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International Journal of Computer Systems (ISSN: 2394-1065), Volume 03 Issue 03, March, 2016

Available at http://www.ijcsonline.com/

Frequency Reconfigurable Triangular Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless


Applications
Mr.G. Sreedhar Kumar1, Ms. T. Uma Latha2, S. Usha3, N. Tanuja Latha4, Y. Sumitra Sravani Singh5, H.K.Sowmya6
11

Sr. Asst Professor, Department of ECE, GPCET, Kurnool, AP, India


2,3,4,5,6
Student, Department of ECE, GPCET, Kurnool, AP, India

Abstract
Wireless communication has been developed widely and rapidly in the modern world especially during the last two
decades. Multiband antennas are used to meet different applications in wireless communication like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth,
Wi-MAX,WLAN and PCS. Hence the topic of reconfigurable antennas is gaining great attention. A new reconfigurable
antenna with frequency has been proposed in this paper. The reconfigurability in frequency is obtained by connecting the
switches in basic antenna. The basic antenna structure for frequency diversity consists of coaxial fed triangular shaped
patch antenna of side 30mm printed on the Alumina_92pct substrate of thickness 3.2mm having dielectric constant 9.2
and antenna operates at a frequency of 2.4GHz which is used for 802.11b Wi-Fi applications. Reconfigurability allows
the user to operate at different frequencies with single antenna. The proposed antenna is intended to use in wireless
applications like WLAN/RFID.Ansoft HFSS simulation software is used to design and analyze the antenna.
Keywords: Microstrip Antenna, Reconfigurable antenna, RF switches, coaxial feeding, frequency diversity.

I.

INTRODUCTION

The concept of microstrip radiators is first proposed by


Deschamps in 1953. Micro strip antennas consist of a patch
of metallization on a grounded substrate. These are low
profile, light weight antennas most suitable for aerospace
and mobile applications. Microstrip antennas have low
power handling capability because of this these antennas
can be used only in low power transmitting and receiving
applications. Microstrip antennas are the extension of a
micro strip circuits. This feature has given rise to
microstrip integrated active antennas in which circuit. A
Microstrip patch antenna (MPA) consists of a radiating
patch on one side of a dielectric substrate which has a
ground plane on the other side is shown in Figure 1.1. The
patch is generally made of a conducting material such as
copper or gold and can take any available shape. Radiating
patch and the feed lines is usually photo etched on the
dielectric substrate.

very thin such that t << o. Where h of the height of the


dielectric substrate and it usually in between 0.003
oh0.05 o. The dielectric constant of the substrate (r)
is typically present in between 2.2 r12.

Figure 2: Common shapes of micro strip patch elements

Figure 1: Structure of a Microstrip Patch Antenna


The patch contains variety of shapes the commonly
used shapes are square, elliptical, circular, rectangular and
triangular or some other common shapes are shown in
Figure 2. In rectangular patch, the length L of the patch is
usually 0.3333o< L < 0.5 o, where o is the free-space
wavelength. Where t is the path thickness and it is selected

Microstrip patch antennas radiate primarily because of


the fringing fields between the patch edge and the ground
plane. For improving the antenna performance a thick
dielectric substrate having a low dielectric constant is
desirable since it gives a good efficiency, wide bandwidth
and better radiation pattern but such configuration leads to
a larger antenna size.
II.

RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNAS

A reconfigurable antenna is an attractive feature in a


modern wireless communication System because of its
flexibility for use in multiple applications such as
multiband and point-to-multipoint. Reconfigurable antenna
systems were first introduced in 1998 by Brown. In the

277 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 03, March, 2016

G. Sreedhar Kumar et al

Frequency Reconfigurable Triangular Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

reconfigurable antenna, the structure of the antenna can be


changed by integrating appropriate switches, such as PIN
diode switches , field-effect transistors (FET), piezoelectric
transducers, or electromechanical system (MEMS)
switches into the design. Reconfigurable antennas can be
grouped into three categories: frequency, polarization and
radiation pattern reconfigurable antennas. Several
approaches have been proposed for implementing the
reconfigurable antenna by controlling the on and off-states
of the switches.

conductivity =0,Dielectric Loss Tangent=0.008,Magnetic


Loss Tangent=0,Magnetic Saturation =0,Lande G
Factor=2,h=0,Mass Density=3720 and ground plane.
Below figures shows reconfigurable antenna design in
HFSS. Reconfigurability is achieved by using switches
having radius of 0.5mm.

