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Hausa

Familiarization Course

Nigeria

Niger

Table of Contents
Introduction
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Lesson 5
Lesson 6
Lesson 7
Lesson 8
Lesson 9
Lesson 10
Lesson 11
Lesson 12
Lesson 13
Lesson 14
Lesson 15
Lesson 16
Lesson 17
Lesson 18
Lesson 19
Lesson 20

Introduction
People and Geography
Living and Working
Days of the Week, Numbers, and Ages
Daily Activities
Meeting the Family
Around Town
Shopping
Eating Out
Holidays Customs and Cultural Traditions
Around the House
Weather and Seasons
Personal Appearance and Clothing
Transportation
Travel
At School
Recreation and Leisure
Health and Human Body
Political and International Events
The Military
In the Hospital

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Developed by I Corps Foreign Language Training Center, Fort Lewis, WA


For the
Special Operations Forces Language Office
United States Special Operations Command

HAUSA FAMILIARIZATION COURSE


Introduction

Hausaland
Hausa is one of the most widely spoken languages in Africa. It stands on par with Swahili
in terms of the number of speakers and use as a trade language. Although it is not
generally very well known in the West, it is the most spoken African language in West
Africa. In addition to being the native language of a large number of people in West
Africa, it is also a trade language and a universal language of communication for West
African Muslims.
The Hausa speaking world is situated in West Africa in the climatic zone known as the
Sahel. The Sahel is a sub-desert region that lies between the Sahara Desert and the
forested regions that lie further south in West Africa. The majority of Hausa speakers live
in Northern Nigeria, but it is also the native language of over half of the population of
Niger. There are also smaller Hausa communities in Cameroon, Ghana, Togo, Benin,
Burkina, Chad, and Sudan. In this book we focus on the core area that is the traditional
home of Hausa. This area, where the Hausa language is the native language of most of
the population, lies in present day Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger. It is sometimes
referred to as Hausaland.
It is estimated that the total number of native Hausa speakers ranges from 25 million to
over 40 million. And there are at least an additional 15 to 20 million people who speak
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Hausa as a second language. These second language speakers of Hausa are generally nonHausas living in a Hausa area, people who use Hausa as a trade language, or Muslims
who use Hausa as a language of Islam. In Northern Nigeria, where the vast majority of
Hausa speaker reside, Hausa is the main language used on a day to day basis. English is
the administrative language of Nigeria, and there are other smaller language groups that
exist there, but Hausa is the main language of communication in the entire northern part
of Nigeria. In South Central Niger, where the northern part of Hausaland lies, Hausa
holds a similar status. Here French is the administrative language, and other language
groups exist as well, but Hausa is the main language used. Although the Hausa
population in Niger is perhaps as little as a quarter of that in Nigeria, it represents over
half of the total population of this much less populace country. Hausa is also the largest
trade language in Niger, even in non-Hausa areas, and it is estimated that in total about
eighty percent of the population of Niger speaks Hausa as either a native or foreign
language.
The Sahelian geography is flat, dry, and hot. The sandy soil of this semi-arid grassland
and savanna manages to support some trees such as the Gao and the Baobab, but the trees
are few and far between, with sandy soil and shrubs filling the space between them. The
Hausas are historically farmers, and they still manage to coax some crops to grow in the
bleached soil, even as the Sahara encroaches from one year to the next.

Climate
The climate in the Hausa speaking world is hot. During the hot season, Niger registers
some of the hottest temperatures in the world, and Nigeria is not far behind. There are
seasons in the Sahel, but they are less differentiated than temperate seasons.
The main seasons are: the rainy season, from May through September, the cold season
from October through February, and the hot season, from late February through May. The
seasons are not always clearly defined, and there are periods within the seasons that are
recognized and named by the locals, but these three periods give a broad picture of the
seasons.
Annual rainfall in the Sahel ranges from 20 to 60 cm, and most of that comes in bursts
during the dramatic thunderstorms of the rainy season. The usual scarcity of rainfall is
punctuated by drought years which can have catastrophic results for a population already
on the brink of starvation.
There is some variation in the climate of Hausaland according to latitude. In the southern
part of Hausaland, in Northern Nigeria, there is much more annual rainfall and vegetation
than at the northern edge of Hausaland. The far north of Hausaland lies in the region
where the Sahel borders the Sahara.

History
It is believed that the original Hausa people were located in Nubia (in present day Sudan).
They began moving westward over 1,500 years ago in a migration that would eventually
lead them to the area that is now divided between Nigeria and Niger: Hausaland. By 500
CE to 700CE they had thoroughly mixed with the other races of the region, with many
other people adopting the Hausa language as a lingua franca. It was during this time that
the Hausa states were born.

The Hausa Bakwai: The City States


The Hausa states were a cluster of strong city states that comprised a sort of empire that
ruled over Hausaland. This empire took the place of the declining power of the Nok and
Sokoto that had previously ruled the area. The Hausa states, known as The Hausa Bakwai
in Hausa (the Hausa seven), were as follows: Biram, Daura, Gobir, Kano, Katsina, Rano
and Zazzau (Zaria).
The Hausa aristocracy began to adopt Islam in the 11th century, and by the 12th century
the Hausa Empire had become one of the greatest powers in Africa of that time. Although
the aristocracy had begun to accept Islam, it was not until around the 14th century that
Islam was truly established as the de facto religion of the aristocracy, and even at this
time there were many dissenters. After the leadership had become truly Islamic, the
population continued to embrace their animistic beliefs, or a mixture of animism and
Islam. The more radical shift to a strictly Islamic population did not take place until the
Jihad of the Fulan Usman Dan Fodio in 1810. At this point, a new hierarchy was
established in which the Fulani people were the official aristocracy. But, even as the
Fulani were the leading class, they were also becoming hausaized. Today many of the
Fulani identify themselves more with Hausa than with their Fulani roots.
Shortly after the Jihad, however, the British began to take control of present day Nigeria,
and in the first years of the 20th century they established a protectorate in the area. The
British continued to rule indirectly through the Fulani aristocracy for a time, but after the
establishment of the unified Nigerian colony in 1914, the rule became more direct. The
colonial leaders encouraged the use of Hausa, and it continued to establish itself as the
lingua franca of Northern Nigeria. With the integration of the Muslim North and the
Christian South, Hausa also became the language of Islam in the country.
With independence in 1960, Hausa remained one of the three official national languages
and continued to dominate the Muslim North of Nigeria. Along with independence,
significant autonomy was given to the three major regions of the country, the Yoruba
speaking area, the Igbo speaking area, and the Hausa speaking area. Through this
autonomy, the North has maintained its Islamic and Hausa heritage.
The area of Hausaland that falls in present day Niger was conquered by the French in the
late 19th century as well. The French were somewhat less supportive of local languages
than the British in Nigeria, but Hausa remained the dominant language in the area. After
independence in 1960, Hausa was declared one of Nigers national languages. In Niger,
French remains the language taught in schools and used in all administrative situations.

The Hausa People


Hausa is not technically a racial group, it is merely a language. There are, in fact, a
number of different races that together make up the majority of the people now known as
Hausas. All the same, Hausa has become the equivalent of an ethnicity in that it is how
people identify themselves. The simplest definition of a Hausa person is a person whose
native language is Hausa and who does not identify himself with any other racial group
and does not have any facial scarification that identifies him as non-Hausa. There were
distinct Hausa people in early history, but through migration and racial mixing this status
as a distinct ethnicity was lost. Today people from very different racial roots refer to
themselves as Hausa.
Hausas are generally sedentary people, living in villages and farming the land. The
culture and lifestyle is built around this sedentary life. Community is very strong in a
Hausa village. Generally every villager knows every other villager, and although this is
somewhat different in the city, even their neighbors establish close relationships. This
closeness has the positive effect of creating a support network in which people can turn to
their neighbors for help and advice, or just for someone to talk to. Of course there is also
the downside, this being that everyone is entwined in everyone elses life, and this can
lead to arguments, unpaid debts, and disagreements that involve the whole village. A
village in Hausaland never lacks drama. Even in the smallest village there is usually
enough daily intrigue to feed a constant flow of gossip around the well.

Religion
For most Hausas, to be Hausa is to be a Muslim. Hausa culture and language is so
intertwined with Islam that it is difficult to imagine a non-Muslim Hausa. There are, of
course some Hausas who are Christian, or Bahai, or members of another foreign
religion, but these people represent a miniscule percentage of the population. There are
also some people who continue to practice pre-Islamic animistic religions in the area. A
small number of these people do so overtly, and many more do so while publicly
assenting to Islam.
Evidence shows that Islam was present in Hausa culture as early as the 11th century, but it
was not until the 14th century that it became a dominant force. It was the conquest of the
Hausa by the forces of the Fulani leader Usman Dan Fodio in the early 1800s that
brought a massive islamification among the Hausa. Under the rule of the Fulani, Islam
became essentially the state religion in Hausaland. Even so, however, the process of
islamification was an ongoing one even into the last century. There are villages in
Hausaland that date their conversion to Islam at a mere 40 or 50 years ago, or even less.
There even remain a few Hausa villages that have yet to convert to Islam.
It is interesting to note that in Hausa culture religion is not really a personal decision.
When villagers talk about their conversion to Islam they are referring to the date when
the village as a whole converted to Islam. The village leaders made the decision to
convert to Islam and as in all other areas of life, the village must act in unison.
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Today, Islam is the heart of Hausa culture. The version of Islam practiced in Hausaland
has a distinct African flavor to it, but it is unmistakably Islam. All of the major events
birth, naming, marriage, deathare observed with Islamic prayers and according to
Islamic rules. Some of the celebrations, however, still contain visible pre-Islamic
remnants.
There is some conflict between the extreme traditional Islam that has been gaining
ground especially in Northern Nigeria and the more moderate traditionalism practiced by
another segment of the population. Issues such as the cloistering of wives and the full
covering of women are emblematic of this division. While many religious leaders in the
area are promoting this Saudi style approach to the behavior of women, the majority of
villagers still have a much more relaxed take on the rules. It is, however, generally seen
as an acceptable practice to cloister wives, require women to cover themselves in public,
or follow many of the other more extremist practices of traditional Islam. Even if the
majority of the population does not practice this sort of Islam, they consider it acceptable
in Islam. The truly modernist urban fringe of society is a distinct minority, albeit an
increasingly vocal one.

Culture & Customs


Although Hausa is not a distinct racial group in the proper sense, it has developed into a
culture with which people identify themselves. It has its own traditions and customs,
many of which have pre-Islamic roots and survive today in syncretistic form.

Festivals and Holidays


The main festivals in Hausaland are the Islamic holidays of Eid Al-Adha and Eid Al-Fitr
and the month of Ramadan. These are the major holidays that punctuate the year. The
central ritual for Eid Al-Adha (the biggest holiday) is the ritual slaughter of a Ram. Every
family that can afford it will buy a ram to slaughter. The meat is then preserved, and
some is distributed to friends, family, and the poor, and the rest is saved to be eaten over
time. The children all dress in their best clothes and circulate the village asking for a
treat, which the adults provide. Later in the evening there is usually drumming and
celebration well into the night.

Scarification
Like many African peoples, the Hausas practice facial scarification. For some, especially
in urban areas, this tradition is now being abandoned, but for many it remains a tradition
that is very much alive and well. Infants are given a pattern of cuts on the face soon after
birth to form the scars that will mark them for life. There are many different patterns that
are considered Hausa. Different groups and regions within the Hausa have their own
distinctive marks, and which are recognizable to others as belonging to the Hausa family.
The other neighboring peoples such as the Fulani and Kanuri people each have their own
set of distinguishing scar patterns as well.
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Work
Hausas are farmers and traders. Of course there are exceptions to this statement, but it is
how they generally identify their place in society. Historically there were many Hausa
hunters as well, but today farming is the main occupation of Hausas. Hausas also have a
long history of being merchants. It was through trading, in fact, that Hausa first became
such a widely spoken language. Hausa merchants were constantly traveling, and
eventually Hausa became something of a trade language for the region. Almost every
major West African city still has a Hausa sector, and a section of the market where Hausa
merchants will be plying their wares.
The work of farmers involves clearing, planting, tilling, and harvesting, as well as
building granaries for food storage. In the off seasons they care for animals, build or
mend houses, fix fences, garden, or get involved in some other small income producing
job such as making ropes. Also, many will travel to the cities during the off season to
seek work until the next farming season.
The women spend most of their days pounding grain with a mortar and pestle and
carrying water from the well one bucket at a time. They cook the meals, take care of the
household and the children, and sometimes care for their own livestock. During the
farming season they help with the planting and bring food and water to the men.

Home Life
Hausa households usually have several generations living together. There is a strong
sense of social hierarchy and family obligation, and the grandfather remains the patriarch
even after his sons are grown and have families of their own. Grown men will often live
in the family home long after marriage, or even for life, and the bride will move into the
family household of the husband. Gender roles remain very firm, and women and men
generally socialize with their own gender. Women and men have very distinct functions,
and rarely would one do the work of another.

Music
Drumming is a central part of Hausa culture. Almost every event is accompanied by a
group of drummers, and sometimes a stringed instrument called a garaya or a wind
instrument called an algaita. Although there are some radicalized Hausa Muslims who
see music as something to be avoided, for the most part it is embraced by Hausas. The
role of musician is often passed down through generations as a family occupation, and
villagers generally have a good idea of who are the designated drummers in the village.

Education
Hausas consider Quranic education to be traditional Hausa education. A large percentage
of boys, and some girls, are given instruction in Quranic recitation and religious practice.
Few actually go on to learn to read Arabic, however, and thus remain functionally
illiterate. Hausas continue to place a high value on religious education, and some efforts
are being made to integrate Quranic education with literacy training and other secular
education. State schools are meanwhile working toward the goal of Universal Basic
Education, meaning that all children receive at least a grade school education in English
in Nigeria or French in Niger. While this goal is far from being reached at the moment,
there is significant progress, especially in Nigeria. Every year new schools are being
built. There is also a movement to expand the use of education in Hausa in the regions
where Hausa is the lingua franca, and as a result, there have been some experiments with
integrating Hausa into the curriculum, and there has been a large growth in the number of
rural adult education classes that focus on teaching adults to read and write in their native
language.

Naming Ceremonies
Six days after the birth of a child is the day of the naming ceremony. During these six
days the family is able to prepare for the ceremony. They acquire the food stuffs needed
to have food for the guests, and arrange with the religious leader to lead the prayer and
assign the name. With the crowd gathered, the prayer is said. At the end of the prayer the
religious leader pronounces the name. Usually the parents choose the name and then tell
it to the religious leader, but it is possible for the religious leader to declare a name of his
choosing, if the parents dont have any input. In any case, the name is only official once it
is declared in the prayer.

Marriage
Traditionally marriages are arranged through a negotiation between the fathers. This,
however, is not usually a blind arranged marriage as it often was in the past. These days it
is more commonly the case that the young man pursues a young woman who gives him
the signs of being agreeable to marriage, and it is only at this point that the parents get
involved. Although parents often play a part in the decision, truly forced marriage is now
rare. It is also becoming less common for extremely young girls to be married. In the past
it was not uncommon for a girl to be married before her tenth birthday. In the present day
there are some villages that see it as acceptable to marry off a six year old girl, but this is
an illegal and dying practice. Today it is more common that a girl will not be married
until she is at least 14 or 15 years old, and many stay unmarried until they are 17 or 18. In
the cities you will even find many young women who remain single into their 20s.
During the wedding the bride and groom are in different places. The bride is prepared at
her family house, and usually placed on a horse. After the prayer is said binding the man
and woman together, the woman is taken in a procession to the house of the grooms

family. This will become her new home. Polygamy is the norm in Hausaland, and a man
may have up to four wives.

Funerals
A funeral in a Hausa village is a public event. It is assumed that everyone knew the
deceased or his family, and so it is an act of simple propriety to make an appearance at
the funeral. After the body is prepared, the deceased is wrapped in a white cloth and
carried to a burial site outside of the village. All in attendance participate in a prayer, and
the body is buried. After returning to the village the immediate family of the deceased
will essentially hold court at their house while people come by to extend their
condolences. Many people will spend the day with the family. It is normal to give a small
amount of money to the family as a token of sympathy.

THE LANGUAGE
Hausa belongs to the Western subgroup of the Chadic language group. The Chadic group
is part of the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is thought to have originated in Nubia
(Sudan) before a migration carried the language to its present location. It is related to the
Semitic languages, such as Arabic. Hausa was first written, using Arabic script, around
1500 CE. This written language was used by religious leaders and political aristocracy,
and a few works have survived, the most well known being The Kano Chronicle.
As mentioned above, it is one of the most widely spoken languages in Africa. If we
exclude the use of colonial languages (such as English and French), Hausa and Swahili
are the two most spoken languages in Sub-Saharan Africa. And, of the hundreds of
languages spoken in West Africa, Hausa is the most spoken. Hausa also holds the status
of the language of Islam in West Africa. Across West Africa, Hausa is recognized as
being a language of Islam, and many Muslims in non-Hausa areas have some knowledge
of the language.

