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Buckling
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Inscience,bucklingisamathematicalinstability,leadingtoafailuremode.
Theoretically,bucklingiscausedbyabifurcationinthesolutiontotheequationsofstaticequilibrium.Atacertain
stageunderanincreasingload,furtherloadisabletobesustainedinoneoftwostatesofequilibrium:apurely
compressedstate(withnolateraldeviation)oralaterallydeformedstate.
Bucklingischaracterizedbyasuddensidewaysfailureofastructuralmembersubjectedtohighcompressive
stress,wherethecompressivestressatthepointoffailureislessthantheultimatecompressivestressthatthe
materialiscapableofwithstanding.Mathematicalanalysisofbucklingoftenmakesuseofan"artificial"axialload
eccentricitythatintroducesasecondarybendingmomentthatisnotapartoftheprimaryappliedforcesbeing
studied.Asanappliedloadisincreasedonamember,suchasacolumn,itwillultimatelybecomelargeenoughto
causethemembertobecomeunstableandissaidtohavebuckled.Furtherloadwillcausesignificantand
somewhatunpredictabledeformations,possiblyleadingtocompletelossofthemember'sloadcarryingcapacity.If
thedeformationsthatfollowbucklingarenotcatastrophicthememberwillcontinuetocarrytheloadthatcausedit
tobuckle.Ifthebuckledmemberispartofalargerassemblageofcomponentssuchasabuilding,anyloadapplied
tothestructurebeyondthatwhichcausedthemembertobucklewillberedistributedwithinthestructure.

Contents
1 Columns
1.1 Selfbuckling
2 Bucklingundertensiledeadloading
3 Constraints,curvatureandmultiplebuckling
4 Flutterinstability
5 Variousformsofbuckling
6 Bicyclewheels
7 Surfacematerials
8 Cause
9 Accidents
10 Energymethod
11 Flexuraltorsionalbuckling
12 Lateraltorsionalbuckling
12.1 Themodificationfactor(Cb)
13 Plasticbuckling
14 Dynamicbuckling
15 Bucklingofthincylindricalshellssubjecttoaxialloads
16 Bucklingofpipesandpressurevesselssubjecttoexternaloverpressure
17 Seealso
18 References
19 Furtherreading
20 Externallinks

Columns
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Theratiooftheeffectivelengthofacolumntotheleastradiusofgyration
ofitscrosssectioniscalledtheslendernessratio(sometimesexpressed
withtheGreekletterlambda,).Thisratioaffordsameansofclassifying
columns.Slendernessratioisimportantfordesignconsiderations.Allthe
followingareapproximatevaluesusedforconvenience.

Acolumnunderaconcentricaxial
loadexhibitingthecharacteristic
deformationofbuckling

Theeccentricityoftheaxialforce
resultsinabendingmomentactingon
thebeamelement.

Ashortsteelcolumnisonewhoseslendernessratiodoesnotexceed50an
intermediatelengthsteelcolumnhasaslendernessratiorangingfromabout
50to200,andaredominatedbythestrengthlimitofthematerial,whilea
longsteelcolumnmaybeassumedtohaveaslendernessratiogreaterthan
200anditsbehaviorisdominatedbythemodulusofelasticityofthe
material.
Ashortconcretecolumnisonehavingaratioofunsupportedlengthtoleast
dimensionofthecrosssectionequaltoorlessthan10.Iftheratioisgreater
than10,itisconsideredalongcolumn(sometimesreferredtoasaslender
column).
Timbercolumnsmaybeclassifiedasshortcolumnsiftheratioofthe
lengthtoleastdimensionofthecrosssectionisequaltoorlessthan10.
Thedividinglinebetweenintermediateandlongtimbercolumnscannotbe
readilyevaluated.Onewayofdefiningthelowerlimitoflongtimber
columnswouldbetosetitasthesmallestvalueoftheratiooflengthto
leastcrosssectionalareathatwouldjustexceedacertainconstantKofthe
material.SinceKdependsonthemodulusofelasticityandtheallowable
compressivestressparalleltothegrain,itcanbeseenthatthisarbitrary
limitwouldvarywiththespeciesofthetimber.ThevalueofKisgivenin
moststructuralhandbooks.

