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## THE NATURE OF GASES

13.1

Section Review
Objectives
Describe the assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases
Interpret gas pressure in terms of kinetic theory
Define the relationship between Kelvin temperature and average kinetic energy

Vocabulary
kinetic energy
kinetic theory
gas pressure

vacuum
atmospheric pressure
barometer

pascal (Pa)
standard atmosphere (atm)

Part A Completion
Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms
that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short
phrase, or number.
The kinetic theory describes the

of particles in matter

2

## that the volume occupied by a gas is mostly

particles of gas are relatively
and are in constant

motion. The

2.

, that the

, move

3.

of each other,
between

remains

1.

4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

measure

## pressure. Standard conditions are defined

as a temperature of

and a pressure of

10

9.
10.

Part B True-False
Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.
________ 11. Atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg.
________ 12. The SI unit of pressure is the pascal.

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## ________ 13. Atmospheric pressure increases as you climb a mountain because

the density of Earths atmosphere decreases with altitude.
________ 14. When particles of a substance are heated, some of the energy is absorbed
by the particle and stored in the form of potential energy.
________ 15. The Kelvin temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the total
kinetic energy of the particles in the substance.
________ 16. At any given temperature, the particles of all substances have the same
average kinetic energy.

Part C Matching
Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A.

Column A

Column B

## d. results from the force exerted by a gas per unit

surface area of an object

air with objects

## Answer the following in the space provided.

22. A gas is at a pressure of 4.30 atm. What is this pressure in kilopascals? In mm Hg?

## 23. Describe the motion of particles of a gas according to kinetic theory.

24. What simple evidence demonstrates that gas particles are in constant motion?

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13.2

Section Review
Objectives

## Identify factors that determine physical properties of a liquid

Define evaporation in terms of kinetic energy
Describe the equilibrium between a liquid and its vapor
Identify the conditions under which boiling occurs

Vocabulary
vaporization
evaporation
vapor pressure

boiling point
normal boiling point

Part A Completion
Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms
that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short
phrase, or number.
1

are known as

1.

4

2.

3.

4.

5

is a

5.

6

6.

7.

a force called

9

8.

9.

10.

## liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to

10

Part B True-False
Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.
________ 11. Particles in a liquid dont have enough kinetic energy to overcome the
attractive forces between them and vaporize.
Chapter 13 States of Matter

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________ 12. When a liquid is in a closed container, there are more particles
evaporating than condensing.
________ 13. The change of a substance directly from a solid to a gas or vapor is called
condensation.
________ 14. The rates of evaporation and condensation are equal at equilibrium.
________ 15. Heating a liquid will increase the temperature of the liquid.
________ 16. During evaporation in an open container, the temperature of a liquid
decreases.

Part C Matching
Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A.

Column A

Column B

liquid

## Answer the following in the space provided.

22. Describe what happens on a particle level when a liquid is at its boiling point.

23. Liquid A has a vapor pressure of 7.37 kPa at 40C. Liquid B has a vapor pressure
of 18.04 kPa at 40C. Which liquid would evaporate faster at 40C? Explain your

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## THE NATURE OF SOLIDS

13.3

Section Review
Objectives
Evaluate how the way particles are organized explains the properties of solids
Identify the factors that determine the shape of a crystal
Explain how allotropes of an element are different

Vocabulary
melting point
crystal
unit cell

allotropes
amorphous solid
glass

Part A Completion
Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms
that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short
phrase, or number.
1

## Solids tend to be dense and difficult to

. They do not

1.

flow or take the shape of their containers, like liquids do, because

2.

## points. When a solid

3.

is heated until its particles vibrate so rapidly that they are no longer
held in fixed positions, the solid

. The

is the

5

4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

9.

solids are
as a crystal
is the

8

10.

10

solids.

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Part B True-False
Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.
________ 11. Glasses do not melt at a definite temperature, but soften gradually.
________ 12. Solid substances can exist in more than one form.
________ 13. Allotropes are two or more different elements that exist in the same
state with the same crystal system.
________ 14. When the atoms in a solid have a random arrangement, the solid is a
glass.
________ 15. The type of bonding that exists between the atoms in a crystal tends to
determine the melting point of the solid.

Part C Matching
Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A.

