Allah dislikes what He has prohibited of bad deeds


and sayings: If you disbelieve, surely Allah does
not need you, He likes not disbelief for His
slaves, and if you are grateful, this pleases
Him. [Soorah az-Zumar (39): 7]

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The Fourth Aspect of Qadar: The


Creation
Al-Khalq : The Creation
* Allah is the soul creator of everything, including mans
deeds. There is no single atom, static or in motion but that
Allah has created it, as He says: Verily! Allah is the Creator
of everything, and He is the Wakil (Guardian, Trustee,
etc.) over all things. [Soorah az-Zumar (39): 62]
That

is

Allah,

your

Rabb,

the

Creator

of

everything. [Soorah Ghafir (40): 62]


Say (O Muhammed (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) that
Allah is the Creator of everything, and He is the One,
the irresistible. [Soorah Ar-Ra'd (13): 16]
The rank of Al-Khalq includes the Actions of Allah and the
actions of His creatures. The Actions of Allah are true and real.
They conform to what is entailed by His Names and Attributes.
They

influence

all

of

creation

in

accordance

with

His

Knowledge, Masheeah, and Ability. Nothing moves, no matter


how small it is, except by His Masheeah, Knowledge and
Ability. Whomsoever He guides, there is none who can
misguide, and whomsoever He misguides, none can guide.
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The Verse Guide us to the Straight Path. (Soorah alFaatihah : 5) confirms that guidance is sought from the One
Who is Able to give it. It belongs to Him; if He wills, He gives it,
and if He wills not, He holds it.
Guidance is knowing the truth and executing it. Allah, alone,
is able to make someone knowledgeable about the truth, seek
it, and work by it. This Guidance is something that even
Prophets [1] and most righteous people cannot offer.
Certainly,

you (Muhammad

(salallahu

alaihi

wa

salalam)) guide not whom you love, but Allah guides


whom He wills. [Soorah al-Qasas (28): 56]
In all of His actions there is perfect wisdom. He does not do
anything in vain nor is His action devoid of any meaning. Allah's
Actions are Real, All-Wise and All-Just. His creatures, and their
deeds, are His creation.
The slave of Allah Has real ability, will, choice and action.
Mans ability to move and to believe are actions that are truly
attributed to him. These actions are created by Allah. Mans
movement, standing, sitting, etc. are real actions which Allah
decreed, set under His ability, willed, and created them for him.
Mans will and actions are next to His. This is the moderate and
straight way of relating the Actions of Allah to those of His
Creation. This is the course of As-Salaf us-Salih.

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It stands against two extremes. The first which claimed that


pre-destiny deprived man from his ability and choice. According
to this claim, man has no will and no real action, and that he is
just like a feather in the wind. This group is known as AlJabriyyah [2] .
The Other group totally denied Al-Qadar and claimed that
man creates his own actions by his ability and by his will, and
thus making creators other than Allah! That is why the Prophet
(salallahu alaihi wa salalam) called them the Majoos (Majians)
of this Ummah, because the Majoos claim that Satan creates
evil and harmful things, making Satan a creator besides
Allah. This group is known as Al-Qadariyyah [3].
FOOTNOTES
[1] Prophets and their followers explain and proclaim the
Message. This guidance is known as the guidance of Irshad.
Allahs guidance is known as the guidance of Tawfeeq: opening
ones heart to receive the truth.
[2] This is the concept of Al-Jabriyyah (from Arabic Jabr,
Compulsion) who maintained determinism against free will.
These are the followers of Jahm bin Safwan (d.128H/745). Their
doctrine is that salvation was pre-determined and that man, in
effect, could not work either for, or against his salvation.

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[3] Abu Dawood related on the authority of Abdullah bin


Umar that the Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said: AIQadariyyah are the Majoos of his Ummah, if they become ill do
not visit them, and when they die do not witness them (their
funerals) Sheikh Al-Albani said that the Hadeeth is Hassan
(authentic)

by

way

of

its

combined

narrations.

See

At-Tahawiyyah, P. 273 and As-Sunnah by Abee Aasim V.1/149.

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The medium course is that of AhlusSunnah, the followers of As-Salaf


us Salih:
Whether a Muslim does good deeds like prayer and charity,
or does a bad deed; he is indeed the doer of these deeds
because he acted by his will. That is what Allah and His
Messenger confirmed. Nevertheless, if you want to know how
the Muslims deeds are part of Al-Qadar and the Masheeah of
Allah, then ask the question: What made them do these deeds?
The answer: By their ability and will. That is why they
deserve either reward for the good deeds, or punishment for
the evil ones. Everyone agrees to this.
The next question is: Who is the Creator of their ability
and will?
Certainly, Allah. Consequently their deeds are the creation of
Allah. Remember that Allah brought to existence their deeds as
well as all the means that made these deeds manifested. [1]
The Verse: You cannot will, unless Allah wills. (Soorah
al-Insan (76):30), is a confirmation of mans will and that it is
under Allahs will. Also it is a response against the above two
extremes.