Writing Systems
Hausa is written using two distinct writing systems, one based on the Latin alphabet, and
the other based on the Arabic alphabet. The Latin based Boko systemthe one used in
this courseis the most commonly used by publishers and Hausa literacy classes. The
Arabic based version is used mainly for the publication of Islamic religious pamphlets by
small publishers in Northern Nigeria.
Modern written Hausa generally uses the boko Latin-based script, but this can come in
several forms. The form used in this book is the standard for most Hausa publications
today, and looks like this:

<<an-uwana suna da aki a wani auye>>


This form of written Hausa makes use of several hook letters to indicate the glottalized
sounds that do not exist in English. Many publications, however, do not use these hooked
letters. This is especially common on the internet. Instead they will use an apostrophe
before the letter to indicate the glottalized form. See the example below.
Yan-uwana suna da daki a wani kauye.
Many will even leave out the apostrophes, leaving it to the reader to determine by context
whether the letter is glottalized. See the example in this form.
Yan-uwana suna da daki a wani kauye.
Even when the glottalized letters are indicated, however, there remains some information
that is not included. The tone pattern and vowel length are not indicated. There is a form
of proper Hausa that not only uses the hooked letters, but also includes tone and length
markers. These markers consist of accents, or diacritics, placed over the vowels. Rarely
would a whole book or article be written in this form, but it is generally used in
dictionaries and often in Hausa learning textbooks to eliminate the guesswork with
unfamiliar words. See a Hausa dictionary such as Nicolas Awdes Hausa-English /
English-Hausa Dictionary for a more complete explication of this system.

Literature and Media


Hausa has a relatively short history as a written language. Although the earliest written
Hausa texts (in the Arabic-based, or Ajami, script) date back to about the year 1500 CE,
these were limited to a few court records, letters, and religious materials. In subsequent
centuries there was some use of written Hausa for poetry, representing the first true
literary use of written Hausa, but this also remained limited. It was only with the arrival
of the British colonialists to Northern Nigeria that there began to be a concerted effort to
promote the use of written Hausa in a widespread manner. It was during the beginning
phases of this effort that the administration decided to use the Latin-based script as the
standard for written Hausa rather than the Arabic-base Ajami.
During the 20th century the British colonial administration set up a publishing house for
the purpose of publishing in Hausa. There was a concerted effort to seek out and support
Hausa authors, and the result was the beginning of a Hausa literary movement. This
literary movement continues today, and although the number of great works of literature
remains limited, there have been a large number of small books published in Hausa. The
number continues to grow. These books are generally published by small publishing
houses in Northern Nigeria, and usually go out of print quickly, making them difficult to
obtain outside of Hausaland. Hausa also has a growing web presence with web-based
magazines and news sites.

But perhaps the most important Hausa language media comes in the form of short-wave
radio broadcasts. The national radio stations of America, England, Germany, Iran, and
China all broadcast news in Hausa to West Africa via shortwave. Nearly all men, and a
large number of women, in Hausaland have access to a shortwave radio, and so this has
become a window to the outside world for Hausas in the villages as well as in the cities.
Meanwhile more and more Hausa books are available in the market as more people
become literate. Most of these are either simple love stories or religious instructions, but
other genres are making some inroads.

Tonality
Hausa is a tonal language, although not to the degree of some other African languages. In
this course we will not use the tone and vowel length markers that are found in some
dictionaries and language learning texts. The aspect of tonality is very important. It is
worthwhile to mimic the intonation and speech rhythm of the native speaker in order to
properly pronounce words and phrases.

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Alphabet
The Latin-based Hausa alphabet is very similar to the one used in English, with just a
handful of exceptions and differences in pronunciation.
Consonants
Hausa Letter

Name of Letter in
Hausa

English Example

hamza

____

A/a

B/b

ba

long: father
short: cat
ball

____

C/c

ca

church

D/d

da

dad

____

E/e

F/f

fa

G/g

ga

long: stayed
short: set
fed (pronounced somewhat differently than
the English)
go

H/h

ha

head

I/i

J/ j

ja

long: see
short: sin
job

K/k

ka

kid

____

L/l

la

lag

M/m

ma

mother

N/n

na

nip

O/o

toe

R/r

ra

ring

S/s

sa

sing

Sh / sh

sha

shock

T/t

ta

timid

Ts / ts

tsa

hats

U/u

true

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W/w

wa

want

Y/y

ya

year

____

Z/z

za

zit

Vowels
When the vowels are taught in Hausa, two diphthongs are included. The short i and the
short u are often interchangeable.
A/a

E/e

I/i

O/o

U/u

long: true

Ai / ai

ai

long: sky

Au / au

au

long: cow

long: father
short: cat
long: stay
short: set
long: see
short: sin
long: slow

Pronunciation
Pronunciation of written Hausa is actually fairly simple. The words generally follow the
rules in a fairly uniform manner. The vowel length and tonal pattern have to be
memorized since they are not normally written, but there are no confusing spelling rules
to deal with. Overall, it can be said that Hausa has a nasal and rhythmic sound.
Word Patterns
Although Hausa words are generally not written with the tone and vowel length
indicated, you will become increasingly able to guess the pronunciation even if the word
is not familiar. This is because there are tone and vowel length patterns that accompany
certain types of words in Hausa. From the prefix, suffix, root, or context of the word it is
often possible to make an educated guess as to the proper pronunciation.

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Doubled Letters
There are some doubled letters, but this is done according to the sound of the word, not
just as a spelling convention. A doubled consonant is pronounced with emphasis. You
must almost stop on the consonant to give it its full emphasis. As in English it is
important to differentiate between words with doubled letters and words without double
letters. They will have different pronunciation and different meanings.
Doubling ts and sh
The consonants ts and sh are doubled by doubling the first letter. Thus, ts becomes tts
and sh becomes ssh.
The letter f
The letter f is pronounced somewhat differently in Hausa than in English. It is
pronounced by pronouncing the fa sound of English without placing your teeth on your
lip. It ends up sounding more like hwa. Sometimes it is even written as hw rather
than f. It is also common for the h to replace the f entirely in certain words. This is
often a dialectical difference. Also note that some Hausas will pronounce the f more
like a p. The letter p which does not exist in Hausa is usually pronounced as an f in
Hausa when a loanword with a p is used in Hausa. The letter p is, however
sometimes written when transcribing foreign words, and the majority of Hausa readers
will recognize the letter as an equivalent of f.
The letter r
The r in Hausa can be either rolled or flapped. The rolled r is pronounced in such a
way as to trill the tongue against the roof of the mouth. The flapped r is produced with
a quick flap of the tongue against the roof of the mouth. A doubled r is pronounced as a
long rolled r. For those familiar with Spanish, these will all be recognizable.
The terminal n
An n at the end of a Hausa word is usually pronounced with the nasal ng sound much
like the sound created by the ing in English. Thus nan is pronounced nang.
The letters , , , and
These letters have no English equivalent. Linguistically speaking, they are glottalized
sounds pronounced implosively, or sometimes explosively. In more practical terms one

13

should learn them by duplicating the pronunciation of a native Hausa speaker. It is


important to distinguish them from their non-glottalized counterparts because they are
different letters and can thus change the meaning of the word. Thus, afa (foot) is
entirely different than kafa (to establish).
The letter Hamza
The hamza () is ignored when listing words in alphabetical order. In terms of
pronunciation it is simply a stop. Thus, the word aa (no) is pronounced as two short
ah sounds with clear break between them.

14

Lesson 1
People and Geography
Mutane da Wurare

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Simple greetings and basic introductions in Hausa
- How to greet people in formal and informal situations in the Hausa speaking
world
- Personal pronouns
- Possessive pronouns
- How to express to be and to live in the present tense
- Basic geographical names in Hausa-speaking Africa.
PEOPLE

1. Listen to these simple greetings and phrases in Hausa and repeat them after
the speaker

Hello. Hi.
Hi. (response to Sannu)

Sannu.

Good morning.

Barka da safe.

Good day.

Barka da rana.

Good evening.

Barka da yamma.

Thanks, same to you. (response to Barka from a


man)
Thanks, same to you. (response to Barka from a
woman)
How are you? (morning)

Yawwa! Barkarka dai.

How are you? (noon 2 p.m.)

Muna lafiya?

How are you? (afternoon/evening)

Ina wuni?

Very well, thanks.

Lafiya lau.

OK, goodnight.

To, a kwana lafiya.

Yawwa! Sannu.

Yawwa! Barkarki dai.


Ina kwana?

Greetings are the essence of the Hausa language. Even with relative strangers, you will
find yourself in extensive exchanges asking about family members, destinations, and
other information in a way that would seem a bit intrusive in Western culture. We
introduce a few of the most essential questions in this chapter and will build upon these in
subsequent chapters.While sometimes seeming superficial or time consuming, it is this
ritual of greeting that establishes trust. Someone who consistently cuts short the greetings
will not encounter as warm of a welcome as they would hope. This is especially so in
rural areas.

15

2. Exchange greetings with your teacher and your partner. What would you say at 7 a.m.,
at 10 a.m., at 2 p.m., at 5 p.m., and at 10 p.m.?

3. Familiarize yourself with personal pronouns. Listen to the audio and repeat after
the speaker.

I
You
He
She
We
You
(plural)
They

Ni
Kai (masc.) Ke (fem.)
Shi
Ita
Mu
Ku
Su

The pronouns in Hausa play a very important role and require much attention. This is
because, in Hausa, it is the pronoun that is conjugated rather than the verb.You will have
to learn all of the conjugations of the pronouns in order to speak the language correctly.
On a positive side, Hausa is one of the rare languages where you will not have to
memorize extensive verb conjugation charts. Examine the chart of continuous (present
tense) pronouns below and the examples that follow.
I
You (masc.)
You (fem.)
He
She
We
You ( pl.)
They
One

Ina
Kana
Kina
Yana
Tana
Muna
Kuna
Suna
Ana

Examples:
Ina tafiya = I am going.
Muna tafiya = We are going.
Suna tafiya = They are going.
Note that the verb remains the same; only the pronoun changes. We will introduce other
pronoun forms as we progress.

16

4. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Read the dialogues
in pairs.

In the morning
Umaru: Good morning!
Mariama: Good morning to you too.
During the midday (noon - 2 p.m.)
Umaru: Good day!
Mariama: Good day to you too. How are
you?
Umaru: Very well. How is the tiredness?
Mariama: There is no tiredness. And you,
how are you?
Umaru: Very well.
Mariama: Wonderful.
In the Evening
Umaru: Mariama! Good evening.
Mariama: Thanks! Same to you.
Umaru: How are you?
Mariama: Very well. How are you this
evening?
Umaru: Very well.
Mariama: Wonderful. OK, good night.
Informal
Umaru: Hi, Mariama.
Mariama: Hi!
Umaru: How are you?
Mariama: Good. And you?
Umaru: Excellent!
Mariama: All right, see you later.
Umaru: OK, see you later

Barka da safe!
Barkarka dai!

Barka da rana!
Yawwa! Barkarka dai. Muna lafiya?
Lafiya lau. Ina gajiya?
Babu gajiya. Kai fa, kana lahiya?
Lafiya lau.
To madalla.
Mariama! Barka da yamma.
Yawwa! Barkarka dai.
Ina wuni?
Lafiya lau. Kana wuni lafiya?
Lafiya lau.
To madalla! To, a kwana lafiya.

Sannu Mariama.
Yawwa! Sannu.
Kina lafiya?
Lafiya lau. Kai fa, kana lafiya?
Lafiya lau wallai!
To, sai an jima.
Mu jima da yawa!

A. Use the dialogues above as a model and compose your own similar dialogues. Work
in pairs or in small groups.

17

GEOGRAPHY

Gender:
As with many other languages, nouns in Hausa are either masculine or feminine. The
Hausa gender system is actually quite simple and can be summarized in the following
manner. Almost all nouns ending in a are feminine. Almost all nouns ending in any other
vowel are masculine. All plural nouns are treated as masculine. As we proceed, we will
take note of certain exceptions, including a few notable nouns and certain categories of
proper nouns. For the moment, however, the above explanation will suffice.
To Be:
Note that Hausa does not have a verb that correlates to the English to be. There are,
instead, ways of implying the idea without the use of a verb.
The ne/ce stabilizer is used to express to be in certain nominal sentences. See the
examples below:
It is a horse. = Doki ne.
It is a car. = Mota ce.
They are cars. = Motoci ne.
The ne in the first sentence is used to refer to the masculine noun doki (horse). The
ce in the second sentence is used to refer to the feminine noun mota car. The ne in
the third sentence is used to refer to the plural noun motoci (cars). All plurals are treated
as masculine.

18

-ke Form Pronouns


Another way the to be is often expressed in Hausa is through the relative continuous
form of the pronoun, often referred to as the -ke form. Like the continuous pronoun, the
relative continuous pronoun is also used to express an idea in the present tense. As we
proceed, pay special attention to which types of sentence structures use which type of
pronoun. In the chart below, you will find the full conjugation of this form.
I am from
You are from (masc.)
You are from (fem.)
He is from
She is from
It is from
We are from
You are from
They are from
One is from

Daga nike
Daga kake
Daga kike

Daga yake (or variable shike)


Daga take
Daga yake / take
Daga muke
Daga kuke
Daga suke
Daga ake

6. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker.

1. I am Nigerien.
I am from Niger.
2. He is Nigerian.
He is from Nigeria.
3. She is Nigerien.
She is from Niamey.
4. We are Nigerian.
We are from Abuja.
5. You are Nigerien.
You are from Zinder.
6. They are Nigerian.
They are from Kano.

Ni mutumin Nijar ne/ce.


Daga Nijar nike.
Shi mutumin Nijeriya ne.
Daga Nijeriya yake.
Ita mutumniyar Nijar ce.
Daga Yamai take.
Mu mutanen Nijeriya ne.
Daga Abuja muke.
Ku mutanen Nijar ne.
Daga Zinder kuke.
Su mutanen Nijeriya ne.
Daga kano suke.

Note: In English, Nigerian is used to indicate a person from Nigeria while Nigerien is
used to indicate a person from Niger.

19

7. Pretend you and your classmates are from Nigeria or Niger. Introduce
yourself and your classmates to your friend in Hausa. Use the model below
and the map.
Model:
Ni mutumin Nijeriya ne. Daga Kano nike. Maazu mutumin Nijar ne. Daga
Marai yake.
Su Abdu and Mariama mutanen Nijeriya ne. Daga Abuja suke.

Where Questions:
Ina kake? = Where are you?
Daga ina kake? = Where are you from?
The words ina (where) and daga ina (from where) are used to introduce questions. These
words, as well as a number of other such question words must be used with the ke form
of the pronoun.
Where are you from?
Where is he (she/it) from?
Where are we (they) from?

Daga ina kake / kike?


Daga ina yake / take?
Daga ina muke (suke)?

Tonality:
You may have noticed that there are two very different uses of ina in Hausa. Actually,
they are two completely different words. This is because Hausa is a tonal language, and
thus what appears to be the two instances of the same word can in fact be two different
words that are differentiated by tonal pattern and/or vowel length. In order to fully use a
Hausa dictionary, it is necessary to learn to read the tone and vowel length markings. For
the moment, however, listen carefully to the sound recordings and/or your instructor in
order to hear how the words are differentiated.

8. Listen to the following dialogues in Hausa. Repeat after the speaker. Follow along
in your workbook.

1. A. I am from Kano.
Where are you from?
B. I am from Niamey.
2. A. Zara is from Maradi.
Where is Kabiru from?
B. He is from Zaria.

Daga Kano nike.


Daga ina kake/kike?
Daga amai nike.
Zara, daga Marai take.
Daga ina Kabiru yake?
Daga Zaria yake.

20

3. A. I am from Sokoto.
Where are you and Hadiza from?
B. We are from Maiduguri.

Daga Sakkwato nike.

4. A. Ali is from Konni.


Where are Amadu and Saude
from?
B. They are from Lagos.

Ali, daga wanni yake.

Daga ina kuke kai da Hadiza?


Daga Maiduguri muke.

Amadu da Saude, daga ina suke?


Daga Lagos suke.

9. Role-play the dialogues above using the maps of Nigeria and Niger.

We have already introduced the ke form of the pronoun and the formula for introducing
the question from where (daga ina). In the following chart, take note of the way in
which the form ba ba is used to negate this type of sentence.
Am I from?

