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AUTHOR "Laurel
BOOKMARK
"1.
"2.
"3.
"Table
"Preface">
The
English
J. of
Brinton"
Nature
Contents">
Consonants
Phonology,
of Language
Phonotactics,
and Vowels">
and Linguistics">
and Suprasegmentals">

TITLE "Chapter 3. English Phonology, Phonotactics, and Suprasegmentals"

SUBJECT "The Structure of Modern English"

KEYWORDS ""

SIZE HEIGHT "260"

WIDTH "154"

VOFFSET "1">

Chapter 3

English Phonology, Phonotactics, and Suprasegmentals

Exercise 3.1: Phonemic Rules

1. Consider the following English words containing the phoneme /g/.


[l6gwun
[gwo~t
[glo~
[gwus
(a)
(b)
(c)

brg
g f
g is
g eIt

ig6r
fr"g
]g6r
g%t6r

g"n
ga~n
gwfIt6r
greId ]

List the allophones of /g/.


State in words the environment in which each allophone is found.
Write a phonemic rule for /g/, listing one allophone as elsewhere.

2. Consider the following English words containing the phoneme /r/.


[fr i
[rwo~d
[rwut
(a)
(b)
(c)

tr aI
bfrdr
p"rt

m7ri
pir
braId

r%f
pr 6fesr
dreIn

6rwo~z
6raIz
sfrwo~

hmr
r%nr
fIlr ]

List the allophones of /r/.


State in words the environment in which each allophone is found.
Write a phonemic rule for /r/, listing one allophone as elsewhere.

3. Consider the following English words containing the phoneme /k/.


[k%p6l
[kwo~t
[kwul6r
(a)

"ktein
k eIm
msk

m"kt
k m6r6
sIk6n

sk6rt
l~k I]
sIk Il

lo~k6l
ka~
klo~z ]

List the allophones of /k/.

Exercise 3.1
Workbook, Page 33

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

(b)
(c)

State in words the environment in which each allophone is found.


Write a phonemic rule for /k/, listing one allophone as elsewhere.

4. Consider the following English words containing the phoneme /l/.


[pleIs
[lwun6r
[mIdl
[lf
(a)
(b)
(c)

h"Ro~
t7R
s%vl
klaIm

fleIm
lwo~n
6laIv
slp

lwfItr
leIm
lItl
pIkl

t%nl
k6R
la~d
l7s

m7l6n
t7lI]
h"Ro~
h7Rp ]

List the allophones of /l/.


State in words the environment in which each allophone is found.
Write a phonemic rule for /l/, listing one allophone as elsewhere.

Exercise 3.1
Workbook, Page 34

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

Exercise 3.2: Phonological Processes

1. Write the word indicated by each transcription and identify the phonological process or change responsible for each pronunciation.
Example: Transcription
[6phIzm6nt]
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
2. (a)
(b)
(c)

[twuqbr%]
[sImf6ni]
[k6rRi]
[6phfIntm6nt]
[rpc6r]
[pr 7ri]
[t"n6r]
["kt6p~s]
[p]keIk]
[bIlItl ]
[k Ic6n]
[h7lqi]
[tuzdeI]

Word
appeasement
(n)
(o)
(p)
(q)
(r)
(s)
(t)
(u)
(v)
(w)
(x)
(y)

Phonological Process
aspiration
[l"ndri]
[laItnI]]
[k%tl6s]
[pl~r6l]
[b7Ro~]
[pn q6r]
[daIJ7sc6n]
[maIni]
[lwfIt6r]
["ptIm6l]
[gItar]

[h"rdn ]

Write a rule for the unreleasing of stops.


Write a rule for the preglottalization of voiceless stops.
Write a rule for the monophthongization of [Iu].

3. An advantage of distinctive features (discussed in Exercise 2.7) is that


they enable us to recognize natural classes of sounds, sets of sounds all
sharing a certain feature or features, for example, all sounds sharing the
feature [+NASAL] or [+BACK]. Since natural classes behave the same
way in respect to phonological processes and rules as well as nondistinctive variation, we are able to capture generalizations by the use of
features. We are often able to supply the motivating force for variants
or changes as well.
Try to express the 12 rules given in the section on Phonological Processes in the text in terms of distinctive features.

