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Construction and Building Materials 48 (2013) 98103

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Investigating the properties of lightweight concrete containing high


contents of recycled green building materials
Shyh-Haur Chen, Her-Yung Wang , Jhou-Wei Jhou
Department of Civil Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan, ROC

h i g h l i g h t s
 The addition of recycled green building materials can increase the slump and effectively reduce the unit weight.
 The setting time prolongs the 1.5 times, and the bleeding is increased by 1.4 times.
 The addition of RGBM can reduce the strength of concrete.
 The surface resistance is increases. The maximum value (50% replacement) is 1.8 times that of the control group.

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 30 April 2013
Received in revised form 7 June 2013
Accepted 18 June 2013
Available online 24 July 2013
Keywords:
High content of recycled green building
materials
Lightweight concrete
Lightweight aggregate
Waste tire rubber powder
Waste LCD glass sand

a b s t r a c t
In this study, the cement and aggregate used in lightweight aggregate concrete were replaced with recycled green building materials (e.g., waste LCD glass sand and waste tire rubber particles). The inuence of
the maximum replacement amount on the fresh mixture (slump, unit weight, setting time, bleeding),
hardened (compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity) and durability (quadruple type resistance
and length change) was investigated to determine the inuence of high contents of recycled aggregate
and recycled pozzolanic admixtures on the properties of the concrete. The ndings showed that the addition of recycled green building materials maintained good workability of the concrete as the replaced
amount increased. The unit weight was reduced by approximately 1.4 times (600 kg/m3); the setting time
and bleeding rate were increased by 1.5 times (73 min and 190 min) and 1.4 times (8%), respectively. The
compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity and length change were reduced by 9.8 times
(37.18 MPa), 1.4 times (1131 m/s) and 3.7 times ( 0.115%), respectively. The resistance was increased
by 1.8 times (27.8 kX cm). A database will be constructed in the future for related studies to facilitate
an increase in waste recycling value and to maximize the environmental protection benets.
2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
With the social and technological advances in Taiwan, the production of industrial waste (waste liquid crystal displays and waste
scrap tires) is continuously increasing, and environmental considerations of reducing and recycling this waste have emerged. The
construction industry is using recycled materials to produce green
building materials for environmental protection. This study uses
multiple recycled materials at different levels of addition to determine the inuence of various recycled materials on lightweight
concrete and to establish data for future research.
The ecological and environmental benets of alternative supplementary materials include (1) the diversion of non-recycled
waste from landlls for useful applications; (2) a reduction in the
negative effects of producing cement powder, namely the consumption of non-renewable natural resources; (3) the reduction
Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 7 3814526x5202; fax: +886 7 3961321.
E-mail address: wangho@kuas.edu.tw (H.-Y. Wang).
0950-0618/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.06.040

in the use of energy for cement production; and (4) the corresponding reduction of greenhouse gasses [1].
Silt has been a long-standing problem for reservoirs in Taiwan;
therefore, silt needs to be recycled to optimize its benets. The
yield of reservoir silt in Taiwan has currently exceeded 9 million
cubic meters, and the lost service discharge is 20 million cubic meters. If reservoir silt cannot be used efciently, then the increasingly severe reservoir silt must be reduced [2]. In recent years,
with advancements in the optoelectronics industry and in software
and hardware technologies, including the liquid crystal glass
industry, the number of products has increased. The throughput
of Taiwans TFT-LCD panels accounts for 25% of the global market.
As a result, a large amount of waste materials that are difcult to
treat have been produced [3]. Among the types of solid waste, glass
has been widely studied as a substitute for coarse and ne aggregates and even for cements [4]. The densities of glass and concrete
are 2400 kg/m3 and 2500 kg/m3, respectively. The compressive
strength of glass is 880930 MPa, which is greater than that of concrete by 3080 MPa. The heat transfer coefcient of glass is 3 W/