Iftheloadonacolumnisappliedthroughthecenterofgravity(centroid)of
itscrosssection,itiscalledanaxialload.Aloadatanyotherpointinthe
crosssectionisknownasaneccentricload.Ashortcolumnundertheactionofanaxialloadwillfailbydirect
compressionbeforeitbuckles,butalongcolumnloadedinthesamemannerwillfailbybuckling(bending),the
bucklingeffectbeingsolargethattheeffectoftheaxialloadmaybeneglected.Theintermediatelengthcolumn
willfailbyacombinationofdirectcompressivestressandbending.
In1757,mathematicianLeonhardEulerderivedaformulathatgivesthemaximumaxialloadthatalong,slender,
idealcolumncancarrywithoutbuckling.Anidealcolumnisonethatisperfectlystraight,homogeneous,andfree
frominitialstress.Themaximumload,sometimescalledthecriticalload,causesthecolumntobeinastateof
unstableequilibriumthatis,theintroductionoftheslightestlateralforcewillcausethecolumntofailbybuckling.
TheformuladerivedbyEulerforcolumnswithnoconsiderationforlateralforcesisgivenbelow.However,if
lateralforcesaretakenintoconsiderationthevalueofcriticalloadremainsapproximatelythesame.

where
=maximumorcriticalforce(verticalloadoncolumn),
=modulusofelasticity,
=areamomentofinertiaofthecrosssectionoftherod,
=unsupportedlengthofcolumn,
=columneffectivelengthfactor,whosevaluedependsontheconditionsofendsupportofthecolumn,as
follows.
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Forbothendspinned(hinged,freetorotate), =1.0.
Forbothendsfixed, =0.50.
Foroneendfixedandtheotherendpinned, 0.699.
Foroneendfixedandtheotherendfreetomovelaterally, =2.0.
istheeffectivelengthofthecolumn.
Togetthemathematicaldemonstrationread:Euler'scriticalload
Examinationofthisformularevealsthefollowinginterestingfactswithregardtotheloadbearingabilityof
slendercolumns.
1.Elasticityandnotthecompressivestrengthofthematerialsofthecolumndeterminesthecriticalload.
2.Thecriticalloadisdirectlyproportionaltothesecondmomentofareaofthecrosssection.
3.Theboundaryconditionshaveaconsiderableeffectonthecriticalloadofslendercolumns.Theboundary
conditionsdeterminethemodeofbendingandthedistancebetweeninflectionpointsonthedeflected
column.Theinflectionpointsinthedeflectionshapeofthecolumnarethepointsatwhichthecurvatureof
thecolumnchangesignandarealsothepointsatwhichtheinternalbendingmomentsarezero.Thecloser
togethertheinflectionpointsare,thehighertheresultingcapacityofthecolumn.
Thestrengthofacolumnmaythereforebeincreasedbydistributingthe
materialsoastoincreasethemomentofinertia.Thiscanbedonewithout
increasingtheweightofthecolumnbydistributingthematerialasfarfrom
theprincipalaxisofthecrosssectionaspossible,whilekeepingthe
materialthickenoughtopreventlocalbuckling.Thisbearsoutthewell
knownfactthatatubularsectionismuchmoreefficientthanasolidsection
forcolumnservice.

Ademonstrationmodelillustrating
thedifferent"Euler"bucklingmodes.
Themodelshowshowtheboundary
conditionsaffectthecriticalloadofa
slendercolumn.Noticethatthe
columnsareidentical,apartfromthe
boundaryconditions.

Anotherbitofinformationthatmaybegleanedfromthisequationisthe
effectoflengthoncriticalload.Foragivensizecolumn,doublingthe
unsupportedlengthquarterstheallowableload.Therestraintofferedbythe
endconnectionsofacolumnalsoaffectsthecriticalload.Iftheconnections
areperfectlyrigid,thecriticalloadwillbefourtimesthatforasimilar
columnwherethereisnoresistancetorotation(inwhichcasethecolumnis
idealizedashavinghingesattheends).

Sincetheradiusofgyrationisdefinedasthesquarerootoftheratioofthe
column'smomentofinertiaaboutanaxistocrosssectionalarea,theabove
formulamayberearrangedasfollows.UsingtheEulerformulaforhingedends,andsubstitutingAr2forI,the
followingformularesults.

where

istheallowablestressofthecolumn,and

istheslendernessratio.