Column A

Column B
a. describes a solid in which the particles are randomly
arranged

## b. transparent fusion products of inorganic substances that

have cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing

## c. the smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains

the geometric shape of the crystal

## ________ 22. melting point

g. dense state of matter that has a fixed shape and is not easily
compressed

## Part D Questions and Problems

Answer the following in the space provided.
24. Explain what happens at the particle level when a solid melts.

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CHANGES OF STATE

13.4

Section Review
Objectives
Identify the conditions necessary for sublimation
Describe how equilibrium conditions are represented in a phase diagram

Vocabulary
sublimation
triple point
phase diagram

Part A Completion
Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms
that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short
phrase, or number.
The change that occurs when a solid goes directly to the gas

1.

2.

3.

4.

(dry ice).

5.

## A graph that shows the relationship between the states of a

substance is called a

6.

7.

8.

are in

. The

## is the only set of conditions at

which solid, liquid, and gas phases coexist. The triple point for
water is a temperature of

and a pressure of

Part B True-False
Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.
________ 9. A phase diagram gives information on changes in mass of solids,
liquids, and gases.
________ 10. Water could be made to boil at 105C by increasing the pressure.
Chapter 13 States of Matter

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________ 11. The sublimation point of a substance refers to the temperature and
pressure at which the substance exists in all three phases of matter.
________ 12. Below the triple point for water, decreasing the pressure will not
change water vapor to ice.
________ 13. Water has more than one triple point.
________ 14. At 101.3 kPa, the normal boiling point and melting point of water are
the same.

Part C Matching
Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A.

Column A

Column B
a. the change of a solid to a vapor without passing through
the liquid state

sublimation

substance

## Part D Questions and Problems

Answer the following in the space provided.
21. Explain how some solids can vaporize and then condense back to a solid
without passing through the liquid state. What is the process called?

22. When the physical state of a substance changes during a phase change, what
happens to the temperature of the system?

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STATES OF MATTER

Practice Problems
In your notebook, answer the following questions or solve the following problems.

## SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES

1. Explain why there is no gas pressure inside a vacuum.
2. How would the reading on a barometer change if you were to take one on a trip
from Los Angeles to Lake Tahoe, which is at a much higher altitude?
3. The height of a column of mercury in a barometer is 754.3 mm. What is the
atmospheric pressure in atm? In kPa?
4. How does the average kinetic energy of the helium atoms in a balloon change as
the helium gas is heated from 100.0C to 73C?

## SECTION 13.2 THE NATURE OF LIQUIDS

1. In general, how do the intermolecular attractions between particles in a gas
compare with those between particles in a liquid?

## 3. Explain how the following description is an analogy for evaporative cooling: If

the fastest runner is removed from a race, the average speed of the remaining
runners will be lower.
4. The normal boiling point of ethanol is 78.5C. The normal boiling point of water
is 100C. At 75C, which liquid, ethanol or water, has the greater vapor pressure?
Explain.

## SECTION 13.3 THE NATURE OF SOLIDS

2. An open beaker is about half filled with water. How can a dynamic equilibrium
be established between the water and the vapor forming above its surface?

1. How does the crystalline structure of graphite compare with that of diamond?
2. Why is diamond classified as an allotrope of carbon?
3. Peanut brittle is a candy that is poured out while hot onto a surface. It is allowed
to cool and harden into a sheet, which easily breaks into irregularly shaped
pieces. The sugar in peanut brittle solidifies without reforming its crystal lattice.
What type of solid is peanut brittle?
4. Which type of solid is likely to have the lowest melting pointan ionic solid
or a molecular solid? Explain.
5. Give an example of a crystalline solid. What is a crystal?

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## SECTION 13.4 CHANGES OF STATE

To answer the following questions, refer to the phase diagram shown in Figure 13.15 of
1. How does the melting point of water change as the pressure increases?
2. What does the line separating the solid phase from the vapor phase represent?
3. What does the line separating the liquid phase from the vapor phase represent?
4. What is the vapor pressure of liquid water at 100C?

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INTERPRETING GRAPHICS
Use with Section 13.4

100

80

Pressure (kPa)

60

40

20

0
30

10

20

40

60

Temperature (C)
Figure 1 Phase diagram for bromine (Br2). Note that the scale on the
x-axis is distorted to emphasize some of the graphs features.
At standard temperature and pressure, bromine is a red liquid. Bromine sublimes
when the temperature is 25C and the pressure is 101.3 kPa.
1. Label each region of the graph as solid, liquid, or vapor.
2. Label the triple point, normal melting point, and normal boiling point on the
graph and estimate their temperature values. Include an estimate of the
pressure for the triple point.
Normal melting point 
Normal boiling point 
Triple point 
3. Use the letter A to label the line that gives the conditions for equilibrium
between solid and liquid phases of bromine, the letter B to label the curve
that gives the conditions for equilibrium between liquid and vapor phases of
bromine, and the letter C to label the curve that gives the conditions for
equilibrium between solid and vapor phases of bromine.

