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Hon

PHOTOGRAPHS

PICASSO MUSEUM, BARCELONA


\-*

vr

Corrida and six studies of doves, works created by


Picasso in Malaga in 1890. (20.2 x 13. 1 cm).
Picasso Museum, Barcelona.

THE GENIUS OF PICASSO

ventures followed

this orientation

throughout

his diff-

erent periods and experiences.

One

was

kind of painting

practised before the ap-

pearance of Picasso. After the revolutionary


vention

in

inter-

the world of plastic arts of the genius from

Malaga, there was another type of painting. As the


author of Guernica himself said,
art

is

not truth. Art

at least the truth

The

artist

must

is

lie

which

find the

is

that

"We now know

makes us

(...)

of convincing the public

of the entire veracity of his lies."

was always

realise truth,

given us to understand

way

that

The great

painter

substantially faithful to the creative co-

ordinates underlying this idea; Picasso's artistic

.ad-

To

find figures

comparable with Picasso

one must

of universal painting,
Vinci, Giotto,
ists

refer to

Velazquez and Goya

who made

the history

Leonardo da

to the great art-

creative conceptions

in

and opened up new paths

in

innovations

their respective periods

in

in

the field of plastic arts. Picasso never followed the

beaten

track,

numerable
oeuvre

is

nor

was he content with

admirable

marked:

"I

discoveries

do not search,

with
I

the

which

in-

his

find," he said.

He always advanced, despite what might seem to be


indicated to the contrary by his enriching variations

'

Portrait of the artist's friend

Copy of a

Pallares, painting. Pencil drawing,

charcoal, Barcelona,

Barcelona. 1895. 130.8 x 23.8


P.

cm

plaster cast. Art school drawing in


1895. 162.5 x

Agile sketch of the artist's father


Pencil drawing, Barcelona, 1895
119.5 * 13.5 cm). P.M.B.

47.5 cm).
P.

MB.

MB.

on one theme.

many

years

painter

It

Picasso

been

was 76 and had

considered

century

20th

the

of

"Everything
path.

When

justly

have done

the

he stated

just the first step

is

for

greatest
that,

on a long

only a preliminary process, which must be

is

developed

much

My works must

later on.

be considered each
taking into account

in relation

what

therefore

to the others,

always

have done and what

am

going to do."
Picasso's
affairs,

settling in
istic

life

the environments he lived

France

in,

his love

profoundly Spanish roots, his

his ideas, his

is

work, influencing

intimately linked with his art


it

in

one way

or another

and

always enriching
ist,

in

whom

predominant
biography

is

He was a profoundly humane art


was always overwhelmingly

it.

intuition

over

theoretical

knowledge.

thus absolutely crucial

one wishes

if

penetrate the complex content of his oeuvre.


not

in

vain that the painter himself declared: "I

develop,

The
The

artist

birth

His

It

to

was

do not

am."

was born in Malaga on October 25th 1881


was at 9 30 p.m. (according to Picasso

himself, although Palau

Fabre wrote

in

was

at

ordinary Life of Picasso that

number 36 (now

16),

it

Plaza de

beautiful provincial capital.

11.151,

Merced

la

As Palau

The Extra-

in

in

the

Fabre wrote

in

Family scene. Oil on canvas, painted in Corunna or


Barcelona in 1895. 113.8 x 22.1 cm). P.M.B.

the aforementioned work, "It

was

bad delivery and

was

the midwife took no notice of him, thinking he

dead, but his uncle Salvador, a doctor, blew smoke

him

in

from the cigarette he was smoking and made

his face
cry.

That

how

is

The new-born

managed to stay alive."


was baptised with the name

Picasso

child

Pablo.

The parents

of the great painter-to-be

were

called

Jose Ruiz Blasco and Maria Picasso Lopez.


an

father,

art teacher,

was

when

forty

His

the author of

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon was born. He was a


blond

man

tall,

with a happy, good-natured personality;

was apparently from New Castile and


Aragon. The mother, on the other hand, was a
his

family

brunette; her beautiful dark eyes

shone with a

lively

expression. According to Pierre Daix, "Her family had


settled

in

Malaga long before, although

sian origins

surname

spelling of the

the double
Picasso,

s;

is

although an

who

suspect possible

in

in

Spanish, due to

Matteo

Lola, born in 1884,

Picasso's) and

and Concep-

1887.

Jaime Sabartes (whose

some

life

was

closely linked with

of the painter's Catalan friends

on more than one occasion that Picasso was

much more
the

strange

Italian painter called

Genoa last century, has been


is however no reason allowing us to
Italian ancestry." The couple also

had two daughters,


cion ('Concha'),

to

Andalu-

lived in

discovered, there

insisted

their

cannot be established with certainty. The

like his

artist's

mother than

mother,

his father. Referring

Sabartes said that "Dona

more beautiful she was


good-natured, intelligent, a model of gracefulness
and wit; but Don Jose's character, sharpness and
personality matched his wife's merits and qualities...
Maria's virtues

It

made

her

was undoubtably from

his

mother, nevertheless,

that Picasso inherited the refinement,

and natural grace that characterise him.

Copy of a fragment of
panel, Barcelona,

Estudi de

1895. 122.3 x

Mas

good temper
If,

however,

Fontdevila. Oil

13.7cm). P.M.B.

on

La virgen
Virgin

and

me perdone ("May

Mary

watercolour, Barcelona, 1895-

96. 127.5

we

Sketch for Vieja recibiendo aceite de un


monaguillo ("Old Woman receiving Oil from an

the

forgive me"). Pencil

Altar Boy").

Pen and

19.7cm). P.M.B.

when he is
when people

observe his involuntary expressions

nervous, impatient, tired or annoyed,

when something interrupts his work,


we can recognise Don Jose; but with one difference
what irritated his father was actually painting!"
importune him,

Pablo Picasso, on the contrary,


necessity to paint, throughout his
his

reason

the playful

for living,

and also

felt
life.

an overriding
Painting

his greatest joy:

was

thence

reflected in his best works.

spirit

The family moved to La Corufia (Corunna) in


September 1891 It seems that they were not at all enthusiastic about the move. But, as Pablo Picasso was
to recall many years later, "Although my father felt
.

ink.

(20

15.9cm).

P.

MB

very disheartened, for


great fun."
boat,

They

me

de un

receiving

the journey to Corunna

travelled

and continued by land

vince. Picasso

Woman

Oil from an Altar Boy"). OH on


canvas affixed to board. Barcelona.
20.2cm). P.M.B.
1896 129 2

Barcelona. 1895-96
n

Vieja recibiendo aceite

monaguillo ("Old

was almost

was

from Malaga to Vigo by


to the capital of the pro

ten years old; he

felt

happy

contemplating the green landscapes of Galicia.

The Ruiz Picasso family occupied number 14, Calle


Payo Gomez Charino, a three storey stone building
where in 1971 a marble tablet was placed, reading:
Pablo Ruiz Picasso lived and painted in this house,
1891 1895

."

These four years

in

tensively studied;
capital

is,

the painter's

life

have not been ex-

the period spent

in

the Galician

however, of considerable importance

in his

development,
Detail of

123.5 *

Houses. Oil on canvas, Barcelona, 1896.


29.4 cm). P. MB.

began

to

for

father had taught

Beach. Oil on canvas, Barcelona, 1896. 124.4


P.

34 cm).

MB

was

living in

him

in

Corunna

that

Picasso

his extraordinary faculties. His

to draw;

one day, when the

Corunna, as Palau

Fabre wrote,

teacher, realised that his son, the pupil,

Salon del Prado. Oil on panel, Madrid, 1896 or 1897.


15 5 cm). P.M.B.

portal gotico ("Man leaning


Gothic Doorway"). Oil on canvas, Barcelona, 1896.
120.2 x 12.8cm). P.M.B.

was

"There occurred an unwonted event: the

father, the

knew more

than him, and that he could not teach him any more

(10

Hombre apoyado en un

family

it

demonstrate

in

Corner of San Pablo del

Campo

cloister. Oil

Barcelona, 1896. 115.5 *

on panel,
P.M.B

10.1 cm).

not only that, but that his son could give him

lessons. That day

Don Jose handed over

his palette, his easel,

all

his brushes,

his painting instruments, to

and never painted again. From then on he

several occasions

him

in

whether there were drawings by

the Galician

city,

many.

saying that there must be


-*-

only used his pencils for correcting his pupils' draw-

The Orzan bay and Hercules' Tower, Picasso was to


say, "are dearly beloved places for me." At thirteen

ings

years of age he wrote, as the caption of a caricature

his son,

It

in

was

class."
also

hibition.

in

Corunna

Later,

that Picasso had his

first

ex-

when he was famous, he asked on

which he had drawn

skirts swirling in the

in

storm 10

vento do Fisterre zoando alporizadoj, "The wind has

Colour study. Crayon drawing, Barcelona, 1896.


147.5 x 31 cm). P.M.B.

Colour study. Charcoal and crayon drawing, Barcelona,


1896. 160 x 47cm). P.M.B.

Sketch of the Painter's Mother, his Sister Lola, and two


Hands. Pen and ink, Barcelona, 1895-96.
122.1 *

16.2 cm). P.

MB.

in turn, and will continue blowing until there is


no trace of Corunna."
Although he had already begun in Malaga, it was in

got up

the Galician period (1891-1895) that Picasso really

devoted himself to drawing doves,


with

time

was

to

become

his

symbol

that

representation

the

of

universal love of peace. Another interesting facet of

the painter's restless activity

in

the four years he lived

Corunna was the creation of magazines of only one


copy, which he edited, directed, wrote and illustrated, such as "Torre de Hercules," "La Coruna"
and "Azul y Blanco."
in

Corunna thus has the honour


it

were fostered the

of being the city that as

as a child, the environment

artist

where Pablo Picasso's creative genius began

to

crystallise.

Picasso's youngest sister, Concepcion, died

na towards the end of 1894;

in

in

Corun-

October the following

year his father took up his appointment at the School


of Fine Arts in Barcelona,

exchanging

his post in the

named Novarro Garcia.


The move to Barcelona was to prove decisive in
Picasso's artistic training. In 1895 he was admitted to
Galician capital with a teacher

La Lonja, where his father taught: he passed the entrance examination without any difficulty.

Pablo Picasso's

shared

it

in

Fabre, "These

this period;

were months

violent

throughout
Charity,

was

studio

in

Calle

with Manuel Pallares. The

tremely hard

almost

first

work,

as

for

fell

was

year Picasso entered the

ill;

to

be

Soon

in

case

the

Madrid.

Academia de

In

at

the

Bellas

afterwards, however,

by invitation of his friend Pallares, he rested

some time

at the latter's

house

in

Horta d'Ebre, a

village in the district of Terra Alta. Later,

The

he

artist worked exwords of Palau

work obtained honourable mention

Artes de San Fernando.

he

Plata;

of intensive, compelling,

the General Exhibition of Fine Arts

same

la

1897 he painted Science and

his life." In

this

the

in

de

Artist's Father. Pen, ink

and

1895-96 115

Picasso

was

aquatint, Barcelona,

16

5cm).

PMB

-^^

*"-

"*-

<}&

"
:

tmm
Portrait of Maria Picasso Lopez, the Artist's

Watercolour, pen and


1896. 118 M 12.5 cm). P. MB.

Profile.

Mother,

Portrait of Maria Picasso Lopez, the Artist's

in

and pencil, Barcelona,

ink,

Pastel, Barcelona.

comment that "All that know, learned in Horta


He painted Aragonese Customs there:
won a medal in Madrid and another in the city where
the artist was born, Malaga.
to

d'Ebre."

When

it

Picasso

had recovered from

returned to Barcelona, where he


the lively group of artists

who

his

made

illness

contact with

used to meet

in

Els

in

in

favourable article
1900,

in

February

'La Vanguardia'

commenting on

year-old youth

This

he was the

first

1900.

With

Fabre wrote.

on February 3rd
to perceive his

was a particularly felicitous period in Picasso's


He left us valuable testimony of these happy

Casagemas, Reventos and others dated from

days: a pen drawing showing the

The

MB.

the painting of this eighteen-

life.

1166

P.

Barcelona, precisely at

Sabartes, the sculptor Manolo, the painter Junyer,


this

Mother.

39cm).

"Rodriguez Codola published an extensive, highly

genius."

Jaime

exhibition

reference to this exhibition, as Palau

ment run by Pere Romeu. His

friendship with

first

Quatre Gats," was

Quatre Gats ("The Four Cats"), a popular establish-

artist,

surrounded

by a group of friends seated drinking and smoking

period.