Exercise 3.2
Workbook, Page 35

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

Exercise 3.3: Word Stress

1. Using acute and grave accents, mark primary and secondary stress
(where present) in the following words.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

papyrus
feminine
millionaire
harmonica
pelican
geometry
vocabulary
compliment

(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
(o)
(p)

pedigree
hypotenuse
summary
memorandum
architecture
discipline
caterpillar
penetration

(q)
(r)
(s)
(t)
(u)
(v)
(w)
(x)

vigilante
peripheral
macaroni
imperialism
satellite
characterize
chromosome
accidental

2. Transcribe the following sets of words and mark primary and secondary
stress with super- and subticks. Note the reduction of vowels in unstressed syllables.
(a)
(b)
(c)

catastrophe
catastrophic
synonym
synonymous
repeat
repetitive
repetition
How does stress aect the quality of the rst t in repetitive and
repetition?
How does stress aect the quality of the p?

(d)

(e)

(f)

migrate
migratory
migration
intellect
intellectual
intelligent
apply
application
applicable

Exercise 3.3
Workbook, Page 36

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

(g)

applicability
exhibit
exhibition

How does stress aect the voicing of the consonants?


3. How does stress dierentiate these derivationally-related words?
(a)
(b)
(c)

4. (a)
(b)

proverb
reex
perfect
tranquil
injure
enter

proverbial
reexive
perfection
tranquility
injurious
entertain

Give strong and weak forms of that and show how they are used
in a sentence.
Give two sentences in which the word afternoon has a dierent
syllable stressed.

Exercise 3.3
Workbook, Page 37

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

Exercise 3.4: Intonation

For each of the following sentences, identify


(a) the information group(s)
(b) the tonic syllable
(c) the intonation pattern
1. We went to a movie last night.
(topic: last nights activities)
2. We went to a movie last night.
(topic: going to movies)
3. Should we see a movie tonight?
4. Should we see the movie tonight?
5. Should we see the movie tonight, or tomorrow?
6. We could see a movie tonight or go out for ice cream.
7. We could visit a museum this afternoon or go to the zoo tomorrow.
8. We could go to a movie, couldnt we?
9. When should we go to a movie?
(topic: our going to a movie)
10. When should we go to a movie?
(topic: our doing something)
11. You liked that movie, didnt you?

Exercise 3.4
Workbook, Page 38

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

Exercise 3.5: Syllabication

Syllabify the following words, using periods to indicate syllable breaks. Note
ambisyllabicity.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

aroma
algebra
advocate
kangaroo
obstinate
codify
altitude
duplicate
geometry
temperate
whiskey
integrity
appropriate

Exercise 3.5
Workbook, Page 39

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

seclusion
arithmetic
discipline
periodic
banana
insinuate
nightingale
instrument
exclamation
already
condemnation
esthetic

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

Answer to Exercise 3.1

1. (a)
(b)

(c)

2. (a)
(b)

(c)

3. (a)
(b)

(c)

4. (a)
(b)

[gw] [g ] [g]


[gw] occurs before back vowels
[g ]
occcurs before front vowels
[g]
occurs initially before consonants and mid and back
unrounded vowels, word medially and word nally
/g/ [gw] / Vorounded
[g ]
/ Vofront
[g]
/ elsewhere
[r ] [rw] [r ] [r]
[r ]
occurs following voiceless consonants
[rw] occurs before rounded vowels
[r ]
occurs following consonants word nally
[r]
occurs before front vowels, word medially in the environment of front vowels, preconsonantally, and word nally
/r/ [r ]
/ Cvl
[rw] / Vorounded
[r ]
/C#
[r]
/ elsewhere
[kw] [k] [k ] [k]
[kw] occurs before rounded vowels
[k]
occurs before other stops and word nally
[k ]
occurs before front vowels
[k]
occurs initially and medially before mid vowels and
consonants and following [s]
(N.B. We are ignoring aspiration here. All of the allophones with
the exception of [k] would also be aspirated in the proper environment.)
/k/ [kw] / Vorounded
[k]
/ #, Cstop
[k ]
/ Vofront
[k]
/ elsewhere
[l] [lw] [l ] [R] [l]
[l]
occurs following voiceless consonants

Answer to Exercise 3.1


Workbook, Page 40

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

[lw]
[l ]
[R]

(c)

occurs before rounded vowels


occurs following obstruents and nasals word nally
occurs following vowels and approximants, medially in
the environment of back vowels
[l]
occurs before front and mid vowels, medially in the
environment of mid and front vowels
(N.B. syllabic [l ] is probably dark as well, hence [R].)
/l/ [l]
/Cvl
w
/ Vorounded
[l ]
[l ]
/C #
[R]
/Vo , Approx. , Voback Voback
[l]
/ elsewhere

