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National pipe thread

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Threaded pipe and elbow. The pipe has a male NPT thread, while the elbow's is female.
National Pipe Thread Taper (NPT) is a U.S. standard for tapered threads used on threaded pipes and
fittings. In contrast to straight threads that are found on a bolt, a taper thread will pull tight and therefore
make a fluid-tight seal. In America, William Sellers set the standard for nuts, bolts, and screws which
became the National Pipe Tapered Thread (NPT) in 1864.[1]

Contents

1 Usage

2 Specifications
o 2.1 Thread form
o 2.2 NPTF

3 Informal Subsets
o 3.1 MPT
o 3.2 FPT

4 Table of standard sizes

5 See also

6 References

7 Further reading

8 External links

Usage

Threaded pipes can provide an effective seal for pipes transporting liquids, gases, steam, and hydraulic
fluid. These threads are now used in materials other than steel and brass, including PTFE,[2] PVC, nylon,
bronze, and cast iron.
The taper on NPT threads allows them to form a seal when torqued as the flanks of the threads compress
against each other, as opposed to parallel/straight thread fittings or compression fittings in which the
threads merely hold the pieces together and do not provide the seal. As the thread body is tapered
(0.75 in/ft or 62.5 mm/m) a larger diameter keeps compressing into a smaller diameter and finally forms
a seal (no clearance remains between the crests and roots of the threads because of the taper). This
means that NPT fittings should be burr-free and lubricated using a lubricating material like lubricating
paste or tape. The use of tape also helps to limit corrosion on the threads, which otherwise can make
future disassembly nearly impossible.
Commonly used sizes are 18, 14, 38, 12, 34, 1, 1 14, 1 12, and 2 inch, appearing on pipes and fittings by
most U.S. suppliers. Sizes smaller than 18 inch are occasionally used for compressed air, while sizes
larger than 2 inches are uncommon, due to the use of alternative methods of joining that are used with
these larger sizes.

Specifications
NPT is defined by ANSI/ASME standard B1.20.1.[3]
Pipe threads are different from machine-screw and bolt threads. Those are designated NC (national
coarse) and NF (national fine.) The biggest difference is the taper on pipe threads.
The taper rate for all NPT threads is 1 in 16 (34 inch per foot or 62.5 millimeters per meter) measured by
the change of diameter (of the pipe thread) over distance. The angle between the taper and the center
axis of the pipe is tan1(132) = 1.7899 = 1 47 24.
Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is loosely related to the inside diameter of Schedule 40 pipe. Because of the
pipe wall thickness, the actual diameter of the threads is larger than the NPS, considerably so for small
NPS. Pipe of other schedules with a certain NPS has different wall thickness, but the same outside
diameter and thread profile as Schedule 40, so the inside diameter of the pipe is therefore different from
the NPS.

Thread form
NPTE and NPS threads have a 60 included angle and have a Sellers thread form (flattened peaks and
valleys).

NPTF
A semi-compatible variant called National Pipe Taper Fuel (NPTF), also called Dryseal American
National Standard Taper Pipe Thread, defined by ASME B1.20.3, is designed to provide a more leakfree seal without the use of teflon tape or other sealant compound. NPTF threads are the same basic
shape but with crest and root heights adjusted for an interference fit, eliminating the spiral leakage path.

Informal Subsets

MPT
MPT can mean Male Pipe Thread or Mechanical Pipe Thread (a non-tapered variety) and is a subset of
NPT for male connections.

FPT
FPT means Female Pipe Thread and is a subset of NPT for female connections.
Table of standard sizes

TPI
Threads per
Inch

Pitch
(inches or mm)

16

27

0.03703704 in or
0.9407 mm

27

0.03703704 in or
0.9407 mm

18

18

14

14

11-1/2

1 14

11-1/2

1 12

11-1/2

11-1/2

2 12

3 12

4 12

10

12

14

16

18

20

Pipe size
(inches)

8
4
8
2

0.0555 in or
1.4097 mm
0.05555555 in or
1.4111 mm
0.07142857 in or
1.8143 mm
0.07142857 in or
1.8143 mm
0.08695652 in or
2.2087 mm
0.08695652 in or
2.2087 mm
0.08695652 in or
2.2087 mm
0.08695652 in or
2.2087 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm
0.125 in or
3.1750 mm

NPT American Standard Pipe Thread Taper[4]


Approximate
Approximate
Approximate
total thread
Nominal outside
number of
length of thread
makeup,
pipe diameter OD
threads turns
(inches or mm)
hand and wrench
(inches or mm)
to be cut
(inches or mm)

Tap drill
(inches or mm)

0.313 in or 7.950 mm
3

8 in or 9.525 mm
5
8 in or
15.875 mm
5
8 in or
15.875 mm
3
4 in or
19.0500 mm
3
4 in or
19.0500 mm
7
8 in or
22.2250 mm
1 in or
25.4000 mm
1 in or
25.4000 mm
1 in or
25.4000 mm
1 12 in or
38.1000 mm
1 12 in or
38.1000 mm
158 in or
15.8750 mm
1 58 in or
41.2750 mm

1 34 in or
44.4500 mm
1 34 in or
44.4500 mm
1 78 in or
47.6250 mm
2 in or
50.8000 mm
2 18 in or
53.9750 mm