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Furthermore, the verse: And You (Alone) we worship


and

You

(Alone)

we

seek

for

help. (Soorah

al-

Faatihah:5), confirms the slaves own actions of worship, and


that it occurs only after Allahs help.
If Allah does not help him and make him able and willing to
do the worship, the slave would not be able to perform it. The
verse is one more response against the concept of the
Jabariyyah and Al-Qadariyyah.
He (Abraham) said (to his people: Do you Worship
that which you (yourselves) carve? While Allah has
created you and what you make [Soorah as-Saffat (37):
95-96]

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The Ranks of Al-Qadar Together


The belief in Al-Qadar can only be accomplished when all
four ranks of Al-Qadar are realized, because they are firmly
interrelated. As Confirmed in the Quran and Sunnah, Allah
encompasses all creation, past, present, and future ones. He
knows all about their entities, their deeds, their descriptions,
etc. He recorded all of this in the Preserved Tablet in countless
texts. All of Allahs Creation is under His will, nothing escapes it.
Whatever He wills, comes into being, and whatever He does
not, would not.
The slaves of Allah have will, abilities, and choices, all of
which are created by Allah. Everything occurs according to the
Foreknowledge of Allah; it is recorded, and follows a course that
is linked to specific causes that are part of Al-Qadar. Allah gave
the believers means, ways, and various kinds of assistance and
kept them away from impediments that may have weaken the
strength of their belief, as the Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa
salalam) said:
Carry kn doing (good) deeds, for everybody will find easy to
do such deeds as will lead him to his destined place for which
he has been created. So, he who is destined to be among the
happy (in the Hereafter), will find it easy to do the deeds

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characteristic of such people... [Part of an authentic Hadeeth


collected by Al-Bukhari in his Saheeh, V.6, Hadeeth #472]
Allah SWT forsake the wicked and the evil ones and left them
to themselves and did not help them because they turned away
from Him.
The Believers stand towards Al-Qadar has two levels:
First: Before the Taqdeer takes place he should seek the
help from Allah, depend upon Him, and supplicate to Him.
Second: After the Taqdeer takes place if the Taqdeer is
different from what he had worked for (lawful and good), he
should be patient and accept the Taqdeer. If the Taqdeer is a
favor that conforms with what he had set up and worked for,
then he should be grateful to Allah and should praise Him for it.
If he commits a sinful deed, he should ask Allahs forgiveness
and repent.
The Believers stand towards the Commands of Allah, has
two levels:
Before Execution: a determination to fulfill the command
and to seek Allahs help for its execution.
After Execution: seeking Allahs forgiveness due to any
shortcomings in the execution, and praising Allah for all of His
favors:
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So

be

patient (O

salallam). Verily,

Allahs

Muhammad
Promise

sallalahu
is

True,

alaihi
and

wa
seek

forgiveness for your fault [Soorah Ghafir (40): 55]


"But if you persevere patiently, and have Taqwa (be
pious), then verily this is from the great matters which
you must hold on with all your efforts. [Soorah al-Imran
(3): 186]
The Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said Cherish that
which benefits you (in the Hereafter) and seek Allahs help, and
do not despair (or lose heart); and if anything befalls you
(calamity, misfortune, or trouble) do not say, If I had done such
and such, then such and such would have occurred, but rather
say: Allah did that what He had preordained to do, because the
word if is an opening for Satans actions [2].
Shaikh ul Islam Ibn Taymeeyah in Al-Fatawa, V. 8., P.6

[1] Based upon Sharhul Aqeedah Al-Wasitiyyah by Muhammad


Khalil Al Harraas, P.228-229, Published by Daar ul Hijrah (1414
Hj/1993).
[2] Some may say, If I had not done that (thing), then such
and such would not have happened!. So many times we hear
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people say the ifs and buts, reflecting the lack of true belief
in Al-Qadar. The Muslims belief in Al-Qadar is a source of
strength and activity rather than a pretext for passiveness,
pessimism, indolence, and inactivity. He acts, depending upon
Allah and seeks His help. He does not cry over what might not
please him. He looks forward keeping his aim high with dignity,
hoping and trusting in Allah, the Exalted. Reported in Saheeh
Muslim, V. 4, P. 1401, Hadeeth # 441.

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In The Name of Al-Qadar !