'

he

Picasso's
"Els

1896. 149.8 *

First

Communion. Oil on canvas, Barcelona, 1896


P.M.B

118 cm).

The

Jose Ruiz Blasco, the Artist's Father.


Waterco/our, Barcelona, 1896. (18 x 11.8 cm). P.M.B.

Portrait of

around

table,

with

his

bearded, with overcoat and

black

hair

dishevelled,

and wearing

stick,

a large

Artist's Father. Waterco/our, Barcelona, 1896.


(25.5 x 17.8 cm). P.M.B.

return to Barcelona.

Two months

undertaking to deliver

hat.

was nineteen when, accompanied by his


Casagemas (who committed suicide in 1901),

Picasso

return for 150 francs a

friend

In

he undertook the adventure of conquering


that

time the

friends set

up

artistic

capital

their studio at

ceded to them by

of

number 49

Isidro Nonell,

Paris, at

Europe. The two


rue Gabrielle,

who had

decided to

later

Picasso signed

a contract with the Catalan art dealer Pere


all

Manyac,

the work he produced

in

month.

the fascinating atmosphere of Paris at the beginn-

soon became one of the


most active residents of Montmartre. He lived in the
famous Bateau- Lavoir until 1904, alongside such
figures as Andre Salmon, Cornelius van Dongen and
ing of the century, Picasso

and

Utrillo in

Pel

Barcelona. This

May and

held a joint exhibition of 75 works with

Period,

was the beginning of Picasso's Blue


which was to last from the end of 1901 to

rino in the gallery of the

Juan

Gris;

resided

but

alternately

Paris

in

Picasso visited Malaga at the end of 1901

he was

founded

("Young

short-lived

the

magazine

Art"). In April of the

they

A few

same

Arte

year he

Joven

moved

in

the Sala

on panel, Barcelona. 1896


13.7 cm). P.M.B.

Self-Portrait. Oil

Self Portrait with

46

cm

to

were glowingly appraised by Miguel

(22.1

155.8

days

Madrid, where with Francisco Soler he

in

Barcelona and exhibited a series of pastels


Pares:

Ploma. The painter returned to Paris

famous

art dealer

in

Itur

Ambroise

Vollard.

early 1905.

later

Wig.
P.

MB

Oil

on panel, Barcelona, 1896

In

1904,

when

met the poet

living at

the Bateau-Lavoir, Picasso

Apollinaire. In this period

very interested

in

he began to be

the world of the circus: he incor-

porated circus figures into his paintings, thus beginn-

Rose Period. This was also the time he began


his works to North American buyers (Gertrude

ing the
to sell

Science and Charity. Oil on canvas, Barcelona, 1897.


(197 x 249.5 cm). P.M.B.

among

Stein,
Olivier,

with

others),

whom

longest, and artistically


that time Fernande

and when he met Fernande

he was to establish one of

most

fruitful,

his

love affairs. At

was experiencing

the

drama

of

was "Small,

dark,

thick-set,

restless,

disquieting,

with eyes dark, profound, piercing, strange, almost


staring.

Awkward

gestures, the hands of a

poorly dressed, badly groomed.

woman,

thick lock of hair,

seeing her sculptor husband succumbing to madness,

black and shining, slashed across his intelligent and

and her relationship with Picasso did not commence

obstinate forehead. Half bohemian, half

until later

on, towards the end of the Rose Period.

She

us

left

an

invaluable

written

description

Picasso at the beginning of the century:

in

of

her eyes he

his dress, his long hair

brushed the

workman

collar of his

in

worn-

out jacket...."
Picasso's personal and artistic character

was becom-

Sketch for Science and Charity. Oil on panel, Barcelona,


1897 119.5 x 27.2cm). P. MB.

Sketch for Science and Charity.


1897 113.6

22.4cm)

P.

Oil

on

Sketch for Science and Chanty.

Oil

on canvas, Barcelona,
26cm). P.

MB

1897 123.8

panel. Barcelona,

MB.

Sketch

for

Science and Charity. Watercolour. Barcelona.


28 A cm) P.M.B
1897 122 8

ing firmly defined in this period.

As

well as frequent-

ing foreign figures of the world of art

who came

and

literature

(Max Jacob,
Apollinaire, Van Dongen and many other names that
are famous nowadays), the painter from Malaga surrounded himself with Spaniards resident in Paris.
They formed the group known as "La Bande
to

the

Bateau-Lavoir

Street Violinist. Pencil and watercolour, Madrid, 1897-98.


(23.5 x 33.5 cm). P.M.B.

*W0.
Brawl

in

a Cafe. Black

99. (22.9 x

and red

33.5cm). P.M.B.

crayon, Barcelona,

1897-

Picasso": the sculptors Manolo


rio,

Hugue and Paco

Ramon

Pitxot,

Dur-

Ricardo Canals,

the painters Ignacio Zuloaga,

and others.

1907 was a particularly interesting,~"significant year


Picasso's

painted

artistic

one

of

development.
his

That

spring

in

he

most famous canvases, Les

Demoiselles a"Avignon. This work has no direct

Couple from Behind.

Pencil, Madrid,

(24.3 x

rela-

1897-98.

16.5 cm). P.M.B.

La Chata. Charcoal, warerco/our and gouache. Barcelona.


1899 131.6
7.6 cm). P.

MB

Avignon in France, but was a


memories of a certain brothel

tion with the city of


result of the artist's

located

in

Carrer Avino, Barcelona. This

is

often cited

as the starting point of Picasso's Cubist phase.

same year

the

In

the painter entered into relations with

who was

Georges Braque and Kahnweiler,

to

become

his exclusive dealer.


It

was

also

terested

in this

period that Picasso began to be

Negro

in

art:

its

profound

naive,

in-

ex-

was to open up new seams of inspiration


Cubism and Negro art were the predominant
influences in these years of intense work for the

pressiveness
for him.

His

painter.

was

conception

aesthetic

constantly

enriched and renewed; his technique reached a point


of unsurpassable perfection. In this period Picasso's

creations

were

was

to

shaped

clearly

preoccupations.

by

His fascinating

be prolonged

until 1911,

his

theoretical

Cubism

Analytical

when

it

gave way

rigorous conceptualism, admirably expressed

to
his

in

work.

These were extraordinarily busy years in Picasso's


life; he visited Barcelona on several occasions. The
artist

the

exhibited
In

summer

spent the

company

works

of 1909 at Horta d'Ebre,

Fernande

of

at the

Olivier.

in

That same year he

Tannhauser Gallery

Munich.

in

1910 he stayed at Cadaques for a while,

accom

panied by Fernande Olivier and Derain, and painted


several Cubist portraits,

among them

Picasso spent the three following


with Manolo Hugue,

had appeared

Humbert. He called
towards the end

1913.

in

in

year earlier a

Picasso's

his lover Eva;

Max
new

Marcelle

life:

she died

of 1915. Curiously

never painted Marcelle, although he


traits of his

at Ceret.

Braque, Juan Gris and

Jacob. His father died

woman

that of Vollard.

summers

in

hospital

enough, Picasso

made many

por

other companions. In 1912 he had exhibit

pyCjRi*,,*'
WBmmmmtmt^mk
The Divan. Charcoal, paste/ and crayon, Barcelona,
(25 x 29 cm). P.M.B.

1899.

warn

The

Artist's

Sister Lola.

Charcoal and
crayon,
Barcelona,
1899
144 29 cm).

MB

'

II

*L-4%'>!iyfrjrc:

Two sketches of Seated Women. Pencil on cover of a


notebook, Barcelona, 1899. (23 x 16.8 cm). P.M.B.

ions at the Stafford Gallery

Dalmau

in

in

London and

Woman,

Seated

reading. Waterco/our, Barcelona,

(19 x

at Galerias

and curtain

Hat and

Barcelona.

were dispersed when the tragedy of


World War broke out. The only ones to reParis were the sculptor Gargallo and Max

for

Parade and the sets of Three- Cornered

Pulcinella. Picasso's

work with the magnifi-

was to extend over


make friends with the

Picasso's friends

cent Russian dance group, which

the

several years, enabled him to

First

main

in

Jacob,
In

who was

certified unfit for military service.

1916, at the height of the war, Jean Cocteau put

great ballerina Olga Koklova: they


1918, with

1899.

14cm). P.M.B.

were married

Max Jacob and Jean Cocteau

in

as best

men.

Picasso into contact with Diaghilev and the leading

At the end of the war, Picasso was attracted to the

members

col-

Surrealist

movement: he

costumes

plorations

in

of

laborated with

the

Ballets

The

Russes.

them by designing the

sets,

artist

carried out audacious ex-

the plastic arts.

Andre Breton himself

Jt~7i *0hJJt>

MRflBI

Portrait of Sebastian Junyer Vidal, in profile. Lead pencil,


crayons and waterco/our on glazed paper, Barcelona,
1899. (21

later
ture,

Portrait of Carlos

Oil on canvas, Barcelona,


1899. (55 x 45 cm). P.M.B.

Casagemas.

16 cm). P. MB.

declared

in his

essay Le Surrealisme et

"That the position held by us

been delayed or

determination

lost

now

depended only on

of

this

man.

la Pein-

could have

a failure in the

His

admirable

In

1935 Picasso and Olga Koklova separated: he ap-

plied for a divorce, but his wife refused.

was

born. Picasso had

met Marie-Therese by chance;

perseverance was for us such a valuable pledge that

the

we do

several superb sculptures.

not need to recur to any other authority."

1924 was another important year

Picasso's artistic

in

development: he began the series of


continued

in

1925.

The

artist

took part

still

in

lifes

that

the exhibit-

That same

year MaVa, his daughter by Marie-Therese Walter,

curves of her body were the inspiration for

full

Still in

1935, the poet Paul

Eluard introduced him to Dora Maar, a painter and

photographer active

in

Surrealist circles:

relationship with her lasted for

some

Picasso's

years,

ion of Surrealist paintings organised at Galerie Pierre

painted several magnificent portraits of her.

Loeb

also

In

in

Paris in 1925.

1931 he illustrated Balzac's Le Chef-d'oeuvre In-

connu ("The Unknown Masterpiece") and Ovid's


Metamorphoses; from 1927 to 1937 he created the
extraordinary

dred

series

known

of

etchings

as the Vollard Suite.

about a hun-

It

was

1935 that he engraved the Minotauromachie

in

series,

and he

and that

his friend

Jaime Sabartes became

his

secretary.

was appointed

Picasso
in

most

Director of the Prado

Museum

The following year he painted Guernica, his


famous picture, commissioned by the

1936.

Republican Government of Spain,


the

bolised

horrors

which he sym-

based on the brutal

war,

of

in

destruction of this Basque city by the Nazi

air

force.

Picasso presented a magnificent exhibition at the

Museum

of

Modern

Art

New

in

York

in

1939. His

satisfaction with the resounding success of the exhibition

was diminished

towards the end


Picasso

was

at

Royan

by

Spanish

of the
in

France

troops occupied the town.

mother's

his
Civil
in

death

when

Hitler's

His secretary Sabartes

recorded the painter's comments: "They are another

They

think they are very smart

race.

are;

they have

Nude

Woman

made

from behind.

Barcelona. 1899. 161.8

P.M.B.

progress...

Pencil,

47.5 cm).

It

and maybe they


is

true,

In

any case,

do. At bottom,

if

we

certainly paint better than they

you look

carefully, they are very

stupid. All those troops, those machines, that

and that uproar

to get here!

We

but so

What nonsense! Who was preventing them


like us? Maybe they think they have conquered Paris. But we took Berlin a long time ago,
noise...

don't think they

will

be able to eject us from there." Picasso was trying to


be optimistic, but
the
In

his

German

at

bottom he was deeply upset by

troops' occupation.

1946 Picasso met Francoise

companion

Carter. Pencil, Barcelona,

132.1 x

power

arrived with less

from acting

without moving from here, and

War.

1940

what?

1897-99

24.6cm). P.M.B

for

some

Gilot,

who was

to

years. After their liaison

be

was

Nude Woman, seated. Pencil,


Barcelona, 1899. 147.6 x 31.6 cm).
P.M.B.

\f

Picador and monosabio (assistant). Pen, ink and


watercolour. Barcelona, 1899. 133.8 x 23.4cm). P. MB.

over, Gilot published a fierce

book about her relations


Olivier), in which she

with Picasso (as did Fernande

described the

"Dark

as follows:

artist

some

animal.