Yes, I am.

No, I am not.

Daga nike?
Are you from?

I, daga nike.
Yes, you are.

Aa, ba daga nike ba.


No, you are not.

Daga kake/kike?
Is he from?

I, daga kake/kike.
Yes, he is.

Aa, ba daga kake/kike ba.


No, he is not.

Daga yake?
Is she from?

I, daga yake.
Yes, she is.

Aa, ba daga yake ba.


No, she is not.

Daga take?
Is it from?

I, daga take.
Yes, it is.

Aa, ba daga take ba.


No, it is not.

Daga yake/take?
Are we from?

I, daga yake/take.
Yes, we are.

Aa, ba daga yake/take ba.


No, we are not.

Daga muke?
Are they from?

I, daga muke.
Yes, they are.

Aa, ba daga muke ba.


No, they are not.

Daga suke?

I, daga suke.

Aa, ba daga suke ba.

Read the following dialogues and role-play them.

1. A. Are you from Kano?


B.
No, I am not. I am from Niamey.

Daga Kano kake?

2. A. Is Ousmane from Nigeria?


B.
Yes, he is.

Usman, daga Nijeriya yake?

Aa, daga amai nike.

I, daga Nijeriya yake.


Audu da Zara daga Kaduna suke?

3. A. Are Audu and Zara from Kaduna?


B.
Yes, they are from Kaduna.

I, daga Kaduna suke.

21

Introductions:
Greetings and introductions in Hausa are very important. The easiest way to offend a
Hausa person is to neglect to take the time to greet them properly.
I would like to introduce Audu = Ga Audu (literally: Here is Audu)
There is no phrase in Hausa that translates as pleased to meet you, but the word
madalla (Great! Wonderful!) is often used in that capacity.
First names are commonly used in conversations regardless of the status of the speaker,
but titles are often attached to names, especially when the speaker is speaking to someone
of a higher status than himself.
Those who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca are referred to as Alhajji (masc.) or
Hajjia (fem.). This title must be used regardless of your status. It is as if it becomes the
persons first name. For instance, Alhajji Ayuba could simply be called Alhajji, but he
COULD NOT simply be called Ayuba (except perhaps by a few old friends).
The title Malam (masc.) or Malama (fem.) can be translated as Mr. or Ms. in many
situations, but literally it refers to a learned person. A teacher of a Koranic school, or
someone who is known to be a scholar of the Koran, is referred to as a malam. Likewise,
the term can be applied to a school teacher or any other sort of educator. When
introduced to an older man, you can never go wrong by bowing and referring to him as
Malam. In this case, it is simply a mark of respect.
In addition, nicknames are very common; almost everyone has at least one. This is often
very useful since there are some very common names and people have large circles of
acquaintances. The pattern of first name followed by profession, race, or defining
characteristic is something that the Hausa learner will quickly become accustomed to
seeing.
Additionally, people are often commonly referred to as son of (an) or daughter of
(ar). A common male example is Dan Hajjia (son of the Hajjia). This sort of name is
especially common for young people, but very often the nickname sticks and is used all
the way into old age. For many people this is the only name that you will ever hear them
referred to by.

22

What is your name?


My name is Amadou.
Independent
Pronouns

Mi sunanka
Sunana Amadu.

What is your name? Mi sunanki


My name is Amina. Sunana Amina.

Possessive
Pronouns
(Suffixed)
My

Referring to masculine
noun

Referring to feminine
noun

-na

-ta

Ni

You (masc.)

Kai

Your (masc.)

-nka

-rka

You (fem.)

Ke

Your (fem.)

-nki

-rki

She

Ita

Her

-nta

-rta

He

Shi

His

-nsa (-nshi)

- rsa (-rshi)

It

Shi.

Its

-nsa (-nshi)

-rsa (-rshi)

Ita
You
They

-nta

-rta

Ku

Your

-nku

-rku

Su

Their

-nsu

-rsu

Possessive Pronouns
(Independent)
Mine
Yours (masculine)
Yours (feminine)
Hers
His
Its
Yours (plural)
Theirs

Referring to masculine
noun

Referring to feminine noun

Nawa

Tawa

Naka

Taka

Naki

Taki

Nata

Tata

Nasa (Nashi)

Tasa (Tashi)

Nasa (Nashi)

Tasa (Tashi)

Nata

Tata

Naku

Taku

Nasu

Tasu

23

What is her name?

What is his name?

Mi sunanta?

Mi sunansa?

Her name is Zara.

His name is Dan Ladi.

Sunanta Zara

Sunansa an Ladi

11. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker.
A. Good morning!
B. Thanks, same to you!
A. My name is Ayuba.
What is your name?
B. My name is Usman.
A. Wonderful.

Barka da safe!
Yawwa! Barka kadai.
Sunana Ayuba. Kai fa mi sunanka?
Sunana Usman.
To madala.

12. Work in pairs or in small groups. Look at the pictures and make up similar
dialogues.

24

13. Listen to the following statements and repeat after the speaker.

My name is Kabiru.

His name is Sani.

Her name is Awa.

Sunana Kabiru.
I live in Bauci.

Sunansa Sani.
He lives in Kano.

Sunanta Awa.
She lives in Zaria.

Bauci nike da zama.

Kano yake da zama.

Zaria take da zama.

We live in Niamey.

They live in Kaduna.

A amai muke da zama

A Kaduna suke da zama.

25

14. Read the following sentences. Translate them into English. Check your answers
with the Answer Key.
Audu, a Kaduna yake da zama.
A Kano kake da zama? I.
Aisha, ba ta zaune a Abuja.
Ina kake da zama? A Bauci nike da zama.
Lawali da Nura, ina suke da zama? A Zinder suke da zama.

15. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Follow along
in your workbook. Make up a similar dialogue. Work in pairs or in small groups.
Saude: Barka da rana!
Audu: Yawwa! Barkarki dai.
Saude: Sunana Saude. Kai fa, mi sunanka?
Audu: Sunana Audu.
Saude: To madala. Daga ina kake Audu?
Audu: Daga Kano nike. Ke fa, daga ina kike?
Saude: Daga Zinder nike.

16. Imagine that you are new to the class. Ask your partner about the rest of the
students (their names and where they live). Use the model below. Work in
pairs or in small groups.
Model:
A. Mi sunansa?
B. Sunansa Audu.
A. Daga ina yake?
B. A Kano yake da zama.

17. What is the question? Read the answers below and reproduce the questions
in Hausa. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. ____________________________?
Aa, daga Katsina nike.
2. ____________________________?
I, a Kano nike da zama.

26

3. ____________________________?
I daga Sakkwato yake.
4. ____________________________?
I, a Zinder take da zama.
5. ____________________________?
Aa, daga Bauci yake.
6. ____________________________?
I sunana Amadu.
7. ____________________________?
Aa, sunansa Usman.
8. ____________________________?
I, daga Marai nike.

27

End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Read the following sentences and translate them from English into Hausa. Check your
translations with the Answer Key.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.

My name is Tanya. I am from Moscow.


Do you live in Seattle? Yes.
His name is Joe. He lives in Berlin.
We are from Vancouver.
My name is Maurice. I am from Chicago
His name is Bob. He lives in Boston.
Her name is Susan. She lives in San Diego.
What is your name? My name is Tony.

2. Pretend that you are at a party. Introduce yourself to other people and ask them
their names, where they are from, and where they live. Work in pairs or in small
groups. Use the model below.
Model:
A. Gaisuwa, sunana Abdu. Mi sunanka?
B. Sunana Mue.
A. Daga Nijeriya nike. Kai fa, daga ina
kake?
B. Ni, daga Nijar nike.
A. Ina zaune a Kano. Ina kake da zama?
B. Ina zaune a Zinder.

28

3. Introduce your friend to your classmates. Use the model below.


Model:
Sunansa Hadi.
Daga Nijar yake.
Shi mutumin Nijar ne.
A Marai yake da zama.

29

Vocabulary List
Greetings
Hi
Good morning
Good afternoon
Good evening
Good night
Good-bye
To pass the day
Tiredness
Goodnight. Sleep well.
To sleep. To spend the night.
Where
How are you? (morning)
Well. Health.
Very well
Thank you
You are welcome
Excellent! Thanks!
Very much so. Really. I swear.
Ok. Well.
My name is
Son of
Daughter of
One who has been to Mecca
I
He
She
You
We
You (plural)
They
To live (in)
No
Yes
To be (+ noun)
From

Gaisuwa. Barka.
Sannu
Barka da safe
Barka da rana
Barka da yamma
A kwana lafiya
Sai an jima
Wuni
Gajiya
A kwana lafiya
Kwana
Ina
Ina kwana?
Lafiya
Lafiya lau
Na gode
Babu laifi
Madalla
Wallai. (Wallahi)
To
Sunana
an
ar
Alhajji (m.) Hajjia (f.)
Ni
Shi
Ita
Kai (masc.) Ke (fem.)
Mu
Ku
Su
Zama (a)
Aa
I (often pronounced E)
Ne/Ce
Daga

30

From where
Where are you from?
What is your name?
Where do you live?
I live in Zinder.
Mine
Yours
Yours (fem.)
His
Hers
Ours
Yours
Theirs

Daga ina
Daga ina kake/kike?
Mi sunanka/ki?
Ina kake da zama? or Ina kake zaune?
A Zinder nike da zama. or Ina zaune a Zinder.
Nawa/Tawa
Naka/Taka
Naki/Taki
Nasa (Nashi)/Tasa (Tashi)
Nata/Tata
Namu/Tamu
Naku/Taku
Nasu/Tasu

31

ANSWER KEY
Activity 14
1. Audu lives in Kaduna.
2. Do you live in Kano? Yes, I do.
3. Aisha does not live in Abuja.
4. Where do you live? I live in Bauci.
5. Where do Lawali and Nura live? They live in Zinder.
Audu, a Kaduna yake da zama.
A Kano kake da zama? I.
Aisha, ba ta zaune a Abuja.
Ina kake da zama? A Bauci nike da zama.
Lawali da Nura, ina suke da zama? A Zinder suke da zama.

Activity 17
Your questions should be similar in grammatical form to those below although some city
and people names may be different.
1. Daga Kano kake?

--

(Aa, daga Katsina nike.)

2. Kana zaune a Kano?

--

(I, a Kano nike da zama.)

3. Daga Sakkwato?

--

(I daga Sakkwato yake.)

4. A Zinder take da zama? --

(I, a Zinder take da zama.)

5. Daga amai yake?

--

(Aa, daga Bauci yake.)

6. Sunanka Amadu?

--

(I sunana Amadu.)

7. Sunansa Kabiru?

--

(Aa, sunansa Usman.)

8. Daga Marai kake?

--

(I, daga Marai nike.)

End of Lesson
Activity 1
A. Sunana Tanya. Daga Moscow nike.
B. Kana zaune a Seattle? I.
C. Sunansa Joe. A Berlin yake da zama.
D. Daga Vancouver muke.
E. Sunana Maurice. Daga Chicago nike.
F. Sunansa Bob. Yana zaune a Boston.
G. Sunanta Susan. A San Diego take da zama.
H. Mi sunanka? Sunana Tony.

32

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.

My name is Tanya. I am from Moscow.


Do you live in Seattle? Yes.
His name is Joe. He lives in Berlin.
We are from Vancouver.
My name is Maurice. I am from Chicago
His name is Bob. He lives in Boston.
Her name is Susan. She lives in San Diego.
What is your name? My name is Tony.

33

Lesson 2
Living and Working
Harkoki da aiki

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


Typical housing arrangements of most people living in Nigeria and Niger
Using or in questions about living arrangements and professions
The verb to have in the present tense
Names of professions (singular and plural forms).
The living conditions of the Hausa world are very much defined by poverty. As we approach the
subject of housing and living conditions, it is important that we do so with an adequate
understanding of how Hausas live. The first point to understand is that the vast majority of Hausa
people are still rural subsistence farmers. Their homes are mud brick huts; their dirt compounds
(delineated by mud brick or grass mat fencing) accommodate not only a large family, but often
extended family and even animals. Even in the cities, a large percentage of people live in mud
brick housing and in a similar fashion to the rural people. This being the case, there are many
terms that resist concise translation, and often we find that the Hausa speaker in urban areas will
simply resort to English (or French in Niger) to describe that which lacks an adequate Hausa
translation. You will find that the Hausa gida (house/home) is fairly universally applied to all
sorts of structures. It also describes the entire household, encompassing everything inside the
compound walls (including the people). There is no good Hausa translation for apartment, and
the same is true for a good number of other terms that describe types of housing or rooms and
features of houses. Below are some useful Hausa terms for describing living spaces.

House/Home
Room (inside of a aki or inside of a shigifa)
Round grass hut

Gida
aki
aki

Small round grass hut in a farm

Bukka

Rectangular mud brick room

Shigifa

Round mud hut with a grass roof

Kago

Multistory house

Soro

Rental

Gidan haya

Upper story

Gidan sama /soro

34

1. Look at the pictures below and listen to the words. Repeat the words after the
speaker.

Apartment
aya daga gidajen
da ke cikin wani
babban soro.

Apartment building

Babban soro da ya

Room

House

aki

Gida

unshi gidaje
dayawa.

Military camp

Tent

Barracks

Hotel

Sansani

Tanti

Bariki

Masauka/Hotal

2. Match the Hausa words on the left with their English equivalents on the right. Replay
the audio from the previous section if necessary.
Tanti
aki
Gida
aya daga gidajen da ke cikin wani

Hotel
Tent
Barracks
Room

babban soro.
Masauka
Babban soro da ya unshi gidaje dayawa.
Bariki
Sansani

Military camp
House
Apartment
Apartment building

35

3. Read the following sentences and translate them into English. Check your work with the
Answer Key.
1. Lawali yana zaune cikin tanti a sansani.
2. Malama Hadiza tana zaune cikin wani aramin gida.
3. Mariama da Hadi suna zaune cikin wani babban gida a Kano.
4. Nura yana zaune a wata masauka.
5. Sale da Mamadu suna zaune a bariki.
6. Ni da Hajiya muna zaune a gidanmu.

4. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your
workbook. Then, make up similar dialogues. Work in pairs or in small groups.

1. A.

I live in a big house. Where do you live?

B.

I live in a tent in a military camp.

Ina zaune a wani babban gida. Ina kake da zama?


2. A. Audu lives in the hotel. Where does Amina live?

Ina zaune cikin tanti a wani bariki.


B. Amina lives upstairs in a big house.

Audu yana zaune a masauka. Amina fa, ina take

Amina tana zaune a gidan sama

da zama?
3. A. We live in the barracks. Where do Audu and Amina
live?

cikin wani soro.


B. They live in the military camp.

Muna zaune a bariki. Audu da Amina fa, ina suke

Suna zaune a sansani.

da zama.

Grammar Notes: The Hausa ko is used very much like its English counterpart or. In the
following examples, you will see how it is used in basic sentences.
Daga ina kake? Nijar ko Nijeriya? Where are you from, Niger or Nigeria?
Sunanta Amina ko Hadiza? Is her name Amina or Hadiza?
It is, however, worth noting that ko is also used in many idiomatic phrases and constructs in
addition. You will become accustomed to the many uses of this word.

36

5. Read the following dialogues and translate them into English. Check your translations
with the Answer Key. Make up similar dialogues using the words below. Work in pairs
or in small groups.
1. A. Kana zaune cikin kago ko soro?
B. Ina zaune a soro.
2. A. Suna zaune cikin masauka ko gidan haya?
B. Suna zaune cikin masauka.

6. Compose choice questions using the model and the words below. Check your work with
the Answer Key.
Model: Kana zaune cikin tanti ko bariki?
Kai

Tanti / Bariki

Su

Masauka / Gida

Shi

Bene / Sansani

Ita

aki/ Gida

Mu

Gidan haya / Masauka

7. Listen to the speaker and circle the words you hear. Check your work with the
Answer Key.
1. Bariki

Tanti

2. Gida

Babban soro da ya umshi gidaje dayawa

3. Sansani

aki

4. Apartment

Masauka

37

<<To Have>>
As with <<to be>> is no Hausa verb for <<to have>>. Rather, the following construct is used:
the pronoun plus the preposition DA (with). This non-verb construct takes some getting used to
for the English speaker, but it is actually quite simple once one gets accustomed to it.

I have
You have (masc.)
You have (fem.)
He has
She has
We have
You (plural) have
They have
One has

Ina

da

Kana da
Kina da
Yana da
Tana da
Muna da
Kuna da
Suna da
Ana

da

8. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your
workbook.
Ina da gida a Kano.

1 I have a house in Kano.


2 We have a room in an apartment building.
3. Audu has an apartment in Zinder.

Muna da aki cikin wani soro.