? Some people say, why should we work and exert efforts
when we know that Allah knows everything we will do, knows
our destiny to either Paradise or Hell, and that He is the Creator
of our deeds? Let the Qadar (pre-destined matters) befall upon
us and we shall receive whatever comes whether we wish it or
not!
? Others say, If every sin or wrongdoing is a preordained
matter, so what is the fault of the one who commits them?
* Both groups blame Al-Qadar which is in reality an
accusation against Allah, His Names and Attributes. It implies
that Allah loves Kufr, Shirk, murder, adultery, fornication, theft,
ill-treatment of parents and all other sins and wrong-doings [1]
Allah is High above such implication. The fact that Allah wills
and creates what He wills, does not necessitate that His will is
also something He likes. His Masheeah, as discussed earlier in
the explanation of Al-lradah Al-Kawniyyah and Al-lradah AshShariyyah, is not the same as His Attribute of Love.
The sayings of both groups do not differentiate between
belief and disbelief, good and bad, justice and injustice etc. It
leads, as Sheykh ul-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah said: ..to disbelief in
the Messengers, the Books of Revelation. To him (who utters
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the sayings of the above groups), Adam and Moses, Noah and
his people, Moses and the Pharaoh, the early Muslims and the
Kuffar, are the same! [Al-Fatawa, V. 8, P.100]
In fact it attributes injustice to Allah! He is Most Glorified and
High above what they utter or do. They only blame Al-Qadar for
their

own

deeds

doing. Implicit
eliminating

in

and

free

their

Al-lradah

themselves

claims

is

of

the

Ash-Shartiyyah

any

wrong-

objective

and

thus

of
the

Commands of Allah: the Lawful and the un-Lawful, the


Promise (Paradise) and the Threat (Hell), and those who
do this are in a state of Kuffr that is greater than that of
the Jews and Christians. [2]
It is true that Allah willed the existence of Kuffr, Shirk, sins,
disobedience, theft, usury, etc. but He, the Most High, hated
these matters and commanded His slaves not to commit them.
* Allah decreed the results and their causes. Whoever claims
that he does not want to go and search for his provisions but
instead waits for Al-Qadar, does not comprehend the Taqdeer of
Allah in His slaves:
So walk in the path thereof (on earth) and eat from
His Provisions. [Soorah al-Insan (76): 15]
If Allah had ordained that He will give a person a child, it
means that He had ordained for this person to have a wife and
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have intercourse with her. He ordained illness and ordained its


medicine, and that when the ill-man takes the ordained
medicine he will be cured. The child does not come without a
cause, the produce does not flourish without water and soil,
having a full stomach does not occur without food, and
quenching thirst does not occur without water or a lawful drink.
* Allah ordained for one person that, he supplicates to Him
and seeks refuge in Him, and that Allah answers his call. And
ordained that another will not invoke Him and seek His help.
Thus, He leaves the later to himself, and he stays miserable:
And Your Rabb said,
Supplicate

to

Me,

will

respond

to

your

(Invocation) [Soorah Ghafir (40): 60]


* The best answer for both groups lies in the saying of the
Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) when he was asked by his
companions about the benefit of performing good deeds when
they are preordained by Allah. His answer was Carry on doing
(good) deeds, for everybody will find easy to do such deeds as
will lead him to his destined place for which he has been
created, and he recited: {As for him who gives (in charity) and
keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him, And believes in Al-Husna,
we will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness); But
he who is greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient, and

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gives the lie to Al-Husna, we will make smooth for him the path
for evil} [Saheeh Al-Bukhan, V. 6, Hadeeth # 472 ]
One of the companions of the Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa
salalam) who understood the meaning of the Hadeeth said: I
have never been so motivated as I am now.
* Recognizing the means does not mean that we depend
upon them, but we should depend upon their Creator - Allah.
Sheikh ul-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah said: Relying on the means,
alone, is Shirk, and not recognizing their role as means, is a
lack of good reason. Completely turning away from them is an
insult to Sharee'ah. True dependence and hope (in Allah)
comprises: Tawheed, Shareeah, and reasoning. Indeed, seeking
the means alone, reflects the hearts dependence and reliance
upon them. In fact no creature (The means are part of Allahs
creation) deserves this status, because they (i.e. the means)
are not independent; they need associates (as co-partners) as
well as contrasts. Besides, means that Allah does not make
subservient, would not be so. This shows that Allah is the Rabb
and Owner of everything[AI-Fetawa V. 8, P. 170]
Every means has its copartner and contrast. So if the partner
does not help, and the contrast is not averted, the means will
not be manifested: Rain, for example, will not be effective in
the growth of plantation except by what joins in of the air, soil,
etc. The plants will not grow well unless all rotting and spoiling
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matters are removed. Food and drink will not provide nutrition
unless the body organs are proper and healthy. In short, to have
useful results, all spoiling, corruptive, and improper means are
to be averted. [Al-Fatawa V. 8, P. 167]
* Those who take Al-Qadar as a pretext for doing sinful and
unlawful acts, should not blame anyone who may inflict harm
upon them using the same excuse. They should not hate
anyone, or accuse anyone of injustice regardless of the horrible
crimes that may be committed. By all means, their arguments
are baseless and may lead the world into destruction.
FOOTNOTES
{1} The Sufi mystic sects fell deeply into the false belief that
Allah necessarily loves whatever He brings to existence. In fact,
to many mystics, everything is Allah and Allah is the essence
of every existing thing. This belief is known as Wahdatul Wujud
or The Unity of Being. Exalted and Glorified Allah is above what
they utter.
{2} Al-Fatawa, V.8, P.288. He also said on page 262: If
these people insist on their beliefs, then their Kuffr is greater
than that of the Jews and Christians, because the latter believe
in the Commands, Paradise and Hell, and Reward and
Punishment, but they have altered, changed, believed in some
parts of their religions and disbelieved in other parts of them.