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4. Describe how the melting point of bromine changes with the external pressure.
Based on the slope of the melting-point curve in the phase diagram, would you
characterize the solid phase of bromine as more dense or less dense than the
liquid phase of bromine?

5. What is the boiling point of bromine when the external pressure is 75 kPa?

## 7. Place direction arrows labeled S, V, and M on the phase diagram to indicate

where sublimation, vaporization, and melting occur, respectively.
Circle the correct word in the parentheses in each of the following sentences.
8. Bromine vapor at 15C (condenses, sublimes) when the pressure is raised to
50 kPa.

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to 15C.

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STATES OF MATTER

Vocabulary Review
Each clue describes a vocabulary term. Read the clues and write the letters of each term
on the lines.
1. Clue: the energy an object has because of its motion.
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

## ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

2. Clue: results from the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object.
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
3. Clue: the process in which molecules of a liquid escape from the surface of a liquid that is
not boiling.
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
4. Clue: the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is just equal to the external
pressure.
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
5. Clue: sample in which particles are arranged in an orderly, repeating, three-dimensional pattern.
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
6. Clue: two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state.
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
7. Clue: the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid.
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

## 8. Clue: the SI unit of pressure.

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Write the letters found inside the circles on the lines below. Then unscramble them to
find the name of a device for measuring the atmospheric pressure.
Scrambled Letters:
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
Solution:
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

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STATES OF MATTER

Chapter Quiz
Fill in the word(s) that will make each statement true.
13.1

## with an increase in elevation.

2.

13.1

3
3. An increase in the
of a substance corresponds to an
increase in the average kinetic energy of its particles.

3.

13.1

4.

13.1

5.

13.1

6.

13.2

## 7. During evaporation, only those molecules that possess a

7
certain
can escape from the surface of a liquid.

7.

13.2

8
the
.

8.

13.2

## 9. The smallest group of particles in a crystal that retains the

9
shape of a crystal is a(n)
.

9.

13.3

10.

13.3

2. Atmospheric pressure

energy.

## 5. In the kinetic theory, it is assumed that the collisions between

5
gas particles are perfectly
.
6. Liquids and solids are known as

states of matter.

## 10. A solid that lacks an ordered internal structure is a(n)

10
solid.

Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.
________ 11. The change of a substance to vapor is called vaporization.

13.3, 13.4

________ 12. At the triple point, solid, liquid, and gas can exist in equilibrium with
one another.

13.4

________ 13. A phase diagram shows the temperature and pressure conditions at
which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, and gas or vapor.

13.4

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## Core Teaching Resources

1.

1
1. The
theory states that the tiny particles in matter are
in constant motion.

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STATES OF MATTER

Chapter Test A
A. Matching
Match each description in Column B with the correct term in Column A. Write the
letter of the correct description on the line.

Column A

Column B

________ 1. amorphous

## b. the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid

________ 3. crystal

## d. the pressure resulting from the collision of particles in air

with objects

________ 5. barometer

## e. the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is

equal to the external pressure

## f. the smallest group of particles within a crystal that

retains the shape of the crystal

## g. a solid in which the particles are arranged in an orderly,

repeating, three-dimensional pattern

________ 8. sublimation

101.3 kPa

## k. one of two or more different molecular forms of the same

element in the same physical state

## l. the conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor at a

temperature below the boiling point

## m. states that the tiny particles in all forms of matter are in

constant motion
n. the change of a solid to a vapor without passing through
the liquid state

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B. Multiple Choice
Choose the best answer and write its letter on the line.
________ 15. The average kinetic energy of water molecules is greatest in
a. steam at 200C.
c. liquid water at 373 K.
b. liquid water at 90C.
d. ice at 0C.
________ 16. According to the kinetic theory of gases,
a. the particles in a gas move rapidly.
b. the particles in a gas are relatively far apart.
c. the particles in a gas move independently of each other.
d. all of the above are true.
________ 17. The temperature at which the motion of particles theoretically ceases is
a. 0C.
c. 273 K.
b. 273C.
d. 0 K.
________ 18. The average kinetic energy of particles of a substance
a. is not affected by the temperature of the substance.
b. increases as the temperature of the substance decreases.
c. is directly proportional to the temperature of a substance.
d. is equal to 0.
________ 19. Which of these statements is not true, according to kinetic theory?
a. There is no attraction between particles of a gas.
b. Only particles of matter in the gaseous state are in constant motion.
c. The particles of a gas collide with each other and with other objects.
d. All collisions between particles of gas are perfectly elastic.

