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Gerunds and infinitives

Cuando el verbo principal va seguido de otro verbo, el segundo puede ser


una forma en -ing o un infinitivo (con to).
She reported seeing an accident. (verbo + forma en -ing)
Inform de haber visto un accidente.
I want to be a journalist. (verbo + infinitivo)
Quiero ser periodista.

La forma negativa se construye aadiendo not delante de la forma en -ing o


el infinitivo.
He hated not being famous.
Odiaba no ser famoso.
She decided not to follow the celebrity.
Decidi no seguir al famoso.
Al aprender un nuevo verbo, es muy til saber si debe ir seguido del infinitivo o de la
forma en -ing.

Verbs + gerund or infinitive


Common verbs followed by a gerund
Estos verbos van seguidos de la forma en -ing:
admit advise avoid begin can't help can't stand can't image can't face complete
consider continu delay detest discuss dislike don't mind enjoy finish forget
give up go on hate imagine involve keep like love mention mind miss
postpone practise prefer recall recommend regret remember report resist risk
start stop suggest try understand
He regretted being late.
Se arrepenta de haber llegado tarde.
She couldn't help feeling upset.
No poda evitar sentirse disgustada.

Common verbs followed by an infinitive


Estos verbos suelen ir seguidos del infinitivo:
afford agree appear arrange ask attempt beg begin choose consent
continu dare decide demand deserve expect fail forget get ready go on
hate hesitate hope intend leam like love manage mean need offer prepare
pretend promise refuse remember seem start stop threaten try wait want
wish
She demanded to be photographed. Pidi que la fotog rafia ra n.
He pretended to be famous. Fingi ser famoso.

Verbs + both gerund and infinitive


Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos de la forma en -ing y del infinitivo sin que su
significado cambie sustancialmente:

begin continu hate like love prefer start


She continued to read the newspaper. = She continued reading the newspaper.
Continu leyendo el peridico.
En algunos casos, el significado del verbo cambia dependiendo de que le siga una
forma en -ing o un infinitivo.
forget + forma en -ing= olvidar una accin pasada
Shell never forget meeting the celebrity. (= She will always remember the time when ehe
met the celebrity.)
Nunca olvidar haber conocido al famoso. (= Nunca olvidar la ocasin en la que conoci
al famoso)
forget + infinitivo = olvidar una accin presente o futura
She forgot to meet the celebrity. (= She did not meet the celebrity because she forgot
about the meeting.)
Olvid reunirse con el famoso. (= No lo vio porque se olvid de la reunin con l.)
go on + forma en -ing= continuar con una accin
He went on reading the news. (= He continued reading the news.) Sigui leyendo las
noticias.
go on + infinitivo = realizar la siguiente accin en un proceso
He went on to become a famous newsreader. (= In the past, he was not a famous
newsreader. but then he became one.)
Se convirti en un famoso presentador de telediarios. (= Antes no era un presentador
famoso, pero acab sindolo.)
regret + forma en -ing= lamentar una accin pasada
I regretted lying. (= I shouldn't have lied.)
Me arrepiento de haber mentido. (= No debera haber mentido.)
regret + infinitivo = lamentar una accin presente o futura
I regret to tell you that he's lying. (= I feel bad about tellingyou that he's lying.)
lamento decirte que est mintiendo. (= Me siento mal al tener que decirte que est
mintiendo.)
remember + forma en -ing= recordar una accin pasada
She remembers buying the magazine. (= She has not forgotten the time when she
bought the magazine.)
Recuerda haber comprado la revista. (= No ha olvidado el momento en el que compr la
revista)
remember + infinitivo = recordar una accin presente o futura
please remember to buy the magazine! (=Do not forget to buy the magazine!)
Por favor, acurdate de comprar la revista! (= No olvides comprarla revista.)
stop + forma en -ing = detener una accin del pasado
They stopped smoking. (= They used to smoke, but they don't any more.)
Dejaron de fumar. (= Antes fumaban, pero ya no.)
stop + infinitivo = detenerse para hacer algo
They stopped to look into the shop window. (= While they were walking, they paused so
that they could Iook into the shop window)
Se retuvieron para mirar el escaparate. (= Mientras iban animando, hicieron una pausa
para ver el escaparate.)

Try + forma en -ing = experimentar con una accin


He tried emaiiing her instead of phoning. (=As an experiment, he emailed her)
Probo a mandarle un email en lugar de llamarla por telfono. (= A modo de experimento,
le mand un email.)
Try+ infinitivo = intentar hacer algo difcil o imposible
He tried to run away from the paparazzi. (= He attempted to get away from the
paparazzi.)
Intent escapar de loe paparazzis. (= Intent huir de ellos.)

More uses of gerunds and infinitives


La forma en -ing tambin se utiliza:
a modo de sustantivo, sobre todo como sujeto de la frase.
One ofher hobbies is writing stories.
Una de sus aficiones es escribir historias.
detrs de diversas preposiciones.
He's tired of working as a photographer.
Est harto de trabajar de fotgrafo.
Detrs de by, la forma en -ing hace referencia a una accin que se realiza para obtener un
resultado.
He finished the article by working all night. (= In order to finish the article, he worked all
night.) Termin el articulo trabajando toda la noche. (= Para terminar el articulo, trabaj
toda la noche.)
El infinitivo tambin se utiliza:
detrs de diversos adjetivos.
I'm happy to help. Estoy encantada de poder ayudar.
detrs de sustantivos como duty, opportunity, permission, right, time, use, etc.
It's time to go. Es hora de marcharse.
para indicar finalidad. To + infinitivo tiene un significado similar al de in order to +
infinitivo.
/ followed him (in order) to find out where he was going. (= I followed him because I
wanted to find out where he was going
Lo segu para saber a dnde Iba. (= Lo segu porque quera descubrir a dnde iba.)
Verb + object + infinitive or base form
Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos de un objeto (+ not) + el infinitivo con to.
advise allow ask beg cause convenience dar enable expect forbid forc
get help hire inspire instruct invite need order permit persuade remind
require teach tell want warn would hate would like would love would prefer
She inspired the journalist to try harder.
Inspir al periodista a esforzarse ms.
He persuaded them not to publish the story.
Los convenci de que no publicaran la historia.
El objeto (+ not) + infinitivo sin to se utiliza detrs de:
make y let.

She made him sit down. Le hizo sentarse.


expresiones como would rather (not), had better (not).
Id rather not be late. Preferira no llegar tarde.
verbos referidos a los sentidos: hear, listen to, see, smell, touch.
He heard her come in. La oy I lega r.
El infinitivo con o sin to se utiliza detrs de help + objeto.
I helped her write her blog. = I helped her to write her blog. Le ayud a redactar su
blog.