Now,

or

bored

a hand-

and absent look

his greying hair

distracted

either

bright

hair,

flashing eyes, very squarely built, rugged

gave

him

me

of

withdrawn, Oriental appearance that reminded


the statue of the Egyptian scribe

was nothing

sculptural or fixed

in

the Louvre. There

manner

in his

of

mov-

however: he gesticulated, he twisted and turned,

ing,

he got up, he moved rapidly back and forth."


Picasso participated
first

time

in

in

the Salon

he became keenly interested


Vallauris (a

d'Automne

for the

1944, presenting over 70 works. In 1947

town

was

that

1950)

and

tory,

working intensely as

He

pottery.

in

to

settled at

name him freeman

practically took over the

Ramie

a potter.

in

family's fac-

In

charming

Romanesque church at Vallauris there are two large


murals by Picasso, War and Peace, dating from this
period.

The

artist's relations

with Francoise Gilot ended

1953; Olga Koklova, his wife, died

Picasso met Jacqueline Roque,


his

second wife

number

in

1958. In

all

in

in

1955. In 1954

who was

to

become

the painter lived with a

and two wives, but he had only


Paulo, whose mother was the ballerina

of lovers,

four children:

Olga; Maia, by Marie-Therese Walter; and Claude and

Paloma, with Francoise

by
In

his

second lawful

Gilot.

He had no descendants

wife.

1957 Picasso began work on Las Meninas ("Maids

of Honour"),

which he exhibited

Leiris, Paris, in

at the Galerie

Louise

The 58 canvases making up the


were painted in little more than

1959.

Las Meninas series


four months.

Portrait of Ramon Reventbs, the Writer. Watercolour,


charcoal and pencil, Barcelona, 1899. (66 5 30 I cm).

P.M.B.

fi

Portrait of

Santiago Rusinol

and

Caricature of

Ramon

Pitxot.

Pen, ink

and

aquatint,

Barcelona,
1890- 1900.

(32.2 x 22 cm).

P.M.B.

Portrait of

Hermenegildo Anglada Camarasa. Pen, ink and


1899-1900. 110.6 x 9.5cm). P. MB.

aquatint, Barcelona,

After attending a bullfight at Aries, the artist executed

the 26 aquatints making up the series entitled Jose

Delgado's (Pepe

lllo's)

Tauromachy or the Art of

Bullfighting.

Picasso then bought the chateau at Vauvenargues


and painted several canvases in which he seems to
have been inspired by the surrounding landscape; he
put them on exhibition

in

January 1963.

June 1961 he had moved to Notre-Dame-de-Vie


farmhouse, at Mougins, where he continued the
In

series of pictures inspired

I'herbe

by Manet's Dejeuner sur

("Luncheon on the grass"), which had been

commenced

Vauvenargues.

at

Between March and June 1963 Picasso painted over


forty works comprising the series known as The
Painter and his Model. He was then at the height of
his creative fever, and went so far as to say that
"Painting

what

it

is

stronger than me;

it

obliges

me

to

do

wants."

For this

artist

painting

like

it

was

as

if

time stood

still:

he continued

young man when he was over eighty

years old, his inspiration astonishingly fresh,

full

of

dominating technical problems as always

vivacity,

with the unique mastery of a genius.


In

1966 and 1967 Picasso untiringly produced draw-

ings, as

if

he had a premonition that

and wanted

end was near


much graphic

his

to leave to posterity as

In the words of
were "drawings evincing a completely transformed Picasso; drawings in which the
materials and techniques pencil, crayon, ink,
gouache - are combined and interchanged in the

testimony of
Palau

his

genius as possible.

Fabre, these

most unforeseeable ways,

just as fantastic

and

realist

Santiago Rusifiol. Pen, ink and aqti.itmt.


Barcelona, 1899-1900. 110.3 9.2cm)

Portrait of

PMB

Portrait of Utrillo. Pen, ink

and gouache, Barcelona,

Portrait of Oriol Marti. Pencil,

pen and

1899-1900. (16.6 x

1899-1900. (7.8 x 8.5cm). P.M.B.

ink,

Barcelona,

11.3cm). P.M.B

elements and the most diverse periods and per-

Grand-Palais and the Petit-Palais presented an an-

sonages are fused and mixed.

thological collection of

Picasso

left far

behind

all

the polemics about abstract

and representational

art,

elements employed

brings

substratum, which

is in

these drawings

In

for

each of the expressive


with

it

meaning,

conflict with the others

on the

paper, the whole creating a world of suggestions going

way beyond

representation

and

the

object

represented."
After Picasso had undergone a gall bladder operation
1965,

the following

homage

to the painter

in

year a

great exhibition

was organised

in

Paris:

in

the

visited

some 500 works, which was

by over a million people.

Picasso's production from 1966 to 1970 totalled

some

500 drawings, about 350 engravings, some 200 paintings and a large quantity of pottery.

An

exhibition

show

in

which Picasso (by then 88 years

old)

was inaugurated in the


Popes' Palace in Avignon on May 1st 1970. The year
after, when he was ninety, a number of his works
were exhibited in the Louvre Museum. Picasso died at
his Mougins residence on April 8th 1973.
put on

140 paintings

Caricature of Joaquin Mir. Pen, ink


Barcelona, 1899-1900. (9 x

and watercolour.
7.9cm). P.M.B

Cerveseria = Cafe = Restaurant

BARCEJ.UNA

u.

Pere Rometi

/HESIK\

pa^k-^,.-

Printed menu of "Els Quatre Gats." Barcelona, 1899-1900.


(21.8 x 32.8 cm). P.M.B.

THE BLUE PERIOD

of

age went beyond

humane
This phase of Picasso's work

was

characterised by

the personal sadness and the melancholy surroundings of the world of figures, isolated from the banquet
of

life,

Pierre Daix wrote,

nation

hell

or

Period

independent

he was so
keeping his

as a painter."

known as the Blue


autumn of 1901. His

Picasso's oeuvre

of

was

spirit

if

in

initiated

in

the

however, "Picasso's plunge into

the figurative style of painting prevalent at the time,

on

humanistic plunge of a
fellows,

part

canvases, and

vigorous creative personality led him to diverge from

in his

had nothing to do with

religion;

sanity, his

The

his

was because he succeeded

As

that the painter portrayed

the blue

it

the

canvases.

self-pity, resig-

contrary,

it

was

man who contemplates

and shows them

the
his

to us after having studied

the spectacle himself. For this youth of twenty years

conferring

an

decidedly

independent,

character on his works. Picasso wrote to

from Barcelona, referring to


artists

here find that there

enough form,

in

my

his

is

pictures:

"blue" painting: "The

too
it

original

Max Jacob

is

much

soul,

and not

very funny." There

was

certainly a lot of soul in the artist's

the Blue Period (which

was

to extend

1901 to late 1904); but there

was

canvases of

from autumn

also characteristic

form which, shunning Impressionist techniques, expressed

ages

in

rigorous condensation of the im-

itself in a

compact

blocks, always

Picasso lived alternately

in

Paris

on a

dull blue

ground.

and Barcelona

for the

duration of the Blue Period, over three years.


Pierre Daix

worked

wrote

like a

in his

slave

in

biography of the painter,

both

cities.

This

that he lived in the greatest poverty,

every winter." This


ing

is

was

As
"He

the time

and was cold

certainly a relevant detail, help-

us to understand the genesis of the pictures

Picasso painted

in

these years.

Of the works painted from 1901 to 1904

we

should

Woman

mention

with sick Child, a picture brimming

with tenderness, painted


the Picasso

Museum

best-known works

in

belonging to the Cleveland


there
in

is

on paper, kept

pastel

Barcelona; La

Vie,

of the Blue Period,

a sketch in

Museum

which the

oil

one

on canvas,

of Art (in

traits of

in

of the

London

the male figure

the foreground recall those of Picasso himself);

Celestine, a

work

of extraordinary purity,

vas, in a private collection in Paris;


quin,

oil

oil

on can-

The Pensive Harle-

on canvas, painted in 1901 but apparently


until 1927, which can be considered as

not signed

corresponding to the transition to the Blue Period,

now

in

Art,

New

the collection of the Metropolitan

York;

The Old

Guitarist,

oil

stylised lines, belonging to the Bartlett

Study for the menu of "Els Quatre


Mateu Fernandez de Soto and a study for the
Gats." Pen, ink and blurred conte menu of "Els Quatre Gats." Pencil, pen and ink,
crayon, Barcelona, 1899- 190V.
Barcelona, 1899-1900. 132.1 x 22.7 cm)
146.7 K 30.8cm). P.M.B.
P.

MB

in

Museum

of

on panel, of
collection and

menu of "Els Quatre


Gats." Pencil, Barcelona,
1899-1900. 143
31 cm) P.M.B

Sketch

for the

-^^a

Juan Vidal y Ventosa. Charcoal and


watercolour, Barcelona, 1899-1900. (47.6 x 27.6 cm).
Portrait of

P.M.B.

kept

in

the Art Institute of Chicago; The Old Jew,

on canvas,

of

similar

mentioned work,
Fine Arts,

the Pushkin State

in

Moscow; and The Soler

ing composition in

Museum.

characteristics

oil

to

the

oil

Museum

of

Family, a charm-

on canvas, kept

in

THE ROSE PERIOD

last-

the Liege

The passage from the Blue Period to the Rose Period


caused several changes in Picasso's aesthetics. The
colours of his palette became lighter, and the vision of
the world offered to us

is

also less sombre. There

is

"

Self Portrait
Pencil, Barcelona.

1899- 1900.

133.6

23.2 cm)

P.M.B

and sketch for the Caja de Prevision y


Socorro poster. Pencil and watercolour, Barcelona,
1899-1900. (22.3 x 32 cm). P.M.B.

Self- Portrait

playful feeling in the

Rose Period,

in

some way

herited from the Golden Age, so that Picasso's

overcame the

hostile

in-

works

environment. His models were

also different from those of the Blue Period. Alberto

Martini wrote that the painter


his

language of

all

endeavoured

symbolical implications, tending

towards a limpid classicism of form, the


ed by exquisite

profiles.

lines

Study

P.M.B.

now mov

de Prevision y Socorro poster. Pencil,


Barcelona, 1899-1900. 132.2 x 22.5 cm).

for the Caja


ink,

mould-

From being the instrument

expressing painful pathos, the composition

pen and

to "strip

The

1899 1900.

Artist's Sister Lola. Pencil, Barcelona,

P MB.

32 cm)

148.4

ed towards harmonious, elegant rhythms, subtly ac-

companied by a discreet commentary in


artist
had succeeded in calming his

colour; the

emotional

violence for a while, and found notes of serenity and


carefree gaiety

depicting the

in

life

of the circus,

horsemen and tightrope walkers."


The Rose Period began in the summer of 1904 and
lasted until 1905. Picasso's aesthetical change coacrobats, jugglers,

incided with his establishing his painting studio

Bateau- Lavoir,
time the

artist

in

had settled permanently

as Pierre Daix observed,

in

the

in

Rue Ravignan. This was the

first

Paris and,

"The correspondence

bet-

ween his new life and the modifications in his painting


was not arbitrary. In Picasso the expression of his art
is

'a

always related to the circumstances of

way

of

keeping one's

own

diary,'

his

life,

as

he said

it

is

himself." His entry into contact with Gertrude Stein

and her brother Leo, which occurred

in this

period,

was

on

modus

a factor with a positive influence

his

two North Americans were persons with


a solid financial position and through them, Picasso
was able to sell his works for substantial quantities of
money, for the first time in his life.
The stylistic transformation in Picasso's oeuvre corvivendi: the

responding to the Rose Period was


Actor,

an

oil

winter of 1904,
Art,

New

initiated

now

in

the Metropolitan

oil

ional Gallery at

of the

in

the Nat

Washington. This very beautiful

Rose Period.

It

depicts a family of travelling

their journey.

The

six figures

depicted with singular poetic mastery: a heavily

clown, no longer young, painted


a

pic-

with justice considered to be the masterpiece

acrobats resting on

with

of

painting on canvas, dated 1905,

belonging to the Dale Collection and kept

is

the

in

Museum

York; and concluded with Family of Saltim-

banques, a large

ture

with The

painting on canvas executed

romantic appearance,

adorned with multicoloured

in red;

are

built

a harlequin

wearing a costume

triangles;

an adolescent

Seated Woman with Shawl. Charcoal and pastel on


glazed paper, Barcelona, 1899- 1900. (23 x 26 cm).
P.M.B.

Sketch. Pencil, watercolour and pastel,


Barcelona, 1900. 110.5 * 6cm). P.M.B.

Sketch. Pastel. Paris. 1900


6 cm). P.M.B.

