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Chemistry Lab

Enthalpy changes
DCP and CE
Aim: determining the enthalpy change for the single displacement reaction
between zinc and copper sulphate.
Zn(s) +CuSO 4 (aq) Cu(s )+ ZnSO 4
Material required:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Beaker
Thermometer
Zinc
Copper sulphate

DCP:
Important calculations:
1. Mass of Zinc:
a. Moles:

1.2 0.01 g
1.2
=0.018
65

2. 50cm3 of 0.20 mol dm-3 copper sulphate solution


50 0.2
=0.010
a. Moles:
1000
Excess of Zinc powder is added after 2 minutes and temperature is taken
every 30 seconds.
Table1: Raw data
Time( 1 s )
0
30
60
90
120
Zinc added
150
180
210
240
270

Temperature ( 0.1)
Trial 1
25.5
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.2

Trial 2
25.2
25.2
25.1
25.1
25.2

Trial 3
25.4
25.3
25.2
25.2
25.2

27.9
28.3
28.6
28.8
28.9

27.6
27.9
28.4
28.6
28.9

27.8
27.9
28.3
28.7
29.0

300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600

29.2
29.3
29.4
29.1
29.0
28.8
28.7
28.6
28.4
28.1
27.9

29.1
29.3
29.3
29.2
29.2
29.1
28.9
28.7
28.6
28.4
28.2

29.3
29.5
29.6
29.4
29.2
28.9
28.8
28.7
28.5
28.4
28.3

Table 2: data processing


Time(
1 s )

30

60

90

120

150

180
210

Temperature
( 0.1)

mean

25.5
25.2
25.4
25.4
25.2
25.2
25.2
25.3
25.1
25.1
25.1
25.2
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.2
25.2
25.2
25.2
25.2
Zinc added
27.9
27.6
27.8
27.8
28.3
27.9
28.0
27.9
28.6
28.4

Precision
Standar
Rang
d
e
deviatio
n

Accuracy
error

Error
%

0.3

0.15

0.039

0.1

0.06

0.040

0.1

0.06

0.1

0.06

0.040

0.00

0.040

0.3

0.15

0.036

0.4

0.23

0.036

0.3

0.15

0.035

0.1

0.040

240

270

300

330

360

390

420

450

480

510

540

570

600

28.4
28.3
28.8
28.6
28.7
28.9
28.9
29.0
29.2
29.1
29.3
29.3
29.3
29.5
29.4
29.3
29.6
29.1
29.2
29.4
29.0
29.2
29.2
28.8
29.1
28.9
28.7
28.9
28.8
28.6
28.7
28.7
28.4
28.6
28.5
28.1
28.4
28.4
27.9
28.2
28.3

28.7

0.2

0.10
0.035

28.9

0.1

0.06
0.035

29.2

0.2

0.10
0.034

29.4

0.2

0.12
0.034

29.4

0.3

0.15
0.034

29.2

0.3

0.15
0.034

29.1

0.2

0.12
0.034

28.9

0.3

0.15
0.035

28.8

0.2

0.10
0.035

28.7

0.1

0.06
0.035

28.5

0.2

0.10
0.035

28.3

0.3

0.17
0.035

28.1

0.4

0.21
0.036

Graphical Representation:

I used the best fit line and extrapolation to estimate the change in temperature
after adding zinc in a situation where no heat is lost. The gradient shows the rate, at
which the temperature decreases.

The change in temperature:


maxmin
30.5425.2

5.34
To calculate the enthalpy change, I have used the following formula:
Enthalpy change=( mass of water specific heat capacity temperature change )
mass of water =volume of copper sulphate solution

specific heat capacity=4 . 2 J g K

Temperaturechange=5.34
50 5.34 4.2=1121.4 J

molar enthalpy change=

1121 . 4
1
=112140 Jmo l
0.010

112.14 kJmol

CE
Conclusion:
1

The literature value of the reaction is -217 kJmo l . Percentage


error is the difference between the theoretical and actual values
and is therefore :
217112.14
x 100=48.32 ,
217

which is a very high percentage error. The biggest contribution to


the high experimental error is probably heat lost to surroundings.
The experimental value is much lower (in magnitude) than the
actual value obtained, because much energy escaped as heat to
the surrounding.
The best-fit line shows the theoretical temperature change in an
ideal situation. We can use it in calculations. However, in reality
heat is lost to the surrounding, even whilst the reaction takes
place. Zinc replaces copper in copper sulphate, because it is more
reactive. Copper will precipitate, as it has very low solubility.
Assumptions taken:
1.
2.
3.
4.

No heat loss from the system


All heat goes from the reaction to the water
The solution is dilute V(CuSO4)=V(H2O)
Water of density is 1.00gcm-3.

Evaluation:
Possible errors and their improvements:

1.

Thermometer was looked at from different angles and therefore readings may
have been unreliable the error of parallax. This weakness could have
introduced systematic error to the temperature measurements.
Make sure that your eyes are perpendicular to the scale while taking readings
2. Some heat was lost to the surroundings and therefore measured temperature
values would not be accurate. This probably contributed the most to the
experimental error and therefore would be the biggest weakness of this
experiment.
3. Measurement of 50 ml of copper sulphate had some uncertainty because of
meniscus measurement uncertainty.