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Blaming Al-Qadar : Is There


Evidence?
Those who blame everything on Al-Qadar try to justify their
position by referring to an authentic Hadeeth in which the
Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) described an argument
between Adam and Moses, peace be upon both of them, that
took place in front of Allah, and in which the Prophet (salallahu
alaihi wa salalam) said:
Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to
Adam: You are our father, you disappointed us and caused us
to get out of Paradise. Adam said to him: O Moses! Allah has
chosen you (for direct talk with you) and wrote (the Torah) with
His own Hand. Do you blame me for action which Allah had
ordained for me forty years before He created me. So Adam
confuted Moses, Adam confuted Moses, the Prophet (salallahu
alaihi wa salalam) added, repeating the statement three times.]
Collected by Al-Bukhari in his Saheeh with more than one
narration. It is also reported by Muslim in his Saheeh with more
than one narration. Imam Malik, Abu Dawood, and At-Tirmithi
also reported the same Hadeeth
* In the above Hadeeth, there is no real evidence for those
who blame Al-Qadar for their sins. In fact, Adam did not take
the Al-Qadar as an excuse for the sin he committed when he
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disobeyed Allah by eating from the forbidden tree in Paradise.


Allah punished Adam by sending him and his wife down to the
earth. Adam repented for his sin and asked Allah to forgive
Him. Allah, the Oft-Forgiving, forgave Adam. In no way did
Moses blame his father for the sin for which he, Adam, already
repented and his repentance was accepted by Allah.
Moses knew well that Adam repented. The blame Moses
referred to was about the calamity which led Adam and his
offspring out of Paradise. Adam was referring to the calamity,
after it touched him, as something preordained. So, whatever
calamities had been ordained, the slaves position must be that
of submission and endurance. However, it is not permitted to
commit sins, and if they are committed, the slave must repent
and seek Allah's forgiveness and not take Al-Qadar as an
excuse for committing sinful deeds [Based upon At-Tahawiyyah
P. 147, and Al-Fatawa, V. 8, 108]
Ibn Qayyim said: It is justified to refer matters to Al-Qadar
after a sin had been committed and the person repents from it,
and does not intend to repeat it (i.e. in this case the person
may say: Allah had ordained it), just as Adam had done. In fact
there is a benefit for the person who utters such a response as
well as for the person who hears it, because the response is a
recognition of the Tawheed of Allah and of His Names and
Attributes...Such recognition is clear in Adams response:
....you blame me for doing something preordained upon me
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before I was created. Adam did not dispel any truth in his
response nor did he make of it an evidence to justify any
falsehood
[Remember that he confessed for his wrongdoing was
punished for it, repented and he was forgiven]
So, if a person commits a sin, and repents and clears himself
from it, and if someone later blames him, it is quite good if he
makes a reference to Al-Qadar saying: this is a matter which
Allah had preordained upon me before I was born ...But when
he commits something unlawful or abandons an obligatory act
(of Islam), and although he is reminded about it, he insists on
doing it blaming it on the Al- Qadar, then, in this case, he
dispelled the truth and adopted falsehood. In the same way,
the Mushriks (disbelievers) insisted on their Shirk (disbelief)
and worship of other than Allah, blaming Al-Qadar for that.
They did not regret their worship of other than Allah, and did
not intend to abandon Shirk. [Ibn Qayyim in Shifaaul Aleel, P.
57]
Allah disproved those who blame Al-Qadar in many places in
the

Quran.