110.5 x

with slender hips;

woman

two

and

children;

wearing a red

skirt

and

hat adorned with red flowers.

a beautiful

young

broad yellow straw

The atmosphere

is

im-

pregnated with delicate pink tones. The whole

is

balanced, serene, elegantly beautiful. The composition

and colour make up an

artistic

ensemble

full

of

110.5 *

in

the background,

Staechelin
Basle;

exhibited

Foundation)

at

Boy Leading a Horse,

Paley collection

(New

York);

Zacks collection (Toronto);


in

collection

(New

York); The

Two

Brothers,

oil

on can

loan

from the

the

Kunstmuseum

work

of fine, lyrical col-

Nude: Fernande

Self- Portrait

a Cafe, an intensely coloured

oil

the

Olivier,

the proprietor appears


ture, playing a guitar

York); and

in
in

as Harlequin

painting on can-

vas, set in the "Lapin agile" cabaret in

Montmartre

the background of the picthe Payson collection

Clown and small Acrobat,

and watercolour on paper,


of Art.

in

in

recalls figures of primitive Iberian art, in the

gouache on paper, painted in


Schoorldam, where Picasso spent a month in 1905,
belonging to the National Museum of Modern Art,
Paris; Youth crowned with Flowers, oil on canvas,
which began as a simple portrait of a young worker
but was later modified by the artist, in the Whitney
Girls,

(on

ours counterpointed by the vigour of the forms,

Other characteristic works of the Rose Period include

The Three Dutch

6cm). P.M.B.

and intense colours

vas, displaying archaic simplicity

which

rhythm.

Sketch. Pastel, Paris. 1900.

in

(New

charcoal, pastel

the Baltimore

Museum

The Embrace.
Paris,

(59 x 35 cm).

y>

ty"t*s

Pastel,

1900.
P.

M.

B.

In

the Dressing

Room.

Pastel. Paris,

(48 * S3 cm).

P.

1900.

MB

White by a Window (Lola in the Studio in Calle


de San Juan). Oil on canvas, Barcelona, 1900.
(55.5 x 46 cm). P. MB.

Girl in

Riera

Window.

Oil

on canvas,

Paris,

1900. (50 x

32.5 cm).

P.M.B.

GOSOL, A
PICASSO

NEW ADVENTURE FOR

it

with monumental dimensions

The
Towards the
Picasso

late

made

in

no way conforming

to classical proportions."

summer and

early

autumn

a daring excursion along

path that greatly enriched his

artistic

of 1906,

an aesthetic

production.

In

Portrait of Gertrude Stein

returned from Gosol

work

of this

new

the words of Alberto Martini, "With the powerfulness

When

and the elementary forms of Catalan Romanesque

that the portrait

chitecture and,

in

particular,

of

pre-Roman

ar-

Iberian

begun

winter of 1905-1906 and altered

it

is

period

in

when

Paris in the

the painter

considered to be the
in

first

Picasso's production.

was suggested to the North American writer


was not in her likeness, she rejected

the criticism and affirmed that "the only image of

sculpture before his eyes, he suddenly turned to an

which

abrupt formal construction of the image, structuring

painted by Picasso.

will

always be

me" was

me

precisely the portrait

/
Drawing for the magazine
"Joventut" ("Youth").
Pen and ink, on lined
paper, Barcelona, 1900.
113.4 x 17.4 cm).

P.M.B.

Study
"El

for illustration for

Clam de
("The

Verges"

les

Virgins' Cry").

Pencil, Barcelona,

132 x 22 cm).

1900.

P.M.B

Self- Portrait (sketches

Oriol Marti,

Gener and other


Pencil,

of

Pompeu
figures).

pen and

ink,

Barcelona, 1900.
(32 x 22cm). P.M.B.

'^
i^
-

*#
',

Etti

r -"V-

'***.*

Waiting (Margot). Oil on board, Pahs, 1901


57 cm). P. M. B.
169 5
-

While Picasso was

in

Gosol

his painting

underwent an

intense process of definition. Pierre Daix wrote that,


"In the privileged, chosen face of Gertrude Stein, or
in

his

own, Picasso

offers us an in-depth reading.

He

breaks with the appearance so as to remain faithful to


the volumes, but he contrives to elude abstraction,
generalisation or inexpressiveness

He

and characteristic
is,

the pure volume.

in

rejects the details so as to preserve the attitude

in

air

of the model, the

Another canvas characteristic of

to the painter's roots

Palette created

Philadelphia
Collection).

in

The

figure

and depicted

Portrait,

Paris in

Museum

volumes. There

work

or she

this period of return

an interlude

Rose Period and the pre-Cubism


Demoiselles d' Avignon -

air

way he

fact."

is

is

between the

reflected

Les

in

the Self- Portrait with a

autumn

1906, kept

Art

in

the

(A.E.

Gallatin

impregnated with

a primitive

of

in

balanced planes highlighting the

is

nothing anecdotal

no accessories

or to reduce

its

in

this

Self-

to hinder one's vision of the

vigour.

Picasso painted several works during this period at

among them Reclining Nude, Woman with


Nude with Hair, Nude with Hands
Together, and Two Nudes. All these paintings are

Gosol,

Headscarf,

connected by an obvious
their aesthetics

stylistic

correspond to the process

meant "venturing

similarity with the


is

and

of definit-

As Daix noted, this


field where all

ion pursued by Picasso in 1906.


definition

relationship

into a

conventional abstract appearance

negated, excluded."

The Dwarf Dancer.

on board, Pans, 1901


(102 x 60 cm)
B

Oil

PM

The End

of the

Act. Pastel on
canvas, Paris,
1900-01.
172 x 46 cm).

P.M.B.

PICASSO'S CUBISM

who was

Picasso,

already an extraordinary

artist at

the age of twenty, constantly excelled himself with

the passage of time, until he surpassed

as the firm

There

rival

is

Picasso

20th-century

art.

in

his

all

time.

protean

was the greatest thaumaturge of


He invaded all fields of art and exdepth, making them his own and

them in
them with

plored

the bound-

of the greatest artists of

always an element of magic

oeuvre:

all

and established himself

aries of universal plastic arts

his highly personal contribution.

enriching

Picasso's Cubist phase began

after the long,

arduous

struggle of investigation represented by his painting

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (now

New

in

Museum

the

of

As Alberto Martini wrote,


"Originally the subject was to be a group of prostitutes in Barcelona there was indeed a brothel in
Carrer Avino eating in the company of a sailor and
Modern

Art,

York).

a student meditating

on

a skull: a subject, thus,

within the poetic climate of symbolism

coming

after the ruptures

still

despite

caused by the works of the

Rose Period and the phase of transition

with

all-

usions to the themes of eroticism, death and escape.

was

During the production of the work, the subject


not only radically transformed to the point that
all

symbolic implications,

but

it

was

it

lost

also entirely

destroyed by the interest applied to the object, that


to the picture as a reality

is,

and as an image indepen-

dent of the appearance of things, of purely visual


perception."

In

the process of elaboration of this pre-

Cubist work, Picasso's observation that

what

have found, not what

completely

fulfilled.

What

am

"I try to

looking for"

paint

was

Picasso had found on this

occasion was the aesthetic path that was to lead him


directly

to

Cubism.

When

the

artist

from Malaga

Rastaquoueres. Watercolour. pen and ink. Paris. 1901


(18 n 11 5 cm). P.M.B

broke

reality

up

whole new aesthetic

into planes, a

conception was opened up to him.

The atmosphere generated around the


on Les Demoiselles d 'Avignon
inspiration that

painter as a

he was working

result of his aesthetic research while


finally

constituted the

imposed the painting on Picasso. The

had intended to paint one thing, but which

artist

subsequently turned out to be radically different.

It

seems that the work was going to be entitled The


Avignon Brothel but when it was finished, in 1907,
Andre Salmon, poet and Picasso's friend, gave it the

name Les Demoiselles


In this

Nude Woman,

reclining, with the Artist at her feet.

Watercolour, pen

and ink, Barcelona, 1901.


(17.6 x 23.2 cm). P.M.B.

by which

d'Avignon,

is

it

now

known.

universally

canvas Picasso broke with

the conventional

all

models of painting as practised up to that time. In the


words of Pierre Daix, "The rupture with the fixity in
space and time of classical perspective was total. It is
this contrast between the continuity of the outline
and the discontinuity of the different aspects that provokes the 'deformations.' Les Demoiselles d 'Avignon
affirms the reality of this problem neglected by the

Two Nude Women. Coloured

crayons,

pen and

card (pasteboard), Barcelona, 1901. (9 x

ink

on

Renaissance: that sight, the persistence of impres-

73.5 cm).

P.M.B.

sions from the retina, and the training of vision by ex-

make

perience

us perceive,

in

way

or conceive

the back, the reverse, of objects and beings.

To

Velazquez' mirror, to Caravaggio's

Picasso

in-

on opposing the forms themselves, volumes

in-

sisted

dependent

light,

of the plane, as also the nature of the

light."

This

was

could

unique phenomenon. Such daring

be tolerated.

not

rebellion against the


until

Picasso's

demands

in

Renaissance norms

of

then religiously observed, outraged the world.

Viewers

Les

of

d' Avignon

Demoiselles

disconcerted and enraged. Picasso, however,

go

in art

irreverence,

further,

creative

minable,

with

Cubism and

after

and inventive capacity was


and

was

to

astonish

felt

was

Cubism.

to

His

practically inter-

experts

and

the

Still Life.

Oil

on canvas.

Paris.

1901. 159

78 cm)

P.

uninitiated in the years to

come. Cubism was even

debated as a subject of law and order

of Deputies in Paris, in the session of

1912,

in

the Chamber
December 3rd

in

the course of which M. Jules-Louis Breton

transition to the Cubist experience. Pierre Daix

that

"The

point

of

view,

obviously

MB

wrote

theme

in

Cezanne's perspective, dominates objects the better


to discover

them; but Picasso augmented the break

asked the Under-Secretary of State "What measures

with classical perspective, paying more attention to

he was prepared to take to avoid a repetition of the

the interplay

artistic

scandal

occasioned

by

the

last

Salon

d'Automne."
Picasso's contribution to

Cubism was paramount.

Cezanne's painting played an important part

in

his

between forms, using the

effect

of

refraction in the transparency of a glass, or the sec"


tions of a funnel above some cups, to highlight this

From

1909

to

1912,

Picasso's

Cubism

characterised by objective representation of

was

reality.

based on the painter's

intellectual

acquaintance with

was the period of Analytical Cubism, which


gave way from 1912 to 1916 to a phase in which the
artistic depiction of reality was articulated in a comit.

This

plex

way, the

the subject

Self- Portrait.

120.7 x

artist relying

in his

Watercolour,

13.1 cm).

on the relations evoked by

mind, psychology and memory. This

P.M.B.

pen and

ink,

Barcelona, 1901.

second Cubist stage

in

Picasso, freer and

more spon-

known as Synthetic Cubism.


Picasso always demanded absolute freedom in his artistic expression. He was incapaWe of submitting to

taneous than the

first, is

any aesthetic dogma. "Cubism," said the painter


himself, "is

no different from other schools

in

paint-

Joaquin Mir. Pencil and watercolour,


Barcelona, 1901. 120.8 x 15.5cm). P.M.B.

Portrait of

j^.

^5K

*W*

HMB^H^HHHI
Rooftops

in

Barcelona. Oil on canvas, Barcelona. 1902


157.8 x 60.3 cm). P.M.B

Blue Portrait of Jaime Sabartes. Oil on canvas, Paris,


winter 1901-02. (46 x 38 cm) P. MB.

pages written
for

in

that language are just black on white

me, does not mean that the German language

does not

do blame the author of the


blame myself. (...) Cubism is not a

exist either; nor

pages, rather

seed, nor an art

gestation, but a phase of primary

in

forms, and these forms put into effect have the right
to live their

own

existence.

Cubism by means

explain

(...)

People have

tried to

of mathematics, geometry,

trigonometry, chemistry, psychoanalysis, music, and


I

know how many

don't

other things.

All that is

pure

For us Cubism is no more than a way of exwhat our eyes and our minds perceive, with
the possibilities that drawing and colour contain in

literature.

pressing
all

their

own

qualities.

In

we

it

find a source of unex-

pected pleasure, of discoveries."

always

clear that Picasso

and only a

felt

It

never been troubled by the

down

see,

sometimes

should. There

Junyent. Oil on canvas, Barcelona,


1902. (73 x 60 cm). P.M.B.

ing.