## ________ 21. The pressure of a gas in a container is 76 mm Hg. This is equivalent to

a. 0.1 atm.
c. 0.2 atm.
b. 1 atm.
d. 0.76 atm.
________ 22. A phase diagram gives information on
a. volumes of gases.
b. conditions at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, and gas.
c. volumes of liquids and solids.
d. changes in mass of solids, liquids, and gases.
________ 23. An increase in the temperature of a contained liquid
a. causes the vapor pressure above the liquid to increase.
b. decreases the vapor pressure above a liquid.
c. causes fewer particles to escape the surface of the liquid.
d. has no effect on the kinetic energy of the liquid.

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## Core Teaching Resources

________ 20. Standard conditions when working with gases are defined as
a. 0 K and 101.3 kilopascals.
c. 0C and 101.3 kilopascals.
b. 0 K and 1 mm Hg.
d. 0C and 1 mm Hg.

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## ________ 24. Water could be made to boil at 105C by

a. applying a great deal of energy.
b. increasing the air pressure above the water.
c. heating the water more gradually.
d. decreasing the air pressure above the water.
________ 25. The direct change of a substance from a solid to a vapor is called:
a. evaporation
c. condensation.
b. sublimation.
d. vaporization.
________ 26. Most solids
a. are amorphous.
b. lack an orderly internal structure.
c. are dense and not easily compressed.
d. have low melting points.
________ 27. The escape of molecules from the surface of an uncontained liquid is
a. boiling.
c. evaporation.
b. sublimation.
d. condensation.

C. True-False
Classify each of these statements as always true, AT, sometimes true, ST, or never true, NT.
________ 28. The rates of evaporation and condensation are equal at equilibrium.

________ 29. The kinetic energy of all the particles in a given sample of matter is the
same.
________ 30. The average kinetic energy of all the molecules in liquid water at 80C
is the same as the average kinetic energy of the molecules in oxygen
gas at 80C.
________ 31. Heating a liquid will increase the temperature of the liquid.
________ 32. The melting point and freezing point of a substance are the same.

D. Problems
Solve the following problems in the space provided. Show your work.
33. A gas is at a pressure of 3.70 atm. What is this pressure in kilopascals?

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34. What is the pressure of the gas in problem 33, expressed in millimeters of mercury?

E. Essay
Write a short essay for the following.
35. Explain why the temperature of a gas does not depend on the number of
particles in the sample of gas.

Solve the following problems in the space provided. Show your work.
36. A gas has a pressure of 610.0 mm Hg. What is the pressure in atmospheres?

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## Core Teaching Resources

37. What is the pressure of the gas in problem 36, expressed in kilopascals?

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Answer the following questions in the space provided.
38. A 100-g sample of water is heated from 50C to 100C. At 100C, although the
water is still being heated, the temperature of the water does not rise. Explain
why.

39. Some types of bacteria are killed by being heated to a temperature of 150C for 30 minutes. Explain
why water heated under pressure can be used to kill these bacteria, although boiling water at
atmospheric pressure does not kill them.

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STATES OF MATTER

Chapter Test B
A. Matching
Match each term in Column B to the correct description in Column A. Write the letter
of the correct term on the line.