He

says: Those

who

took

partners (in

worship) with Allah will say if Allah had willed, we would


not have taken partners (in worship) with Him, and we
would

not

have

forbidden

anything (against

His

Will). Likewise belied those who were before them, (they


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argued falsely with Allahs Messengers), till they tasted of


Our Wrath. Say: Have you any knowledge (proof) that
you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing
but guesses and you do nothing but lie. [Soorah alAn'aam (6): 148]
"And those who join others in worship with Allah say: 'If
Allah so willed, neither we nor our fathers would have
worshipped

ought

but

Him,

nor

would

we

have

forbidden anything without (Command from) Him.' So did


those before them. Then! Are the Messengers charged
with anything but to convey the Message?" [Soorah anNahl (16): 35]
"And they said that: 'If it had been the Will of the Most
Compassionate,
them (false

we

should

gods). Verily!

they

not

have

have

no

worshipped
knowledge

whatsoever of that. They do nothing but lie." [Soorah azZukhruh (43): 20]
* The satan, Iblees, uttered a similar excuse before the
Mushrikeen were created. No wonder he is considered as the
leader of all rebellion. He said: "(Iblees) said: 'O my Rabb,
Because You misled me, I shall indeed adorn the path of error
for them (mankind) on the earth, and I shall mislead them
all." [1]

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It is true that whatever Allah wills, takes place, and whatever


he

does

not

would

not.

Allah

SWT

says

in

the

Final

Revelation : If your Rabb had so willed, they would not


have done it" [Soorah al-An'aam (6): 112]
If your Rabb had so willed, they would not have
worshipped other than Him. [Soorah al-An'aam (6): 107]

? Then, why did Allah belie them and consider them


ignorant? Because:
1. They did not mean to confirm the Masheeah (Will) of
Allah, His Ability, and Oneness. Neither did they want to seek
refuge in Allah, depend upon Him alone, and ask for His help in
order for them to comply with His Command of abandoning
Shirk. Had they done so they would have been right. [2]
In fact they only wanted to dispel the Command of Allah by
quoting Al-Qadar as an excuse, claiming that Allah loves what
they do, since He willed it to take place!
2-Had this been true, Allah would not have inflicted
punishment

upon

them:

until

they

tasted

of

Our

Wrath [Soorah al-An'aam (6): 148]


The Hujjah (establishing evidence), therefore, belongs to
Allah. It is His Messengers and His Revelation that explains to
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mankind what benefits them and what harms them, making


them able to know and comprehend His Commands. He also
gave them hearing, sight, and minds establishing perfect
evidence against them, eliminating their false evidence
against Allahs Will and Decree. Examine this in the saying of
Allah, right after the above excuses of the Mushrikeen:
Say:

With

Allah

is

the

perfect

proof

and

argument (i.e. His Oneness, sending Messengers and Books


etc. to mankind), had He so willed, He would indeed have
guided you all. [Soorah al-An'aam (6): 148-149]
... indicating that Allah is the sole Rabb, the King, fully runs
the affairs of His Creation, no True God except Him; so, how
come they turn to worship others besides Him [Ibn Qayyim in
Shifaaul Aleel, V.1, PP. 45-59]
So, if the concept of taking Al-Qadar as a pretext for
committing Shirk or sins is right, there would have been no
purpose in sending the Messengers and the Books. This is
accusing Allah of doing aimless actions! And Allah is High
above what they attribute to Him.
Someone may argue against what is stated above, saying:
Didnt Allah Say: Follow what has been inspired to you (O
Muhammad (salallahu alaihi wa salalam)) from your Rabb,
There is no illah (True God Who deserves to be worshipped)
except He, and turn away from the Mushrikeen. Had Allah
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willed, they would not have taken others besides Him in


worship. And We have not made you a watcher over them, nor
are you set over them to dispose of their affair. [Soorah alAn'aam (6): 106-107]
So, how come you state above that Allah ? disclaimed the
Mushrikeen when they blamed the Al-Qadar for their Shirk while
in the above verse, Allah confirms that Had He willed, they
would not have taken others besides Him in worship? it seems
then that they were right in terms of their evidence!
The answer is that in the above verse (Soorah al-An'aam (6):
107), Allah is comforting the Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa
salalam) by making it clear that their Shirk is taking place by
Allahs will and by His Permission. So, the Prophet is called to
accept this fact and thus take it easy on himself. However, in
the verse (Soorah al-An'aam (6): 148), Allah disclaimed the
excuse by Al-Qadar which the Mushrikeen brought up trying to
Justify their acts of Shirk.
3-Allah does not make a person bear more than he could, as
He says: Allah

burdens

not

person

beyond

his

scope. [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 286]


