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Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technology is a wireless technology that

uses multiple transmitters and receivers to transfer more data at the same time
(Figure 1). MIMO technology takes advantage of a radio-wave phenomenon called
multipath where transmitted information bounces off walls, ceilings, and other
objects, reaching the receiving antenna multiple times via different angles and at
slightly different times.

Figure 1. MIMO technology uses multiple radios to transfer more data at the same
time
MIMO technology leverages multipath behavior by using multiple, smart
transmitters and receivers with an added spatial dimension to dramatically
increase performance and range. MIMO allows multiple antennas to send and
receive multiple spatial streams at the same time.
MIMO makes antennas work smarter by enabling them to combine data streams
arriving from different paths and at different times to effectively increase receiver
signal-capturing power. Smart antennas use spatial diversity technology, which puts
surplus antennas to good use. If there are more antennas than spatial streams, the
additional antennas can add receiver diversity and increase range.
In order to implement MIMO, either the station (mobile device) or the access point
(AP) need to support MIMO. Optimal performance and range can only be obtained
when both the station and the AP support MIMO.
Legacy wireless devices cant take advantage of multipath because they use a
Single Input, Single Output (SISO) technology. Systems that use SISO can only
send or receive a single spatial stream at one time

Hi Chief ,
RF Knowledge is nothing but following :1. When any building is given for IBS one needs to identify if there is actually a need for IBS or the site is
already covered by the outdoor macro sites , for this normally a walktest is done inthe building to see
where the outdoor level is good and where it is bad.
2. Once it is identified that IBS is needed you need to have the floor plans and need to visit the site again
to judge the capacity and identify the equipment location and areas where coverage is most critical .
3. Once the floor plan is there and equipment location is known the RF engineer then prepares the RF
Design and keep note of the following :a) he has to make a design such that Outdoor is never dominant in the building , specially for those areas
where outdoor signal is recieved he has to have the Indoor coverage and this should be atleast 10 dB
higher then the outdoor so that indoor signal is always dominant. This is also called link budget which has
the losses and gain of every element of IBS .
b) He needs to identify antenna location and which type of antenna will be best suited for the site and
that antennas are not obstructed in any way.
c) He needs to calculate the capacity based on human footprint of the site and needs to make sure that
with the capacity that he has calculated there should not be any congestion in the network .
4. With his preliminary design he can do a CW Test to verify his antenna location and EIRP info and
whether antenna EIRP is able to cover as per his design else he has to modify his design or reduce the
number of antennas
5. Once the RF Design is completed he need to make sure that system parameters such as frequency
planning , neighbour definition and handover parameter are correctly defined in the OSS .
6. Once a design is completed the implementation team takes over and once the implementation is
finished the site is commissioned and needs to be optimized.
7. Optimization is nothing but to verify that RF signals are being radiated from the Antennas as per
calculation , The Antennas are not giving more powers then the proposed link budget , Frequency
planning is correct and parameters are correctly defined and there are no issues such as congestion , call
drops at the site .
PIM testing is nothing but Passive intermodulation testing . Now a days this is also demanded by vendors
from their contractor .PIM testing is measuring the level of inter-modulation [interference] created within
the Inbuilding system . Note VSWR testing is measuring the frequency response of the Device Under Test
(DUT) in terms of return loss and insertion loss and is not PIM Test . An antenna system can pass
VSWR/Sweep testing and fail PIM testing, and vice-versa.
PIM occurs/is generated when two or more signals are passed through a passive device. Examples of
passive devices are antennas, coax, jumpers, connectors, and diplexers. If there is a manufacturing
defect, workmanship issue, or an issue with a connection, say in the mating of a jumper and a hard-line
connector (i.e., the mating of the center pin of a connector and its receptor), a third signal is created. That
third signal is PIM and is what the test set measures. PIM is only bad when it is louder than the signal
you want to recieve. You can have PIM and while ever it is weaker than the rx sensitivity it will not affect
service.