Sincestructuralcolumnsarecommonlyofintermediatelength,anditisimpossibletoobtainanidealcolumn,the
Eulerformulaonitsownhaslittlepracticalapplicationforordinarydesign.Issuesthatcausedeviationfromthe
pureEulercolumnbehaviourincludeimperfectionsingeometryincombinationwithplasticity/nonlinearstress
strainbehaviourofthecolumn'smaterial.Consequently,anumberofempiricalcolumnformulaehavebeen
developedtoagreewithtestdata,allofwhichembodytheslendernessratio.Fordesign,appropriatesafetyfactors
areintroducedintotheseformulae.OnesuchformulaisthePerryRobertsonformulawhichestimatesthecritical
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bucklingloadbasedonaninitial(small)curvature.TheRankineGordonformula(NamedforWilliamJohn
MacquornRankineandPerryHugesworthGordon(18991966))isalsobasedonexperimentalresultsand
suggeststhatacolumnwillbuckleataloadFmaxgivenby:

whereFeistheEulermaximumloadandFcisthemaximumcompressiveload.Thisformulatypicallyproducesa
conservativeestimateofFmax.

Selfbuckling
Togetthemathematicaldemonstrationread:Selfbuckling
Afreestanding,verticalcolumn,withdensity ,Young'smodulus ,andcrosssectionalarea ,willbuckle
underitsownweightifitsheightexceedsacertaincriticalvalue:[1][2][3]

wheregistheaccelerationduetogravity,Iisthesecondmomentofareaofthebeamcrosssection,andBisthe
firstzerooftheBesselfunctionofthefirstkindoforder1/3,whichisequalto1.86635086...

Bucklingundertensiledeadloading
Usuallybucklingandinstabilityareassociatedtocompression,butrecently
Zaccaria,Bigoni,NoselliandMisseroni(2011)[4]haveshownthatbuckling
andinstabilitycanalsooccurinelasticstructuressubjecttodeadtensile
load.AnexampleofasingledegreeoffreedomstructureisshowninFig.
2,wherethecriticalloadisalsoindicated.Anotherexampleinvolving
flexureofastructuremadeupofbeamelementsgovernedbytheequation
Fig.2:Elasticbeamsystemshowing
oftheEuler'selasticaisshowninFig.3.Inbothcases,thereareno
bucklingundertensiledeadloading.
elementssubjecttocompression.Theinstabilityandbucklingintensionare
relatedtothepresenceoftheslider,thejunctionbetweenthetworods,
allowingonlyrelativeslidingbetweentheconnectedpieces.Watchamovie(http://www.ing.unitn.it/~bigoni/tensil
e_buckling.html)formoredetails.

Constraints,curvatureandmultiplebuckling
Bucklingofanelasticstructurestronglydependsonthecurvatureoftheconstraintsagainstwhichtheendsofthe
structureareprescribedtomove(seeBigoni,Misseroni,NoselliandZaccaria,2012[5]).Infact,evenasingle
degreeoffreedomsystem(seeFig.3)mayexhibitatensile(oracompressive)bucklingloadasrelatedtothefact
thatoneendhastomovealongthecircularprofilelabeled'Ct'(labelled'Cc').
Thetwocircularprofilescanbearrangedina'S'shapedprofile,asshowninFig.4inthatcaseadiscontinuityof
theconstraint'scurvatureisintroduced,leadingtomultiplebifurcations.Notethatthesingledegreeoffreedom
structureshowninFig.4hastwobucklingloads(onetensileandonecompressive).Watchamovie(http://www.in
g.unitn.it/~bigoni/multiple_bifurcations.html)formoredetails.
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Flutterinstability
Structuressubjecttoafollower(nonconservative)loadmaysuffer
instabilitieswhicharenotofthebucklingtypeandthereforearenot
detectablewithastaticapproach.[6]Forinstance,thesocalled'Ziegler
column'isshowninFig.5.
Thistwodegreeoffreedomsystemdoesnotdisplayaquasistatic
buckling,butbecomesdynamicallyunstable.Toseethis,wenotethatthe
equationsofmotionare

Fig.3:Aonedegreeoffreedom
structureexhibitingatensile
(compressive)bucklingloadas
relatedtothefactthattherightend
hastomovealongthecircularprofile
labeled'Ct'(labelled'Cc').

Fig.4:Aonedegreeoffreedom
structurewitha'S'shapedbicircular
profileexhibitingmultiple
bifurcations(bothtensileand
compressive).