Radiation pattern reconfigurable antennas have the


greatest potential to improve the overall performance of
wireless communication systems. Such ability enables the
antenna's radiation pattern to be changed to the desired
direction whilst maintaining the operating frequency. One
way to achieve reconfigurable antennas which were
radiated at different beam patterns is by adjusting the
apertures while maintaining their operating frequencies (or)
by using switching technology.

Fig:5 Antenna Design

Fig 3: Different mechanisms to achieve reconfigurable


antennas
Frequency reconfigurable antennas (also called tunable
antennas) can be achieved by modifying the effective
electrical length of the antenna. The total effective
electrical length of the antenna determines the operating
frequency. A number of techniques can be used to change
the effective length of resonant antennas, such as by using
switches, having variable reactive loading, and changing
the antenna structure.

Fig:6 Patch With Slots And Switches

IV.

SIMULATED RESULTS

Fig 4 Frequency diversity

III.

DESIGN OF ANTENNA

The reconfigurable patch antenna can be designed


using HFSS software. The proposed design consists of a
single probe fed microstrip triangular, dielectric substrate
with the thickness , 3.2mm and material used for the
substrate is Alumina_ 92 pct which has relative
permititivity, r=9.2, relative permeability, r=1,bulk

.
Fig 7 Return Loss Curve When All The Switches Are
Open

278 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 03, March, 2016

G. Sreedhar Kumar et al

Frequency Reconfigurable Triangular Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

Fig 13:Radiation Pattern(S1 And S2 Closed)

Fig 8: Return Loss Curve When S1 Is Closed

Fig 9: Return Loss Curve When S1 And S2 Are Closed

.
Fig 14: Radiation Pattern(All Closed)
Table 1:Frequency Diversity Results
Antenna
paramete
r

Case
1(all
open)

Case
2(s1
closed)

Case
3(s1 and
s2
closed)

Case
4(all
closed)

Frequenc
y
Return
loss(Db)
Gain
Axial
Ratio
VSWR
Applicati
on

2.91

4.99

6.48

6.45

-12.6

-18.3

-19.7

-27.3

8.8
2.2

8.9
5.8

8.8
1.5

8.8
1.8

1.6
S band

1.27
C band

1.23
WLAN/
RFID

1.08
WLA
N/RFI
D

Fig 10: Return Loss Curve When All The Switches Are
Closed

Fig 11:Radiation Pattern(All Closed)

V.

CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE

This paper gives a novel frequency reconfigurable


coaxial fed triangular shaped patch antenna that operates at
different frequency bands 2.9GHz, 4.99GHz, 6.48GHz,
6.45GHz and it is used for S band, C band, RFID/IEEE
802.11 WLAN applications. Frequency reconfiguration can
be achieved by using a simple and compact triangular patch
with coaxial feeding by controlling switches s1,s2 and s3.
High gain can be obtained by increasing height of the
substrate so both frequency reconfigurability and high gain
can be achieved by using proposed antenna. Finally, what
we conclude is only by using the single reconfigurable
antenna we can achieve frequency diversity instead of
using multiple antennas for high gain applications.
Fig 12:Radiation Pattern(S1 Closed)

Future work of this thesis is, we can extend this concept


by incorporating different switching configurations like

279 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 03, March, 2016

G. Sreedhar Kumar et al

Frequency Reconfigurable Triangular Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

MEMS, and also we can increase the number of switches in


order to get more frequencies. We expect future smart
reconfigurable antennas to be completely multifunctional
and software controlled with machine learning capabilities
that can detect changes in their RF environment and react
accordingly. Applications such as cognitive radio will be
implemented based on a new generation of communication
protocols and antenna systems.
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AUTHORS
[1] G. SREEDHAR KUMAR, M.Tech, (PhD), Sr. Asst Professor, Dept
of ECE, GPCET, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
[2] T.UMA LATHA, Final year B.Tech, Dept of ECE, GPCET, Kurnool,
Andhra Pradesh, India
[3] S.USHA, Final year B.Tech, Dept of ECE, GPCET, Kurnool, Andhra
Pradesh, India
[4] N.TANUJA LATH, Final year B.Tech , Dept of ECE, GPCET,
Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
[5] Y.SUMITRA SRAVANI SINGH, Final year B.Tech, Dept of ECE,
GPCET, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
[6] K.SOWMYA, Final year B.Tech, Dept of ECE, GPCET, Kurnool,
Andhra Pradesh, India

280 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 03, March, 2016