They

all

have

in

common

the

same

principles

and

elements. The fact that Cubism has for a long time


not been understood

no value. The

(...)

fact that

does not mean that

it

has

don't read German, because

made

in

it

the

age;

search.

different ways.

in

say

no

is

and worse

Among
Portrait of Sebastian

spirit of

my

rules nor carry out experiments.

something to say,
better

He

painter, including in his Cubist phase.

stated that, "I have always painted for

what

thus perfectly

is

himself to be a painter

have

express

neither lay

When

manner

have

think

transition art; there are simply

artists."

Picasso's

Cubist works,

mention may be

(Kunstmuseum, Basle), painted


with influences from Cezanne in 1908, which constitutes an example of the artist's first steps in the
field of Cubism; The Guitarist (oil on canvas, 1910,
National Museum of Modern Art, Paris); Bottle of
Bass (oil on canvas, 1912, Beyeler Gallery, Basle);
The Aficionado, painted at Sorgues in 1912, depicting
the newspaper "El Torero" and a banderilla on a small
table (Kunstmuseum, Basle); Le Vieux Marc, oil on
of Still Life

canvas,

Modern

1912-1913,
Art, Paris;

an Armchair (1913,

in

L.

National

the

Woman

in

Museum

a Chemise, Seated

of
in

Pudelko Eichmann Collection,

*te

La Mujer del Mechon. Watercolour, Barcelona, 1903.


(50 x 37 cm). P.M.B.

Florence), considered to be
of Cubism;

The

Violin (oil

one

of the masterpieces

tendency to

on paper, Barcelona,
46cm). P.M.B.

1902-03. (56 x

PICASSO AND SURREALISM

on canvas, 1913, Siegfried

Rosengart Collection, Lucerne), a characteristic work


of Picasso's Synthetic

Portrait of Sebastian Junyer. Oil

Cubism

period,

showing a firm

objectivity, with papiers colles ("pasted

The genius from Malaga was not impervious to any of


the avant-garde movements that occurred in the protracted course of his

an

life:

artist

of his infinite

papers") on the canvas; Verre, Bouteille de Vin, Jour-

creative capacity could not be.

nal sur une Table (collage and drawing, dated 1914,

Picasso's authenticity,

Jean Dalsace Collection,

solute adherence to a particular aesthetic trend, his

Paris);

Purgative (papiers

gouache and charcoal, 1914, Jeanne Bucher


Gallery, Paris); and Guitar, Skull and Newspaper (oil
on canvas, 1914, C.M.H. Bergruen Collection, Paris).
colles,

submission to more or

The very nature

however, prevented

less

of

his ab-

dogmatic theoretical pro-

positions or artistic creeds.

He

extracted here and

there whatever he considered useful and necessary to

Maternity. Pastel

and

charcoal, Barcelona, 1903.


(46 x 40cm). P.M.B.

The Madman. Watercolour,

1904. (85 X

Paris,

35 cm).

P.M.B.

express himself as forthrightly and as persuasively as

He

possible.

assimilated

created by others

them
It

is

innovatory elements

the

the plastic arts and personalised

in

own

order to vivify and renovate his

in

oeuvre.

true that, as Alberto Martini observed, Picasso

"received a considerable number of ideas from the

contemporary

researches,

Surrealist

through

his regular

but this

was

a reciprocal relationship, for the Sur-

Max

painters precisely, especially

realist

especially

contacts with Eluard and Breton;

Ernst

and

Miro, obtained great benefits from Picasso's oeuvre.

For the Spanish painter, Surrealism


liberate his

tures

thought from

an effort that, with felicitous

already initiated

in

the exploration

pre- War years

of

his

collective
in

sectors.

a stimulus to

in

he had

intuition,

(...);

it

inner world,

heritage of the subconscious

lesson

was

traditional cognitive struc-

was

a spur to

of the

both

its

secret

private

and

Picasso gave the Surrealists a

language and important precepts regarding

the free orchestration of art forms following one's

mental structuring of

reality,

the awareness that

in

the only realities one possesses are those residing

one's

interior,

perceived by

which,

in

whereas

means

all

that

appearance of things, but to


tional function." This

outside can only be

is

of a representational

the case of Picasso,

is

in

was not
their

mental and emo-

a long quotation, but

the advantage of explaining with

all

process

applied to the

it

clarity the

offers

nature

of the painter's relations with the Surrealist creative

process. Breton himself, furthermore, acknowledged

Surrealism's indebtedness to the

when he

artist

from Malaga

stated that, without Picasso's artistic res-

earches, the Surrealists' position "could have been

delayed or lost."

One cannot,

to a Surrealist Picasso.

The

The Frugal Repast. Etching,

strictly

painter

Paris,

speaking, refer

was

at

1904. 150.9

all

stages

41 cm).
P.M.B.

K
|/

-v

'

^
k

<

i
>

Harlequin. Oil on canvas, Barcelona, 1917.


\|

1116 ^ 90cm).

P.

MB.

movement

outside the

led

cided with the Surrealists

by Andre Breton. He coinin

certain aspects related to

the genesis of the creative process,

but he never

followed Breton's canons, rather those dictated by

own

his

sensitivity,

which was too

mitted to others' impositions.

movement, was

unacceptable

all
it

pose reconciliation with

reality

and monsters. They coexisted

dispersed

felt

the pleasures of the

is

absurd to

itself,

until later on.

try to op-

and escape,
in

or logic

Picasso, as

to depart for Polynesia)

movement

Surrealist

when he

attractions of beauty, the desire to

world. With this background,

(who was

of Pierre

the precise time

sing to his wife, his son and

Eluard

be sub-

words

fighting against an intolerable,

reality; at

more than ever the

rich to

younger members of the Sur-

Daix, "Picasso, like the


realist

the

In

Paul

in

and

which was not

in

the

to

be

Picasso's interlocutors were

gradually changed. Gauguin and Douanier Rousseau

were succeeded by Poussin and Ingres, Iberian and


Negro influences by Mycenaean impulses and
Hieronymus Bosch's dreams. All this, however,
within the continuity both of his oeuvre and of his
relations with the precursors, in the unity of a painter

who

did not disperse or back

rected, reproved

vigorously

and

playful

down, although he

cor-

criticised himself relentlessly."

feeling

greater or lesser intensity,

in

ubiquitous,

Picasso's oeuvre

fluenced the painter at the time

when he

felt

with

in-

attracted

by the expressive freedom characterising Surrealism.

Nor should

it

be forgotten that he had been extending

the fields of his vast artistic adventure


that

when

the Surrealist

tensity with

in

such a way

movement appeared,

the

in-

which he had been working throughout

Portrait of

Mme

Canals. Oil

on canvas. Pans, 1905


B
188 > 68 cm).

PM

Paseo de Colon.

the

Oil

on canvas, Barcelona, 1917.


(40.1 x 32 cm). P. MB.

quarter of the 20th century had almost ex-

first

hausted the means of expression that he used. At

this

stage the painter appropriated a -Hew instrument to


facilitate his artistic creation:

the interior monologue,

which coincided with what

considered as Picasso's

is

Surrealist facet.

The

Surrealist Manifesto

among

realists"

Man

Klee,

Ray,

in

Max

Picasso

Pierre,

who,

public

1924;

in

Moreau, Matisse,

cited Uccello, Seurat,

it

Derain, Picasso, Braque,

J.

was made

the painters that "could be considered Sur-

Duchamp,

Picabia, Chirico,

Ernst and Masson. According to

was

the

contemporary

first

artist

order to clarify the concept of the "interior

model," quoted Le Surrealisme et la Peinture

by Andre Breton published as


previously

printed

in

book

La Revolution

in

(a

study

1928 but

Surrealiste,

magazine that lasted from 1924 to 1929, directed


by Naville and Peret and

later,

first

from issue 4 onwards,

by Breton himself); and also the

first

to "find the real

reason for painting." "That the position held by us

now
on

could have been delayed or

lost

depended only
man." "This

a failure in the determination of this

unequivocally

underlines

the

Picasso's

Cubism on the whole

which to

this

whom

is

art historians, for

the only thing that can ex-

plain the Cubist phenomenon."


Works by Picasso that are generally considered
realist

was

include The Three Dancers (1925;

still

in

monologue";

1965

it

to

the

Still Life

aesthetics

with Antique

of

the

Head

"interior

(1925, Na-

Museum of Modern Art, Paris); The Studio


Museum of Modern Art, New York);
Seated Bather (1930, Museum of Modern Art, New
York); Girl Before a Mirror (1932, Museum of Modern
Art, New York); and The Muse (1935, National
Museum of Modern Art, Paris) all brilliant cantional

(1927-1928,

La salchichona (Woman with Mantilla). Oil on canvas,


Barcelona, 1917. (116 x 89 cm). P.M.B.

in

Sur-

the artist's private collection), a painting

corresponding
s-

of

of Surrealism, a fact

day surprises some

Cezanne's work

repercussion

vases.

Cubist figure. Oil

on canvas,
Barcelona, 1917.
1116 x 89.2 cm).

P.M.B

Fruit

Bowl. Oil on

canvas, Barcelona,
1917.

140

28

P.

cm).

MB

Figure

in

an Armchair. Oil on canvas, Barcelona, 1917.


192 x 64.4 cm). P.M.B.

Blanquita Suarez. Oil on canvas, Barcelona, 1917.


173.3 x 47 cm). P.M.B.

PICASSO'S REINTERPRETATIONS OF
PICTORIAL MYTHS
In

1953 Picasso painted a series of works to which he

felt ill-at-ease

Woman, Woman

demonstrating

his cruelty

by means of

his

The portrait of Stalin, executed for Lettres Francaises


(a magazine at that time directed by the Communist
poet Louis Aragon), also dates from 1953. Picasso

oeuvre.

"The portrait of Stalin as a young man that he sent


was in the style of his portraits of Beloyannis and
Henri Martin. Its publication had the effect of a bombshell. Picasso was attacked both by those who saw in

sation, this internal conflict,

Paintings such as

in

brushes.

would seem as if
with himself and that this sen-

dedicated unusual vehemence.


the artist

pleasure

is

It

reflected

in his

Head of Reclining Woman, Bust of


Woman and Dog on a Blue

Seated,

Ground and Woman with Hat date from 1953. These


are works in which the painter seems to have taken

based

it

on a photograph and, as Pierre Daix wrote,

the portrait an offence against the

memory

of Stalin

Figure with Fruit

Bowl. Oil on
canvas, Barcelona,

1917
1100

70.2 cm).
P.

MB

Jaime Sabartes with Ruff and Hat. Oil on


canvas, Royan, 1939. (46 x 38cm). P. MB.

Portrait of

1%

Sabartes as a Gentleman of Philip


It's

time. Pencil, Paris,

Sabartes with a Ruff. Pencil, Paris,


1938. (36 x 27 cm). P.M.B.

Portrait of

1938.

Portrait of

Monk's

Jaime Sabartes

Habit. Pencil, Paris,

(29 x 21 cm). P.M.B.

(36 x

27

in

1938.

cm). P.M.B.

and by those who considered the Russian's death a


happy event. Although Maurice Thorez' return to

question his cruelty? Nor did they appreciate the fact

mid-March, put an end to the Communist

ethnic type. Picasso shrugged off the Communists'

France,

in

Party's attacks on Picasso

was

We

and Aragon,

this spring

a time of great isolation for the former."

should

recall that

Picasso had been considered a

luxury and an honour for the French Communists.

The

artist limited his

certain pique:
burial.

They

one doesn't

"I

comments on

took

didn't like

my bunch
it.

the incident to a
of flowers to the

These things happen; but

ordinarily insult people coarsely

because

one doesn't like their flowers."


The French Communists protested because Picasso
depicted Stalin with a cruel look; but can anyone

that the painter represented him as of an Asiatic

reproaches and

commented

to Pierre Daix that

he had

thought of adding a wreath of flowers on Stalin's


head, adding, "But

it

would have been the same.

Everything would have been identical. They wouldn't

have put up with that

either.

also thought of drawing

him nude. Heroes are always naked. Can you imagine,

the

if

way

caustically

had drawn him absolutely naked...? That's


it

but you'll

is;

see"

"later on, they'll use

ustrate articles

in

he concluded

my

drawing to

ill-

the dictionary."

After the crisis of 1953, a year

in

which he was harshly

tinrcar

A.

X
9

m%m

Minotauromachy. Etching,

Paris,

1935. (49.8

69.3 cm)
P.

criticised

from

all

sides, Picasso

his artistic inspiration

once again impulsed

and launched himself along a

hitherto unexplored path of creation.