Answer to Exercise 3.1


Workbook, Page 41

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

Answer to Exercise 3.2

1.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
(o)
(p)
(q)
(r)
(s)
(t)
(u)
(v)
(w)
(x)
(y)

Word
toothbrush
symphony
curly
appointment
rapture
prairie
totter
octopus
pancake
belittle
kitchen
healthy
Tuesday
laundry
lightning
cutlass
plural
bellow
panther
digestion
mighty
loiter
optimal
guitar
harden

Phonological Process
labialization
nasalization
velarization
aspiration
unreleased/palatalization
devoicing
apping
unreleased
velarization
syllabic consonant
fronting
dentalization
monophthongization
nasalization
nasal release
lateral release
devoicing
velarization
dentalization
palatalization
apping
labialization
unreleased
fronting
syllabic consonant

2. (a)
(b)
(c)

Cstop C / Cstop, #
Cvl, stop [+Glottal Stop] + Cvl, stop/ #
[Iu] [u]/ C alveolar

3. (1)
(2)

[+CONSONANTAL] [+LABIALIZED] / [+ROUND]


[+CONSONANTAL, +SONORANT] [+SYLLABIC]/
[+CONSONANTAL, SONORANT] #, [+NASAL] #
[+CONSONANTAL, +ANTERIOR, +CORONAL]

(3)

Answer to Exercise 3.2


Workbook, Page 42

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

[+DENTALIZED]/ [+INTERDENTAL]
(4) [+SONORANT] [VOICE]/[VOICE, +CONSONANTAL]

(5) [+BACK, +CONSONANT] [BACK, ANTERIOR]/


[BACK, +VOCALIC]
(6) [+VOCALIC] [+NASALIZED]/ [+NASAL]
(7) [+VOCALIC, BACK] [+RETRACTED]/ [+LATERAL]
(8) [+CONSONANTAL, CONTINUANT, NASAL, DELAYED
RELEASE, VOICE] [+ASPIRATED]/ # [+VOCALIC,
+STRESS]
(9) [+LATERAL] [+VELARIZED]/ [+SONORANT,
+CONTINUANT]
(10) [+CONSONANTAL, SONORANT, +ANTERIOR,
+CORONAL] [ANTERIOR]/ #[CONSONANTAL,
VOCALIC, +HIGH, BACK]
(11) [+VOCALIC, TENSE] [+REDUCED]/[STRESS]
(12) [+REDUCED} / #[+SONORANT, +ANTERIOR]

Answer to Exercise 3.2


Workbook, Page 43

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

Answer to Exercise 3.3

1. (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

paprus
fminine
mllionire
harmnic
plican
gemetry
vocbulry
cmpliment

2. (a)

[k6tstr6]
[kt6str"fIk]
[sIn6nIm]
[s6n"n6m6s]
[r6pit]
[r6p7n6tI%]
[r7p6tI6n]

(b)
(c)

(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
(o)
(p)

pdigre
hyptense
smmery
mmorndum
rchitcture
dscipline
cterpllar
pnetrtion

(q)
(r)
(s)
(t)
(u)
(v)
(w)
(x)

vgilnte
perpheral
mcarni
imprialsm
stellte
chracterze
chrmosme
ccidntal

In repetitive, the rst t is apped because the accent immediately


precedes, but in repetition, apping does not occur because the
accent follows. In repeat and repetitive, the [p] is aspirated because it occurs before a stressed vowel, but in repetition it is not
aspirated.
(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

[maIgreIt]
[maIgr6tfri]
[maIgeI6n]
[Int6l7kt]
[Int6l7kcu6l]
[Int7l6J6nt]
[6plaI]
[pl6keI6n]
[6plIk6bl] or [plIk6bl]
[6plIk6bIlIti] or [plIk6bIl6ti]
[7gzIbIt]
[7ksIbI6n]

Answer to Exercise 3.3


Workbook, Page 44

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

Voicing occurs when the consonants are not stressed. Compare of [6%],
an unstressed preposition, and o [%f], a stressed adverb.
3. (a)
(b)
(c)

4. (a)

(b)

The N has initial-syllable stress (prverb, rex), while the A has


stress on the second syllable (provrbial, rexive).
The A has initial-syllable stress (prfect, trnquil), while the N has
stress on the second syllable (perfction, tranqulity).
The V has initial-syllable stress, while the A has stress on the
second syllable (injrious) or third syllable (entertin).
strong: [t] I want that one. (demonstrative)
That is the best one. (pronoun)
weak [6t] I know that I am right. (conjunction)
I saw him this afternon.
I attended an fternoon cncert.

