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An Enhanced Vigenere Cipher for Data Security

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An Enhanced Vigenere Cipher for Data Security

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ISSN 2277-8616

Aized Amin Soofi, Irfan Riaz, Umair Rasheed

Abstract: In todays world the amount of data that is exchanged has increased in the last few years so securing the information has become a crucial

task. Cryptography is an art of converting plain text message into unreadable message. Encryption algorithms play an important role in information

security systems. Encryption is considered as one of the most powerful tool for secure transmission of data over the communication network. Vigenere

technique is an example of polyalphabetic stream cipher; it has various limitations such as Kasiski and Friedman attack to find the length of encryption

key. In this paper an enhanced version of traditional vigenere cipher has been proposed that eliminates the chances of Kaisiski and Friedman attack.

Proposed technique also provides better security against cryptanalysis and pattern prediction.

Index Terms: Encryption; Stream cipher; Vigenere cipher; symmetric encryption

1. INTRODUCTION

With the rapid development of computer technology, the

number of data files transmitted over internet keeps

increasing. As a result, the secure transmission of secret

data over public channels has become a common interest

in both academic and research fields [1]. There are many

aspects to security and applications, ranging from secure

commerce and payments to private communications and

protecting passwords. Cryptography is an essential aspect

for secure communications [2]. Although the crucial goal of

cryptography is to hide information from unauthorized

individuals, most algorithms can be broken and the

information can be exposed if the attacker has enough time,

desire, and resources. So a more hardheaded goal of

cryptography is to make it too work intensive for attacker.

The basic terms used in cryptography are discussed below:

Plain text

In cryptography, plain text is a simple readable text before

being encrypted into ciphertext [3]. The data that can be

read and understood without any special measure is called

plaintext [4].

____________________

Aized Amin Soofi is currently pursuing doctorate

degree in computer science from Allama Iqbal Open

University,

Islamabad,

Pakistan.

E-mail:

aizedamin@yahoo.com

Irfan Riaz is currently serving as lecturer in Electrical

Engineering department, Government College

University,

Faisalabad,

Pakistan.

Email:

shohabsons@gmail.com

person B. In this case how are you will be our plain text

message.

Cipher text

In Cryptography, the transformation of original message

into non readable message before the transmission is

known as cipher text [5]. It is a message obtained by

some kind of encryption operation on plain text.

Encryption

Encryption is a process of converting plain text into cipher

text. Encryption process requires encryption algorithm

and key to convert the plain text into cipher [6]. In

cryptography encryption performed at sender end.

Decryption

Decryption is the reverse process of encryption. It

converts the cipher text into plain text. In cryptography

decryption performed at receiver end.

Key

The key is the numeric or alphanumeric text used for the

encryption of plain text and decryption of cipher text [5].

Various goals of cryptography are presented in [7, 8]. These

goals include:

Authentication

Authentication is verification of the identity of the sender

at receiver end. A user or system can prove their identity

to another who does not have personal knowledge of

their identity.

Confidentiality

Confidentiality is most commonly addressed goal. It

refers that transmitted message is only received by

authorized party.

Integrity

Integrity is making it sure that the received message is

in same form as it was sent. Only authorized users have

privileges to modify the data.

Access control

Access control is making it sure that only authorized

parties have privileges to access the given information.

Non Repudiation

Non repudiation is a method of guaranteeing message

transmission between parties via digital signature or

encryption. It helps to protect against the denial of

authentication attempt.

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Cryptography is classified into two basic types include

symmetric cryptography and asymmetric cryptography. The

classification of cryptography is shown in figure 1.

Cryptography

Symmetric Key

Block

Asymmetric Key

ISSN 2277-8616

Vigenere cipher is to conceal plaintext letter frequencies by

defeating simple frequency analysis. But the crucial

weakness of the Vigenere cipher is the repeating nature of

its key. If a cryptanalyst correctly guesses the key's length,

then the cipher text can be easily broken. Various methods

like Kasiski and Friedman tests can help to determine the

key length. With the advent of computer the Vigenere

cipher has become even easier to break. Most cipher texts

can be cracked within a few seconds even with long keys.