If man is compelled to act, then he would be burdened with
inescapable things. Certainly this compulsion is false. In fact if
the

slave

of

Allah

commits

something

wrong

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due

to

67

forgetfulness, ignorance, or under compulsion, then there is no


sin on him because he is excused.
4- Al-Qadar is a secret unknown to any creature until it is
manifested. The persons will precedes his action and it is not
based upon a knowledge of Al-Qadar. Claiming that Allah
ordained upon him such and such, is false because it is a claim
of knowing the unseen which is only known to Allah.
5- lf it is the right thing to blame, Al-Qadar would have been
the escape route for the people of Hell! However, when they
begin to see Hell and its magnitude, they do not resort to AlQadar

as

an

excuse

to

free

themselves

from

their

responsibilities, but rather they call upon Allah to: Our Rabb
Respite us for a little while, we will answer Your call and
follow the Messengers [Soorah Ibrahim (14): 44]
Had we but listened or used our intelligence, we
would not have been among the dwellers of the blazing
Hell [Soorah al-Mulk (67): 10]
Some people say that Ali bin Abi Talib used Al-Qadar as an
excuse for not perfonning the optional night prayers. They refer
to the following authentic Hadeeth
Reported by Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Al-Bukhari, V. 8, Hadeeth
#557, and also by Muslim and An-Nasaaee

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One night Allahs Messenger visited him (i.e. Ali) and


Fatimah (the daughter of Allahs Messenger and Alis wife) and
said to them: Wont you offer (night) prayers? Ali added, I said:
O Allahs Messenger! Our souls are in the Hands of Allah and
when He wishes to bring us to life, He does. Allahs Messenger
went away when I said so, and he did not give any reply. Then I
heard him on leaving striking his thighs sayings: But man is
ever more contentious than anything. [3] [Soorah al-Kahf (18):
54]
[In fact, Ali did not abandon an obligatory act of worship nor
did he make an unlawful deed and then blamed Al-Qadar for it.
He did not do any of that. He only said that his soul and that of
Fatimah are in the Hands of Allah, if He willed, He would have
returned their souls to themselves... When some of the
Prophets companions slept so late that they did not offer the
(morning) prayer, the Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said:
Allah seized your souls (made you sleep) when He wished, and
returned them (to your bodies) when He wished...
Collected by Al-Bukhari in Saheeh Al-Bukhan, V.9, Hadeeth #
563. PP: 422-423. Also reported by Imam Muslim, Abu Dawood,
At-Tirmithi, and An-Nasaaee.
..so, the one in sleep is not negligent and in such cases,
referring to Al-Qadar is correct... [Ibn Qayyim in Shifaaul Aleel,
V.1, P. 58]
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* Man is always keen to obtain what suits him from worldly


matters. He prefers to work in a good company (X) over a bad
company (Y). He does not change to work for (Y) blaming AlQadar for the change. Simply it is more beneficial for him to
work for (X). Why then it becomes justifiable to abandon the
highly beneficial matters of Deen and adopt the harmful
matters (Shirk, sin, etc.) and then blame it on Al-Qadar?
If man is traveling towards a specified place and there are
two roads that lead to it, one safe and the other unsafe, which
of the two roads will he take? There is no doubt that he will take
the safe road. On his journey to the Last Day, why does man
not take the way to Paradise instead of the way to Hell?
* If one accepts the concept of blaming Al-Qadar for our
mistakes and sins, then there is no need for seeking
forgiveness, repentance, Duaa, striving and fighting for the
cause of Allah, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is
evil etc. thus proving the falsehood of this concept.
* Man does not know in advance what Allah had ordained for
him. So when he is about to commit sin, he has no knowledge
of Al-Qadar, and thus he cannot be excused from his
responsibility.
FOOTNOTES

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[1] Mushnkeen:

polytheists,

pagans,

idolaters,

and

disbelievers in the oneness of Allah, and His Messenger


Muhammad
[2] Shayekh Muhammad Bin Utheimeen said: [Had they said
when they committed Shirk: This is something that took place
by the Will of Allah, but we seek His forgiveness and we repent
to Him, we would say to them: You spoke the truth. But when
they are called to abandon Shirk and respond by saying: If
Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship)
with Him, and we would not have forbidden anything (against
His Will)..., then it would not be accepted from them]
[Majmou Al-Fatawa, V.3, P.208-210]
[3] Soorah al-Kahf (18): 54. Imam An-Nawawi commented:
While the Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) did not blame
Ali for his reply, he was surprised by Alis quick response. Commentary on Saheeh Muslim by Imam An-Nawawi, Book 6
(The Travelers Prayers), Hadeeth # 1815, P. 306,
Published