Fig.5:Asketchofthe'Ziegler
column',atwodegreeoffreedom
systemsubjecttoafollowerload(the
forcePremainsalwaysparalleltothe
rodBC),exhibitingflutterand
divergenceinstability.Thetworods,
oflinearmassdensity,arerigidand
connectedthroughtworotational
springsofstiffnessk1andk2.

andtheirlinearizedversionis

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Assumingatimeharmonicsolutionintheform

wefindthecriticalloadsforflutter(

where

and

)anddivergence(

),

Flutterinstabilitycorrespondstoavibrationalmotionofincreasing
amplitudeandisshowninFig.6(upperpart)togetherwiththedivergence
instability(lowerpart)consistinginanexponentialgrowth.
Recently,BigoniandNoselli(2011)[7]haveexperimentallyshownthat
flutteranddivergenceinstabilitiescanbedirectlyrelatedtodryfriction,
watchthemovie(http://www.ing.unitn.it/~bigoni/flutter.html)formore
details.

Variousformsofbuckling
Bucklingisastatewhichdefinesapointwhereanequilibrium
configurationbecomesunstableunderaparametricchangeofloadandcan
manifestitselfinseveraldifferentphenomena.Allcanbeclassifiedas
formsofbifurcation.

Fig.6:Asequenceofdeformed
shapesatconsecutivetimesintervals
ofthestructuresketchedinFig.5and
exhibitingflutter(upperpart)and
divergence(lowerpart)instability.

Therearefourbasicformsofbifurcationassociatedwithlossofstructural
stabilityorbucklinginthecaseofstructureswithasingledegreeof
freedom.Thesecomprisetwotypesofpitchforkbifurcation,onesaddlenodebifurcation(oftenreferredtoasa
limitpoint)andonetranscriticalbifurcation.Thepitchforkbifurcationsarethemostcommonlystudiedformsand
includethebucklingofcolumnsandstruts,sometimesknownasEulerbucklingthebucklingofplates,sometimes
knownaslocalbuckling,whichiswellknowntoberelativelysafe(botharesupercriticalphenomena)andthe
bucklingofshells,whichiswellknowntobeahighlydangerous(subcriticalphenomenon).[8]Usingtheconcept
ofpotentialenergy,equilibriumisdefinedasastationarypointwithrespecttothedegree(s)offreedomofthe
structure.Wecanthendeterminewhethertheequilibriumisstable,ifthestationarypointisalocalminimumor
unstable,ifitisamaximum,pointofinflectionorsaddlepoint(formultipledegreeoffreedomstructuresonly)
seeanimationsbelow.
Archetypalrigidlinkmodelswithasingledegreeoffreedom(SDOF)usedtodemonstratebasicbuckling
phenomena(seebifurcationdiagramsbelow).Allcasesstartatthepositioncorrespondingtoq=0.

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Trusswithspringtie(model
shallowtiedarch).

BucklingWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Linkstrutwithrotational
spring.

Linkstrutwithtransverse
translationalspring.

Asymmetricallysupported
linkstrut.
Animationsofthevariationoftotalpotentialenergy(red)forvariousloadvalues,P(black),ingeneric
structuralsystemswiththeindicatedbifurcationorbucklingbehaviour.

Twosaddlenode
bifurcations(limitpoints).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckling

Supercriticalpitchfork
bifurcation(stable
symmetricbucklingpoint).

Subcriticalpitchfork
bifurcation(unstable
symmetricbucklingpoint).

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Transcriticalbifurcation
(asymmetricbuckling
point).

InEulerbuckling,[9][10]theappliedloadisincreasedbyasmallamountbeyondthecriticalload,thestructure
deformsintoabuckledconfigurationwhichisadjacenttotheoriginalconfiguration.Forexample,theEuler
columnpicturedwillstarttobowwhenloadedslightlyaboveitscriticalload,butwillnotsuddenlycollapse.

Instructuresexperiencinglimitpointinstability,iftheloadisincreasedinfinitesimallybeyondthecriticalload,the
structureundergoesalargedeformationintoadifferentstableconfigurationwhichisnotadjacenttotheoriginal
configuration.Anexampleofthistypeofbucklingisatoggleframe(pictured)which'snaps'intoitsbuckled
configuration.

