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University of the Punjab

College of engineering and emerging technologies


Department of metallurgy
Lab report # 3

Name:

Agha zeeshan ali

(E12-328)

Hafiz humza haseeb (E12-320)

Semester:

5th (evening)

Submitted to:

Dr Mohsin Ali Raza

Determine the mechanical properties of tonsanto tensometer of acrylic and bakelite


samples.

Procedure:
First we measure the length and thickness of the sample correctly with the help of vernier
caliper. The sample was cut in rectangle shape so we can find out its volume. Then the sample
was placed between the jaws of the tonsanto tensometer and after placing the sample we measure
its guage length by vernier caliper and after measuring the guage length we applied the load by
rotating the wheel of the tensometer we slowly moved the wheel. We saw that first elastic
deformation occurred and after that plastic and in the end the sample was broken. We measure
the difference in guage length and thickness before and after breaking. A graph was obtain
between load and deformation, with the help of that graph we found out the mechanical
properties.

Theory:
Acrylics:
Acrylics are polyester which is formed by the polymerization of alkyl acrylate ester.
Because of its transparency acrylics are used where static and dynamic forces are present such as
windows etc. in such application the optical properties of acrylics are more highlighted that
mechanical properties. It doesnt provide only visibility but also provide safety by resisting the
load of almost any magnitude. The response to loading by acrylics is different from the metals.
The response of acrylic structure to stresses is nonlinear. Acrylic sheets are used for the windows
of swimming pools, for aquarium construction, for ship windows etc (1).

Bakelite:

Bakelite is a trademark name for phenol formaldehyde. Bakelite is used in pan handles as
insulator in electronic industry. Use in housing parts, steel shields and automotive area. Different
grades are used for different applications (2).

Observation and calculations:


Acrylics:
Guage length = 78.05 mm = 7.807 cm
Final length after elongation = 91.25 mm = 9.125 cm
Width of sample = 14.52 mm
Thickness of sample = 2.6 mm
Area of sample = 36.27 x 10-3 mm2

Elongation in length

Force applied

Stress

Modulus of Elasticity E

cm
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

kg
120
280
410
510
540
610
520
430
340
290
280
230

MPa
3.320
7.723
11.28
14.03
14.86
16.84
14.27
11.13
9.38
8
7.719
6.34

22.649
52.857
77.411
96.288
101.905
115.17
98.203
81.164
64.183
54.739
52.863
43.42

Stress-strain graph for acrylic

Properties of acrylics:
Mean value of strain = 0.146118
Percentage elongation= strain x 100 = 146.18%
Recovery due to plastic deformation = 11 cm
Recovery due to elastic deformation = 1 cm
Breaking strength = 6.339 MPa
UTS = 16.82 MPa
Modulus of resilience = 1.0479 MPa
Yield stress = 14.31 MPa
Standard deviation for all values of elongation = 3.605551
Standard deviation for all values of forces = 147.15
Standard deviation for all values of modulus of elasticity = 27.78
Standard graph for acrylics

Comparison table
Name of property
Ultimate tensile strength
Elongation
Flexural modulus
Yield stress

Standard values
75 MPa
2-7%
117 MPa
45-86 MPa

Lab values
16.82 MPa
1-12%
6.339 MPa
14.31 MPa

Bakelite:

Gauge length = 95 mm = 9.5cm.


Final length after elongation = 100 mm = 10cm.
Width of sample = 11 mm.
Thickness of sample = 3 mm.
Area of sample = 33 x 10-3 mm.

Elongation in length

Force applied

Stress

Cm
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5

Kg
80
240
410
630
840
950

MPa
2.431
7.273
12.41
19.091
25.455
28.79

Modulus of Elasticity
E
18.419
55.249
94.388
145.093
193.445
218.801

Properties of bakelite:

Mean value of strain = 0.131580.


Percentage elongation = strain x 100 = 0.131580 x 100 = 13.1580%.
Recovery due to plastic elongation = 0 cm or 0 mm.
Breaking strength = 28.75 MPa.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) = 28.78 MPa.
Modulus of Resilience =1.89413 MPa.
Standard deviation for all values of Elongation = 1.4317.
Standard deviation for all values of force = 341.5699.
Standard deviation for all values of stress = 10.3516.
Standard deviation for all values of modulus of elasticity = 78.6725.

Comparison table
Name of property
Percentage elongation
Ultimate Tensile strength
Flexural strength
Modulus of elasticity

Standard values
2-8%
70 MPa
105 MPa
225MPa

Lab values
13%
28.78 MPa
28.75 MPa
218 MPa

Discussion:
Arcylics are thermoplastics in nature so they have lager elongation than bakelite because bakelite is
thermoset. First acrylic deforms elastically and then plastically until it fractures. But arcylics have low
UTS and fracture strength because phenolic groups (bakelite) are stronger than acrylic.
The difference between the standard and lab values can be due to various factors like sample dimension,
load applied (not uniformly), pressure, temperature etc.

Reference:
(1). http://www.hydrosight.com/structural-acrylic/
(2). http://www.momentive.com/Products/TechnicalDataSheets.aspx?id=8080