Audu yana da gida cikin wani soro a
Zinder.
Gidansu Audu da Mariama, a Kaduna

4. Audu and Mariamas house is in Kaduna.

yake.

9. Make up sentences using the correct form of the verb to have.

Model: Ina da gida.


Ina
Kana

Gida

Yana
Tana

da

Gidan haya

Yana/Tana
Muna

aki

Suna

38

Work: The vast majority of Hausas are subsistence farmers, growing millet, sorghum, rice,
cassava, beans, peanuts, and other field and garden crops for their family to eat. A large
percentage of people also raise animals, such as goats, sheep, cows, and chickens. In addition,
there are many other professions that people engage in to earn money. Common village
professions include tailoring, cooking food to sell in the village, running a small shop that sells
sugar, tea, batteries, and such., and of course the highly respected teachers of Koranic schools.
There are also butchers, carpenters, barbers, healers, and religious leaders in almost every
village. Most villages have market traders who import goods from large markets to sell at the
smaller local weekly markets. In the cities, you will find that in addition to these trades, there are
white collar professionals working for companies and non-governmental development
organizations. Nigeria and Niger also both have large public sectors that employ many people in
careers such as soldiers, police officers, agricultural agents, and school teachers. To work for the
government or an organization is a very different life from that of the average villager. A strict
schedule and an office environment are foreign imports to Hausa culture. It is important to
understand that the Hausa language developed in this traditional rural setting and has only very
recently begun to adapt to modern ways. Thus, as we speak of modern professions, it should be
understood that the Hausa language is still in the process of forming and adopting words to
describe these new concepts.

10. Listen to the new vocabulary related to professions and repeat after the speaker.
Profession
Doctor
Nurse
Laborer
Teacher
Student
Soldier
Mechanic
Farmer
Police Officer
Waitress
Interpreter

Sanaa
Likita (Dakta)

Nas / Majiyyaciya (f.)/ Mai jiyya


Lebura
Malami (Niger: Mushe)
alibi / aliba
Soji
Makanike
Manomi
an Sanda
Sabis
Tafinta (Niger: Antamfereti)

39

11. Circle the more likely profession of the two choices under the photo.

Nas ko malama?

an sanda ko manomi?

Sabis ko likita?

Soji ko tafinta?

12. Match the Hausa words on the right with their English equivalents on the left.
Check your work with the Answer Key.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Profession
Doctor
Nurse
Laborer
Teacher
Student
Soldier
Mechanic

A. Sabis
B. Manomi
C. Tafinta
D. Sanaa
E. Nas
F. an Sanda
G. Likita
H. Lebura

40

9. Farmer
10. Police Officer
11. Waitress
12. Interpreter

I. alibi
J. Soji
K. Makanike
L. Malami

Plurals:
Below you will find your first introduction to Hausa plurals. You will quickly notice that there is
more than way to make a word plural in Hausa. For some words, it requires a change in the
internal structure of the word, while for others it may require a different ending or even repeating
the word. In fact, there are 15 patterns, or classes, of plurals in the Hausa language. Because of
this complex system of plural forms, the best way to learn Hausa plurals is to memorize them
when you learn the word. As time goes on, you will begin to notice patterns, and you will be able
to guess the plurals of some words. There is logic to the pluralizing patterns, even if they are
sometimes inscrutable, and eventually the patterns will start to seem natural. Remember that all
plurals, grammatically speaking, are treated as masculine. Malama is feminine, but its plural is
Malamai, the same as for the masculine plural.
Loanwords:
Hausa, like most languages, has not developed in a cultural vacuum. The language has adopted
many words from English, French, and Arabic, as well as from neighboring African languages
Fulani, Kanuri, and others. Of particular interest to us are the English and French borrowed
words. While most of the Arabic loanwords are now fully integrated into the language, some of
the English and French loanwords are more recent, and thus they are often not fully integrated in
parts of the Hausa language. These words will often have a very non-Hausa sound to them and
will often require the speaker to employ slightly different grammatical tools. They will
sometimes have an awkward plural or even no real plural. It is also the case that certain English
or French words that are used in urban Hausa may be absent from the more pure rural Hausa.
Sometimes words that would be universally comprehensible in the city may draw vacant stares in
the village. This fact can also have class implications as the Westernized urban Hausas will
sometimes employ these words to show that they are of a more refined and educated urban class.
There is no need to speak in depth on loanwords at this point, but the student, even at the
elementary level, should be aware of this feature of the language. One final important note is that
the border between Niger and Nigeria has a real and tangible effect on the language in terms of
loanwords. The English loanwords of Nigeria are very often replaced in Niger by French
loanwords. See for instance the word Tafinta, which is clearly the Hausa pronunciation of
interpreter; likewise, its Nigerien counterpart (antamfareti) is simply the Hausa pronunciation of
the French.

41

13. Listen to the plural form of nouns that are the names of professions, and repeat
after the speaker.
Profession

- Professions

Sanaa

Sanaoi

Doctor

- Doctors

Likita

Likitoci

Nurse

- Nurses

Nas

Nas-nas

Laborer

- Laborers

Lebura

Leburori

Teacher

- Teachers

Malami

Malamai

Student

- Students

alibi

alibai

Soldier

- Soldiers

Soji

Sojoji

Mechanic

- Mechanics

Makanike

Makanikai

Farmer

- Farmers

Manomi

Manoma

Police officer

- Police officers

an Sanda

an Sanda

Waitress

- Waitresses
[no normal plural]

Sabis

an Sabis, Masu
aikin sabis.

Interpreter

- Interpreters

Tafinta

Tafintoci

14. Listen to the speaker and put a circle around each word you hear. Replay the
audio as many times as you need. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
A. mechanic / farmer.
B. teachers / doctors.
C. interpreter / student.
D. officers / soldiers.

42

End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Give a brief introduction of yourself, listing your name, where you are from, where you
live, and what your occupation is, in Hausa.
Model: Sunana Ali. Ni mutumin Nijeriya ne. Daga Nijeriya nike. A Kano nike da zama. Ni
malami ne. Ina zaune cikin

2. Circle the Hausa equivalents for the professions below. Check your work with the
Answer Key.
Interpreter, teacher, and student
A.

1. sabis
2. an sanda
3. tafinta

B.

1. nas
2. malami
3. manomi

C.

1. likita
2. nas
3. alibi

3. Reproduce the questions to the following answers. Compare your questions with those in
the Answer Key.
1. ____________________?
Sunana Ali.

2. ____________________?
Daga Nijar nike.

3. ____________________?
I, ina zaune a Seattle.

4. ____________________?
Aa, ba ni da gida. Ina da aki.

5. ____________________?
I, ni makaniki ne.

43

Vocabulary List
Apartment

aya daga gidajen da ke cikin wani babban soro mai gidaje


dayawa.

Apartment building
Barracks
Military camp
House
Rental Home
Square mud hut
Round mud hut
Multistory house
Tent
Room
Big
Small
Profession
Farmer
Doctor
Nurse
Laborer
Teacher
Student
Soldier
Mechanic
Waitress
Interpreter
Police officer
With
To have
And you? (masc.)

Babban bene da ya umshi gidaje dayawa.


Bariki
Sansani
Gida
Gidan Haya
Soro
Kago
Bene
Tanti
aki
Babba
arami
Sanaa
Manomi
Likita
Nas
Lebura
Malami, Mushe, Malamin Makaranta, Mushen Lakwal
alibi
Soji
Mekaniki
Sabis
Tafinta
an Sanda
Da
Pronoun + da
Kai fa ?

44

ANSWER KEY
Activity 3
1. Lawali lives in a tent at the military camp. (Lawali yana zaune cikin tanti a sansani.)
2. Malama Hadiza lives in a small house. (Malama Hadiza tana zaune cikin wani aramin
gida.)

3. Mariama and Hadi live in a big house in Kano. (Mariama da Hadi suna zaune cikin wani
babban gida a Kano.)

4. Nura lives in a hotel. (Nura yana zaune a wata masauka.)


5. Sale and Mamadu live in the barracks. (Sale da Mamadu suna zaune a bariki.)
6. Hajiya and I live in our house. (Ni da Hajiya muna zaune a gidanmu.)
Activity 5
1. A. Do you live in a round hut or a square hut?
B. I live in a square hut.
2. A. Do they live in a hotel or in a rental home?
B. They live in a hotel.
1. A. Kana zaune cikin kago ko soro?
B. Ina zaune a soro.
2. A. Suna zaune cikin masauka ko gidan haya?
B. Suna zaune cikin masauka.

Activity 6
Kana zama cikin tanti ko bariki?
Suna zama a masauki ko gida?
Yana zama cikin soro ko a sansani?
Tana zama cikin aki ko gida?
Muna zama a gidan haya ko masauka?

Activity 7
1. tent
2. house
3. military camp
4. hotel

45

Activity 12
D. Sanaa

1. Profession
2. Doctor
3. Nurse
4. Laborer
5. Teacher
6. Student
7. Soldier
8. Mechanic
9. Farmer
10. Police Officer
11. Waitress
12. Interpreter

G. Likita
E. Nas
H. Lebura
L. Malami
I. alibi
J. Soji
K. Makanike
B. Manomi
F. an Sanda
A. Sabis
C. Tafinta

Activity 14
A.
B.
C.
D.

Manomi

farmer
teachers
interpreter
soldiers

Malamai
Tafinta
Sojoji

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 2
A. 3 Tafinta
B. 2 Malami
C. 3 Dalibi

interpreter
teacher
student

Activity 3
1. Mi sunanka?
2. Daga ina kake?
3. A Bauci kake da zama?
4. Kana da gida ko aki?
5. Kai makanike ne?

46

1. ____________________?
Sunana Ali.

2. ____________________?
Daga Nijar nike.

3. ____________________?
I, ina zaune a Seattle.

4. ____________________?
Aa, ba ni da gida. Ina da aki.

5. ____________________?
I, ni makaniki ne.

47

Lesson 3
Days of the Week, Numbers, Ages of People
Ranukan Sati, Lambobi, Shekaru da Haifuwa

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Days of the week
- Numbers from 0 to 100
- How to understand and respond to questions about what day it is
- How to find out somebodys age and tell how old you are.

1. Listen to the days of the week and repeat them after the speaker.

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday

ran Litinin
ran Talata
ran Laraba
ran Alhamis
ran Jummaa
ran Subdu (Niger)
ran Asabar

Sunday

ran Lahadi

Read the days of the week several times, practicing pronunciation. Replay the audio if
necessary.

2. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the
workbook. Role-play the dialogues using the names of the other days of the week. Work in
pairs or in small groups.
ran Ladi ran Talata

ran Alhamis ran Subdu

1. What day is it today?


Today is Monday.
2. Is today Monday?
Yes, today is Monday.
3. Is today Monday?
No, today is Tuesday.

ran Laraba

Yau wacce rana ce?


Yau ran Litinin ce.
Yau ran Litinin ce?
I, yau ran Litinin ce.
Yau ran Litinin ce?
Aa, yau ran Talata ce.

48

ran Jumaa

3. Listen to the pronunciations and read the numbers from 0 to 10.

10

Sifili

aya

Biyu

Ukku

Huu

Biyar

Shidda

Bakwai

Takwas

Tara

Goma

4. Practice using the numbers. Work with a partner and tell them in Hausa your home
telephone number, work number, address number, and so on.
5. Read the following dialogue. Pay attention to the numbers.
A.
B.
A.
B.

What is your telephone number?


My telephone number is (360) 984 0217.
What is your house number?
My house number is 10456.

Mece ce lambar wayarka?


Lambar wayata (360) 984-0217 ce.
Mece ce lambar gidanka?
Lambar gidana 10456 ce.

6. Role-play the dialogue with a partner using Exercise 5 as a model. Pretend one of you is
a receptionist who wants to know the name, telephone number, and house number of the
other person. Ask each other questions and use as many numbers in your answers as you
can.

7. Listen to the sentences and write down the missing numbers you hear. Check your
work with the Answer Key.
Model: My telephone number is 567_8__4.
1. Lambar wayata 67_____653 ce.
2. Lambar wayata 432_____01 ce.
3. Lambar wayata 89645_____ ce.
4. Lambar wayata 4____0692 ce.
5. Lambar wayata 978____645 ce.

The Numbers 11-19


The numbers from 11 through 19 follow a simple formula in Hausa. All of these numbers follow
the pattern of goma sha, plus the number in the ones place. The only other point to remember

is that in spoken Hausa, the goma is often left out. The result is that goma sha aya becomes

simply sha aya. This abbreviated form is very common in day to day spoken Hausa.

49

8. Listen as the speaker recites the numbers 11 to 19. Repeat after the speaker.
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
fifteen
sixteen
seventeen
eighteen
nineteen

Goma sha aya


Goma sha biyu
Goma sha ukku
Goma sha huu
Goma sha biyar
Goma sha shidda
Goma sha bakwai
Goma sha takwas
Goma sha tara

9. Practice saying the following numbers in Hausa:


11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 12, 14, 16, 18
The Numbers 20-29
The numbers from 20 through 29 follow essentially the same pattern as 11 through 19. The only
difference is that sha is replaced by da. Also, remember that only 11 through 19 can be shortened
by leaving off the tens place.
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

twenty
twenty-one
twenty-two
twenty-three
twenty-four
twenty-five
twenty-six
twenty-seven
twenty-eight
twenty-nine

Ashirin
Ashirin da aya
Ashirin da biyu
Ashirin da ukku
Ashirin da huu
Ashirin da biyar
Ashirin da shidda
Ashirin da bakwai
Ashirin da takwas
Ashirin da tara

10. Read the texts and translate into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Sunana Hadiza. A Zaria nike da zama. Ni sabis ce. Ina da gida. Lambar gidana 21 ce.
2. Ali soji ne. Yana da aki cikin wani babban soro. Lambar akinshi 25 ce.
3. Sunanta Zara. Ita malama ce. Tana zaune a wani gida. Lambar gidanta 16 ce.
4. Amadu da Nuri suna da gida a Zinder. Lambar gidansu 14 ce.

50

The Numbers 30-100


The numbers from 30 through 100 all follow the same pattern as with 20 through 29. The only
difficulty lies in memorizing the numbers for twenty, thirty, forty, and so on. These numbers are
borrowed from Arabic and thus bear no resemblance to the Hausa numbers that were previously
Introduced. Also note that there are two common words for <<ninety>>.
Tisain - is perhaps the more standard lexical word, but Gomiya tara is also not uncommon.
11. Listen to the next set of numbers. Repeat after the speaker.
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

thirty
forty
fifty
sixty
seventy
eighty
ninety
one hundred

Talatin
Arbain
Hamsin
Sittin
Sabain
Tamanin
Tisain, Gomiya tara (In Niger)
ari

12. Practice saying the following numbers in Hausa.


30, 31, 40, 42, 50, 53, 60, 64, 70, 75, 80, 86, 90, 97, 100.
How old are you?
Hausas are much less likely to find a question about age uncomfortable than Westerners for the
simple reason that, in Hausaland, getting old is generally perceived in a positive light. There is
an incredible respect for the aged in the Hausa world; an old man or woman is given very high
status simply because of his or her age. However, although they are unlikely to be offended by a
question about age, the fact is that a large percentage of Hausasespecially in rural areasdont
actually know how old they are. Generally speaking, Hausas do not celebrate or even remember
their birthdays, and in a large percentage of cases, age is only spoken of as an approximate.
Below are a few useful phrases for discussing age.
Shekara nawa gareki?
Shekaru nawa gareki?
Shekara nawa gareki da haihuwa?

How old are you?


How old are you? (alternate using the plural)
How old are you? (lit., how many years do you
have from birth)

51

More on Plurals
In Hausa, a singular will often be used where a plural would have been used in English.
Specifically, in sentences in which the noun is quantified by a number, or in questions
demanding a number (how many?), we find that the noun is more often than not left in the
singular form rather than pluralized. This is not a colloquial abbreviation of proper Hausa; rather,
it is a feature of proper Hausa. This is not an absolute rule, and thus there are many cases in
which the plural is accepted or even preferred. See for example the above phrases for asking
someones age.
The plural shekaru is an acceptable alternative to the more usual shekara. The one major
exception to remember is that with human nouns the plural is generally used.
Example:
Ina da gida. = I have a house
Ina da gida ukku. = I have three houses
NOT: Ina da gidaje ukku. (gidaje being the plural of gida)
13. Listen to several short exchanges asking about ages. Repeat after the speaker.
1. A. How old are you?
B. I am 32 years old.

Shekara nawa gareka?

2. A. How old is he?


B. He is 11.

Shekara nawa gareshi?

3. A. How old is she?


B. She is 86 years old.

Shekara nawa gareta?