Bicyclewheels
Aconventionalbicyclewheelconsistsofathinrimkeptunderhighcompressivestressbythe(roughlynormal)
inwardpullofalargenumberofspokes.Itcanbeconsideredasaloadedcolumnthathasbeenbentintoacircle.If
spoketensionisincreasedbeyondasafelevel,thewheelspontaneouslyfailsintoacharacteristicsaddleshape

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(sometimescalleda"taco"ora"pringle")likeathreedimensionalEulercolumn.Thisisnormallyapurelyelastic
deformationandtherimwillresumeitsproperplaneshapeifspoketensionisreducedslightly.

Surfacematerials
Bucklingisalsoafailuremodeinpavementmaterials,primarilywith
concrete,sinceasphaltismoreflexible.Radiantheatfromthesunis
absorbedintheroadsurface,causingittoexpand,forcingadjacentpieces
topushagainsteachother.Ifthestressisgreatenough,thepavementcan
liftupandcrackwithoutwarning.Goingoverabuckledsectioncanbe
veryjarringtoautomobiledrivers,describedasrunningoveraspeedhump
athighwayspeeds.
Similarly,railtracksalsoexpandwhenheated,andcanfailbybuckling,a
phenomenoncalledsunkink.Itismorecommonforrailstomove
laterally,oftenpullingtheunderlainrailroadties(sleepers)along.

RailwaytracksintheNetherlands
affectedbySunkink.

Moreonsunkink

Cause
Thebucklingforceinthetrackduetowarmingupisafunction
oftheriseintemperatureonlyandisindependentofthetrack
length:
.
Derivationofbucklingforcefunction:
Thelinearthermalexpansionduetoheatingofthetrackis
foundusing

where
L=thermalexpansionoftherail
L=lengthoftherail/track
=coefficientofthermalexpansion
T=increaseintemperature
AccordingtoHooke'slawtheextensionduetoaforce(inthe
rail)is

where
L=extensionoftherail/track
F=theforceextendingarod,heretheinducedforcein
therail

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therail
E=modulusofelasticityofrailmaterial(steel)
A=crosssectionofrail
L=lengthofrail
Puttingthesetogethergives

or

Accidents
Theseaccidentsweredeemedtobesunkinkrelated(more
informationavailableatListofrailaccidents(20002009)):
April18,2002AmtrakAutoTrainderailment,offCSX
tracks,nearCrescentCity,Florida.
July29,2002AmtrakCapitolLimitedderails,offCSX
tracks,nearKensington,Maryland.
July8,2010CSXtrainderailsofftracksinWaxhaw,
NorthCarolina.
July6,2012WMATAMetrorailtrainderailsofftracks
nearHyattsville,Maryland.[11]

Energymethod
OftenitisverydifficulttodeterminetheexactbucklingloadincomplexstructuresusingtheEulerformula,dueto
thedifficultyindecidingtheconstantK.Therefore,maximumbucklingloadoftenisapproximatedusingenergy
conservation.Thiswayofcalculatingthemaximumbucklingloadisoftenreferredtoastheenergymethodin
structuralanalysis.
Thefirststepinthismethodistosuggestadisplacementfunction.Thisfunctionmustsatisfythemostimportant
boundaryconditions,suchasdisplacementandrotation.Themoreaccuratethedisplacementfunction,themore
accuratetheresult.
Inthismethod,therearetwoequationsused(forsmalldeformations)toapproximatethe"inner"energy(the
potentialenergystoredinelasticdeformationofthestructure)and"outer"energy(theworkdoneonthesystemby
externalforces).

where
isthedisplacementfunctionandthesubscripts and
displacement.Energyconservationyields:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckling

refertothefirstandsecondderivativesofthe

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Flexuraltorsionalbuckling
Occursincompressionmembersonlyanditcanbedescribedasacombinationofbendingandtwistingofa
member.Anditmustbeconsideredfordesignpurposes,sincetheshapeandcrosssectionsareverycritical.This
mostlyoccursinchannels,structuraltees,doubleangleshapes,andequallegsingleangles.

Lateraltorsionalbuckling
Whenasimplysupportedbeamisloadedinflexure,the
topsideisincompression,andthebottomsideisin
tension.Whenaslendermemberissubjectedtoanaxial
force,failuretakesplaceduetobendingortorsionrather
thandirectcompressionofthematerial.Ifthebeamisnot
supportedinthelateraldirection(i.e.,perpendiculartothe
planeofbending),andtheflexuralloadincreasestoa
criticallimit,thebeamwillfailduetolateralbucklingof
thecompressionflange.Inwideflangesections,ifthe
compressionflangebuckleslaterally,thecrosssectionwill
alsotwistintorsion,resultinginafailuremodeknownas
lateraltorsionalbuckling.