This cipher is now considered trivial to break and provides

no security by todays standards. However, it is used in

many stronger encryption algorithms like the Advance

Encryption Standard (AES) [16]. Vigenere algorithm can be

viewed algebraically if the letters AZ are taken to be the

numbers 025, Vigenere encryption formula is:

Ci = (Pi+ Ki) mod m

Stream

a) Symmetric Key Cryptography

Symmetric key is also known as secret key or private key

cryptography. Symmetric key algorithms are most

commonly used algorithms. It uses [9] same key for both

encryption of plain text and decryption of cipher text. It

categorized into stream cipher and block cipher.

(i) Stream Cipher

Stream cipher operates on single bit in which cryptographic

key and algorithm are applied to each binary digit in data

stream [10]. Stream ciphers are an important class of

symmetric ciphers used widely in encryption for hardwarebased cryptographic systems. They are simple, efficient

without compromising performance [11].

(ii) Block Cipher

In block cipher cryptographic key and algorithm are applied

on block of data instead of single bit in stream [12]. It

encrypts one block of data at a time by using the same key

on each block [13].

b) Asymmetric Key Cryptography

Asymmetric key is also known a public key cryptography.

This type of cryptography used asymmetric algorithms that

encrypt and decrypt with different keys in which public key

used for encryption and private key used for decryption [2].

Asymmetric algorithms are very slow in working and it is

unfeasible to use them to encrypt huge data. This paper is

organized as following; in section2 introduction of Vigenere

cipher is presented, review of literature is presented in

section 3, section 4 contains description of proposed

approach and section 5 consist of conclusion and future

directions.

2. VIGENERE CIPHER

The Vigenere cipher is a method of encrypting alphabetic

text by using a series of different Caesar ciphers based on

the letters of a keyword. It is a simple form of polyalphabetic

substitution in which each alphabet can replace with several

cipher alphabets [14]. Vigenere cipher was considered

secure for centuries but later its weakness was identified.

Friedrich Kasiski discovered a method to identify the period

Where,

C = Cipher text character

P = Plain text character

K = Key phrase character

m = Length of alphabets (i.e, 26 in Vigenere cipher)

3. LITERATURE REVIEW

In [17] modified version of vigenere algorithm was proposed

in which diffusion is provided by adding a random bit to

each byte before the message is encrypted using Vigenere.

This technique fails kasiski attack to find the length of key

because the padding of message with random bits. The

main drawback of this technique is that the size of the

encrypted message will be increased by around 56%. In

[18] a new way of implementing Vigenere algorithm was

introduced by automatically changing the cipher key after

each encryption step. In this method successive keys were

used that were dependent on the initial key value during the

encryption process. In [14] modification of Vigenere cipher

by random numbers, punctuations & mathematical symbols

was presented. In proposed method numbers, punctuations

and mathematical symbols were used for key in place of

characters to make it more difficult for brute force attack. It

was concluded that if random numbers are used for key

and to spread the spectrum then only skilled persons can

identify the message. A novel approach was presented [19]

by combing the LFSR (Linear feedback shift register) key

with Vigenere cipher key. In Proposed technique the

concepts and methodologies of classical Vigenere cipher

plus modern LFSR stream cipher was used. Proposed

technique generates the period less and pseudorandom

letter key stream for encryption/ decryption. Period less and

randomness of key lowers the flatness of letter frequency

that makes it difficult to identify the length of key. In [20] the

Caesar Cipher and Vigenere Cipher have been modified

and expanded by including

alphabets, numbers and

symbols and at the same time introduced a complete

confusion and diffusion into the modified cipher developed.

It was concluded that cipher text generated by proposed

hybrid technique is very difficult to break using a frequency

method, brute force attack etc. A new algorithm [21] by

combining Vigenere substitution cipher with Stream cipher

was proposed in which repeated portions of plaintext

always encrypted with the different portion of the keyword

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ISSN 2277-8616

continue till eighth table. After that next plain character i.e

character 9 of plain text and key will undergo through

same process by using value from table 1 and so on.

with stream cipher and the letters in even locations with

Vigenere cipher. It was concluded that proposed algorithm

hides the relation between cipher text and plain text that

makes cryptanalysis much difficult.

proposed algorithm as:

4. PROPOSED APPROACH

In traditional Vigenere cipher each alphabet has one fixed

numeric value but in our proposed technique we have eight

tables shown in figure 2. In each table every alphabet

represent with different numeric value. In traditional

Vigenere technique the plaintext is considered as a

sequence of alphabets without any space between them. It

may create a problem for receiver to read the message by

inserting spaces between words and receiver needs to

guess the exact place to insert space in decrypted plaintext.

