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Surveying Techniques

Possession of land has been and even is a very important part of the
lives of everyone in this world. The history of surveying is amazingly
fascinating.
What is Surveying?

The surveying technique is the procedure of precisely finding out the


earthly or three-dimensional space location of points and
the distances and slants between them.
Definition of Surveying

According to the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping


(ACSM), surveying is the science and art of making all
essential measurements to determine the relative position
of points and/or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the
surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to
establish the position ofpoints and/or details."
History of Surveying
One of the first instances of a survey applying mathematical methods
was in ancient Egypt. The Great Pyramid which was constructed
around 2700 BC at Giza establishes Egyptians' awareness of
surveying techniques. When the Nile River flooded the plains, the
ancient Egyptians redrew frontier lines applying basic geometry. A
register which dates back to 3000 BC can be found with the record of
owners of different pieces of land and their locations. These surveys
were established on geometry and uncomplicated declarations that
they assumed these boundaries to be correct.
"Agrimensores" is the name of the surveying taken up in the Roman
Empire. This was actually done in the first century AD. In the
11th century England, William the Conqueror wrote a book known as
Domesday covering the names of all land owners, the quality and
amount of land, and information on the people and resources in
each area. Even Napoleon Bonaparte created a cadastre which is a
register of property. This cadastre had used scale maps at both 1:2500
and 1:1250. As a result the present day Cadastral surveys had their
origin there.

The present day surveys are much more precise than those done in
decades ago and of course thanks to sophisticated means for
evaluating and recording boundaries and land caracteristics .
Surveying Techniques
The kinds of survey technique chosen for use depend on a multiplicity
of elements like the kind of survey that is being carried out. Land
surveys are actually divided into three basic categories: standard land
surveys used to fix property boundaries, compute land areas etc.;
engineering surveys to assure that the building is built in correct place;
and informational surveys which are applied to produce maps and
charts. Yet another classification of land surveying technique is either
geodetic surveys or plane surveys. Geodetic surveys are very accurate
and address large areas by taking into consideration the curvature of
the earth along with additional land survey techniques.

The five
fundamental techniques are:
The triangulation survey technique applies a sequence of linked
triangles that unite and extend beyond each other, and from there
slants can be evaluated from fixed stations. This is the most normally
used technique, which is also very well-organized since it reduces the
count of measuring that should be made.
An electronic distance measuring tool which helps in measuring the
dimensions of the triangles is used in the
trilateration surveying technique. It is from these measurements of the
dimensions that the angles are computed. Trilateration is an ideal land
survey technique in coarse land where it can be better off to get
precise calculations than by means of the customary triangulation land
survey technique.
Sequences of lines whose measured distance and dimensions are
linked mutually by points in fixed locations are used
in the traverse land survey technique. Traverse lines are either open
or closed, and they are adjustable to move about rough terrain or
obstructions as necessitated. This sort of land survey technique is
generally used for producing preliminary surveys to build new roads.
The elevation in a particular area can be measured with
the leveling land survey technique. This method involves determining
the measurements of perpendicular distances on a calibrated rod by
means of a leveling instrument. There are several leveling instruments,
nevertheless dumpy levels, theodolites, and transits are the ideal

options. The variation in the elevation between two points can be


calculated with the help of trigonometry.
The last land surveying technique is radiation. The radiation land
survey technique is utilized most regularly in combination with a plane
table. By means of a fixed position above a ground position,
a variety of points are assumed at the border of the survey area.
These points are depicted on a piece of paper and the lengths
evaluated and transformed to the requisite scale on the survey sheet.
Radiation is generally applied with other land surveytechniques like
traverse and triangulation.

Conclusion
Land surveyors these days benefit from some of the most astonishing
technologies. Our instruments for land surveying techniques are some
of the most sophisticated and stimulating technologies in the world at
present. Right from the EDM, 3D Laser Scanners, and GPS to the
Lunar Laser Ranging and Very Long Baseline Interferometry the world
of land surveying and geophysical science can express gratitude to
Albert Einstein and his brilliance.
http://www.brighthubengineering.com/geotechnical-engineering/84900-landsurveying-techniques/

REFERENCES:
WEBSITE: www.brighthubengineering.com/geotechnical-engineering/84900-landsurveying-techniques/
AUTHOR: Lamar Stonecypher
DATE OF PUBLICATION: 29 - 08 - 2010

TRANSLATION OF TITLE AND ALL SUBTITLES:


TITLE:

Surveying Techniques = Tcnicas de topografa de la tierra

SUBTITLES:

What is Surveying? = Que Es Topografa?


Definition of Surveying = Definicin de topografa
History of Surveying = Historia De La topografa
Surveying Techniques = Tcnicas De topografa
Conclusion = Conclusin

Main idea written in Spanish:


El articulo trata sobre la topografa su definicin, historia y tcnicas que se
utilizan en la topografia. Y nos queda muy claro que la topografa es una parte
fundamental de la ingeniera civil y la idea central del artculo es que
aprendamos muy bien el concepto de topografa, su historia y sobre todo las
tcnicas que se utilizan en la topografa.
Glossary of technical terms in English and Spanish:
1. Surface

Superficie

2. Boundaries =

Limites

3. Geodetic

Geodsico

4. Lengths

Longitudes

5. Slant

Inclinacin

Copy and translate 2 sentences that have any grammar structure already
studied. Underline the
grammar structure in BOTH VERSIONS.
English Sentence 1:
This is the most normally used technique, which is also very well-organized
since it reduces the count of measuring that should be made.
Translation:
Esta es la tcnica ms utilizada normalmente, que tambin est muy bien
organizado, ya que reduce el recuento de medicin que debe hacerse.
English sentence 2:
Possession of land has been and even is a very important part of the lives of
everyone in this world. The history of surveying is amazingly fascinating.
Translation:
La posesin de la tierra ha sido y aun es una parte muy importante de la vida
de todos en este mundo

Personal opinion:
El articulo presentado es de gran inters para nosotros los universitarios y mas
aun si somos estudiantes de ingeniera civil, para tener mas en claro el
concepto de la topografa, que tcnicas se utilizan, etc.