10

11

11

10
10
10
11
11
11
12
12
13
13

14
14
15
16
17

4 in or 6.350 mm
8 in or 9.525 mm
8 in or 9.525 mm
7
16 in or
11.1125 mm
1
2 in or
12.7000 mm
9
16 in or
14.2875 mm
9
16 in or
14.2875 mm
9
16 in or
14.2875 mm
5
8 in or
15.8750 mm
7
8 in or
22.2250 mm
1 in or
25.4000 mm
1 116 in or
26.9875 mm
1 116 in or
26.9875 mm

1 316 in or
30.1625 mm
1 316 in or
30.1625 mm
1 516 in or
33.3375 mm
1 12 in or
38.1000 mm
1 58 in or
41.2750 mm

R
0.339 in or
8.6106 mm

0.405 in or
10.287 mm
0.540 in or
13.716 mm
0.675 in or
17.145 mm
0.840 in or
21.3360 mm
1.050 in or
26.6700 mm
1.315 in or
33.4010 mm
1.660 in or
42.1640 mm
1.900 in or
48.2600 mm
2.375 in or
60.3250 mm
2.875 in or
73.0250 mm
3.500 in or
88.9000 mm
4.000 in or
101.6000 mm
4.500 in or
114.3000 mm
5.000 in or
127.0000 mm
5.563 in or
141.3002 mm
6.625 in or
168.2750 mm
8.625 in or
219.0750 mm
10.750 in or
273.0500 mm
12.750 in or
323.8500 mm
14.000 in or
355.6000 mm
16.000 in or
406.4000 mm
18.000 in
(457.2000 mm)
20.000 in
(508.0000 mm)

16 in or 11.113 mm

37

64 in or 14.684 mm
23
32 in or
18.2563 mm
59
64 in or
23.4156 mm
1 532 in or
29.3688 mm
1 12 in or
38.1000 mm
1 4764 in or
44.0531 mm
2 732 in or
56.3563 mm
2 58 in or
66.6750 mm
3 14 in or
82.5500 mm
3 34 in or
95.2500 mm
4 14 in or
107.9500 mm
4 34 in or
120.6500 mm
5 932 in or
134.1438 mm
6 1132 in or
161.1313 mm

24

0.125 in or
3.1750 mm

24.000 in
(609.6000 mm)

The difference between NPT, BSPP and BSPT


seals
Pressure systems in the process industry use different ways of sealing depending on the geographical
region, size of the pressure system and the environment. There are regional differences in sealing types
as well as industry preferences. For example, many pressure systems onboard ships use BSPP adapters
while many applications in the oil and gas industry use NPT fittings. While one sealing style is not
inherently better than another each style has its application.

NPT Connections
NPT (National Pipe Thread) seals are the most popular type of seal for pressure calibration systems in
the U.S. and Canada. NPT male adapters have a taper thread that wedges into the female NPT adapter.
They seal due to the out of roundness principle which means that the male stretches the female fitting
until there is so much force that the connection can hold pressure. One of the challenges with this design
is that if you connect stainless steel to stainless steel then over-tightening or poor lubrication can cause
gauling and damage to the threads. Thread sealant is needed to seal but only 2 turns of thread sealant is
required. Any more than that and the seal can leak around the thread sealant. Ralston Instruments has a
wide variety of male NPT adapters , male Quick-disconnect NPT adapters, male NPT calibrator
adapters, female NPT adapters, female NPT gauge adapters and female Quick-disconnect NPT gauge
adapters.

BSPT Connections
BSPT (British Standard Pipe Thread) is similar to NPT except for one important difference. The angle
across the flanks of threads (if you sliced the fitting in half long-ways and measured the angle from root
to crest to root) is 55 degrees instead of 60 degrees as it is for NPT. Thus an NPT male will fit into a

BSPT fitting or vice versa but they will not seal. This is a popular fitting in China and Japan but is very
rarely used in North America unless the equipment to which it is attached was imported. Thread sealant
is needed to seal the male and female fitting together. Ralston Instruments has adapters to both male
BSPT adapters and female BSPT adapters.

BSPP Connections
BSPP (British Standard Parallel Pipe) is most popular in the UK, Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand
and South Africa. It is a parallel thread fitting that uses a bonded seal ring to do the sealing. This bonded
ring seal is sandwiched in-between a shoulder on the male fitting and the face of the female fitting and is
squeezed in place. BSPP pressure gauges have a longer male thread and use a copper crush washer that
is squeezed in between the bottom of the male fitting and the bottom of the female BSPP hole forming a
pressure tight seal. No thread sealant is needed to form a seal. Ralston Instruments has male BSPP
adapters , female BSPP adapters, female BSPP gauge adapters, and female BSPP Quick-disconnect
gauge adapters.

NPT Male Quick-test Adapters

NPT Male Quick-connect Adapters

NPT Male Quick-test Pressure Calibrator Adapters

NPT Female Quick-test Adapters

NPT Female Quick-test Gauge Adapters

NPT Female Quick-connect Adapters

BSPT Male (RT) Quick-test Adapters

BSPT Female (RT) Quick-test Adapters

BSPP Male (RS) Quick-test Adapters

BSPP Female (RG) Quick-test Adapters

BSPP Female (RG) Quick-test Gauge Adapters

BSPP Female (RG) Quick-connect Adapters