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S.-H. Chen et al. / Construction and Building Materials 48 (2013) 98103

mK, and the elastic modulus of waste glass concrete is higher than
that of standard concrete (40 GPa); furthermore, the price of waste
glass concrete is less than that of standard concrete [57]. Glass
powder has high silica content and is amorphous, which are the
primary requirements for a pozzolanic material. Previous studies
have reported hydration and strength development in glass powder-modied cement pastes [8] and the mechanical and durability
properties of concrete containing glass powder [9,10]. The use of
waste glass particles as ne aggregates would reduce the owability and density of mortar; however, their use would increase its air
content. Except for shrinkage during drying, the mechanical properties were compromised due to micro-cracking within the glass
sand and weakened bonds within the cement paste. However,
the durability was enhanced, especially in terms of the resistance
to chloride ion penetration [11].
An estimated 1 billion tires reach the end of their useful lives
every year [12]. At present, considerable quantities of tires are already stockpiled (whole tire) or landlled (shredded tire), with
3000 million inside the European Union and 1000 million in the
US [13]. By the year 2030, the number of tires from motor vehicles
is expected to reach 1200 million, representing almost 5000 million
tires to be discarded on a regular basis. Tire landlling represents a
serious ecological threat [14]. Recycling end-of-life vehicle tires as
alternative aggregates to produce a new class concrete is an innovative option that has environmental, economic and performance benets. Using shredded and/or crumb rubber particles as a
replacement for concrete aggregate has been widely researched
[15]. Recycled rubber has been researched and developed [16]. The
recycled rubber particles are mixed with asphalt to produce recycled
paving material. Previous studies have found that the fatigue abatement, shock absorption, water and slip resistance and durability of
the pavement with an asphalt layer are improved. The rubber particles with a mesh size of 5 (screen mesh # 4) are cut out using an advanced water jet cutter to replace ne aggregate in Taiwan [17,18].
However, adding an excessive amount of rubber particles can reduce
the workability and compressive strength but increase the extended
exibility of non-primary structures, such as road safety islands and
roadblocks, which were unexpected results. The addition of rubber
particles contributes to improving the overall hydrophobic and
oating properties of cement structures. This improvement can be
helpful for rainwater discharge off of a sloping eld [1012].
It is necessary to determine the optimal mixing proportion of
ne aggregate replacements with consideration of both environmental factors and mechanical properties. In this study, glass is
combined with lightweight aggregates (rubber particles) to produce new green building materials. The mixing proportions are
varied, and the samples are exposed to appropriate environmental
conditions according to the results of various experiments. Such an
approach can reduce environmental pollution by minimizing the
amount of concrete needed for an intended application [1921].
2. Experimental
The ACI 211.2 lightweight concrete mix design specications were used in
determining the mixing proportions. The design strength was set at 210 kgf/cm2.
The cementing material was produced by mixing cement, y ash and slag at ratio
of 7:2:1 by weight. Two types of high recycled content material replacements were
used, waste LCD glass sand and waste tire rubber particles. The glass sand was
mixed with rubber particles in a 1:1 ratio to be used as the replacement for the ne
aggregate (the total amounts replaced are 0% 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70%).
The properties of the fresh and hardened cement and the durability properties were
investigated at curing ages of 1, 7, 28, 56 and 91 days.

Table 1
Physical and chemical property of materials.
Materials

Cement

Physical properties
Specic
3.15
gravity
Chemical contents (%)
SiO2
20.22
Al2O3
4.96
Fe2O3
2.83
CaO
64.51
MgO
2.33
SO3
2.46

K2O
Na2O

TiO2
P2O5

LOI
2.4

Fly
ash

Slag

LCD
glass

Lightweight
aggregate

2.20

2.89

2.45

1.35

48.27
38.23
4.58
2.84

1.16
0.20
1.42

5.38

35.47
13.71
0.33
41.00
6.60

64.28
16.67
9.41
2.70

0.20
0.64
0.01
0.01

59.31
19.97
6.53
1.41
2.02
0.07
0.08
0.01

Table 2
Basic properties of aggregate.
Properties

Coarse
aggregate
Fine aggregate
Lightweight
aggregate
Rubber
LCD glass

Dmax
(mm)

Specic
gravity

Unit weight
(kg/m3)

9.5

2.57

1507

12.5

2.64
1.35

1748
901

4.8
1.2

0.98
2.45

Water
absorption
(%)
1.0
1.3
10.4(24 h)

F.M.