1960, he carried out a series of

based on

Women

From 1954

momentous

to

exercises

of Algiers, a painting by Delacroix;

sioned dialectical debates between Picasso, on one

hand, and Delacroix, Velazquez and Manet,


cessively,

on

understanding

the
the

Delacroix painted

other:

Women
new

1849, he produced a

Dejeuner sur I'herbe ("Luncheon on the Grass") by

displayed by one of the

In

undertook

these original
the

daring

reverse of great pictorial

Flower vase Gouache,

PM.B.

artistic

experiments Picasso

showing the
myths. They were like impas
enterprise

Paris,

1943 165

of

49.5 cm)

of

genesis

Las Meninas ("Maids of Honour") by Velazquez; and

Manet.

MB

crucial
of

artistic

of Algiers

in

suc-

interest

for

creation.

1834; later,

in

version, omitting the rose

women

in

the earlier painting.

Picasso based himself on Delacroix's painting, and


also

took

Odalisques,

into
in

account Matisse's canvas entitled


the execution of his interesting ex-

periments on the subject, showing

Commenting on

his

own

series

on

the painter remarked to Penrose:

he

left his

odalisques to

me

"When

one.

It

The

Matisse

is

is

a sun, with

rest

is

it all

of Algiers,

Matisse died
in

depends on

The same

inquisitive impulse

dialectical confrontation with

dialogue
tant

was developed

series

Museum

in

of

works

in

drove Picasso to

Velazquez; their

Las Meninas. The

now

enriches

the

his

artistic

resul-

Picasso

Barcelona. Alberto Martini wrote that, "In

rays,

inside

Las Meninas there are already indications of a theme

For that reason

alone

that, in

thousands of

nothing.

other side.

as a legacy." Earlier,

1932, Picasso had said: "In the end,


oneself.

its

Women

Matisse, for example

because he has

that sun inside him."

Composition with Flower Vase. Colour lithograph. Pahs,


1947. (45 x 60 cm). P.M.B.

more recent

years,

Picasso: the relationship

became an obsession

between the

model. Velazquez, as a good

realist,

artist

for

and the

avoided the

ar-

Dying Centaur. Etching, 1948. (32 * 25 cm).

Centaur playing Pipes. Etching,


1948. (32 x

25cm).

Scenes

P.

MB.

P.

of the Birth of a Centaur. Etching,

bitrariness of simultaneously depicting his

son and the models (the royal family)


ingeniously, he represented

MB.

own

per-

in this

them by means

ror reflecting their figures (notwithstanding,

canvas;

of a mir-

he also

rejected the arbitrariness of representing himself

the scene he

1948.

P.

(33 x 25cm).

and

was painting from his models' point of


whose realism had broken the chains

view). Picasso,
of the
tle

outward appearance, did not

resort to the sub-

device of the mirror; to prove to himself that any

given object

is

an entity belonging to the

thought, not the appearance of

reality,

field

of

he painted

his

person directly opposite the model, almost always a

woman, demonstrating

the distance separating the

external appearance of the real object and the painted

image." Picasso's Las Meninas series stressed, once

MB

Centaur and Waggon. Etching,


1948. (37 x 25cm). P.

MB

The Dove. Lithograph,

1949. (54.5 x

70 cm). P.M.B.

again, that the great painter dominated


of

modern

painting techniques.

motifs and

drew

in

the

their

the

means

Under the impulse

his (never refuted) playful nature,

toys

all

same way as

of

he played with the


children with their

guts out into the open

air,

achiev-

The Las Meninas


series, painted in 1957, constitutes one of the most
surprising, novel successes of modern painting.
ing

In

charmingly original effects.

1960 Picasso repeated the

artistic interplay

he had

initiated

with Delacroix and continued with Velaz-

quez, painting his Dejeuner sur I'herbe


collection

in

(in

the

artist's

1971), the start of the cycle inspired by

Manet's famous painting. The following year he executed another canvas with the same

Rosengart Collection, Lucerne);


be

some

in total

twenty-five variations,

title

(in

the

there were to

not counting the

numerous preparatory drawings and sketches. The


in this series is more com-

composition of the figures

The Dove. Lithograph,

1947. (27

and more obscure than

plex

45cm).

Women

in

P.

MB.

of Algiers and

Las Meninas.
In

the words of Pierre Daix,

panion

Picasso's

in

"Manet was an

dreams and

old

com-

this first series (the

drawings inspired by Manet's picture executed

freedom

of

in

early

black and white drawings, as also the

have

in

at

August 1959) evinces the


'discussions between accomplices.' The

Vauvenargues

common

two

colour,

in

the emphasis with which they treat a

which Manet had also given considerable importance: that of the woman wearing a shirt, bathing

figure to

her feet

in

the

river.

propriates her,

Picasso, however, takes her, ap-

shows her naked." The

recur to this image several times,

Woman

in

Chemise and

Woman

was

to

example

in

artist

for

bathing her

feet.

PICASSO THE ENGRAVER


Pablo Picasso's unique
limited to painting; far

the engraver,

artistic

from

it.

was

personality

not

There was also Picasso

Picasso the potter, and Picasso the

sculptor, of undeniably extraordinary quality

portance within each of these facets of

and

im-

artistic creat-

ion.

Picasso's graphic

the

work would alone be sufficient for


as one of the great

artist to figure in art history

figures of universal creation. In the course of his

longer and more

fertile

than most

life

Picasso

engraved a large quantity of magnificent works on the

most diverse subjects: mythology, tauromachy, the


figures of his different wives and lovers, erotic
themes, Spanish Golden Age subjects, book illustrations...

The

artist

used the most varied techniques,

working linoleum, copper, stone,


with

burin,

Seated

pen,

Woman,

wood and

brush or thick pencil.

in Profile.

celluloid

Etchings,

Etching (cancelled print). 1951


114 x 10 cm) P.M.B

The

Corrida. Pastel

1900. (16.2 x

and gouache on canvas, Barcelona,

30.5 cm). Cau Ferrat Museum, Sitges.

aquatints or dry-points

all

Picasso's graphic works

The

brilliant

painter

felt

The

strongly attracted to engrav-

2,200 works

decisive

high

from

a youthful age;

engraver.

contribution

to

the

great

revolution

in

engraving techniques of the modern age. He practised

all

these techniques

in

collaboration with the

greatest craftsmen of the time and attained absolute

mastery

of

all

technical secrets.

their
In his

expressive

mechanisms and

engravings as

in his

paintings,

one can observe that Picasso constantly renovated


his art. His insatiable curiosity and unlimited creative
capacity can also be noted
ting Picasso at the

century.

in his

genius not far rem-

oved from magic


as a draughtsman was manifest
whenever he engraved. As a result, Picasso's engravings were always not only perfectly resolved as
regards their technique, but at the same time dynamic
works, constantly vital, endowed with the charm of

he worked untiringly as an
He produced some 350 engravings in the
space of little more than 6 months, in 1968, at his
studio at Mougins. On his death, he bequeathed to
mankind a body of engravings comparable with those
of Diirer, Rembrandt or Goya. Picasso made a
ing

genius

artist's unrivalled

bear the stamp of his ummistakable style.

graphic work, put-

head of the engravers of the 20th

the painter's creative genius.

Picasso

is

said to
in

number

have been the author of more than

the

field of

of original

engraving and

prints. This

works bears testimony

marvellous creative capacity of this monster

to the

(there

is

no other term that better defines Picasso's genius) of


20th-century
In

his

art.

work as an engraver,

Picasso rejected

themes

of

life,

all

rhetoric

taking

closely linked with the


all

the

fables,

as

for

human
is

inspiration

his

human

implications

often represented

example

just as in his painting,

and concentrated on the

in

those

of

in

from motifs

condition. Myth, with

the

corresponding

Picasso's engravings,

entitled

Monster con-

by

templated

Children

four

Minotaur's Orgy (from the

(dated

same

year),

The

1904.

Seated

Girl

started to use the aquatint process

contemplating the Minotaur (also 1933) and Blind

Minotaur

(1935).

Pierre

minotaur embodied a
Picasso

in

relation

Daix

wrote

new degree

of

"The

that

freedom

to the limitations that

his

for

own

researches had set."

The
cut

was familiar with


and monotype as early
painter

he took to lithography. He

1933),

Later,

in

1919,

1939 he executed his


there

engraver; which

work

first

was no haste
is

intensely, as

far

an

linocuts.

in

1934,

in

One can

Picasso's

and

in

see that

training

an

as

from meaning that he did not

artist

avid for

new

goals, in this

facet.

the tecniques of
as

in

1899,

wood-

when he

engraved El Zurdo; The Frugal Repast dates from

The outstanding plates in Picasso's engraving oeuvre


include those making up the Saltimbanques series,
created in 1913; Balzac's Le Chef d'oeuvre inconnu
Suerte de varas ("Wounding Bull with Lance"). Etching
(cancelled print), 1957. 120 k 30cm). P.

MB

Bullfighting at Vallauris. Linocut in colour, Vallauris,

166.5 x

52cm).

P.

Bulls in the Country. Etching,

1955.

1957. (20

MB.

30 cm)
P.

.V

**

MB

!,

dWim

Landscape.
P.M.B.

Oil

on canvas, Cannes,

1957. 116 x

22 cm).

("The Unknown Masterpiece"), executed


published

in

in 1927 and
Metamorphoses; the
comprising engravings carried out from

Vollard Suite,

lllo's

Poems and Lithographs

Tauromachy or the Art of

series published

by Gustavo

Gili in

(1949); and

Bullfighting, a

Barcelona

in

1959.

There are other important engravings by Picasso


related to

and

his

motifs

such themes as

women and

model, death, the pleasures of

all

PICASSO AS A POTTER

1931, as also Ovid's

1927 to 1937;

Pepe

Les Pigeons. Oil on canvas, Cannes, 1957.


1100 x 80 cm). P.M.B.

love, the artist


life,

and

erotic

treated with unsurpassable, picaresque

expressive charm and marvellous technical control.

Picasso
artistic

was always miraculously young


terms;

began to

in

learn a

new art

pottery.

human and

The previous year

the painter had returned to Vallauris


old potter he

in

1947, at sixty-six years of age, he

in

search of an

had met with Paul Eluard years

earlier,

before the war had broken out. Suzanne and Georges

Ramie had had to close the kilns one after another


and were trying to modernise the production of
ceramic pieces; they had installed an electric kiln.

The Piano.

Oil

on canvas, Cannes,

1957. 1130 x

96 cm).
P.M.B.

friends, or stayed in his studio to

work

the silent

in

calm that was always so favourable to him. But he no

doubt

an obscure corner of

felt, in

that the right time to

subconscious,

his

come. People were already

with great

talking,

terest, of the potters' exhibition at Vallauris;

in-

always

keen to be acquainted with things, Picasso gave


the desire to

had

a part of his destiny

fulfil

in

to

visit it."

was profoundly attracted by the pieces on


show. The rebirth of the pottery tradition at Vallauris
was due largely to him. Since he first sat at the
The

artist

potter's

wheel to mould pieces, Picasso did not stop:

he advanced, just as he had

fields,

with great

until

he became

other

in

enthusiasm and constant dedication,

consummate

in

the

mysterious material

moulded by potters

He grew

craft.

to the finger that violates

it,"

but which reacts "with

such rigour to the slightest variations


untractable

for

understanding
treat
if

it

it,

those

who

its

prior

when

humidity; so
it

without

it

is

who

moulded, as

metamorphosis, but which has

yet to be purified by the horrors of


it

in

confront

but so submissive to those

with respect; so fragile

surprised by

the

love

to

as Ramie called the mass


that shows itself "so sensitive

incombustible and breakable.

fire,

(...)

to

come out

of

There were more

than enough attractive qualities and redoubtable risks


to

tempt Picasso's adventurous

The
Portrait of Jacqueline. Oil

on canvas, Cannes,

1957.

artist

of genius

which seemed

to take

liked

this

spirit."

malleable material,

on an almost human

sensitivity

1116 X 89 cm). P.M.B.

by contact with the fingers caressing

One afternoon

magic fingers drew fascinatingly, originally beautiful


forms out of the clay, which was in turn generous,

in

August 1947, as Georges Ramie


"went to Golfe Juan, to the

himself wrote, Picasso

house of
well

Fort,

an engraver friend of

his.

He could very

have gone to the beach that day, or

visited other

it.

Picasso's

grateful to be treated with love by these hands, so ex-

pert

in artistic

and amorous

aptitude as a potter

was an

activities.

For Picasso, his

astonishing discovery.

