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1/5/2016

RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDriveMATLAB&Simulink

RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDrive
Introduction
Robotsarecomplexelectromechanicalsystemswhereseveralelectricdrivesareusedtocontrolthemovementofarticulatedstructures.Thedesignofaxiscontrol
systemsforrobotscanbegreatlyfacilitatedbytheElectricDriveslibrary,whichcanmodelcompleteaxesincludingmotordrives,speedreducers,mechanical
modelofthearm,andcontrollersinthesamediagram.
ThiscasestudypresentsthemodelingandsimulationofasixdegreesoffreedomrobotmanipulatorusingElectricDriveslibraryblocksincombinationwith
Simulink blocks.ThetwomainjointsmodelsarebuiltusingbrushlessDCmotordrivesthatareconnectedtotherestofthemanipulatorthroughspeedreducers(a
modelincludedintheElectricDriveslibrary).Thecontrolsystem,whichconsistsessentiallyoftwopositioncontrolloops,isbuiltwithSimulinkblocks.Theinner
speedandtorquecontrolloopsarealreadyincludedinthedrivemodel.TherestofthemanipulatoranditsloadarerepresentedbytwoSimulinknonlinearmodels,
oneforeachmotordrive.
DetailedmodelingispresentedtodemonstratetheversatilityoftheElectricDriveslibrary.Theoperationofthejointsusingtypicaltrajectoriesissimulatedand
resultsarepresented.

DescriptionoftheRobotManipulator
Therobotconsideredinthisexampleisageneralpurposesixdegreesoffreedomrobotmanipulator(GMFS360)ofparallelogramlinkagetype.SixDegreesof
FreedomRobotManipulatorshowsthestructureoftherobotanditsworkspace.Therobothassixaxes.Thethreeaxes(1,2,3)showninthefigureareforarm
positioningandtheothers(,,)arefororientationoftheendeffector.Inthehorizontalplane,therobotcancovera300degreearc(1=150to1=150).
Therobot'saxesaredrivenbybrushlessDCmotorsthataremodeledbypermanentmagnetsynchronousmotorsfedbyPWMinverters(AC6drivemodel).Speed
reducersofbelttypeandgearboxareusedtotransmittorquefromthemotorstothejoints.
SixDegreesofFreedomRobotManipulator

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RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDriveMATLAB&Simulink

PositionControlSystemsforJoints1and2
Wewillconsiderinparticularthetwofirstjoints,whichdrivetheentirerobotanditsload.Thefirstaxisusesa2kWbrushlessDCmotoranda1:130speedreducer.
Thesecondaxisusesa1kWbrushlessDCmotoranda1:100speedreducer.BrushlessDCMotorDriveforPositionControlofRobotJointshowsasimplified
diagramofthepositioncontrolsystemforonerobotlink.
Thecontrolsystemconsistsofthreecontrolloopsconnectedinacascadeconfiguration:anouterpositionloopincludesaninnerspeedcontrolloopandan
innermostcurrentcontrolloop.ThePMsynchronousmotorisfedbyathreephasePWMinverteroperatingincurrentcontrolledmode.Fieldorientationschemeis
usedtodecouplethevariablessothatfluxandtorquecanbeseparatelycontrolledbystatordirectaxiscurrentidsandquadratureaxiscurrentiqs,respectively.The
quadratureaxiscurrentreferenceiqs*(whichrepresentsthetorquecommand)isprovidedbythespeedcontrolloop.Thedirectaxiscurrentreferenceids*iskept
equalto0.
Aspeed/positionsensorisusedtoprovidetheinformationrequiredbythespeedandpositioncontrolloops.Therotorpositionisalsorequiredforcoordinates
conversion(dqtoabc).
Eachmotordrivestherestoftherobotstructure,includingtheotherlinksandtheload,throughaspeedreducer.
BrushlessDCMotorDriveforPositionControlofRobotJoint

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RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDriveMATLAB&Simulink

ModelingtheRobotPositionControlSystems
Theentiredrivesystemfortherobot'stwofirstjoints,includingmotordrives,speedreducers,equivalentloads,andcontrollerscanbemodeledinthesamediagram
usingblocksfromtheElectricDriveslibraryandSimulinklibraries,asshowninDiagramRepresentingtheRobot'sMainAxesDriveSystems.
DiagramRepresentingtheRobot'sMainAxesDriveSystems

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RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDriveMATLAB&Simulink

ThebrushlessDCmotordrivesarerepresentedbytwoAC6(PMSynchronousMotorDrive)blocksfromtheElectricDriveslibrary.Thisblockmodelsacomplete
brushlessDCmotordriveincludingapermanentmagnetsynchronousmotor(PMSM),anIGBTinverter,speedcontroller,andcurrentcontroller.TheAC6inputsare
thespeedcommandsandtheoutputsarethemotorspeed,whicharefedtotheinputsofthespeedreducers.
ThespeedreducersaremodeledbytwoSpeedReducerblocksfromtheElectricDriveslibrary.Theinputsfortheseblocksarethemotors'speeds,andtheoutputs
arethetorquesfromthelowspeedsides,whichareappliedtotherobotstructuremodel.Thespeedreducersarecharacterizedbytheirratioandinertiaandthe
stiffnessanddampingofinputandoutputshafts.