3.09

erties conformed to the ASTM C 311 [23] specications. The slag was produced
by the China Steel Corp., and it was powdered by the China Hi-Ment Corporation.
Its properties conformed to the ASTM C 989 [24] specications. The raw lightweight
aggregate material was produced by dehydration, granulation and sintering of silt
from the Taiwan Shi-Men Reservoir. The lightweight aggregates were separated
by particle size using sieve analysis as per ASTM C 330 [25], thereby reducing the
inuence of water absorption. The waste tire rubber particles were waste tire rubber produced by the Taiwan Water Jet Cutter Company, and they were treated by
water jet cutting to approximately 5 mesh particles (4 mm). The waste LCD glass
sand was obtained by crushing TFC-LCD glass. The physical and chemical properties
of the materials are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
2.2. Experimental mixture
The lightweight aggregate to produce lightweight aggregate concrete, according
to the ACI211.2 [26] lightweight aggregate concrete mix proportion. The mix design
was based on the design strength of 210 kgf/cm2. The cement, y ash and slag were
mixed in a ratio of 7:2:1 to produce the cementing material. The ne aggregate was
added in proportions of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70%. The mix proportions by unit weight are shown in Table 3.
2.3. Experimental variables and methods
The lightweight aggregate was soaked in water for 24 h prior to mixing to absorb water sufciently, to adjust the moisture content and to avoid inuencing
the mixing result. From each test group, samples were prepared with dimensions
of 18  10  20 cm and 375  75  285 mm, and these samples were tested on
days 1, 7, 28, 56 and 91. The fresh slump was tested as per ASTM C 143 [27]. The
unit weight was tested as per ASTM C 567 [28]. The compressive strength was
tested as per ASTM C39 [29] and ASTM C 192 [30]. The ultrasonic pulse velocity
was tested as per ASTM C597 [31]. The durability was measured using a quadruple-type resistance test as per ASTM C876 [32]. The length change was tested as
per ASTM C827 [33].

3. Results and analysis


2.1. Experimental material
The cement used in this study was Type I Portland cement produced by the Taiwan Cement Corp., conforming to the ASTM C 150 [22] Portland cement specications. The cement was purchased as-sealed to guarantee quality. The y ash was
Class F y ash produced by the Taiwan Power Shin-Ta Heat Power Plant. Its prop-

3.1. Slump
Fig. 1 and Table 4 show that the slump of the fresh lightweight
concrete increased with the substitution of recycled green building

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S.-H. Chen et al. / Construction and Building Materials 48 (2013) 98103

Table 3
The mix proportion unit weight of high content of recycling green building materials
lightweight concrete. Unit: kg/m3.
Cement Fly Slag Sand Green building
ash
materials.

Lightweight Water
aggregate

Glass Rubber
sand particles
00
10
20
30
40
50
60
70

211

42

27

940
846
752
658
564
470
376
282

0
44
88
131
175
219
263
306

0
18
35
53
70
88
105
123

444

205

materials (waste LCD glass sand and waste tire rubber particles).
The maximum slump was 23 cm. This result occurred because
the recycled green building materials are mostly smooth and water
resistant and the ne aggregate decreases as the replacement
amount increases; therefore, the absorption of moisture is reduced
and the slump increases. Additionally, there is some segregation.
3.2. Unit weight
Fig. 1 and Table 4 show that the unit weight decreases gradually
as the amount replaced with recycled green building materials increases. The unit weight of the sample produced using the maximum replacement of 70% is 1368 kg/m3 compared to a unit
weight of 1968 kg/m3 for the control group. The difference is
nearly 1.4 times. This difference is because the recycled green
building material is lightweight and its specic gravity is less than
that of normal river sand; therefore, the unit weight decreases
gradually as the replacement volume increases.
3.3. Bleeding
The maximum replacement amount of 70% increase in the
bleeding rate of 20% replacement amount compared with an increase in the bleeding rate of 12% for the control group. The difference is nearly 1.4 times. The bleeding rate has a forward