He

had never considered pottery

words
that

of Pierre Daix, "All his

pre-Hellenic

minor

work up

art;

to 1947

in

the

shows

and Greek pottery, as also the

ceramics of American
of his consideration

civilisations,

and study."

were the subject

Until 1947,

he saw ceramic pieces with sympathy,

if

however,
not with

decided admiration, but from the outside, as a spectator enjoying

them

in

his sensitivity; but then,

when

he too was a potter, he saw the grandeur and the


possibilities of this ancient art
artist

from the

inside, as

enjoying the pleasure of creating his

Pottery

was never

Las Meninas ("Maids of Honour"). Oil on canvas,


Cannes, 1957. (194 x 260 cm). P.M.B.

mere

an

own works

distraction for Picasso, but

**>
r\
Las Meninas. Oil on canvas, Cannes, 1957.
(129 x 161 cm). P.M.B.

pieces a certain creative tension driving him towards

ture Picasso's struggles with the material he used. In

untrodden paths. As Pierre Daix observed, "Picasso

his

practised

all

technical modes, took

extremes, and turned the

them

to their final

new

activity

he manipulated

bowls, plates, vases

to

utilitarian

forms

combine them with the

the accidents and

ideas suggested by the said forms: thence the sun-

the unforeseen results to his advantage, as always;

bowls, the bullring-bowls, the clay vases, the vases as

but
kiln,

in

pottery one never

nor

how

the glaze

failures,

knows

will

fascinating, especially for

if

a piece will resist the

turn out.

The

results

anyone concerned

were

to cap-

heads. Even the technical exercises were executed


with such

agility that

statuette of a

woman

they

seem

natural: the vase as a

supporting another smaller vase

in its

arm/ handle, the vases

woman

in

the form of a kneeling

these are marvels of simplicity."

ical

ensembles with off-centre eyes, structures made

up

of purposeless elements,

Picasso rapidly mastered the techniques of pottery

forms.

and indulged himself, applying the most unusual, en-

ter's clay

chanting forms

in his

ceramic pieces.

phase as a potter one can observe


to

endow

the volumes with

his

relief.

In his

second

preoccupation

Sometimes the

All

the

facilities

were

bundles of dislocated

offered by the plasticity of pot-

certainly exploited in the creation of

these forms, revelations of virtuosity thanks to their


surprising structures."

Pieces of startling originality were born of Picasso's

forms even occur spontaneously, although always

experiments: fantastic, hybrid beasts,

fascinating, subordinated to the hierarchical values of

unmistakable

the volume. Ramie stated that these were "composi-

moulded

tions

with

very

rigorous

style

and

architecture,

although sometimes quite laborious to produce: con-

Las Meninas I the whole, excluding Vel&zquez). Oil on


canvas. Cannes. 1957. 1130
96 cm). P. M. B

in

style.

the artist's

These are the dreams of an

artist,

ceramics: centaurs, monstruous goats,

disconcertingly
gigantic,

in

hieratic

threatening

birds

horns.

of

prey,

bulls

And

also

doves,

with
the

Las Meninas {Maria Agustina Sarmiento). Oil on canvas,


Cannes, 1957. (46 x 37.5cm). P. MB.

Las Meninas (the Infanta Margarita Maria).


Cannes, 1957. (46 x 37.5 cm). P.M.B.

doves so dear

on canvas,

always

to Picasso, in diverse poses,

symbols of peace.
Of the immense quantity
Picasso,

Oil

we may

of ceramic pieces created

by

usefully cite those entitled Vulture

Museum), Lunar Face on Blue Ground


Museum), Faun's Face (1948, Antibes
Museum), Picador (1948, Antibes Museum), Centaur

(1947, Antibes

(1947, Antibes

(1948,

private

Bull

collection),

Antibes

(1948,

Museum), Dove (1949, private collection) and Owl


with Outspread Wings (1957, private collection).

PICASSO THE SCULPTOR


The

painter from

Malaga always

an imperious

felt

necessity to give the correct value to volumes


artistic creations,
in

not only

in

in his

the sculptures, but also

the paintings and ceramics.

In

the period

when he

painted the Portrait of Gertrude Stein and his SelfPortrait,

Picasso

entuate the
paintings;

in

was

primordially concerned to acc-

illusion of relief

on the

flat

surface of his

the words of Pierre Daix, "His desire to

paint his subjects' sculptural presence

was

to lead to

a series of authentic painted sculptures, with

eye sockets, from Rose Bust or

Chignon

Woman

to the splendid, foreshortened

ing her Hair,

in

the

Samuel Marx

Nude

empty
with a
Dress-

collection."

This preoccupation with the perception and represen-

Las Meninas (Isabel de Ve/asco). Oil on canvas, Cannes,


1957. (33 x 24 cm). P.M.B.

l^m

*m

MB

10.5 cm). P.M.B.

Spectators. Lithograph, 1961. (29.5 x

tation of the

dimensions of volumes

also palpable
viously, in

all

in

paintings

is

both the Analytical

his Cubist oeuvre, in

and Synthetic periods.

"In

sculpture and painting

stated

fact,"

Penrose, "his Cubism succeeded

in his

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and, ob-

in

in

Roland

uniting both arts

a metaphysical marr-

iage."

Picasso's extensive oeuvre

in

sculpture

covering a

period from approximately 1902 (the date of his


sculpture,

now

in

Museum,

the Picasso

first

Barcelona)

up to the 1960s, although from 1909 to 1930 he


ecuted practically no sculptures

ex-

constitutes an ad-

mirable lesson, emphasising the fact that he considered the arts as a unitary

wrote that "Although

and the sculptor

is

phenomenon. Penrose
between the painter

this duality

no greater than that opposing the

hand to the left, in his work Picasso created personages to which aspects of himself soon became
right

associated.

It

is

thus reasonable to judge that, by ex-

amining these personages, one has the opportunity of


to

some

extent clarifying the two aspects of his per-

sonality."

which

3Sffl

There are figures, such as the Harlequin,

Picasso

sculpture:

depicted

for example,

in

both

painting

and

the canvas entitled Paulo

dressed as a Harlequin, a portrait of


1924, and Harlequin's Head,

his

son painted

a bronze executed

in

in

1905.

Despite being the author of felicitous phrases as


valuable as a treatise on aesthetics, Picasso never

needed to have recourse

to literature to explain his

As an artist, his language was so


richly expressive that whenever he wished to clarify
anything in the field of creation, he did so by means
artistic

oeuvre.

of images. In

aMTt
!>.

SSSK^l*

figures

many

cases his sculptures represented

and forms that had already been expressed on

canvas or paper. The great painter's sculptural works


often complement, or explain, concepts that the

had previously drawn or painted.


14

In

artist

his sculptures,

sm asm
,4

7^

urfM^JX3<&

ir*

,1T 1

'

(J

'

Background

Human

of

Face.

Picasso

seem
to

showed

that,

their
In

Barcelona, 1961. (71

himself exactly as he was.

once he had transferred

canvas or paper, the painter

necessity to give

It

would

certain figures onfelt

corporeity, as

if

an imperious

he yearned

for

was when he turned to sculpture.


same way as when he painted or worked pot

volumes:

the

them

ter's clay,

when he

Monkey

Drawings by Picasso. Lithograph, Sala Gaspar,

Lithograph in four colours, 1961


(26 x 18cm). P. MB.

this

Picasso devoted himself

sculpture

fully to

practised this art form. Penrose wrote that

"The sculptor becomes so absolutely absorbed

55.5 cm).

MB.

P.

29 cm).

Picasso

used

most diverse materials

the

ing certain

bronze, 1914,

Museum

of

Modern

Art,

New

York),

covering others with sand, or painting metal plate, as

Woman

Standing

large proportion of Picasso's sculptures

now on

his

works (such as Glass of Absinthe, painted

in

muse. His

in

sculptures (bronze, iron, plaster), sometimes colour-

his

MB

jects before one."

the

touch allows him a sort of contact with

P.

Man's Meal, where blindness finds consolation in the


fact that one's hands can touch and caress the ob

contemplation of his work that soon only the sense of

in

Mougins,

Painter. Crayon,

1959. (37 x

stalled

at

the

(1961).

entrance

to

the

were

chateau

in-

at

reminds

Vauvenargues from 1959 onwards; they were later


gathered together in the painter's studio at Mougins.

us of a certain work of the Blue Period, The Blind

Roland Penrose noted that "The sculptures that

eyes, which
his

work and

no longer

see, are

from

his fingers display a gesture that

raised to

Painter at

Work.

Oil

on canvas, Mougins,

Bust of

1965.

Woman

with Hat. Linocut, 1962.


(63.5 x 52.5 cm). P.M.B.

(100 x 81 cm). P.M.B.

never found their final positions at Vauvenargues


were brought here and again without any attempt at
display they were crowded together in the vaults of
what had been the entrance hall, joined by others, big

and

Among

small.

sculptures,

some

in

retrieved after years


intrusion

was

Museum

of

these

were

fragile

Cubist

Crane (painted bronze, 1951) and Goat's Skull and


Bottle (bronze, 1951-1952,

New

Museum

of

Modern

Art,

York).

PICASSO AND 20TH-CENTURY ART

poor condition, that had been


in

storage.

A more

unexpected

the arrival of a present from the Antibes

The break with the representational convention


painting

the imposition of copying from

was

life

in

that

two full-size casts of Michelangelo's


bonds seemed all the more intolerable
when compared to the revolutionary freedom of the

"black paintings" to the Impressionists and the Ex-

sculpture that surrounded them."

pressionists, in particular. Picasso's

Picasso's best-known sculptures include Glass of Ab-

really

slaves. Their

Museum of Modern Art,


Sheep (1944, installed in a
Owl, Goat (both in bronze, 1950),

sinthe (bronze, 1914,

New

York),

square

Man

in

the

had been

in

force for centuries

gradually

matured throughout the 19th century, from Goya's

no more

and no

less

achievement was

than to give the coup

de grace to an aesthetic doctrine that was formally

with a

in Vallauris),

Bearded Man. Linocut,

1962. (35 x

27

cm). P.M.B.

Monument

to Picasso in

Seated

Malaga.

Woman.
(15 x

out of date, obsolete and impotent

terms of crea-

in

Painting as a representation of

demned

death

to

photography.

The

practised within the


turies.

art

since

form

appearance

the

research that leads to


instead a

new

artistic

no

could

same canons

reproduction

had been con-

life

as

It was necessary to paint in


was what Picasso did:

photographical

and

in

longer

of

be

previous cen-

a different style.

rejecting

the

both

systematic

abstraction, following

aesthetic path, that of the "interior

monologue"

freeing creative expression from archaic

restrictions.

The

words,

the art of painting

fall

into abstraction. This

has, perhaps, been the greatest error of

tion.

This

made

Bronze, Barcelona, 1902.


11.5 x 8.5 cm). P.M.B.

just as

when he

artist

made

this

he demonstrated

stated:

"The

it

in

oeuvre

very clear
in

his

idea of 'searching' has often

The

spirit of

modern

art.

search has poisoned those who, without

understanding

all

the aspects of

modern

paint the invisible, not the pictorial. In

want

art,

many

to

cases the

work expresses more than the author wished he is


often astonished by results he had not foreseen. At
times these works are the fruit of a kind of spontaneous generation. Sometimes the drawing gives
rise

to the subject,

at others the colour

suggests

forms that determine the theme." Picasso thus stated


an important truth

when he

gratuitously taken as a jest

said that he painted

what he sought, and

that

in

what he found, not


art there are

neither

specific nor abstract forms, only interpretations.

K
['

Ceramic pieces

in

the

Musee

Cheret, Nice.

DENOUNCEMENT OF THE
HORRORS OF WAR
PICASSO'S

Faced with the


Spanish

Civil

committed

atrocities

War and,

first

in

immediately afterwards,

in

the
the

Second World War, Picasso shuddered to the depths


of his heart and reacted by firmly condemning
violence and arbitrary outrages.
In

1937,

the height of the Spanish

at

Civil

War,

Picasso sent a message to the Congress of American

Republican Artists,

in

which he

clearly

expressed

his

position with regard to the conflict: "I have always


believed,

and

still

believe, that artists

who

live

and

work in accordance with spiritual values cannot, and


must not, remain indifferent to a conflict where the
supreme values of humanity and civilisation are at
stake." The painter sided with the Republican cause.
Rafael Alberti wrote a fine
in

poem on

the years of the Spanish

La guerra:

la

Civil

Picasso's attitude

War:

espano/a

iCual sera la arrancada


del toro que le parte en

la

cruz una pica?

Banderillas de fuego.

Una

ola, otra ola desollada.

Guernica.

Dolor al rojo
...

Y aqui e/juego

vivo.

del arte comienza a ser

un juego

ex-

I plosivo.

