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COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (Virtual

Block F, NISTE Building, H-8/1 Islamabad Pakistan

Subject: Introduction to Computing

( CSC101)
Assignment 03
Total Marks = 10


Muhammad Mumtaz

Reg No :


Use standard formatting for assignment writing.You are encouraged to use recommended book,
articles and internet sources to complete this work, BUT copy/paste will not be tolerated. Write
to the point answers not lengthy stories.

Q. 1: Briefly explain functionality of DNS server.

DNS stands for Domain Name System.
The main function of DNS is to translate domain names into IP Addresses, which
computers can understand. It also provides a list of mail servers which accept
Emails for each domain name.
Each domain name in DNS will nominate a set of name servers to be authoritative
for its DNS records. This is where all other name servers will be pointed when
looking for information about the domain name.

Introduction to Computing

Domain Name System (DNS) is a system for naming computers and network
services that is organized into a hierarchy of domains. TCP/IP networks, such as
the Internet, use DNS to locate computers and services through user-friendly
To make using network resources easier, name systems such as DNS provide a way
to map the user-friendly name for a computer or service to other information that is
associated with that name, such as an IP address. A user-friendly name is easier to
learn and remember than the numeric addresses that computers use to
communicate over a network. Most people prefer to use a user-friendly namefor
example, sales.fabrikam.comto locate an e-mail server or Web server on a
network rather than an IP address, such as When a user enters a userfriendly DNS name in an application, DNS services resolve the name to its
numeric address.

Functions of DNS
A DNS server provides name resolution for TCP/IP-based networks. That is, it
makes it possible for users of client computers to use names rather than numeric IP
addresses to identify remote hosts. A client computer sends the name of a remote
host to a DNS server, which responds with the corresponding IP address. The client
computer can then send messages directly to the remote host's IP address. If the
DNS server does not have an entry in its database for the remote host, it can
respond to the client with the address of a DNS server that is more likely to have
information about that remote host, or it can query the other DNS server itself. This
process can take place recursively until either the client computer receives the IP
address or it is established that the queried name does not belong to a host within
the specific DNS namespace.

Introduction to Computing

The DNS server in the Windows Server 2008 operating system complies with the
set of Requests for Comments (RFCs) that define and standardize the DNS
protocol. Because the DNS Server service is RFC-compliant and it can use
standard DNS data file and resource record formats, it can work successfully with
most other DNS server implementations, such as DNS implementations that use
the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) software. In addition, the DNS server
in Windows Server 2008 provides the following special benefits in a Windowsbased network:
Support for Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) DNS is required
for support of AD DS. If you install the Active Directory Domain Services
role on a server, you can automatically install and configure a DNS server if
a DNS server that meets AD DS requirements cannot be located.
DNS zones can be stored in the domain or application directory partitions of
AD DS. A partition is a data container in AD DS that distinguishes data for
different replication purposes. You can specify in which Active Directory
partition to store the zone and, consequently, the set of domain controllers
among which that zone's data will be replicated.
In general, use of the Windows Server 2008 DNS Server service is strongly
recommended for the best possible integration and support of AD DS and
enhanced DNS server features. You can, however, use another type of DNS
server to support AD DS deployment.
Stub zones
DNS running on Windows Server 2008 supports a zone type called a stub
zone. A stub zone is a copy of a zone that contains only the resource records
that are necessary to identify the authoritative DNS servers for that zone. A
stub zone keeps a DNS server hosting a parent zone aware of the


Introduction to Computing

authoritative DNS servers for its child zone. This helps maintain DNS nameresolution efficiency.
Integration with other Microsoft networking services
The DNS Server service provides integration with other services, and it
contains features that go beyond the features that are specified in the DNS
RFCs. These features include integration with other services, such as AD
DS, Windows Internet Name Service (WINS), and Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
Improved ease of administration
The DNS snap-in in Microsoft Management Console (MMC) offers a
graphical user interface (GUI) for managing the DNS Server service. Also,
there are several configuration wizards for performing common server
administration tasks. In addition to the DNS console, other tools are
provided to help you better manage and support DNS servers and clients on
your network.
RFC-compliant dynamic update protocol support
Clients can use the DNS Server service to dynamically update resource
records, based on the dynamic update protocol (RFC 2136). This improves
DNS administration by reducing the time needed to manage these records
manually. Computers running the DNS Client service can register their DNS
names and IP addresses dynamically. In addition, the DNS Server service
and DNS clients can be configured to perform secure dynamic updates, a
capability that enables only authenticated users with appropriate rights to
update resource records on the server. Secure dynamic updates are available
only for zones that are integrated with AD DS.
Support for incremental zone transfer between servers
Zone transfers replicate information about a portion of the DNS namespace
among DNS servers. Incremental zone transfers replicate only the changed
portions of a zone, which conserves network bandwidth.

Introduction to Computing

Conditional forwarders
The DNS Server service extends a standard forwarder configuration with
conditional forwarders. A conditional forwarder is a DNS server on a
network that forwards DNS queries according to the DNS domain name in
the query. For example, a DNS server can be configured to forward all the
queries that it receives for names ending with sales.fabrikam.com to the IP
address of a specific DNS server or to the IP addresses of multiple DNS


Introduction to Computing