Replace
amount (%)

Slump (cm)

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70

3.2
5.1
6.5
7.5
8.8
22.0
22.2
23.0

Unit weight
(kg/m3)

Setting time (min)


Initial

Final

1968
1932
1872
1722
1599
1570
1443
1368

245
252
255
257
269
296
304
318

375
420
435
493
507
515
538
565

Fig. 2 and Table 4 show that the setting time increases as the
amount replaced with recycled green building materials increases.
The initial setting times for the sample with the maximum replacement amount (70%) and the control group are 245 min and
318 min, respectively. The nal setting times are 375 min and
565 min, respectively, which is an increase of approximately 1.2
1.5 times. This change is due to the water resistance of recycled
green building materials, which results in excessive bleeding, and
because of the smooth interfaces of the substituted material; both
factors result in a prolonged setting time.
3.5. Compressive strength
As shown in Fig. 3 that the compressive strength of the lightweight concrete increases with age and that the compressive
strength decreases as the replacement amount increases. The compressive strengths on day 28 for the control group and for the sample produced using the maximum replacement of 70% is 38.1 MPa
and 3.5 MPa, respectively. This difference is almost 10.9 times. The
compressive strengths on day 91 for the control group and for the

Unit weight

2000
1800

20

1600

Slump (cm)

1400
15

1200
1000

10

800
600

400
200
0

0
0

10

20

30

12.0
12.0
12.5
13.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
20.0

3.4. Setting time

Slump

25

Bleeding (%)

relationship with the setting time. This relationship is because


the water resistance of recycled green building materials results
in excessive bleeding.

Unit weight (kgf/m3)

Replace
amount (%)

Table 4
The properties of high content of fresh recycling green building materials lightweight
concrete.

40

50

60

70

Replace amount (%)


Fig. 1. The slump and unit weight of high content of recycling green building materials lightweight concrete.

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S.-H. Chen et al. / Construction and Building Materials 48 (2013) 98103

Wleeding
600

Initial setting time


Final setting time

20

500

Wleeding (%)

400
16
300
14
200

12

Setting time (min)

18

100

10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Replace amount (%)


Fig. 2. The setting time and bleeding of high content of recycling green building materials lightweight concrete.

3.6. Ultrasonic pulse velocity


Fig. 4 shows that the ultrasonic pulse velocity decreases gradually as the replacement amount increases. The ultrasonic pulse
velocities on day 28 of the control group and for the sample with
the maximum replacement amount of 70% are 3979 m/s and
2854 m/s, respectively. This difference is almost 1.4 times. The
ultrasonic pulse velocities on day 91 of the control group and for
the sample with the maximum replacement amount of 70% are
4096 m/s and 2965 m/s, respectively. This difference is almost
1.4 times and is because the surplus mixing water derived from
the large replacement amount results in many pores in the

Compressive strength (MPa)

40
Age (Days)

35

91
56
28
7
1

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Replace amount (%)


Fig. 3. The compressive strength of high content of recycling green building
materials lightweight concrete.

4200
Age (Days)

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (m/s)

sample produced using the maximum replacement of 70% is


41.4 MPa and 4.22 MPa, respectively. This difference is almost
9.8 times and is because the smooth surface of the waste LCD glass
results in loose bonding with the cementing material. Additionally,
because the waste tire rubber particles are elastic, they are unable
to bear the weight of the hardened concrete, resulting in a decrease
in the overall strength as the replacement amount increases.