4. A. Is she 34 years old?


B. No, she is 35.

Ita, tana da shekara 34?

5. A. Are you 21?


B. Yes, I am 21.

Shekara 21 gareka?

6. A. What is your age?


B. I am 47.

Shekara nawa gareka?

Ina da shekara 32.

Shekara 11 gareshi.

Tana da shekara 86.

Aa, tana da shekara 35.

I, ina da shekara 21.

Ina da shekara 47.

52

14. Tell your classmates in Hausa how old you are and ask about their ages.

15. Listen and match the age with the name. Check your work with the Answer Key.
Play Audio
Saude
Nura
Ali
Aisha
Mamadu

11
72
52
29
43

53

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following statements in Hausa. Answer the questions for each
statement. Pause or replay the audio as necessary until you understand the relevant
information.
1. What is his or her name?
2. How old is he or she?
3. What is his or her profession?

2. Recite the following in Hausa.


Ask what day it is.
Say what day it is today.
Ask someones age.
Say how old you are.

54

Vocabulary List
Day
Today
Year
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday

Rana
Yau
Shekara
(ran) Litinin
(ran) Talata
(ran) Laraba
(ran) Alhamis
(ran) Jummaa
(ran) Asabar
(ran) Subdu (Niger)

Sunday
Telephone
What is

(ran) Lahadi
Talho (Niger: Tarho)
Mene ne (masc.)
Mece ce (fem.)

Wire (telephone)
Number
Age
How many
To, with
Birth
And, from, with
To reach / attain
How old are you?
What day is it today?
Today is Monday.
I am 25 years old.
0 zero
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8
eight

Waya
Lamba
Shekara
Nawa
Gare
Haihuwa
Da
Kai
Shekara nawa gareka?
Yau wace rana ce?
Yau litinin ce.
Shekara 25 gareni.
Sifili
aya
Biyu
Ukku
Huu
Biyar
Shidda
Bakwai
Takwas

55

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
fifteen
sixteen
seventeen
eighteen
nineteen
twenty
twenty-one
twenty-two
twenty-three
twenty-four
twenty-five
twenty-six
twenty-seven
twenty-eight
twenty-nine
thirty
forty
fifty
sixty
seventy
eighty
ninety

Tara
Goma
Goma sha aya
Goma sha biyu
Goma sha ukku
Goma sha huu
Goma sha biyar
Goma sha shidda
Goma sha bakwai
Goma sha takwas
Goma sha tara
Ashirin
Ashirin da aya
Ashirin da biyu
Ashirin da ukku
Ashirin da huu
Ashirin da biyar
Ashirin da shidda
Ashirin da bakwai
Ashirin da takwas
Ashirin da tara
Talatin
Arbain
Hamsin
Sattin
Sabain
Tamanin
Gomiya tara
Tisain

100 one hundred

ari

56

ANSWER KEY
Activity 7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

4
5
0
3
2

Activity 10
1. My name is Hadiza. I live in Zaria. I am a waitress. I have a house. My house number is 21.
2. Ali is a soldier. He has a room in a large building. His room number is 25.
3. Her name is Zara. She is a teacher. She lives in a house. Her house number is 16.
4. Amadu and Nuri have a house in Zinder. Their house number is 14.
1. Sunana Hadiza. A Zaria nike da zama. Ni sabis ce. Ina da gida. Lambar gidana 21 ce.
2. Ali soji ne. Yana da aki cikin wani babban soro. Lambar akinshi 25 ce.
3. Sunanta Zara. Ita malama ce. Tana zaune a wani gida. Lambar gidanta 16 ce.
4. Amadu da Nuri suna da gida a Zinder. Lambar gidansu 14 ce.

Activity 15
Saude is 52 years old.
Aisha is 11 on Friday.
Is Nura 30 years old?
No, he is 29.
Mariama is 72 years old.
How old is Ali?
He is 43.

Saude, shekara 52 gareta.


Aisha, Rar Jumaa za ta kai shekara 11 da haihuwa.
Nura yana da shekara 30? Aa, shekara 29 gareshi.
Mariama, shekarunta 72 da haihuwa.
Ali, shekara nawa gareshi? Yana da shekara 43.

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 1
A. Hi, my name is Amadu. I am 26 years old. I am a police officer.
B. His name is Ashiru. He is 40. He is a soldier.
C. Her name is Zaharia. She is 44. She is a teacher.

57

Lesson 4
Daily Activities
Harkokin Yau da Kullum

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- How to ask for and tell time
- Typical daily activities in Niger and Nigeria
- The verbs to go, to study, to play, to work, to watch, to read, to eat, and
to get up
- The past tense of the verbs.
Telling Time:
The Hausa speaking world is not an area known for punctuality. Time is generally a relaxed
concept, and efficiency is usually given less importance than propriety and conversation. All the
same, people tend to discuss time, and everyone wants to own a watch. Generally speaking, the
12-hour clock is used in Hausa. In Niger, the 24-hour clock is occasionally used, but this is
usually only used when speaking French. It is fairly easy to get a grasp of telling the time of day,
but to truly understand how to tell time in Hausa, one must understand how to speak about the
Islamic prayer times. It is often the case that, rather than telling an exact time, one will refer to
one of the five daily prayers, each of which has a time of day and a name in Hausa. The five
daily prayers are listed below with their Hausa name.
Asuba - dawn
Azahar about 2 p.m.
Laasar about 4 p.m.
Magariba dusk (about 6 p.m.)
Lisha nightfall (about 7 p.m.)

As with English, there are words in Hausa for quarter till, half past, and so on.
Quarter to four = arfe huu saura kwata.
Quarter after four = arfe huu da kwata.
Half past three = arfe ukku da rabi.
Ten till five = Karfe biyar saura minti goma.
Is it three yet = Ukku ta yi?

Yes, its three = I, Ukku ta yi.

58

You will also note that, rather than using a.m. or p.m., Hausa has several ways to break up the
day. Da safe is the best translation for a.m., and da yamma is perhaps the closest translation for
p.m., but there are a few other words that are used. Da safe is used in the morning, da rana is
often used from about noon until about 4 p.m., da marece is often used from about 4 p.m. until
dinnertime, and da dare is often used from after dinnertime until about 2:00 or 3:00 in the
morning. In all of these forms, you will sometimes hear na used instead of da.
The meaning is essentially the same. Note also that in the following examples there are longer
and shorter ways of saying the same thing, and that it is acceptable to leave off the word arfe
and/or the ne/ce stabilizer in many cases.

1. Listen as the speaker tells time in Hausa. Repeat after the speaker.

What time is it now? It is four oclock.

What time is it? It is 4:15.

arfe nawa ne yanzu? arfe huu ne.

arfe nawa ne? Huu da minti goma sha biyar.

What time is it? It is 4:30.

What time is it? It is 4:45.

arfe nawa ne? arfe huu da minti

arfe nawa? Huu da minti arbain da biyar.

talatin ne.

What time is it? It is 3:20.

What time is it? It is 3:40.

arfe nawa ne? arfe ukku da minti

arfe nawa ne? Ukku da minti arbain.

ashirin.

59

2. What time is it? Fill in the clock faces with the correct times according to how they are
listed in Hausa below.
A. Ukku da rabi da rana.

E. Goma sha aya da minti talatin da dare.

B. Takwas da minti arbain da biyar da

F. arfe aya da minti hamsin da biyar.

safe.
C. Shidda da minti goma da safe.

G. arfe goma sha biyu da rana

D. arfe tara da safe.

H. arfe huu da minti sha biyar da safe.

or tsakar rana.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

3. Listen to the following exchanges and identify the clock time mentioned in each.
Check your work with the Answer Key.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

8:15
9:50
5:10
4:13
7: 50

9:00
9:15
8:50
4:30
7:10

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4. Compose dialogues according to the model below. Work in pairs or in small groups. Use
the times listed below.
Model: A. - arfe nawa ne yanzu?
B. - arfe biyu da rana ne.

8:00 a.m., 7:15 a.m., 10:30 a.m., 2:10 p.m., 4:45 p.m., 6:50 p.m., 12:00, 11:05
Verbs in Hausa:
There are not as many verbs in Hausa as there are in English, at least not in day to day Hausa. As
a result, the verb to do takes on a special importance in Hausa. For instance, rather than saying
I work, in Hausa we say, I do work. This use of nouns to express verbal concepts is
widespread in Hausa and something that you will become very much accustomed to. In the
following set of explanations and examples we will explain the basic rules that govern the use of
present tense verbs in Hausa.

In the continuous tense, the verbal noun is used in place of the verb unless there is a
direct or indirect object after the verb. This is somewhat confusing on first glance, but it
is actually quite easy to get used to. In the following example, note that karatu (reading)
is the verbal noun of karanta (to read). (note that you will also see the verbal noun.

karantawa used at times)


Ina karatu = I am reading.
Ina karanta wani litafi = I am reading a book (direct object).

Ina karanta wa yaro litafi = I am reading the book to the boy. (indirect object)

As we progress, we will add information about this construct and the ways in which the
verbal noun is formed and manipulated, but the basic principle is encapsulated in the
above example. In a large number of cases, verbs will form their verbal noun by simply.
adding wa to the end of the verb. In other cases, there is no change in the letters. And in
some case, as with the above example, the verb is changed in some other way.

The verb yi (to do) is often used to express a verbal concept with a noun where Hausa
lacks an actual verb. For instance, yi aiki is used to express to work using the noun aiki
(work). The tricky part of this is that in normal Hausa, it is acceptable to leave out the
verb yi, leaving only the pronoun and the noun. For example:
Mi kake yi? = What are you doing?
Ina (yin) aiki. or Aiki nike (yi). = I am working. (Note that the parenthetical yi or yin is

often left out and just implied).

61

As we see above with yi, certain verbs will take an n suffix in the continuous tense when
referring to a direct object. It is best just to memorize which verbs apply this rule. Verbs
that we have seen thus far that fit in this category include yi and ci.

Certain verbs will change their ending vowel depending on whether they refer to a direct
object, a direct object pronoun, or no direct object. Again, we will expound on this point
further as we progress. For the moment it will suffice to say that changing the ending
vowel is a feature of certain verbs (class 2). Verbs that we have seen thus far in this
category include kalla.

The continuous (ina, kana, etc) and the relative continuous (nike, kake, etc.) often
represent different ways of expressing the same sentence. For example:
Ina (yin) aiki. = Aiki nike (yi).

In the second sentence, we have moved work to the beginning of the sentence, putting
greater focus on it. In some cases you will find that one form is distinctly better than the
other. In other cases, however, it is a matter of shades of meaning and emphasis.
Remember, though, that when you are asking questions that start with words such as
what, how, when, and who, the relative pronoun will be used.

Finally, note that there is an almost endless list of exceptions and dialectical variations. It
is good to have the rules in the back of your mind, but you should always learn first and
foremost by listening to native speakers.

I go
You go (m)
You go (f)
He goes
We go
You go
They go
One goes

Ina tafiya

I work
You work (m)
You work (f)
He works
We work
You work
They work
One works

Ina yin aiki

Kana tafiya
Kina tafiya
Yana tafiya
Muna tafiya
Kuna tafiya
Suna tafiya
Ana tafiya

Kana yin aiki


Kina yin aiki
Yana yin aiki
Muna yin aiki
Kuna yin aiki
Suna yin aiki
Ana yin aiki

I study
You study (m)
You study (f)
He studies
We study
You study
They study
One studies

Ina yin karatu

I watch
You watch (m)
You watch (f)
He watches
We watch
You watch
They watch
One watches

Ina kallo

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Kana yin karatu


Tana yin karatu
Yana yin karatu
Muna yin karatu
Kuna yin karatu
Suna yin karatu
Ana yin karatu

Kana kallo
Kina kallo
Yana kallo
Muna kallo
Kuna kallo
Suna kallo
Ana kallo

I eat
You eat (m)
You eat (f)
He eats
We eat
You eat
They eat
One eats

Ina cin abinci

I play
You play (m)
You play (f)
He plays
You play
They play
We play
One plays

Ina yin wasa

Kana cin abinci


Kina cin abinci
Yana cin abinci
Muna cin abinci
Kuna cin abinci
Suna cin abinci
Ana cin abinci

Kana yin wasa


Kina yin wasa
Yana yin wasa
Kuna yin wasa
Suna yin wasa
Muna yin wasa
Ana yin wasa

Ina tafiya

Ba ni tafiya

Kana tafiya

Ba ka tafiya

Kina tafiya

Ba ki tafiya

Yana tafiya

Ba ya tafiya

Tana tafiya

Ba ta tafiya

Suna tafiya

Ba su tafiya

Muna tafiya

Ba mu tafiya

Kuna tafiya

Ba ku tafiya

Ana tafiya

Ba a tafiya

I read
You read (m)
You read (f)
He reads
We read
You read
They read
One reads

Ina (yin) karatu

I get up
You get up (m)
You get up (f)
He gets up
You get up
They get up
We get up
One gets up

Ina tashi

Kana (yin) karatu


Kina (yin) karatu
Yana (yin) karatu
Muna (yin) karatu
Kuna (yin) karatu
Suna (yin) karatu
Ana (yin) karatu

Kana tashi
Kina tashi
Yana tashi
Kuna tashi
Suna tashi
Muna tashi
Ana tashi

Negation of Verbs:
Before proceeding any further, we should take a little time to discuss negation of verbs
somewhat more in depth. We briefly touched upon the use of the particle ba for negation in an
earlier chapter, now we need to explain the rules that govern this construct. With the continuous
pronoun the negation is as follows:
In the first row, we see I am going on the left, and the negation I am not going on the right.

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The Habitual Pronoun:


The following chart shows the conjugation of the habitual pronoun. This is used to express
habitual actions. For example, I wake up at 7:00 expresses a habitual action, as does I play
soccer on the weekends. In a great number of cases, a Hausa speaker will use the regular
continuous rather than the habitual, but it is still important to at least be able to recognize
the habitual. The habitual pronoun will be used only occasionally in this book.
I
you
you
he
she
we
you
they
one

Nikan (nakan)
Kakan
Kikan
Yakan
Takan
Mukan
Kukan
Sukan
Akan

Example: Yakan tashi a arfe takwas da safe. = He gets up at 8 a.m.


Generally speaking, rather than negating the habitual pronoun, the negative continuous (see
above) will be used.

5. Listen to the short statements that describe each activity in the pictures below.
Repeat after the speaker. Pay attention to new verbs and other new vocabulary.

Suna yin wasan wallon kwando

Tana tafiya kasuwa.

They are playing basketball.

She is going to the market.

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Suna yin karatu a makaranta.

Tana aiki a asibiti.

They are studying at school.

She works in the hospital.

Yana yin wasan wallon afa.

Yarinya tana cin abincin rana.

He is playing soccer.

The girl is eating lunch.

Namiji yana karanta littafi.

Mace tana kallon talabijan.

The man is reading a book.

The woman is watching television.

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Prepositions:
Prepositions in Hausa are often multi-purpose and do not always translate perfectly to English
equivalents. Below, we will introduce some common Hausa prepositions with their approximate
English translations. You will need to take careful note of how they are used in the texts and
sound files in order to fully understand how these prepositions are used.
To

Zuwa

Zuwa ina kike tafiya? = To where are you going?

(often implied)

Ina tafiya kasuwa. = I am going (to) the market.

At

In

Cikin

Ina zaune a gida. = I live at home.

On

Bisa
A kan

Yana cikin mota. = He is in the car.


Tana bisa doki. = She is on the horse.
Yana zaune a kan doki. = He is sitting on the horse.

Note that the prepositional meaning of to is different from the other meanings attached to the
word in English. The Hausa zuwa is a translation of only the prepositional meaning.
6. Listen to the following statements in Hausa and repeat after the speaker. Follow
along in the workbook. Replay the audio if necessary.
Take note of how the word kullum (always) or kowacce rana (every day) is used in certain
sentences rather than the habitual pronoun. This is very common in Hausa.
Kullum yaro yana tafiya makaranta a

1. The boy goes to school at 7:30.

arfe 7:30 da safe.


Namiji yana karya kumallo a arfe 7:00.

2. The man eats breakfast at seven oclock.


3. The woman watches television in the
evening.
4. The girl studies at home in the afternoon.

Mace, tana kallon talabijin da dare.


Yarinya tana karatu a gida kullum da
marece.
Ladi tana tahiya kasuwa kullum da safe.

5. Ladi goes to the market in the morning.


6. Lami plays soccer on Friday.

Lami yana yin wallon afa kowacce


Jumaa.
Ina tashi a arfe 7:00.

7. I get up at 7:00.

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7. Match the following sentences with the pictures below. Check your answers with the
Answer Key.
1. Kullum ina tafiya makaranta a arfe 9:30.
2. Kullum suna karya kumallo a arfe 7:00.
3. Muna yin karatu da safe.
4. Tana karanta wani littafi da marece.