LateraltorsionalbucklingofanIbeamwithvertical
forceincenter:a)longitudinalview,b)crosssection
nearsupport,c)crosssectionincenterwithlateral
torsionalbuckling

Themodificationfactor(Cb)
Cbisamodificationfactorusedintheequationfornominalflexuralstrengthwhendetermininglateraltorsional
buckling.Thereasonforthisfactoristoallowfornonuniformmomentdiagramswhentheendsofabeam
segmentarebraced.TheconservativevalueforCbcanbetakenas1,regardlessofbeamconfigurationorloading,
butinsomecasesitmaybeexcessivelyconservative.Cbisalwaysequaltoorgreaterthan1,neverless.For
cantileversoroverhangswherethefreeendisunbraced,Cbisequalto1.TablesofvaluesofCbforsimply
supportedbeamsexist.
IfanappropriatevalueofCbisnotgivenintables,itcanbeobtainedviathefollowingformula:

where
=absolutevalueofmaximummomentintheunbracedsegment,(kipin)
=absolutevalueofmaximummomentatquarterpointoftheunbracedsegment,(kipin)
=absolutevalueofmaximummomentatcenterlineoftheunbracedsegment,(kipin)
=absolutevalueofmaximummomentatthreequarterpointoftheunbracedsegment,(kipin)

Plasticbuckling

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Bucklingwillgenerallyoccurslightlybeforethecalculatedelasticbucklingstrengthofastructure,duetonon
linearbehaviorofthematerial.Whenthecompressiveloadisnearthebucklingload,thestructurewillbow
significantlyandthematerialofthecolumnwilldivergefromalinearstressstrainbehavior.Thestressstrain
behaviorofmaterialsisnotstrictlylinearevenbelowyield,andthemodulusofelasticitydecreasesasstress
increases,andsignificantlysoasthestressesapproachtheyieldstrength.Thislowerrigidityreducesthebuckling
strengthofthestructureandcausesataloadlessthanthatpredictedbytheassumptionoflinealelasticbehavior.
Amoreaccurateapproximationofthebucklingloadcanbehadbytheuseofthetangentmodulusofelasticity,Et,
inplaceoftheelasticmodulusofelasticity.Thetangentmodulusisalinedrawntangenttothestressstraincurve
ataparticularvalueofstrain.Plotsofthetangentmodulusofelasticityforavarietyofmaterialsareavailablein
standardreferences.

Dynamicbuckling
Ifacolumnisloadedsuddenlyandthentheloadreleased,thecolumncansustainamuchhigherloadthanitsstatic
(slowlyapplied)bucklingload.Thiscanhappeninalong,unsupportedcolumn(rod)usedasadrophammer.The
durationofcompressionattheimpactendisthetimerequiredforastresswavetotraveluptherodtotheother
(free)endandbackdownasareliefwave.Maximumbucklingoccursneartheimpactendatawavelengthmuch
shorterthanthelengthoftherod,andatastressmanytimesthebucklingstressofastaticallyloadedcolumn.The
criticalconditionforbucklingamplitudetoremainlessthanabout25timestheeffectiverodstraightness
imperfectionatthebucklewavelengthis

where istheimpactstress, isthelengthoftherod, istheelasticwavespeed,and isthesmallerlateral


dimensionofarectangularrod.Becausethebucklewavelengthdependsonlyon and ,thissameformulaholds
forthincylindricalshellsofthickness .[12]

Bucklingofthincylindricalshellssubjecttoaxialloads
SolutionsofDonnell'seightorderdifferentialequationgivesthevariousbucklingmodesofathincylinderunder
compression.Butthisanalysis,whichisinaccordancewiththesmalldeflectiontheorygivesmuchhighervalues
thanshownfromexperiments.Soitiscustomarytofindthecriticalbucklingloadforvariousstructureswhichare
cylindricalinshapefrompreexistingdesigncurveswherecriticalbucklingloadFcrisplottedagainsttheratioR/t,
whereRistheradiusandtisthethicknessofthecylinderforvariousvaluesofL/R,Lthelengthofthecylinder.If
cutoutsarepresentinthecylinder,criticalbucklingloadsaswellasprebucklingmodeswillbeaffected.Presence
orabsenceofreinforcementsofcutoutswillalsoaffectthebucklingload.