Pablo Picasso
blood

when

felt

the distinctly Spanish nature

in his

the tragic events that covered Spain with

blood occurred, from 1936 to 1939. Spain was martyrised

and the

painter, far

from feeling unrelated to

the tragedy or contemplating

ner, suffered

^H
i*'<

*JV\

it

in his interior

it

in

an egotistical man-

and projected

his feel-

Man

with a Sheep (bronze sculpture installed in a square


in Vallauris).

ings

in his artistic

was on

He

production.

1944.

believed that justice

the Republican side and accepted to col-

laborate with the Republican government, on

whose

commission he painted the famous canvas Guernica.

was

Picasso

later also to

nations opposing

declare his solidarity with the

Hitler's

Germany, and

condemn

to

was reported

the Nazi fascists' agression. Picasso

to

the Nazis by the painter Vlaminck during the occup-

He was accused of
was even
origins.
When
he was
Jewish
he had

ation of France by Hitler's troops.

being

cosmopolitan

suspected that

degenerate;

it

asked whether he had Jewish blood, he replied that


he had not, but added bravely that he would

like to

have.
It

seems

when the painter lived in Nazi-occupied


German ambassador Abetz went to see him

that

Paris, the

and

to enquire

about

his position. After distastefully

observing a photo of Guernica

ambassador asked the author

in

the studio, the Nazi

of the

famous

painting:

"Did you do this?"


Picasso

is

said to

have replied

coldly,

"No... you did."


Paul Eluard, the poet, stated that Pablo Picasso had

been one of the few


Earlier, in 1939,

whom

lives

who behaved

with total

the extraordinary Surrealist poet, with

Picasso maintained a close friendship, wrote

this highly

Voir:

artists

Germans' occupation of France.

dignity during the

"Of
and

comment in his work Donner a


men who best have experienced their

favourable
all

of

whom

it

can never be said that they were

present on the earth without immediately realising


that they

would stay

there,

Pablo Picasso must be

placed amongst the greatest. After conquering the


world, he had the courage to rebel against himself."

The wars

in

Korea and Vietnam, with

quent horrors, also affected Picasso's


perturbed his

spirit,

their

conse-

sensibility

and

causing the painter to express

in

Guernica. Paris, 1937. (351 x


Retiro, Madrid.

denouncement and condemnation of the


injustices committed in the course of

his art his

and

atrocities

the

two

Buen

782 cm). Cason del

conflicts.

The great

and

his

profound love of peace inspired such works as GuerThe Charnel House (exhibited in homage "to the

nica,

Spaniards

who

Resistance

show

Paris in 1946)
in

which

his

died

at the

an

France"

Museum

and Massacre

artistic

if

the Art and

in

of

in Korea,

denouncement

always manifest. As

dove

for

Modern Art

among

of the horrors of

in

others,

war

is

compensation, Picasso's

in

motif that had attracted the

painter as early as his

first

steps

in art in

young
Corunna

has become a universal symbol of peace.

Guernica

is

undoubtedly the most pathetic of

pictures painted by Picasso

in

(in this

artist

all

the

respect

it

its

name

bombing

inspiring

of the

is

also

master-

Guernica

the

Basque town that gave

to the canvas, perpetrated by the Nazi air

force on April 26th 1937


universal

symbol

the

of

unleashed by warfare.
stirring

It

his

should be pointed out that the

from the specific event


destruction by

consequences.

considered to be

is

more than one masterpiece). Apart

created

cry for

It

the painting has


violence

and

become

barbarity

constitutes a deeply moved,

freedom and

also,

in

the

words

of

William Boeck, "a dreadful inculpation of violence

whose

ultima ratio

Guernica

reaction against war,

their horrific

the most famous, and

piece

painter's decidedly anti-war stance

and

violence,

painted

in

is

is

destruction."

an enormous work (351 by 782.5 cm),

tempera on canvas. The grey, white and

pale green tones contribute to the reflection of a

hallucinatory, insuperably dramatic atmosphere.

canvas seems to be devastated,

in all

The

senses, by a

storm of absolute violence. From one


prised or possibly ready to charge, contemplates the
side a bull, sur-

radical,

boundless destruction prevailing before

while,

the centre, a horse neighs with pain, expos-

ing

in

one cannot say whether from rage

teeth,

its

On

distress.

it

the ground,

human

figures

On

seems

side from the bull, a masculine face

pathetic

in

postures, rent with suffering and terror.

or

to

the far

be en-

interpreted

work by Picasso has been


many different ways. For the poet Juan

in

of this great

the painting has a clearly political content,

Larrea,

within which the bull represents the Spanish people

protecting a

woman and

a representation of the

window symbolises

who

a child, the figure of a bird


spirit,

is

and the lamp by the

the Spanish

Republic.

Larrea,

wrote a magnificent book on Guernica, asked

was

true that the horse

Picasso

if

was an

allegorical representation of

it

painter replied

in

the affirmative.

in

the painting

Francoism; the

On another occasion

he asked the same question again and the author of


the canvas answered,

"You would have


etc.) not to

"Why,

to

be blind

(or stupid or

an

art critic,

let

it

terpretation of

possible key to

interpretation he also indicates the

its

crucifixion motif,
rida the suffering,

which has

be said

Picasso himself once said,


"It

lucidity,

would

be

but

ting,

its

would

it

complex work,

Guernica was deposited


Art,

New

in

an interview that

in

many

York, for

The Falangist people.


on Franco's side?"

and with Picasso's

heirs

a bull

1947,

however,

and the horse

is

Russell, the author of

one of the

latest

Picasso published, says that Guernica,

works

of art,

is

open

to diverse,

books about
like all

great

even contradictory.

rich in suggestions.

Museum

the

of

Modern

years. After a long process

(some

of

whom

Museum,

were against

in

the Cason del Buen Retiro,

Madrid, since October 1981, although forming part of

Museum's

House

(1945,

collections.

Walter

P.

works by Picasso inspired


war include The Charnel
Chrysler

collection.

York), reflecting the atrocities committed

alongside Peace
the

artist

in

acquired

War

1951),

depicting

in

(oil

on

panel,

collection

in

1971),

an old chapel

and

Peace"; and Massacre

horse."

way one

Director General of Fine Arts): the valuable canvas

private

in

this

succeeded in recovering Guernica


commissioned from the artist by the
been
(which had
Republican Government, when Josep Renau was

Picasso's

is

fix

Government

the horse represented the people. In his explanations

Picasso said that "The bull

to

the work's being delivered to Spain), the Spanish

camps;

Kahnweiler

In

of negotiation with the directors of the said

centration

dealer

interesting

be possible to interpret with the necessary

rigour such a

According to Jerome Seckler, the artist said in 1945


that the bull embodied brutality and darkness, while

art

with his characteristic

successive changes.

the condemnation of

the

with the cor-

immolation of

might perhaps understand the mental process leading


to the embodiment of the artist's dream." Only thus

in

to

finally,

highly

well as Guernica, other

anyone?

common

an innocent victim.

As

part of the people

in

mockery and,

Picasso replied,
contradict

few of the enigmas posed by the inthe famous picture's symbolism. As a

the Prado

"Why

of

could explain no

the horse represents the people?"

Wasn't a

themes

Russell,

to

which the painter was so fond

of

has been exhibited

see that."

then, did you

bullfighting

photographically, not the successive stages of a pain-

joying the Dantesque spectacle.

The symbolism

According

interpretations.

in

named
Korea

New

Nazi con1952,

in

installed

which
"Temple of

at Vallauris

the

(oil

on wood, dated

group of naked

women and

children preparing to die before the soldiers facing

them.

Contents
THE GENIUS OF PICASSO
THE BLUE PERIOD
THE ROSE PERIOD
GOSOL, A NEW ADVENTURE FOR
PICASSO
PICASSO'S CUBISM

PICASSO

AND SURREALISM

30
32

40
45
52

PICASSO'S REINTERPRETATIONS OF

PICTORIAL MYTHS
PICASSO THE ENGRAVER
PICASSO AS A POTTER
PICASSO THE SCULPTOR
PICASSO AND 20TH-CENTURY ART

DENOUNCEMENT OF THE
HORRORS OF WAR

62
7

74
82
86

PICASSO'S

90

A CKNO WL ED GMEN TS:


The publishers wish to thank the Directors of the Picasso Museum, Barcelona, and its Photography and Documentation
Departments, for their invaluable assistance in the preparation of this book.

Collection
1

ANDORRA

LISBON

miiiiiH

ALL EUROPE

IB
IB

LONDON
BRUGES

IDDBO
IB
IB
IB
IB

PARIS

MONACO
VIENNA
NICE

11

CANNES
ROUSSIUON
VERDUN

12

THE TOWER OF LONDON

13
14

ANTWERP
WESTMINSTER ABBEY

15

THE SPANISH RIDING SCHOOL IN VIENNA

16

FATIMA

10

WINDSOR CASTLE

19

COTED-AZUR

IB

iDDDnnnn

ALL AMERICA

B
B

ALL AFRICA

MOROCCO

ART

IN

SPAIN

PALAU OE LA MUSICA CATALANA


(Catalan Palace of MuskI
GAUOI

PRADO MUSEUM
PRAOO MUSEUM

(Spanish Panting)

II

(Foreon Panting)

!
IB
IB
IB

DBD

THE ROOFflOSSES OF THE CATHEDRAL


OF
6

ALL SEVILLE

ALL

ALL THE

ALL

ALL THE

ALL

IDDDDDDD
1DDDDDDD

GERONA

THE CASTLE OF XAVIER

BBBBB one

DDDDD

COSTA BRAVA

MALAGA

and

trie

I.

AUGRANAOA_

IBBB
IBBB

10

ALL VALENCIA

IBB

11

ALL TOLEDO

12

ALL

13

ALL IBIZA and Formentera

14

ALL CADIZ and the Costa de

15

ALL

16

ALL

17

ALL

18

ALLPENISCOLA

the Rias Baias

la La
MONTSERRAT
SANTANOER and the Costa Esmeralda
THE CANARY ISLANDS II.

Gomera. Hierro

19

ALLSITGES

20

ALL BURGOS.

21

ALL ALICANTE and the Costa Blanca

22

ALLNAVARRA

23

ALL LERIDA Province and

24

ALL SEGOVIA and Provnce

25

ALL

26

ALL

27

ALL AVILA and Provnce

28

ALL

29

ALL

30

ALLASTURIAS

31

AUCORUNNA and

32

ALL

33

ALL

34

ALL

35

ALL GIRONA and Provnce

36

ALL

37

ALL JAEN and Provnce

Pyri

SARAGOSSA and Provnce


SALAMANCA and Provnce

MINORCA
SAN SEBASTIAN

and Province

the Rias Attn

TARRAGONA and Provnce


MURCIA and Provnce
VALLAOOUO and Provnce

_
.

HUESCA and Provnce

ALL ALMERIA and

Provno

SPANISH CASTLES

39

ALL

CASTELLON and

THE CATHEDRALS OF SPAIN

40

ALL

CUENCA and Provmoi

10

THE CATHEDRAL OF GERONA

41

ALL LEON and Provnce

42

ALL PONTEVEDRA. VIGO and the Rias Baits

43

ALLRONOA

(Tht Graat Opara Houstl

BARCELONA

IBB

12

THE ROMANESQUE STYLE IN CATALONIA

13

LA RIOJA ART TREASURES

ANO WINEGROWING

RESOURCES

14

PICASSO

15

THE BAROQUE STYLE IN SPAIN

16

ROMAN REMAINS

17

THE GOTHIC STYLE IN SPAIN

16

THE WINES OF CATALONIA

IN

SPAIN

DBD

IBBB

SANTIAGO and

38

BB

IBB

CORDOBA

DEL LICEO DE

Costa del Sol

CANARY ISLANDS

THE ROMANESOUE STYLE IN SPAIN

GRAN TEATRO

MAJORCA

Covarrutnas and Santo Domingo de Sdos

B
B

PUERTO RICO
SANTO OOMINGO

Collection

ALL

Uililiill;

MADRID
BARCELONA

Tenetife, La Palma.

LOUROES

Collection

ALL

20 AUSTRIA

ALL SPAIN

Laruarote and Fuerteventura

THE OPAL COAST

BB

B
B
B

17

Collection

DBD
DBD

IB

21

Collection

the Costa del

IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB

IBB
IBB
IBB

BB

IBB
IBB :gbd
IBB
IBB BD
IBB
IBB
IBB
DBD
IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB
I

IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB
IBB

The printing of
in

this

book was completed

the workshops of

Graficas,

FISA

Palaudarias,

(Spain)

26

Industrias
-

Barcelona

*.&

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