PIM testing is dynamic! It means every component, connector, and connections in the DUT must be
tapped and/or wiggled. If you are not tapping, you are not testing
The PIM Test Process
Typically, the technician will start tapping at the antenna and work his way back to the main feed line
connector. Then the same process is completed from the bottom main feed line connector back to the
carriers radio. During all the tapping and moving, the PIM tech monitors the PIM levels. If PIM levels
remain under the specified threshold, results are recorded and the system passes. If PIM levels exceed
acceptable levels, the tech will work with the crew to isolate the bad component(s).
PIM is broken down it to two parts
transmitters - 2x 20 watt signals are injected into an antenna system.
recieve - based to the Tx frequencies it is easy to calculate the PIM frequencies. we tend to look for the
3rd order on the low side as it is the one that interferes with our cell systems.
take 870MHz and 894Mhz these are 24MHz apart. if you subtract 24 from 870 this equals 846Mhz which
is in the Rx band. If this condition exists the 3rd order PIM will interfere with the performance of the BTS if
the PIM signal is powerful enough.
The engineering equation goes like this:
2xF1 +/- F2 = 3rd order
3x F1+/- 2F2 = 5th order and so on...
Consider that the Rx sensitivity of the BTS is generally around -105dBm, this means that any signal
stronger than -105dBm is usable by the BTS. This is the level that the BTS will hand off or terminate the
call/connection.
If PIM falls into the rx band, the BTS goes deaf and coverage area receeds. If your PIM level is -90dBm
then the cell site needs to hand calls off early in terms of distance. This clogs the cells around the high
PIM cell as they see more traffic than they should.
If it is a data connection, the speed will slow dramatically until the connection is lost.
Ultimately, the user experience is not good.
PIM testing helps to ensure the installation is of the highest quality. Here are a few tips to improve the PIM
test results and testing experience.

Use connector tools.

Over or under torque on connectors affect PIM levels: Use a torque wrench.

Make sure connectors are clean. Use alcohol swabs and canned air (like those used to clean
computer keyboards) to remove dirt, metal shavings, and other contaminates prior to sealing the
connector.

Make sure connectors are clean. Not a typo, it is that important. Clean connectors can
dramatically improve PIM levels.

Pay attention to detail. In the field, there appears to be a direct correlation between time and
attention to detail during the installation and the amount of time, energy, and money spent PIM
testing and troubleshooting. A fast and furious installation usually results in slow, tedious, PIM
testing.

Experience and training matters: whether through on-the-job training or manufacturers


certification courses. Generally, the more experience and training crews have, the better the PIM
testing goes. The quality of the installation is better and the lower PIM levels prove it.

Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technology is a wireless technology that uses multiple transmitters
and receivers to transfer more data at the same time . MIMO technology takes advantage of a radio-wave
phenomenon called multipath where transmitted information bounces off walls, ceilings, and other
objects, reaching the receiving antenna multiple times via different angles and at slightly different times.
MIMO technology uses multiple radios to transfer more data at the same time
MIMO technology leverages multipath behavior by using multiple, smart transmitters and receivers with
an added spatial dimension to dramatically increase performance and range. MIMO allows multiple
antennas to send and receive multiple spatial streams at the same time.
MIMO makes antennas work smarter by enabling them to combine data streams arriving from different
paths and at different times to effectively increase receiver signal-capturing power. Smart antennas use
spatial diversity technology, which puts surplus antennas to good use. If there are more antennas than
spatial streams, the additional antennas can add receiver diversity and increase range.
In order to implement MIMO, either the station (mobile device) or the access point (AP) need to support
MIMO. Optimal performance and range can only be obtained when both the station and the AP support
MIMO.
The smart antenna technology Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO ) is considered essential for LTE to
maximize system capacity and provide high data rates. Both 2 transmitter x2receiver designs and 4
transmitter x 4 receiver designs are being considered.
For MIMO to provide maximum gain, the antennas should in theory be spaced at least a half wavelength
apart.