In proposed technique we eliminate this problem by

introducing different numeric value for space in each table.

The encryption and decryption process by proposed

approach is given below:

[T2], ------ , C8 = P8 + K8 (mod 27) [T8], C9 = P9 + K9

(mod 27) [T1], ------, C16 = P16 + K16 (mod 27) [T8],

C17 = P17 + K17 (mod 27) [T1],-----Where, T in above mathematical relation represents table

no.

4.2 Decryption

Decryption process of proposed approach works the same

way as encryption does but in reverse direction. Formula for

decryption by proposed method is:

Pi = Ci - Ki (mod m)

4.1 Encryption

Formula for encryption by proposed method is:

Numeric value of first cipher text character and key

character will be subtracted according to table 1.

Modulo 27 of the resultant value from above step will be

calculated. The character correspond to the calculated

modulo value will be first plain text character.

The process explained in above steps will remain

continue till eighth table. After that next cipher character

i.e character 9 of cipher text and key will undergo through

same process by using value from table 1 and so on.

Ci = Pi + Ki (mod m)

In proposed approach we have length of alphabet 27, so

value m will be 27.

The steps for encryption process are:

If the length of key is smaller than the length of plain text

then key will be repetitive until it becomes equal to the

length of plain text.

Numeric value of first plain text character and key

character will be added according to table 1.

Modulo 27 of the resultant value from above step will be

calculated. The character correspond to the calculated

modulo value will be first cipher text character.

Numeric value of second plain text character and key

character will be added according to table 2.

Modulo 27 of the resultant value from above step will be

calculated. The character correspond to the calculated

modulo value will be second cipher character.

proposed algorithm as:

P1 = C1 - K1 (mod 27) [T1], P2 = C2 - K2 (mod 27)

[T2], ------- , P8 = C8 - K8 (mod 27) [T8], P9 = C9 - K9

(mod 27) [T1], ------, P16 = C16 - K16 (mod 27) [T8], P17

= C17 - K17 (mod 27) [T1],------

T.No.

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

&

2

3

4

D

F

H

E

G

I

F

H

J

G

I

K

H

J

L

I

K

M

J

L

N

K

M

O

L

N

P

M

O

Q

N

P

R

O

Q

S

P

R

T

Q

S

U

R

T

V

S

U

W

T

V

X

U

W

Y

V

X

Z

W

Y

&

X

Z

A

Y

&

B

Z

A

C

&

B

D

A

C

E

B

D

F

C

E

G

&

6

7

L

N

M

O

N

P

O

Q

P

R

Q

S

R

T

S

U

T

V

U

W

V

X

W

Y

X

Z

Y

&

Z

A

&

B

A

C

B

D

C

E

D

F

E

G

F

H

G

I

H

J

I

K

J

L

K

M

&

The first column of figure 2 represent the table numbers

and first row represent the numeric value of alphabets in

each table. Space is represented by & in given table. In

our proposed method space in the plain text will also

space from tables.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 5, ISSUE 03, MARCH 2016

Example:

Lets suppose our plaintext is RED COOKIES and key

phrase is GAME.

Cipher

text

(encry

ption)

Plain

text

(decry

ption)

E D

&

G

R+G (mod

27) = 21

mod 27=

21 = W

[T1]

W G (mod

27)= 16

(mod 27)=

16 = R

[T2]

A M

B K

&

E D

&

Mobile Applications, ISSN, pp. 2321-8363, 2014.

[5] M. Agrawal and P. Mishra, "A comparative survey

on symmetric key encryption techniques,"

International Journal on Computer Science and

Engineering (IJCSE), vol. 4, pp. 877-882, 2012.