A #______________

B #_______________

C #____________

D #_________________

8. Read the following text and answer the questions below in complete sentences in Hausa.
If you have any difficulty, you may go to the Answer Key to check the text or the questions
in English. Then, check your answers to the questions with the Answer Key.
Amadu alibi ne. Yana yin karatu a makaranta. Kullum da safe yana tashi a arfe 7:15.
Yana karya kumallo a arfe 7:30. Yana tafiya zuwa makaranta a arfe 8:00. Bayan ya
tashi daga makaranta yana yin wasan wallon kwando. Kullum yana karanta littattafai
da kallon talabijin da dare. Amadu, ba ya yin karatu Subdu ko Lahadi.
1. Amadu malamin makaranta ne?
2. Ina yake yin karatu?
3. Mi yakan yi a arfe 7:15?
4. Yaushe yake karya kumallo?
5. Mi yake yi a arfe 8:00?
6. Yaushe yake yi wasan wallon kwando?

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7. Mi yake yi da dare?
8. Yana yin karatu Subdu ko Lahadi ?

9. Rearrange the following statements into a logical order for a daily schedule. Check your
work with the Answer Key.
1. Ina tafiya wurin abinci da rana tare da abokaina.
2. Ina kallon talabijin.
3. Ina tafiya makaranta.
4. Ina cin abincin dare tare da abokina.
5. Ina yin wasan wallon kwando.
6. Ina karya kumallo.
7. Ina yin karatu a gida.

10. Tell your partner about your daily schedule. Use the words and word combinations
given below.
Kowace rana

Tashi

Karya kumallo

Tafiya wurin aiki

Cin abincin rana

Yi wasan wallon

Tafiya kasuwa

Karanta wani

Yin kallon telebijin

Da dare

kwando

littafi

11. Listen to the five short statements. Circle the English statement that is the
equivalent of each Hausa statement you hear. Replay the audio as many times as you need.
1. A. I play soccer after school.
B. I play soccer after dinner.
C. I play soccer after work.
2. A. She goes to the market in the evening.
B. She goes to the market in the afternoon.
C. She goes to the market in the morning.
3. A. I go to work in the morning.
B. I go to school in the morning.
C. I go to the market in the morning.
4. A. I study at home on Saturday.
B. I play soccer at home on Saturday.
C. I eat breakfast at home on Saturday.
5. A. He watches television in the afternoon.
B. He watches television in the evening.
C. He watches television in the morning.
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The Past (completive) Tense Pronoun:


Below, we introduce the simple past tense in Hausa, also known as the completive. It is perhaps
the simplest form of the pronoun to use, and it is used constantly. No conjugation chart is
needed; simply study the conjugations of the following verbs to see the pattern.
I went
You went
You went
He went
We went
You went
They went
One went

Na tafi

I studied
You studied
You studied
He studied
We studied
You studied
They studied
One went

Na yi karatu

I worked
You worked
You worked
He worked
We worked
You worked
They
worked
One worked

Na yi aiki

I watched
You watched
You watched
He watched
We watched
You watched
They watched

Na kalla

An yi aiki

One watched

An kalla

I ate
You ate
You ate
He ate
We ate
You ate
They ate
One ate

Na ci

I read
You read
You read
He read
We read
You read
They read
One read

Na karanta

I played
You played
You played
He played

Na yi wasa

I got up
You got up
You played
He got up

Na tashi

Ka tafi
Kin tafi
Ya tafi
Mun tafi
Kun tafi
Sun tafi
An tafi

Ka yi aiki
Kin yi aiki
Ya yi aiki
Mun yi aiki
Kun yi aiki
Sun yi aiki

Ka ci
Kin ci
Ya ci
Mun ci
Kun ci
Sun ci
An ci

Ka yi wasa
Kin yi wasa
Ya yi wasa

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Ka yi karatu
Kin yi karatu
Ya yi karatu
Mun yi karatu
Kun yi karatu
Sun yi karatu
An yi karatu

Ka kalla
Kin kalla
Ya kalla
Mun kalla
Kun kalla
Sun kalla

Ka karanta
Kin karanta
Ya karanta
Mun karanta
Kun karanta
Sun karanta
An karanta

Ka tashi
Kin tashi
Ya tashi

We played
You played
They played
One played

Mun yi wasa

We got up
You got up
They got up
One got up

Kun yi wasa
Sun yi wasa
An yi wasa

Mun tashi
Kun tashi
Sun tashi
An tashi

Negation of Completive:
The completive pronoun is negated using the formula ba ba. Note that while the first half of
this construct is syntactically fixed, the second ba has some flexibility.
Positive

Negative

Na tafi

Ban tafi ba

Ka tafe

Ba ka tafi ba

Kin tafi

Ba ki tafi ba

Ya tafi

Ba ya tafi ba./ Bai tafi ba.

Ta tafi

Ba ta tafi ba.

Mun tafi.

Ba mu tafi ba.

Kun tafi.

Ba ku tafi ba.

Sun tafi.

Ba su tafi ba.

An tafi.

Ba a tafi ba.

The Relative-Completive: (and its negation)


The completive pronoun (above) is the past tense of the regular continuous pronoun. In the same
way the relative-completive pronoun is the past tense of the relative continuous pronoun. Below
are a few examples showing the use of this pronoun form and a conjugation chart.
I
You
You
He
She
We
You
They
One

Na
Ka
Kika
Ya
Ta
Muka
Kuka
Suka
Aka

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Examples:
Mi kike yi? = What are you doing?
Mi kika yi? = What did you do?

Note that the negation of the relative completive is formed essentially like the regular
completive. Ba tahiya ba kika yi? Or Ba tahiya kika yi ba?
12. Read the following sentences and translate them into English. Check your work with
the Answer Key.
1. Jiya na tafi makaranta.
2. Bara ni da abokaina mun yi wasan wallon kwando.
3. Sun ci kasuwa sati da ya wuce.
4. Na tafi gida a arfe 9:00 jiya.
5. Jiya mun ci abincin dare a arfe 6 :00.
6. Yaro ya yi karatun kia da lissafi a makaranta bara.
7. Yarinya ta yi kallon telebijin jiya.
8. Ran Lahadin da ta wuce na karanta wani littafi.
9. Bara war haka na tafi Paris.
10. Ya yi shekara biyu muna da gida a amai.

Yesterday Jiya
Last year Bara
Last week- Sati da ya wuce / makon jiya
Last Sunday Rar Lahadi da ta wuce
A year ago ya yi shekara aya
13. Complete the following sentences using the verbs located in the box below. Check your
answers with the Answer Key.

Studied

played

watched

got up

went

worked

ate

Yi karatu

Yi wasa

Kalli

Tashi

Tafi

Yi aiki

Ci

1. Na ________________ a arfe 7:00 jiya.


2. Na ________________ abincin rana tare da uwayena.
3. Na ________________ kasuwa rar Lahadi da ta wuce.
4. Na ________________ wasan wallon kwanda ran Litinin da ta wuce.
5. Na ________________ telebijin jiya.

71

6. Na ________________ a Hotal bara.


7. Ya yi shekara ukku na ________________ a makaranta

14. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Make up similar
dialogues using the words and word combinations given below. Work in pairs or in small
groups.
A. Mi kika yi jiya?
B. Jiya na kalli talabijin.
A. Awa nawa ka kalli talabijin jiya?
B. Awa aya.

15. Make up similar dialogues using the words and word combinations given below. Work
in pairs or in small groups.
1. Jiya kalli talabijin awa aya
2. Jiya yi sayayya awa biyu
3. Bara yi aiki a masauki sati huu
4. Bara yi karatu a makaranta sati takwas
5. Ran lahadi da ya wuce karanta wani littafi awa aya
6. Ya yi shekara aya yi wasan wallon kwando sati shidda
7. Ya yi shekara aya zama a Nijeriya sati biyu

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following statements read in Hausa. Circle the times you hear.
1.

6:30

5:30

2.

6:00

7:00

3.

9:30

8:30

4.

5:30

5:45

5.

in the morning - in the evening

6.

6:00

8:00

2. Read the following text in Hausa. Put T (True) or F (False) next to the statements
that are written below the text. Check your work with the Answer Key.
Sannu. Sunana Nuri. A Katsina nike da zama. Ina da wani aramin gida. Ni malamin
makaranta ne. Ina koyan lissafi da kia. Kowacce rana ina tashi a arfe 6:00 da safe.
Bayan karin kumallo ina tafiya makaranta. A arfe 8:00 ina makaranta. Ran Talata da
ran Alhamis ina yin wasan wallon afa awa biyu. Bayan mun tashi daga makaranta ina
tafiya sayayya. Ina a gida a arfe 5:00. Da dare ina kallon telebijin awa aya kuma ina
karanta littittafai awa biyu.

1. _______ The man lives in Katsina.


2. _______ He lives in small house.
3. _______ He is a student.
4. _______ He studies math and music.
5. _______ Everyday he gets up at 6:00 a.m.
6. _______ He does not have breakfast.
7. _______ He is at school at 8:00.
8. _______ Nuri plays soccer on Saturday and Monday for 3 hours.
9. _______ He goes shopping after school.
10. _______ In the evening he works for 2 hours.

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3. Describe your daily schedule of activities, including the times, in Hausa. For
example, start with what time you get up, then eat breakfast, etc. I get up at 6:00
and eat breakfast at 6:30. I go to school at ..

4. Find out what your partner did yesterday at 7 a.m., 7:30 a.m., 10 a.m., 1 p.m., 4
p.m., and 8 p.m., and how long each activity lasted. Work in pairs or in small
groups.

74

Vocabulary List
After
In the morning
In the afternoon
In the evening
Everyday
Last week
A year ago
Last Sunday
(Monday, Tuesday, etc.)
At school
Math
Music (instrumental)
Music (singing)
Book
Breakfast
Lunch
Dinner
Home
Place
At home
Market
On Sunday
(Monday, Tuesday)
To do
To go (to)
To go shopping
To play soccer
To play basketball
To watch television
Breakfast
To eat breakfast
To eat
To get up
To wake up
To read
To study
To work

Bayan
Da safe
Da rana/ da marece
Da marece/ da dare
Kowacce rana/ kullum
Sati da ya wuce/ makon jiya
Ya yi shekara aya
Rar Lahadin da ta gabata/ da ta wuce
A makaranta
Lissafi
Kia
Waa
Litafi (pl., littattafai)
Karin kumallo
Abincin rana
Abincin dare
Gida (pl., gidaje)
Wuri (pl., wurare)
A gida
Kasuwa (pl., kasuwowi)
Rar Lahadi
Yi
Tafi / je
Ci kasuwa
Yi wasan wallon afa
Yi wasan wallon kwando (Niger: Basket)
Kallo/ kalla
Karin kumallo
Karya kumallo
Ci
Tashi
Farka
Karanta/ karatu
Yi karatu
Yi aiki

75

To sit
To come, arrive
Horse
Small
Time
Oclock
Remainder
Quarter
Half
What time is it?
It is three oclock.
In the morning
In the midday
In the late afternoon/
evening
At night
Noon
When
Now
Also, again, and
To
At
In
On
If, when
Man
Woman
Boy
Girl

Zauna
Zo/ zowa
Doki (pl., dawaki)
arami
Lokaci
arfe
Saura
Kwata
Rabi
arfe nawa ne?
arfe ukku ne?
Da safe
Da rana
Da marece/ Da yamma
Da dare
Tsakar rana
Yaushe
Yanzu
Kuma
Zuwa
A
Ciki, cikin
Bisa, a kan
In
Namiji (pl., Maza)
Mace (pl., Mata)
Yaro (pl., Yara)
Yarinya (pl., an mata)

76

ANSWER KEY
Activity 3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

8:15 a.m.
9:50
5:10
4:30 p.m.
7:10

Activity 7
A 3.
B 1.
C. 2.
D 4.

We study in the morning. (Muna yin karatu da safe.)


I go to school at 9:30. (Kullum ina tafiya makaranta a arfe 9:30.)
They eat breakfast at 7:00. (Kullum suna karya kumallo a arfe 7:00.)
She reads a book in the evening. (Tana karanta wani littafi da marece.)

Activity 8
Amadu is a student. He studies at school. Everyday he gets up at 7:15. He has breakfast at 7:30.
He goes to school at 8:00. After school he plays basketball. He reads books and watches TV in
the evening. He does not study on Saturday and Sunday.
1. Is Amadu a teacher?
2. Where does he study?
3. What does he do at 7:15?
4. When does he have breakfast?
5. What does he do at 8:00?
6. When does he play basketball?

Aa Amadu alibi ne.


Yana yin karatu a makaranta.
Kullum da safe yana tashi a arfe 7:15.
Yana karya kumallo a arfe 7:30
Yana tafiya zuwa makaranta a arfe 8:00.
Bayan ya tashi daga makaranta yana yin
wasan wallon kwando.

7. What does he do in the evening?

Kullum yana karanta littattafai da kallon


talabijin da marece.

8. Does he study on Saturday and Sunday?

Amadu, ba ya yin karatu Subdu ko Lahadi.

Activity 9
Your answers may vary. However, did you understand the statements?
6. I eat breakfast. (Ina karya kumallo.)
3. I go to school. (Ina tafiya makaranta.)
1. I go to lunch with my friends. (Ina tafiya wurin abinci da rana tare da abokaina.)
5. I play basketball. (Ina yin wasan wallon kwando.)
4. I eat dinner with my friend. (Ina cin abincin dare tare da abokina.)

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7. I study at home. (Ina yin karatu a gida.)


2. I watch television.(Ina kallon talabijin.)
Activity 11
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

B
C
A
B
A

I play soccer after dinner.


She goes to the market in the morning.
I go to work in the morning.
I play soccer at home on Saturday.
He watches television in the afternoon.

Activity 12
1. Yesterday I went to school.
2. Last year my friends and I played basketball.
3. They went shopping last week.
4. I was at home at 9:00 yesterday.
5. We ate dinner at 6:00 yesterday.
6. The boy studied music and math at school last year.
7. The girl watched television yesterday.
8. Last Sunday I read a book.
9. I was in Paris a year ago.
10. We had a house in Niamey two years ago.
1. Jiya na tafi makaranta.
2. Bara ni da abokaina mun yi wasan wallon kwando.
3. Sun ci kasuwa sati da ya wuce.
4. Na tafi gida a arfe 9:00 jiya.
5. Jiya mun ci abincin dare a arfe 6 :00.
6. Yaro ya yi karatun kia da lissafi a makaranta bara.
7. Yarinya ta yi kallon telebijin jiya.
8. Ran Lahadin da ta wuce na karanta wani littafi.
9. Bara war haka na tafi Paris.
10. Ya yi shekara biyu muna da gida a amai.

Activity 13
1. tashi
2. ci
3. tafi
4. yi wasan
5. kalli

I got up at 7:00 yesterday.


I ate breakfast with my parents.
I went shopping last Sunday.
I played basketball last Monday.
I watched television yesterday.

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6. yi aiki
7. yi karatu

I was at the hotel last year.


I studied at school three years ago.

1. Na ________________ a arfe 7:00 jiya.


2. Na ________________ abincin rana tare da uwayena.
3. Na ________________ kasuwa rar Lahadi da ta wuce.
4. Na ________________ wasan wallon kwanda ran Litinin da ta wuce.
5. Na ________________ telebijin jiya.
6. Na ________________ a Hotal bara.
7. Ya yi shekara ukku na ________________ a makaranta

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 1
1. 6:30
2. 7:00
3. 9:30
4. 5:45
5. in the morning
6. 8:00
Activity 2
1. T
2. T
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. F
7. T
8. F
9. T
10. F

The man lives in Katsina.


He lives in small house.
He is a student.
He studies math and music.
Everyday he gets up at 6:00 a.m.
He does not have breakfast.
He is at school at 8:00.
Nuri plays soccer on Saturday and Monday for 3 hours.
He goes shopping after school.
In the evening he works for 2 hours.

Hello. My name is Nuri. I live in Katsina. I have a small house. I am a teacher at this school. I
teach math and music. Everyday I get up at 6:00 a.m. I eat breakfast and go to school. I am at
school at 8:00 a.m. On Tuesday and Thursday I play soccer for 2 hours. After school, I go
shopping. I am home at 5:00. In the evening I watch TV for an hour and read books for 2 hours.