4000

91
56
28
7
1

3800
3600
3400
3200
3000
2800
2600
2400
2200
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Replace amount (%)


Fig. 4. The ultrasonic pulse velocity of high content of recycling green building
materials lightweight concrete.

specimen after solidication. The amount of these pores increases


with the replacement amount, leading to a decrease in the ultrasonic pulse velocity.
3.7. Quadruple-type resistance
As shown in Fig. 5 that the resistance increases with age as well
as with the amount replaced with recycled green building materials. However, the resistance on day 28 was observed to decrease
after the amount replaced reaches 70%. The resistances of the control group and the maximum resistance observed in the sample
with a replacement amount of 70% are 16.5.0 kX cm and
30.3 kX cm, respectively. This difference is almost 1.8 times. The
resistance on day 91 was observed to decrease after the amount replaced reaches 70%. The resistances of the control group and the
maximum resistance observed in the sample with a replacement
amount of 70% are 36.0 kX cm and 63.8 kX cm, respectively. This
difference is almost 1.8 times. Increasing the replacement amount

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S.-H. Chen et al. / Construction and Building Materials 48 (2013) 98103

70
Age (Days)

Resistance (k-cm)

60

91
56
28
7
1

50
40
30

(2)

(3)

20
10

(4)

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Replace amount (%)


Fig. 5. The resistance of high content of recycling green building materials
lightweight concrete.

(5)
0.00

Length change (%)

-0.02

(6)

-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
-0.10

Replace amount (%)


30%
70%
20%
60%
10%
50%
0%
40%

-0.12
-0.14
-0.16
0

14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91

result in slight segregation. The addition of recycled green


building materials can effectively reduce the unit weight of
lightweight concrete; the weight can be reduced by nearly
1.4 times (600 kg/m3) when the replacement value is 70%.
The addition of recycled green building materials prolongs
the setting time by 1.2 to 1.5 times (73 min and 190 min),
and the bleeding rate is increased by approximately
1.4 times (8%).
The addition of recycled green building materials can reduce
the strength of lightweight concrete. The compressive
strength is only 4.22 MPa on day 91 when the replacement
value is 70%, which is only 10% of the strength of the control
group.
The ultrasonic pulse velocity decreases with the addition of
recycled green building materials, which is positively related
to the compressive strength. The ultrasonic pulse velocity on
day 91 is 2965 m/s when the replacement is 70%, which is a
reduction of approximately 1.4 times compared with the
control group (1131 m/s).
The surface resistance increases with the addition of recycled green building materials. The maximum value (70%
replacement) is 1.8 times that of the control group
(27.8 kX cm). This is due to the insulating properties of the
recycled green building materials.
The length change decreases compared with the control
group when the amount replaced with recycled green building materials is between 10 and 70%. The maximum value is
different from the control group by approximately 3.7 times
( 0.115%).

Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of
the Republic of China, Taiwan, for nancially supporting this research under Contract No. NSC 101-2221-E-151-063.

Age (days)
Fig. 6. The length change of high content of recycling green building materials
lightweight concrete.

leads to an increased resistance because of the insulating properties of the recycled green building materials.
3.8. Shrinkage
Fig. 6 shows that the length change decreases with as the
amount replaced with the recycled green building materials increases. The change in the lengths of the samples produced using
1070% replacement decreases compared to the control group.
The changes in the lengths on day 28 of the control group and
the minimum change observed for the 30% replacement samples
are 0.09% and 0.02%, respectively. This difference is approximately 4.5 times. The changes in the lengths on day 91 of the control group and the minimum change observed for the 30%
replacement samples are 0.15% and 0.04%, respectively. This
difference is approximately 3.7 times. This trend may be due to
pores that resulted from the smooth interface and bleeding of
the recycled green building materials. The space that formed during shrinkage reduces the overall length change.
4. Conclusions
(1) The addition of recycled green building materials can
increase the slump of lightweight concrete, but an excessive
addition may result in surplus mixing water that could

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