Plain

Text

Key

ISSN 2277-8616

character and key phrase character can replaced with

several cipher characters because of multiple tables but in

traditional Vigenere technique there is exactly one value for

each combination. Proposed approach makes our

technique much stronger against kasiski and friedman

attack to find the length of key. As we can see in example

that proposed technique also converted the space between

the words into cipher text that will be helpful for receiver to

read the plain text message easily after decryption process.

[6] V.

Beal.

(2009,

Encryption.

Available:

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/E/encryption.ht

ml

[7] O. P. Verma, et al., "Peformance analysis of data

encryption algorithms," in Electronics Computer

Technology (ICECT), 2011 3rd International

Conference on, 2011, pp. 399-403.

[8] E. Surya and C. Diviya, "A survey on Symmetric

Key Encryption Algorithms," International Journal

of Computer Science & Communication Networks,

vol. 2, pp. 475-477, 2012.

[9] N. Courtois and J. Pieprzyk, "Cryptanalysis of

Block Ciphers with Overdefined Systems of

Equations," in Advances in Cryptology

ASIACRYPT 2002. vol. 2501, Y. Zheng, Ed., ed:

springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2002, pp. 267-287.

[10] R. Wash, "Lecture notes on stream ciphers and

RC4," Reserve University, pp. 1-19, 2001.

Cryptography is the widely used method for the security of

data. Vigenere cipher is one of the cryptographic method

that is considered simplest and weakest due to many

limitations. To overcome the limitations of Vigenere cipher

we proposed an enhanced version of Vigenere cipher that

is much secure against Kasiski and Friedman attacks.

Cryptanalysis, frequency analysis, pattern prediction and

brute attack on proposed technique are also much difficult

due to use of multiples tables for encryption. Although there

are many cryptographic methods but this domain still

requires serious attention of research community for the

improvement of data security. In future our aim is to provide

validation of proposed approach by performing security and

performance analysis.

REFERENCES

[1] Z.-p. Wang, et al., "Single-intensity-recording

optical encryption technique based on phase

retrieval algorithm and QR code," Optics

Communications, vol. 332, pp. 36-41, 2014.

[2] S. William and W. Stallings, Cryptography and

Network Security, 4/E: Pearson Education India,

2006.

[3] M. Rouse. (2007, Plain text. Available:

http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/plain

text

[4] T. Gunasundari and K. Elangovan, "A Comparative

Survey on Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithms,"

vulnerable to power attacks," in Progress in

CryptologyINDOCRYPT 2007, ed: springer, 2007,

pp. 384-392.

[12] M. Rouse. (2006, Block Cipher. Available:

http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/block

-cipher

[13] G. C. Kessler, "An overview of cryptography," ed:

Gary C. Kessler, 2003.

[14] C. Bhardwaj, "Modification of Vigenre Cipher by

Random Numbers, Punctuations & Mathematical

Symbols," Journal of Computer Engineering

(IOSRJCE) ISSN, pp. 2278-0661, 2012.

[15] A. J. Menezes, et al., Handbook of applied

cryptography: CRC press, 2010.

[16] C. Sanchez-Avila and R. Sanchez-Reillo, "The

Rijndael block cipher (AES proposal): a

comparison with DES," in Security Technology,

2001

IEEE

35th

International

Carnahan

Conference on, 2001, pp. 229-234.

[17] P. I. Wilson and M. Garcia, "A Modified Version of

the Vigenre Algorithm," IJCSNS, vol. 6, p. 140,

2006.

[18] Q.-A. Kester, "A cryptosystem based on Vigenre

cipher with varying key," International Journal of

144

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ISSN 2277-8616

Technology (IJARCET), vol. 1, pp. pp: 108-113,

2012.

[19] A. Razzaq, et al., "Strong Key Machanism

Generated by LFSR based Vigenre Cipher,"

presented at the 13 International Arab Conference

on Information Technology, 2013.

[20] O. Omolara, et al., "Developing a Modified Hybrid

Caesar Cipher and Vigenere Cipher for Secure

Data Communication," Computer Engineering and

Intelligent Systems, vol. 5, pp. 34-46, 2014.

[21] F. H. S. Fairouz Mushtaq Sher Ali, "Enhancing

Security of Vigenere Cipher by Stream Cipher,"

International Journal of Computer Applications, vol.

100, pp. 1-4, 2014.

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