79

Lesson 5
Meeting the Family
Gabatarwa da an Gida
This lesson will introduce you to the following:
- The kinship terms used for immediate and extended family
- How to ask and answer simple questions about family members
- The pronouns who, this, that, these, and those
Talking about Family
There is no way that we could place too much emphasis on the importance of family
relationships in the Hausa culture. The family is the core of a persons social network, the forum
for all decision making, and a financial security net for the majority of Hausas. Therefore, it
should not be surprising that when speaking Hausa, one spends a lot of time discussing family
affairs and, yes, family gossip. The Hausa family organization is patriarchal, a traditional
patriarchy that has long since adjusted to Islamic rules. Polygamy is the norm in the Hausa
culture. Men are allowed up to four wives according to the version of Islam that is prevalent in
Africa. In the case of divorce, children go to the father - as soon as they are old enough to be
independent of their mother. This patriarchal view of family is also reflected in the naming
system. Rather than a last name, the fathers name is used.
Thus, if Lawali is the son of Audu, his name is Lawali Audu. And, if this Audu is the son of Ali,
then Lawalis full name is Lawali Audu Ali. This is why professions and characteristics are often
used to differentiate between people and to identify them with a certain family. For instance,
Lawali may be the son of the village forager, and so rather than using his fathers name, one
would simple refer to him as Lawali of the Foragers. Sons and daughters generally live with their
families until they are married, and even then it is normal for them to section off an area of the
family household and continue to live with the larger family. Thus, there will very often be large
extended families living together.
This traditional approach is fading somewhat among some young upwardly mobile men in the
cities, but it continues to be the norm. An ordinary family, meaning the nuclear family of a man
and his wives, may have anywhere from five or six children to twenty or more depending on the
number of wives, vitality, and health. The father continues to be the head of the household until
death, not only over his immediate family, but second and third generations as well. Below are
some useful terms for talking about family in Hausa.

80

1. Look at these photos of families. Listen to the kinship terms and repeat after the
speaker.

Family
Family (all household members)
Relatives
Parents
Mother
Father
Children
Daughter
Son
Grandparents

Iyali
an gida
Dangi
Uwaye
Uwa
Uba
aa/ Yara
iya
a
Kakanni

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Grandfather
Grandmother
Sister*
Older sister
Younger sister
Sisters
Brother*
Older brother
Younger brother
Older siblings
Younger siblings
Brothers

Kaka
Kaka
aruwa
Ya
anwa
anuwa mata
anuwa
Wa
ane
Yaya
anne
anuwa maza

*Note: Although there is a generic word for brother and sister in Hausa, it is much more
common to use the more specific words denoting younger brother or sister, and older brother or
sister. Also, the generic words for brother and sister are often used to denote a more general
relationship, somewhat like relative.
Also, note that the words for grandmother and grandfather are the same. They are differentiated
either by the pronoun that is attached to them or by some other external indication such as a
subject pronoun.
Determiners/ Pronouns:
The Hausa words for who, this, these, that, and those will now be introduced. First look at the
following list, and then study the examples below:
Wa
Wane
Wace
Wannan
Wancan
Waccan
Waanan
Waancan

Who (m/f)
Who (m)
Who (f)
This (m/f)
That (m)
That (f)
These
Those

As in English, these words can often be used interchangeably with he, she, or they,
depending on the situation.
Wannan namiji ne. = This is a man.
Wannan mace ce. = This is a woman.
Wancan namiji ne. = That is a man.

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Waccan mace ce. = That is a woman.

Waanan an gidanmu ne. = These are members of our household.


Wane ne? = Who is it? (masculine)
Wace ce? = Who is it? (feminine)
Wa ya zo? = Who arrived?

Note:
In some dialects wanga will be used in place of wannan.
2. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat them after the speaker. Role-play the
dialogues using the pictures above.
1. A. Who is this?
B. This is my mother.

Wace ce wannan?

2. A. Who is that?
B. That is my younger
sister.

Wace ce waccan?

Ita uwata ce.

Waccan anwata ce.

3. A. Who are they?


Su wane ne?
B. They are my parents. Su uwayena ne.
4. A. Who are they?
B. They are my
grandparents.

Su wane ne?
Su kakannina ne.

3. Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Uwata da ubana suna da a guda da iya biyu.
2. Ina zaune tare da kakannina cikin wani babban gida.
3. Uwayensa suna zaune a Kaduna. Su leburori ne.
4. Ina da wa da ane. Su sojoji ne. A wani sansani suke da zama.
5. Tana da anwa. Sunanta Hadiza.
6. Wana yana da shekara 30. Yana da a guda da iya guda.

83

4. Talk about your mother/father/sister/brother/grandfather/grandmother according to the


scheme below:
1. Name
2. Age
3. Occupation
4. Where they live (city and type of residence)
Model: Wannan ubana ne. Sunansa Amadu. Shekara 48 gareshi. Shi malamin makaranta
ne. A Marai yake da zama. Yana da wani aramin gida.

5. Create questions in Hausa to the following answers. Check your work with the Answer
Key for some suggested questions.
1.

__________________?
I, wannan anena ne.

2.

__________________?

3.

__________________?

4.

__________________?

Sunansa Amadu
A Maiduguri yake da zama.
Shi Likita ne.

5.

__________________?

6.

__________________?

Yakan tafiya wurin aiki ranar Litinin.


Aa, yana yin wasan wallon gora ta baseball kowace ranar Talata.

6. Listen to the audio. Circle the word you hear. Check your work with the Answer
Key.
1. Mother

Father

2. Daughter

Son

3. Family

Parents

4. Children

Grandparents

5. Younger sister

Older brother

6. Grandmother

Mother

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7. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook.
Husband
Wife
Married
Unmarried young woman
Previously married
woman
Previously married man
Unmarried man (older)
Unmarried
Young man

Miji
Mata
Da aure
Budurwa
Zawara / Bazawara
Gwauro
Tuzuru
Marar aure
Saurayi

8. Fill in the blanks using the words written in the boxes below. Check your answers with
the Answer Key.
1.
a

shekara 5

shekara 30

-sa

da aure

-ta

likita

anena yana ___________. Matarsa _________ ce. Sunan____ Saadiya. Tana da


_________________.
Suna da ____________. Yana da _____________. Sunan____ Mamadu.

2.
da aure

-sa

shekara 8

iya

-ta

anwa

shekara 10

soji

Bello yana da ________. Sunan___ Hadiza. Tana ________.


Mijinta _________ ne. Sunan______ Ali. Suna da __________ biyu.
Sunan____ Hawa da Saude. Hawa ce baba. Tana da _________. Saude tana da
____________.

9. Make up short stories in Hausa about the people listed below.


1. Aisha da aure, da shekara 31, mijinta, lebura ne, a guda da iya guda.
2. anladi da aure, da shekare 28, matarsa, malama ce, babu aa.
3. Mariama budurwa, da shekara 20, tare da uwayenta, aliba ce, da ane.

85

-su

10. Listen to several short dialogues as people answer questions about their family
members. Circle the correct answer for each question. Check your work with the Answer
Key.
1. A. Wace ce?
B. Ita uwata ce / anwata ce / kakata ce.
2. A. Tana da aure?
B. Aa, ita budurwa ce / likita ce / zawara ce.
3. A. Shi wane ne?
B. Shi matata ce / mijina ne / ubana ne.
4. A. Su wane ne?
B. Su uwayena ne / aana ne / kakannina ne.
5. A. Ina suke da zama?
B. Suna zama a bariki / cikin tanti / cikin gida.
6. A. Kana da yaya ko anne?
B. I, ina da wa biyu / a biyu / a biyu.
7. A. Wace ce wannan?
B. Wannan matata ce / uwata ce / mijina ne.
8. A. Tana da aa?
B. I, tana da ane biyu / anwa biyu / a biyu.

11. Read and translate the text. Put T (True) or F (False) next to the statements below.
Check your answers with the Answer Key.
Lawali yana da kakanni biyu, kakansa da kakarsa. Suna zaune tare da Alhajji Saidu da
iyalinsa. Lawali ba ya da wa ko ane. Amma yana da a da anwa. Su alibai ne. Lawali
yana da aure. Matarsa likita ce. Lawali da matarsa suna da iya guda da a guda.

86

1. ________Lawali yana da uwaye.


2. ________Lawali yana da aure.
3. ________Yana da a da anwa.
4. ________Lawali da matarsa alibai ne.
5. ________Lawali likita ne.
6. ________Lawali yana da aa biyu.

87

End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Give a brief description in Hausa of your immediate family. Include the age, name, and
profession of each person, and tell whether each person is married or single, and where he
or she lives. If you want to, use real pictures of your family members.

2. Ask your classmate in Hausa about his or her family (mother, father, sister, brother,
etc.) What are their names, how old are they, where do they live, and what are their
professions?

3. Work in small groups. Describe the pictures below. Use new vocabulary.

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Vocabulary List
Parents
Father
Mother
Children
Son
Daughter
Brother (relative)
Older brother
Younger brother
Sister (relative)
Older sister
Younger sister
Older siblings
Younger siblings
Grandparents
Grandmother
Grandfather
Husband
Wife
Married
Unmarried
Unmarried/ Single young woman
Divorced single woman
Young man
Previously married man
Unmarried man (older)
Who is he/she?

Uwaye
Uba
Uwa
aa
a
iya
anuwa
Wa
ane
aruwa
Ya
anwa
Yaya
annai
Kakanni
Kaka
Kaka
Miji
Mata
Da aure
Marar aure (f)/ Maras aure (m)
Budurwa
Zawara/ Bazawara
Saurayi
Gwauro
Tuzuru
Shi wane ne?
Ita wace ce?

Who are they?


He is
She is
These/ Those are
One/ A single
This (m/f)
Who (in questions)
That (m)

Su wane ne?
Shi ne.
Ita ce.
Su ne.
Guda
Wannan
Wa
Wancan

89

That (f)
These
Those
Baseball
Occupation/ Profession
Owner of/ the one with
Big (f)

Waccan
Waanan
Waancan
Wasan wallon gora ta baseball
Sanaa
Mai
Babba

Note:
Note that the word guda is used very much like aya in many cases. These words have
overlapping uses, and they are both very common.

90

ANSWER KEY
Activity 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

My mother and father have one son and two daughters.


I live with my grandparents in a big house.
His parents live in Kaduna. They are laborers.
I have two brothers. They are soldiers. They live in a military camp.
She has a sister. Her name is Hadiza.
My brother is 30 years old. He has a son and a daughter.

1. Uwata da ubana suna da a guda da iya biyu.

2. Ina zaune tare da kakannina cikin wani babban gida.)


3. Uwayensa suna zaune a Kaduna. Su leburori ne.
4. Ina da wa da ane. Su sojoji ne. A wani sansani suke da zama.
5. Tana da anwa. Sunanta Hadiza.
6. Wana yana da shekara 30. Yana da a guda da iya guda.
Activity 5
These are some possible questions.Yours may vary slightly.
1.

Mi sunansa?

2.

Wannan anenka ne?

3.

Ina yake da zama?

4.

Mine ne sanaarsa?

5.

Yaushe yakan tafiya wurin aiki?

6.

Yana aiki ran Talata?

What is his name?


Is this your brother?
Where does he live?
What is his occupation?
When does he go to work?
Does he work on Tuesday?

Activity 6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Father
Daughter
Family
Grandparents
Older sister
Younger sister
Grandmother

91

Activity 8
1. anena yana da aure. Matarsa likita ce. Sunanta Saadiya. Tana da shekara 30. Suna
da a guda. Yana da shekara 5. Sunansa Mamadu..

1. My brother is married. His wife is a doctor. Her name is Saadiya. His wife is 30 years old.
They have a son. He is 5 years old. His name is Mamadu.
2. Bello yana da anwa. Sunanta Hadiza. Tana da aure.
Mijinta soji ne. Sunansa Ali. Suna da iya biyu.
Sunansu Hawa da Saude. Hawa ce babba. Tana da shekara 10. Saude tana da shekara 8.

2. Bello has a sister. Her name is Hadiza. She is married.


Her husband is a soldier. His name is Ali. They have two daughters.
Their names are Hawa and Saude. Hawa is older and is 10 years old. Saude is 8 years old.
Activity 10
1. Ita wace ce? Ita anwata ce.
2. Tana da aure? Aa, ita budurwa ce.
3. Shi wane ne? Shi mijina ne.
4. Su wane ne? Su aana ne.
5. Ina suke da zama? Suna zama cikin gidan haya.
6. Kina da wa ko ane? I, ina da wa guda da ane guda.
7. Wace ce wannan? Ita matata ce.
8. Tana da aa? I, tana da a biyu.

1. Who is she? She is my sister.


2. Is she married? No, she is single.
3. Who is he? He is my husband.
4. Who are they? They are my children.
5. Where do they live? They live in the apartment.
6. Do you have any brothers? Yes, I have two brothers.
7. Who is that? That is my wife.
8. Does she have any children? Yes, she has two sons.
Activity 11
1. F
2. T
3. T
4. F
5. F
6. T

Lawali has parents.


Lawali is married.
He has two sisters
Lawali and his wife are students.
Lawali is a doctor.
Lawali has two children.
92

Lawali has a grandfather and a grandmother. They live with Lawali and his family. Lawali has
no brothers. He has two sisters. They are students. Lawali is married. His wife is a doctor.
Lawali and his wife have a daughter and a son.

93

Lesson 6
Around Town
Cikin Gari

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Cardinal directions
- Names of urban buildings and landmarks
- How to ask and answer questions about locations of places and buildings.

1. Listen to and repeat the cardinal directions.


North Arewa
Northeast
Northwest Arewa maso yamma

West

Yamma

Arewa maso gabas

East Gabas

Southwest Kudu maso


yamma

Southeast

South

Kudu/
Gusum

94

Kudu maso gabas

2. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in
your workbook.

Zinder is north of Kano.


Niamey is west of Maradi.

Zinder tana arewa da Kano.


Yamai tana yamma da Marai.

3. Work with a partner. Tell each other where certain cities or locations are in relation to
other cities or locations. Compose sentences according to the exercise above and the model
below.
Model: Los Angeles is south of San Francisco.
Los Angeles tana kudu da San Francisco.

The building is east of the military camp.


Gini yana gabas da sansani.

4.Topographical features, urban buildings and landmarks are useful reference points
when getting to know a new area or for giving and receiving directions. Listen to a list of
common sites and features. Repeat after the speaker while following along in your
workbook.
Airport
Town
City
Small rural village
Bank

Filin jirgin sama


Gari
Birni/ Maraya
auye
Banki

95

Building
House
Road
Small street, alley
Neighborhood
Bush taxi station
Car
Bus station

Gini/ Soro
Gida
Hanya
Titi
Unguwa
Tasha
Mota
Tashar bas
(Niger: Tashar kar)

Train station
Police station
Caf
Restaurant
Church
Mosque
Movie theater
Hospital
Market
Street vendor
Pharmacy

Tashar jirgen asa


Ofishin an sanda
Gidan gahuwa
Gidan abinci
Coci
Masallaci
Siliman/ Gidan siliman
Asibiti/ Majiyyata
Kasuwa
Mai tebur
Kantin Magani
(Niger: farmasi)

Post office
Store
Park (city park)
Park (game park)
Factory
Bridge
Farm, field
The Bush
Tropical Forest
Lake
Mountain
Hill
River
Tree
Open bush, rural area

Gidan waya
Shago/ Kanti
Wurin Shaatawa
Gandun daji
Masanaanta
Gada
Gona
Daji
Kurmi
Tafki (tabki)
Dutsi (literally, rock)
Tudu
Kogi
Icce
Karkara

96

5. Match the English word in the left column with the Hausa equivalent in the right
column. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Airport
2. Bank
3. Bus Station
4. Caf
5. Church
6. Movie Theater
7. Factory
8. Hospital
9. Park
10. Pharmacy
11. Post Office
12. Restaurant

A. Masanaanta
B. Asibiti
C. Filin jirgin sama
D. Kantin magani
E. Gidan abinci
F. Wurin shaatawa
G. Gidan waya
H. Tashar bas
I. Banki
J. Gidan gahuwa
K. Siliman
L. Coci

Directions:
Before continuing on to section six, we will introduce a second way of stating cardinal
directions. You have already been introduced to the direction + da formula. Now, we will
introduce the second common formula. Below are the same sentences that were used previously
with their equivalents using the words arewacin, kudancin, yammacin, and gabashin.
Zinder tana arewa da Kano. = Zinder tana arewacin Kano.
Niamey tana yamma da Marai. = Niamey tana yammacin Marai.
Abuja tana kudu da Zaria. = Abuja tana kudancin Zaria.
Maiduguri tant gabas da Katsina. = Maiduguri tana gabashin Katsina.

6. Translate the following sentences from Hausa into English. Check your work with the
Answer Key.
1. Kasuwa, tana kudancin banki.
2. Kogi, yana gabas da tudunan nan.
3. Filin jirgin sama, yana yammacin masauka.
4. Duwatsu da tafkuna, suna gabas da daji.
5. Kogi yana kudancin gona.
6. Siliman yana gabas da asibiti.
7. Tafki yana arewa da wurin shaatawa.