by

Daar

Al-Marifah

(Beirut),

First

Edition,

1414Hj/1994. The Prophets visit was to urge Ali and his wife,
may Allah be pleased with both of them, to keep good interest
in the night prayers because of its great benefit. The Prophet
(salallahu alaihi wa salalam) knew that Allah seizes the souls
during sleep, and he considered the quick response of Ali as
argumental
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Summary:
The Muslim cannot blame Al-Qadar for his sins. He
may refer to Al-Qadar after committing the sin and after
regretting and repenting, saying: Allah had ordained
and He does whatever He ordains. This statement is
permissible to refer to after calamities or misfortunes.
There is more benefit about this subject, insh-Allah,
later in the text
Allah bestows upon us from His Favors. He does not expect
anything in return nor a benefit from us ...He is not afraid of
poverty, and His treasures never diminish. He does not withhold
his Favors from us because He may need something from
us...He loves generosity, giving, granting, etc. more than we
love requesting and taking from Him. If He withholds from
bestowing His Favors upon us, then know that we are standing
in the way of our own interests, and that we are a barrier to
ourselves. This is really the case of most of mankind. Verily,
Allah had ordained that obedience can bring about His
Favors. [1]
Allahs Favors can only be attracted by obedience and that
their continuity could be brought about only by giving thanks to
Him. Disobeying Allah holds and delays His Favors. Similarly if
He bestows His Favors and then takes them away from you, it is
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not due to some kind of greed on His part. You yourselves are
the cause for having it withdrawn. Indeed, Allah says: That is
because Allah never changes the grace which He has
bestowed on a people until they change what is in their
own selves. [Soorah al-Anfal (8): 53]
It is quite strange that we deal with ourselves in this way,
accusing and blaming Al-Qadar. We miss our own opportunity
and our reasoning fails to recognize the true means of our
happiness, and then all the blame is on Al-Qadar... our Fitrah
became corrupt and our heart degenerated because our desires
extinguished its lamps of knowledge and faith and we turned
towards Allahs creatures complaining from our condition
(blaming Allah for it!). When a knowledgeable man saw
someone complaining to another person, he told him: O you!
you complain about the One Who is Merciful to you to the one
who is not! [2]

The Benefits of Belief in al-Qadar:


* Al-Qadar perfects the belief in Allah for it is a matter
ordained by Him.
* When the person believes that whatever befalls him had
been pre-ordained by Allah thin, this brings tranquility and
peace of mind and makes him fearless to strive in the path of
Allah (Jihad)
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No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but


is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (al-Lauhul Mahfoudh),
before We bring it into existence, verily that is easy for
Allah. In order that you may not be sad over matters
that you fail to get, nor rejoice because of that which
has been given to you. And Allah likes not vainglorious
boasters. [Soorah al-Hadid (57): 22]
* Believers in al-Qadar receive Allah's Mercy, since at all
times of calamities they resort to Him alone: (They are those)
who, when afflicted with calamity, say:
Truly! to Allah we belong and truly, to Him shall we
return.

They

are

Salawat (blessings) from

those
their

on

whom

Rabb,

are

and (they

the
are

those) who receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the
guided ones. [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 156]
The Believer in Qadar is always cautious because the hearts
are in constant change and they are between two of Allah's
fingers, as the Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) told us: All
the hearts of the offspring of Aadam are between two fingers of
Ar-Rehmans Fingers, as one heart. He turns it (in any direction)
as He wills.
Then Allah's Messenger said, O Allah! The Turner of the
hearts, turn our heart towards Your obedience.[Saheeh Muslim
vol.4, p.1397, no.6418]
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This Hadeeth is a driving force against relaxation which may


cause passive security against the Plan of Allah, as He says:
Did they feel secure against the Plan of Allah. None
feels secure from the Plan of Allah except the people
who are lost. [Soorah al-Aaraf (7) :99]
The belief in al-Qadar makes the person generous because
he realizes that poverty and richness are in the Hands of Allah.
The believer in al-Qadar does not do righteous deed just to
show others. He knows that people do not benefit him except in
matters that Allah had already pre-ordained.
The believer in al-Qadar eliminates many social diseases, like
envy - which causes enmity and hatred amongst people. The
believer knows well that Allah is the One who gives and takes
and thus if a person envies someone then indeed he objects to
al-Qadar.
The belief in al-Qadar saves the person from resorting to
magic, soothsayers, fortune-tellers, etc. realizing that Allah
alone is the true helper and that all others forms of refuge
cannot benefit anyone.
Al-Qadar teaches humbleness: when the believer succeeds in
his work or becomes wealthy, etc. he humbles himself to Allah,
who alone is capable of bestowing favors, and that if He wills,
He can take away what he gave.
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Because al-Qadar is hidden, it gives the believers the perfect


motivation to be on the Straight Path of Allah. Thus al-Qadar
strengthens the believer to face the difficulties with a strong
heart, and lift his morals high, enabling him to stand up for the
truth and eagerly seeking Shahadah (martyrdom) for the sake
of

Allah

.
The belief in al-Qadar reveals the Hikmah (Wisdom) of Allah in
matters of good and evil. Many times a person finds it difficult
to achieve something that he likes, not knowing that it is not
good for him. In the beginning he may feel disheartened and
sad, however it is only a matter of time before he realizes that
it was good for him, as Allah says:
Jihaad (fighting

in

Allah's

cause) is

ordained

for

you (Muslims), though you dislike it, and it may be that


you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you
like a thing that is bad for you. Allah knows but you do
not know. [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 216]