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RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDriveMATLAB&Simulink

Thespeedreducers'outputshaftsareconnectedtotheT1andT2inputsofaRobotblockthatrepresentstherestoftherobotstructure.Thisblockcalculatesthe
effectivetorquereflectedtoeachjoint.Foreachjoint(numberedi),wecanconsidergloballytheotherlinkseffectsasasingleloadreflectingtothejointatorque
thatiscomposedofthreeterms

TL = Ji

d 2

i
2
dt

+ Ci

d
dt

+ Gi i

(46)

whereiisjointangularposition,J iisinertia,CiiscentrifugalandCorioliscoefficient,andGiisgravitationalcoefficient.
TheRobotmodelisbuiltwithSimulinkblocks.

Inthisdiagram,theparametersJ 1,C1,G1,J 2,C2,andG2arefunctionsofjointpositions.Implementthembyusingpolynomialsorlookuptables.


Thejointpositions1and2arecontrolledbyoutercontrolloopsthatforce1and2tofollowthereferencesimposedbythetrajectoriesofthemanipulator.
Variousalgorithmscanbeusedforthesecontrolloops.Themostpopularonesareproportionalderivative,computedtorque,andadaptive.Inthisexample,
proportionalderivativecontrollersareimplementedforbothaxes.

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RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDriveMATLAB&Simulink

CubicpolynomialtesttrajectoriesforrobotmotionaregeneratedbytheTrajectoryGeneratorblock.

Thetesttrajectoriesconsistofamovementfromposition6toposition3intheworkspace(2varyingfrom/4to/4)whilerotatingaroundaxis1fromone
positiontoanother(1varyingfrom/6to/6).Theparameterstobespecifiedforthisblockareinitialposition[1ini,2ini],finalposition[1fin,2fin],andmove
time.Thefollowingfigureshowsthechangesofrobotstructureduringtheprogrammedmovement.

Thevariationofinertiaduetostructurechangesisreflectedtoaxis1asaninertiavaryingasafunctionof2(from215kgm2to340kgm2passingbyaminimumof
170kgm2).Theinertiareflectedtoaxis2isaconstant(J 2=50kgm2).TheseinertiavariationsarerepresentedbynonlinearfunctionsimplementedintheRobot
block.

TrackingPerformanceoftheMotorDrives
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RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDriveMATLAB&Simulink

Thetesttrajectoriesdescribedaboveconstituteoneofthemostdemandingtrajectoriesforthemotordriveofthefirstandsecondjoints.Theyareusedhereto
evaluatethetrackingperformanceofthetwoelectricdrivesystems.
Inthesimulation,themanipulatorisprogrammedtorotatefrom30to30during1.5seconds,andatthesametimethearmismovedfromthebackposition(2=
45)tothemostadvancedposition(2=45).Thesimulationisrunusingatimestepof1s.
Theresponsesofthemanipulatorandthemotordrives1and2aredisplayedonthreescopesconnectedtotheoutputvariablesoftheAC6andRobotblocks.The
resultsareshowninResponsesoftheManipulator'sJoints1and2DuringaTestTrajectory,ResponsesoftheBrushlessDCMotorDriveofAxisNo.1DuringTest
Trajectory,andResponsesoftheBrushlessDCMotorDriveofAxisNo.2DuringTestTrajectory.
ResponsesoftheManipulator'sJoints1and2DuringaTestTrajectory

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RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDriveMATLAB&Simulink

Duringthemovement,thejointpositions1and2followtheimposedcubictrajectorieswithlowtrackingerror.Theshapesofthespeedsandaccelerationsarein
verygoodagreementwiththeoreticalpredictions.Thespeedvariationsareseconddegreecurvesandtheaccelerationsarealmostlinearcurves.
ResponsesoftheBrushlessDCMotorDriveofAxisNo.1DuringTestTrajectory

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RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDriveMATLAB&Simulink

ResponsesoftheBrushlessDCMotorDriveofAxisNo.2DuringTestTrajectory

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ThebrushlessDCmotordrivesbehaveverywellduringthetesttrajectories.TheDCbusvoltagesaremaintainedatrelativelyconstantlevelsduringthe
decelerationofthemotors.Thedevelopedtorquesareproportionaltothemotorcurrents'amplitudes.Thisdemonstratesthegoodoperationofthefieldoriented
controlalgorithms.Ascanbenotedonthewaveforms,themotorspeedstracktheirreferenceprofileswithverysmallerrors.
References
[1]Miller,T.J.E.,BrushlessPermanentMagnetandReluctanceMotorDrives,ClarendonPress,Oxford,1989.
[2]Spong,M.W.,andVidyasagar,M.,RobotDynamicsandControl,JohnWiley&Sons,NewYork,1989.

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RobotAxisControlUsingBrushlessDCMotorDriveMATLAB&Simulink

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