Answer to Exercise 3.3


Workbook, Page 45

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

Answer to Exercise 3.4

1. (a)
(b)
(c)

one tone group


stressed syllable in movie
long falling

2. (a)
(b)
(c)

one tone group


stressed syllable in night
long falling

3. (a)
(b)
(c)

one tone group


stressed syllable in movie
long rising

4. (a)
(b)

one tone group


stressed syllable in tonight
(Note that the denite article with movie tells you that this is
given information.)
long rising

(c)
5. (a)
(b)
(c)

6. (a)
(b)
(c)

7. (a)
(b)
(c)

two tone groups: should we see the movie tonight


or tomorrow
stressed syllable in tonight
stressed syllable in tomorrow
short rising
short rising
two tone groups: we could see a movie tonight
or go out for ice cream
stressed syllable in movie
stressed syllable in ice cream
short rising
long falling
two tone groups: we could visit a museum this afternoon
or go to the zoo tomorrow
stressed syllable in museum
stressed syllable in zoo
short rising

Answer to Exercise 3.4


Workbook, Page 46

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

long falling
8. (a)
(b)
(c)

two tone groups: we could go to a movie


couldnt we
stressed syllable in movie
stressed syllable in couldnt
short falling
short rising

9. (a)
(b)
(c)

one tone group


stressed syllable in when
long falling

10. (a)
(b)
(c)

one tone group


stressed syllable in movie
long falling

11. (a)

two tone groups: you liked that movie


didnt you
stressed syllable in movie
stressed syllable in didnt
short falling
long falling

(b)
(c)

Answer to Exercise 3.4


Workbook, Page 47

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company

<FILE "app"
</TARGET
"4" "3">
"5"
"6"
"7"
"8"
"9"
"10"
"11"

BOOKMARK "Appendix:
"4.
"5.
"6.
"7.
"8.
"9.
"11.
"10. Finite
The
Grammatical
Lexical
Phrasal
Adverbials,
Information
Sentence
Internal
and
Semantics">
Linguistics
Structure
Semantics">
Nonfinite
Auxiliaries,
Categories
Structure
Structuring
and
in Clauses">
Language
Verb
and
ofand
and
Words
Sentence
Complementation">
Word
Speech
Teaching">
and
Classes">
Types">
Acts">
Processes of Word Formation in English">

Answer to Exercise 3.5

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

a.rom.a/a.ro.ma
al.ge.bra (al.geb.ra)
*lg not a possible initial cluster
ad.vo.cate (ad.voc.ate)
*dv not a possible initial cluster
kan.ga.roo
*ng not a possible initial cluster
ob.sti.nate (ob.stin.ate)
*bst not a possible initial cluster
cod.i.fy/co.di.fy (co.dif.y/cod.if.y)
al.ti.tude (al.tit.ude)
*lt not a possible initial cluster
du.pli.cate/dup.li.cate (du.plic.ate/dup.lic.ate)
ge.o.me.try/ge.om.e.try (ge.om.et.ry/ge.o.met.ry)
tem.per.ate/tem.pe.rate
*mp not a possible initial cluster
whi.skey/whis.key
in.teg.ri.ty/in.te.gri.ty (in.teg.rit.y/in.te.grit.y)
a.ppro.pri.ate/a.pprop.ri.ate
se.clu.sion/se.clus.ion
a.rith.me.tic (a.rith.met.ic)
*qm not a possible initial cluster
di.sci.pline/disc.i.pline (di.scip.line/disc.ip.line)
per.i.o.dic/pe.ri.o.dic (per.i.od.ic/pe.ri.od.ic)
ba.na.na/ba.nan.a
in.sin.u.ate/in.si.nu.ate
*ns not a possible initial cluster
nigh.ten.gale/night.en.gale
*ng not a possible initial cluster
in.stru.ment (in.strum.ent)
*ns not a possible initial cluster
ek.skla.ma.tion/ek.skl.mat.ion
(x = ks)
al.rea.dy/al.read.y
*lr not a possible initial cluster
con.dem.na.tion/con.dem.nat.ion
es.thet.ic/es.the.tic
*sq not a possible initial cluster

Answer to Exercise 3.5


Workbook, Page 48

Laurel J. Brinton The Structure of Modern English


John Benjamins Publishing Company