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A FINAL NOTE:
Should Al-Qadar be discussed in the first place?
Many Muslims raise the issue that It is better not to talk
about al-Qadar, the Prophet prohibited us from doing so!
Generally this attitude is wrong for the following reasons:
1. The matter of belief in al-Qadar is an article of Faith and
we must know our faith well in order to worship Allah in the
right way. In fact al-Qadar was mentioned in the Hadeeth of
Gibrael in which the Prophet mentioned al-Qadar as an article
of faith. At the end of this Hadeeth the Prophet said, Verily!
Gibrael came to teach you your Deen Saheeh Muslim, the
book of faith.
2. The Noble Quran is full of verses about al-Qadar and its
details, and Allah says, Do they not think deeply in the
Qur'an, or are their hearts locked up (from understanding
it)? [Soorah Muhammed (47): 24]
3. The Sahabah (May Allah be pleased with them all) used to
ask the Prophet about minute details about Qadar, as in the
Hadeeth of Suraqah bin Maalik - who asked the Prophet: O
Messenger of Allah! Explain our Deen to us as if we have been
created just now. Whatever we do today, is it because of the
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fact that the pens have turned dry (having written the records)
and the destinies have begun to operate? Or is it something
that just happens (without pre-destination)?
4. The Scholars among the Salaf as-Saalih wrote extensively
on the subject, had it been prohibited to do so, they would have
committed a serious disobedience to Allah. Had they also not
explained this matter, many people would remain ignorant, and
it would have opened the door to innovation in understanding
al-Qadar. {This is what has happened today, when we see
many Muslims who blame al-Qadar for their sinful lives, and at
the same time some religious Muslims who due to their
ignorance on the issue - declare that there is no Qadar and that
everything is decided by ones actions}
5. What did the Prophet mean when he said, ..And if alQadar is mentioned then hold? [At-Tabarani and Abu Naeem
and al-Albani said it is authentic (see Saheeh al-Jami # 545 and
As-Silsilah as-Saheehah 1/42 # 34]
Also when he say some of the Companions disputing about
al-Qadar, he became angry and said: Were you commanded to
do this? Or was I send to you in order to do this (dispute among
yourselves)? Verily it was such disputes in this matter (of alQadar) which caused the destruction of those who were before
you! I am determined to (call you) not have dispute amongst
you in this matter (of al-Qadar). [Sunan at-Tirmidhi and and
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authenticated by Sheikh al-Albani in Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmidhi


no.1732-2231]
The answer is that the Prophet prohibited disputing about
but not understanding the matter of al-Qadar. He did not want
Muslims to indulge in discussions about al-Qadar without
Knowledge and proofs. Also discussions that will lead to
disputes in this matter are forbidden.
Al-Qadar is from the world of the unseen. What is known
about it from the Quran and the Sunnah is to be followed and
the Muslims must submit to it. No one is allowed to give his
opinion on this issue. Sufficient is what is revealed to the
Prophet. We are permitted to seek Knowledge about al-Qadar,
and this is different from asking questions like - Why did Allah
guide Ahmed and not Iqbal? Or why rain falls on the southern
part of the land and not on the eastern part? Certainly, the
Wisdom of Allah in al-Qadar cannot be questioned.
May Allah, the most-Merciful, the all-Knower, the all-Able, the
all-Wise and the all-Just; guide us to the correct understanding
of Islam and make us among the adherents of the Sunnah of
the Prophet and keep us safe from misguidance.
FOOTNOTES
[1] Allahs Favors are bestowed on all, just and unjust,
wicked and good, believers and Kuffar. The obedient to Allah
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receives distinguished favors for this world and for the


hereafter. The greatest favor is Tawheed and worshipping of
Allah alone and dying on this. Quantitatively, however, there
may be no comparison between what some believers have and
what the Kaafir has. Content is a distinguished mark in the
heart of the believer. The Favors of Allah on the believers are
blessed as long as they abide by the Quran and Sunnah. The
blessed favors are not subject to quantitative assessments. All
the favors that the Kaafir receives are for this world only. The
believer is yet to receive, by Allahs will, the favor of the actual
seeing of Allah in the Hereafter. Is there anything better?
Certainly, No!
[2] Ibn Qayyim in his book, Tareequl Hijratayen Wa Babu asSaadatayen- [the Road to Allah And His Messenger and the
Road to Happiness in this life and in the next one (Hereafler),
PP. 110-112, Published by Dar lbn Qayyim, Ad-Dammam. P.O.
Box 1865, KSA

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