Bucklingofpipesandpressurevesselssubjecttoexternaloverpressure
Pipesandpressurevesselssubjecttoexternaloverpressure,causedforexamplebysteamcoolingwithinthepipe
andcondensingintowaterwithsubsequentmassivepressuredrop,riskbucklingduetocompressivehoopstresses.
Designrulesforcalculationoftherequiredwallthicknessorreinforcementringsaregiveninvariouspipingand
pressurevesselcodes.

Seealso
PerryRobertsonformula
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Railstressing
Stiffening
Woodmethod
Yoshimurabuckling
Euler'scriticalload

References
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frames](inGerman).Wein,Austria:J.Springer.pp.107109.ISBN9783662240755.
3.Cox,StevenJ.C.MaeveMcCarthy(1998)."TheShapeoftheTallestColumn".SocietyforIndustrialandApplied
Mathematics29:547554.doi:10.1137/s0036141097314537.
4.Zaccaria,D.Bigoni,D.Noselli,G.Misseroni,D.(21April2011)."Structuresbucklingundertensiledeadload"(PDF).
ProceedingsoftheRoyalSocietyA467(2130):16861700.doi:10.1098/rspa.2010.0505.
5.Bigoni,D.Misseroni,D.Noselli,G.Zaccaria,D.(2012)."Effectsoftheconstraint'scurvatureonstructuralinstability:
tensilebucklingandmultiplebifurcations".ProceedingsoftheRoyalSocietyA.doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0732.
6.Bigoni,D.(2012).NonlinearSolidMechanics:BifurcationTheoryandMaterialInstability.CambridgeUniversity
Press.ISBN9781107025417.
7.Bigoni,D.Noselli,G.(2011)."Experimentalevidenceofflutteranddivergenceinstabilitiesinducedbydryfriction".
JournaloftheMechanicsandPhysicsofSolids59:22082226.Bibcode:2011JMPSo..59.2208B.
doi:10.1016/j.jmps.2011.05.007.
8.Thompson,J.M.T.Hunt,G.W.(1973).Ageneraltheoryofelasticstability.Wiley.ISBN9780471859918.
9.Jones,RobertM.(1December2007).BucklingofBars,Plates,andShells.CRC.ISBN9781560328278.
10.Earls,ChristopherJ.(2007).Observationsoneigenvaluebucklinganalysiswithinafiniteelementcontext.Proceedings
oftheStructuralStabilityResearchCouncil,AnnualStabilityConference(NewOrleans,LA).
11.http://dcist.com/2012/07/excessive_heat_probable_cause_in_gr.php
12.Lindberg,H.E.Florence,A.L.(1987).DynamicPulseBuckling.MartinusNijhoffPublishers.pp.1156,297298.

Furtherreading
Timoshenko,S.P.,andGere,J.M.,TheoryofElasticStability,2ed.,McGrawHill,1961.
Nenezich,M.,ThermoplasticContinuumMechanics,JournalofAerospaceStructures,Vol.4,2004.
TheStabilityofElasticEquilibrium(http://contrails.iit.edu/DigitalCollection/1970/AFFDLTR70025.pdf)by
W.T.Koiter,PhDThesis,1945.
DhakalRajeshandKoichiMaekawa(October2002)."ReinforcementStabilityandFractureofCover
ConcreteinReinforcedConcreteMembers.[1](http://ascelibrary.aip.org.libdb.njit.edu:8888/getpdf/servlet/
GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JSENDH000128000010001253000001&idtype=cvips&ident=freesearch.)
WillianT.Segui(2007).SteelDesignFourthEdition.UnitedStates.ChrisCarson.
AnalysisanddesignofflightvehiclestructuresE.F.Bruhn

Externallinks
Thecompletetheoryandexampleexperimentalresultsforlongcolumnsareavailableasa39pagePDF
documentathttp://lindberglce.com/tech/buklbook.htm
LaboratoryforPhysicalModelingofStructuresandPhotoelasticity(UniversityofTrento,Italy)(http://ssmg.
ing.unitn.it)
http://www.midasuser.com.tw/t_support/tech_pds/files/Tech%20NoteLateral%20Torsional%20Buckling.pdf
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