Column A

Column B
a. normal boiling point

b. pascal

## ________ 3. The tiny particles in all forms of matter are in constant

motion.

c. kinetic energy

## ________ 4. the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid

d. standard atmosphere

e. melting point

## ________ 6. the change of a substance from a solid to a gas or vapor

without passing through the liquid state

f. triple point

g. evaporation

## ________ 8. the conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor at a

temperature below the liquids boiling point

h. kinetic theory

## ________ 9. describes the only conditions of temperature and

pressure at which all three phases of a substance can
exist in equilibrium

i. allotropes

________ 10. the pressure that results from the collisions of particles in
air with objects

j. barometer

## ________ 11. the temperature at which a liquid boils at a pressure of

101.3 kPa

k. sublimation

________ 12. the smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains
the geometric shape of the crystal

l. atmospheric pressure

## ________ 13. the energy an object has because of its motion

________ 14. two or more different molecular forms of the same
element in the same physical state

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## Core Teaching Resources

m. unit cell
n. vapor pressure

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B. Multiple Choice
Choose the best answer and write its letter on the line.
________ 15. According to the kinetic theory, gases consist of particles that
a. occupy considerable volume.
b. are relatively close together.
c. exert attractive and repulsive forces on other particles.
d. have motion that is constant, random, and rapid.
________ 16. As you climb a mountain, atmospheric pressure:
a. increases.
c. remains the same.
b. decreases.
d. varies randomly.
________ 17. Which of the following is true about atmospheric pressure?
a. It is measured with a hydrometer.
b. It varies widely, depending on the weather.
c. It increases with altitude.
d. It affects the boiling point of a liquid.

## ________ 18. At sea level in fair weather, atmospheric pressure is equal to

a. 101.3 kPa.
c. 760 mm Hg.
b. 1 standard atmosphere.
d. all of the above
________ 19. STP refers to:
a. 100C and 1 atm.
b. 0C and 1 kPa.

## c. 0C and 1 atm.

d. 100C and 760 mm Hg.

a. 41 kPa.
b. 1900 mm Hg.

d. 2.5 kPa.

## ________ 21. Absolute zero is

a. the temperature at which the motion of particles theoretically
ceases.
b. defined as 0C.
c. the triple point for water.
d. all of the above
________ 22. At 80 K, the particles of a gas have
a. twice the average kinetic energy of the same particles at 40 K.
b. half the average kinetic energy of the same particles at 40 K.
c. one fourth the average kinetic energy of the same particles at 20 K.
d. none of the above
________ 23. Compared with gases, liquids:
a. have stronger intermolecular attractions.
b. have more space between their particles.
c. are much less dense.
d. are more easily compressed.

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## ________ 24. Evaporation is a type of

a. boiling.
b. vaporization.

Class __________________

c. sublimation.
d. condensation.

## ________ 25. A decrease in the temperature of a contained liquid causes

a. an increase in the vapor pressure.
b. a decrease in the vapor pressure.
c. more particles to evaporate.
d. an increase in the average kinetic energy of the particles.
________ 26. Water could be made to boil at 92C by
a. lowering the external air pressure.
b. raising the external air pressure.
c. increasing the pressure on the water.
d. none of the above
________ 27. In comparison with liquids and gases, solids are
a. more dense.
c. less organized.
b. more easily compressed.
d. more likely to flow.
________ 28. Diamond and graphite are examples of
a. phases.
c. allotropes.
b. amorphous solids.
d. glasses.
________ 29. The conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a
substance can exist in equilibrium with one another is called
a. boiling point.
c. sublimation point.
b. freezing point.
d. triple point.

C. True-False
Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.
________ 31. In an elastic collision, kinetic energy is transferred from one particle to
another, but the total kinetic energy remains constant.
________ 32. Atmospheric pressure is 101.3 kPa.
________ 33. The Kelvin temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the
average kinetic energy of the particles in that substance.
________ 34. At any given temperature, the particles of all substances have the same
average kinetic energy.
________ 35. The temperature of a boiling liquid can rise above its boiling point.
________ 36. Water boils at 100C.
________ 37. The melting and freezing points of a substance are the same
temperature.

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## ________ 30. Sublimation can occur because solids have

a. a melting point.
c. a boiling point.
b. a vapor pressure.
d. a triple point.

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Class __________________

D. Essay
Write a short essay for the following.
38. Distinguish between the boiling point and the normal boiling point of a liquid.
Explain the impact of a change in atmospheric pressure on the relationship
between the boiling point and the normal boiling point.

Answer the following questions in the space provided.

39. Distinguish between gases, liquids, and solids in terms of the kinetic theory.

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## 05_CTR_ch13 7/12/04 8:12 AM Page 340

Name ___________________________

Date ___________________

Class __________________

## 40. Explain why each of the following is true.

a. The temperature of a boiling liquid never rises above its boiling point.

## b. The temperature of an ice and water mixture at 1 standard atmosphere

remains at 0C as long as both ice and liquid water are present, no matter
what the surrounding temperature.