97

7. Practice composing and pronouncing the vocabulary. Create sentences according to


the model. Use the words below.
Model:
Wurin shaatawa yana gabashin gidan waya.
1. Filin jirgin sama

-gabas da

-tafki

2. Banki

-kudancin

-asibiti

3. Kantin Magani

-yamma da

-gidan waya

4. Gada

-arewacin

-kogi

5. Tashar bas

-gabas da

6. Masanaanta

-kudancin

-gona

7. Gona

-yamma da

-gari

8. Wurin shaatawa

-arewacin

-tafki

-ofishin an sanda

8. Listen to the speaker and circle the term you hear. Check your answers with the
Answer Key.
1. north
2. bank
3. train station
4. restaurant
5. post office
6. church
7. lake
8. building

west
park
bus station
caf
pharmacy
movie theater
river
bridge

south
bridge
airport
factory
hospital
factory
farm
mountain

9. Listen to the following words and word combinations and repeat after the speaker.
Follow along in your workbook.
Where is ?
Questions of location or direction in Hausa are formed using the word ina, which means
where. We have already seen this word in earlier chapters and noted that it is differentiated by
tone and vowel length from the pronoun ina. In the examples in the next section, there is a series
of where questions and their answers. Note that a question such as Ina coci yake? can also be
shortened to Ina coci? in most cases.

98

In front of
Next to
Between and
Across the street
Facing
Near
Far from
Turn left
Turn right
Go straight
Turn the corner
Follow the road
Where is the bank?

Gaban
Dab da
Tsakanin da
etaren hanya
Fuskantar (kallon )
Kusa da (kusan)
Nesa da
Yi hagu
Yi dama
Mie
Sha kwana
Bi hanya
Ina banki?
Ina banki yake?

The bank is over there.


Here
There
Is it far?
By foot
By car
How many minutes to
From here
On the right
On the left

Banki yana can.


Nan
Can
Yana da nisa?
A asa
A mota
Minti nawa da zuwa
Daga nan
Hannun dama
Hannun hagu

10. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in
your workbook. Then translate them into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Ina tafki yake? Tafki yana dab da daji.
2. Ina kasuwa take? Kasuwa tana tsakanin ofishin an sanda da coci.
3. Ina gidan waya yake? Gidan waya yana kusa da asibiti.
4. Ina tashar jirgin asa take? Tashar jirgin asa tana fuskantar wurin shaatawa.
5. Ina gidan gahuwa yake? Gidan gahuwa yana gaban hotal.

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11. Work with a partner. Compose similar dialogues using the words below. Role-play your
dialogues.
Model:
A. Gafara dai Malam. Ina wurin shaatawa yake?
B. Wurin shaatawa yana gaban asibiti.
A. To, na gode.
B. Babu laifi.

1.

wurin shaatawa

gaban

asibiti

2.

filin jirgin sama

fuskantar

tashar bas

3.

daji

4.

ofishin an sanda

kusa da

siliman

5.

coci

tsakanin

masanaanta da wurin shaatawa

dab da

dutsi

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End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Translate each phrase into Hausa. Check your work with the Answer Key.
A. The restaurant is next to the hotel.
B. The park is north of the lake.
C. The bank is between the church and the bus station.
D. The market is south of the bridge.
E. The caf is across from the bookstore.
F. The field is in front of the town.

2. Work with a partner or in small groups. In Hausa, come up with a list of the facilities on
your base. Then draw a schematic map of the base. Now describe the location of each
facility. Use the following vocabulary: shago, asibiti, ofishin an sanda, siliman, wurin
shaatawa, masauki, coci, filin jirgin sama, gidan abinci, daji, and your language training
facility. Use these prepositions: tsakanin, dab da, fuskantar, and gaban.

101

Vocabulary List
Where (interrogative)
North
South
East
West
North of
South of
East of
West of
Town
City
Small rural village
Neighborhood
Mountain
Hill
Lake
River
Forest
Bridge
Road / Street
Small street / alley
Store
Street vendor
Market
Church
Mosque
Restaurant
Caf
City park
Game park
Bank
Car
Airport
Train station
Bus station
Bush taxi station

Ina
Arewa
Kudu / Gusum
Gabas
Yamma
Arewacin
Kudancin / gusumcin
Gabashin
Yammacin
Gari (pl. garuruwa)
Birni (pl. birane)
auye (pl. auyuka)
Unguwa (pl. unguwowi)
Babban tudu / Dutsi
Tudu (pl. tuduna)
Tafki / Tabki (pl. tafkuna)
Kogi (pl. Kogaye)
Daji (pl. dazuzzuka)
Gada (pl. gadoji)
Hanya (pl. hanyoyi)
Titi (pl. tituna)
Shago (Niger: kanti)
Mai tebur
Kasuwa (pl. kasuwanni / kasuwowi)
Coci
Masallaci (pl. masallatai)
Gidan abinci (pl. gidajen )
Gidan gahuwa
Wurin shaatawa (pl. wuraren )
Gandun daji (pl. gandayen daji)
Banki (pl. bankuna)
Mota (pl. motoci)
Filin jiragen sama (pl. filayen )
Tashar jiragen asa (pl tashoshin )
Tashar bas
Tasha (pl. tashoshi)

102

Pharmacy
Hospital
Movie Theater
Factory
Farm / field
Post office
Police station
Bookstore
Right
Left
In front of
Next to
Between
Close to
Across from
Far (adv)
Far (noun)
Problem
No problem / Youre
welcome

Kantin magani (pl. kantunan )


Asibiti (pl. asibitoci)
Siliman / Gidan siliman
Masanaanta (pl. masanaantu)
Gona (pl. gonaki)
Gidan waya (pl. gidajen )
Ofishin an sanda (pl. ofisoshin )
Kantin Littattafai
Dama
Hagu
Gaban
Dab da
Tsakanin
Kusa da
Fuskantar
Nesa
Nisa
Laifi
Babu laifi / Ba Laifi

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 5
1. Airport
2. Bank
3. Bus Station
4. Caf
5. Church
6. Movie Theater
7. Factory
8. Hospital
9. Park
10. Pharmacy
11. Post Office
12. Restaurant

C. Filin jirgin sama


I. Banki
H. Tashar bas
J. Gidan gahuwa
L. Coci
K. Siliman
A. Masanaanta
B. Asibiti
F. Wurin shaatawa
D. Kantin magani
G. Gidan waya
E. Gidan abinci

Activity 6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

The market is south of the bank


The river is east of the mountains.
The airport is west of the hotel.
The mountains and lakes are east of the forest.
The river is south of the farm.
The movie theater is east of the hospital.
The lake is north of the park.

1. Kasuwa, tana kudancin banki.


2. Kogi, yana gabas da tudunan nan.
3. Filin jirgin sama, yana yammacin masauka.
4. Duwatsu da tafkuna, suna gabas da daji.
5. Kogi yana kudancin gona.
6. Siliman yana gabas da asibiti.
7. Tafki yana arewa da wurin shaatawa.

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Activity 8
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

north arewa
bridge gada
bus station tashar bas
caf gidan gahuwa
post office gidan waya
church coci
farm gona
mountain dutsi

Activity 10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Where is the lake? The lake is next to the forest.


Where is the market? The market is between the police station and the church.
Where is the post office? The post office is near the hospital.
Where is the train station? The train station is across from the park.
Where is the caf? It is in front of the hotel.

1. Ina tafki yake? Tafki yana dab da daji.


2. Ina kasuwa take? Kasuwa tana tsakanin ofishin an sanda da coci.
3. Ina gidan waya yake? Gidan waya yana kusa da asibiti.
4. Ina tashar jirgin asa take? Tashar jirgin asa tana fuskantar wurin shaatawa.
5. Ina gidan gahuwa yake? Gidan gahuwa yana gaban hotal.

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 1
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Gidan abinci yana dab da masauki.


Wurin shaatawa yana arewacin tafki.
Banki, yana tsakanin coci da tashar bas.
Kasuwa, tana kudancin gada.
Gidan gahuwa, yana fuskantar kantin littattafai.
Gona, tana gaban gari.

105

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

The restaurant is next to the hotel.


The park is north of the lake.
The bank is between the church and the bus station.
The market is south of the bridge.
The caf is across from the bookstore.
The field is in front of the town.

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Lesson 7
Shopping
Sayayya

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Customs and practices accepted in the marketplaces of Nigeria and Niger
- Names of foods and stores
- How to make purchases in Nigeria and Niger
- The verbs to want, to buy, to pay, and to take
- The modal verb can.

Economy:
Hausas have traditionally been merchants. It was, in fact, largely because of the many traveling
Hausa merchants that Hausa became such a widespread trade language in West Africa. To this
day, Hausa remains a trade language far beyond the borders of Hausaland proper. It is not
uncommon to hear the meat vendors on the streets of Ghana calling out suya (a Hausa word
meaning cooked meat) or to see the rows of Hausa money changers at the border. The traditional
economy of Niger and Northern Nigeria remains largely unchanged today. Although currency is
now used in place of gold, cowry shells, and other means of bartering, the basic system is the
same. For the majority of the population, buying and selling take place in large open air markets,
where the primary goods are locally grown and made. These goods include items such as millet,
corn, milk, and livestock. There are some stores where the prices are listed on items, but for the
most part bargaining is expected. For the outsider, bargaining is absolutely necessary.
The average Hausa is poor by global standards, considering that he or she lives a subsistence
lifestyle with relatively few luxuries. The cost of living in this area of the world is extremely
cheap by Western standards; it is one of the cheapest in the world, in fact, but for locals it can
still prove impossible to find money for food. The season before harvest is sometimes referred to
as the hunger season, and many children do not make it through this period. In 2005, in fact,
Niger won the dubious distinction of being at the very bottom of the Human Development Index.
Nigeria is significantly better off economically, but is plagued by high crime rates and systemic
corruption. The standard of living in urban areas is significantly higher than average, but still not
high.

107

Currency in Nigeria:
The currency in Nigeria is called the Naira. The following chart shows the denominations of this
currency and their Hausa names. Note that most of the bills and coins have a Hausa nickname in
addition to their proper Hausa name.

Coins:
1k
Kwabo
5k
Kwabo biyar / sisi
10k
Kwabo goma / sule
25k

Kwabo ashirin da biyar / dala

50k

Kwabo hamsin / sule biyar

Notes:
1
5
10
20

Naira
Naira biyar / mai Tafawa Balewa
Naira goma / balama
Naira ashirin / ar Murtala

The abbreviation k in the above chart denotes kobo, which is to the Naira what the cent is to the
dollar. The Hausa kwabo is derived from this word.
Currency in Niger:
The currency in Niger is the CFA Franc (tamma in Hausa), which is the currency of the
majority of francophone West Africa. Due to the devaluation of the CFA franc, it has become
standard in Hausa to count money with fives (dala) as the base increment, and it is rare that one
would have any reason to refer to a tamma in day to day Hausa. When the counting is done in
French, however, the base increment is the franc. There are nicknames for many of the coins, but
as they are somewhat regional in nature, they are left out of this chart. Counting by fives looks a
bit intimidating at first, but it is actually a fairly convenient way to talk about the currency.

108

Coins:

Notes:

CFA 5
CFA 10
CFA 25
CFA 50
CFA 100
CFA 200
CFA 250
CFA 500

Dala
Dala biyu
Dala biyar
Dala goma

ar jika

CFA 1,000
CFA 2,000
CFA 5,000
CFA 10,000

ar jika biyu
ar jika biyar
ar jika goma

Dala ashirin
Dala arbain
Dala Hamsin
Dala ari

Using the dala and the jika as your base, you must learn to talk about money in Hausa. See
below some examples of this system.
CFA 125
CFA 300
CFA 1,500
CFA 290
CFA 900

Dala ashirin da biyar


Dala sittin
ari ukku / jika da rabi
Dala sittin ba biyu
Jika ba ashirin / ari da tamanin

In these examples, take note of the fact that 1,500 is generally referred to as a jika and a half or
three hundred. Note also the use of ba to indicate minus. Thus, rather than saying fiftyeight, one generally says sixty minus two. This is usually used when the amount is just a bit
shy of a round number.

1. Listen to the following vocabulary and repeat after the speaker.

Ayaba

Mangworo

Tumatir

Dankali

Madara

Man shanu

wai

Cuku

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Millet
Shinkafa

Burodi

Sukari

Hatsi

Sorghum

Masara

Kifi

Naman kaza

Dawa

Millet drink

Millet mush

Fura

Tuwo

Alkama

Kabewa

Nama

Ruwa

Wake

Gujiya

Salati

Kabeji / Shu

110

2. Work in pairs or in small groups. Ask your partner what foods he or she has at home.
Use the model below.
Model: A. Wane irin abinci kake da shi a gida?
B. Ina da ayaba da tumatir da dankalin turawa.

3. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and follow
along in the workbook. Look at the pictures and try to guess the meaning of the underlined
words.

Wannan kantin kayan

Hadiza, tana aiki a kantin

Nura yana aiki a kantin

cefane ne.

kayan cefane. Ita kashiya ce.

kayan cefane. Shi mai


jiran kanti ne.

Awa tana aiki a kantin tufafi. Ita mai jiran

Amadu yana aiki a kantin tufafi. Shi

kanti ce.

kashiya ne.

Did you understand the underlined words?


Kantin kayan cefane means grocery store.
Kashiya means cashier.
Mai jiran kanti means salesclerk (usually referring to a person who runs a shop).
Kantin tufafi means clothing store.

111

Shops, Stores, and Street Vendors


In Nigeria and Niger, there are some shops and markets that resemble Western shops and
markets, especially in the urban areas. However, the majority of economic activity still takes
place in open air markets or through street vendors who vend their wares from a table or even a
mat by the side of the road. The informal sector makes up a large part of the economy, and small
vendors predominate. Except in the expensive shops that specialize in Western goods, do not
expect to find prices marked. Below are a few terms and words for describing businesses.
Mai Tebur
Mai saida
Mai
an kasuwa (m.)

A street or market vendor who sells goods from a table or even a mat
by the roadside or in the market.
This title translates as one who sells and is commonly used to
distinguish a particular vendor specializing in a particular product.
Similar to the above example; one who This is used to describe
various professions such as one who repairs radios.
Market trader. Any person involved in commerce.

ar kasuwa (f.)
Kanti/ Shago

Mai talla

A small shop that usually sells an assortment of basic goods but


sometime specializes in a particular type of product. Kanti tends to
refer more to shops selling Western or modern goods, while shago
tends to refer more to traditional shops that can be found in most
villages.
Wandering salesperson (often a young child) who sells food or other
small goods. Usually this person carries the product on his or her head.

Another thing to remember is that the word kanti has a very broad range of application. This is
because Hausa does not have words for different types of stores. Traditionally, there were no gift
stores, bookstores, grocery stores, and such, and so the language has not formed words for these
distinctions. One way that words are formed for these types of shops is to use the word kanti
followed by the type of item that is sold. For example, Kantin littattafai is a bookstore. This is the
simplest approach, and the one used in this textbook. But, one should bear in mind that often the
descriptions are longer and more convoluted. For instance, rather than saying Kantin kyaututtuka
for gift shop, one might say Kanti inda ake saida kyaututtuka, meaning the shop where gifts are
sold. Likewise there is no set word for department store. The simplest translation, and the one
used here, is simply babban kanti, meaning a large shop. Other possible translations would take
the form of a description of a large shop where many different types of things are sold under one
roof. The third option, one that is used often in the cities, is to simply refer to the place in
English or French. All of this is something that one must bear in mind when learning Hausa,
because on the street, and depending on where you live, the terminology may vary.

112

4. Work in pairs or in small groups. Make up dialogues using the model below.
Model:
A.
A.
B.
B.

Dan Ladi, ina yake aiki?

Where does Dan Ladi work?


an Ladi yana aiki a kantin kayan cefane.

Dan Ladi works at the grocery store.

I want to: (introduction to the subjunctive)


In English, when a transitive verb refers to another verb, we use the second verb in the infinitive.
The result is I want to play or I need to go. This same principle is true for many Western
languages. In Hausa, however, the infinitive is not used. Rather, the subjunctive form of the
pronoun is used to connect the verbs. The subjunctive is used a lot in Hausa, and this is one of
the most common of its uses. Below is a table showing the full conjugation of the phrase I want
to buy. By studying this chart, you can see the full conjugation of the subjunctive pronoun. In
the first sentence below, note that the first part, ina so, translates as I want. The second part, in
saya, translates as to buy, but it literally translates as I buy. Therefore, the full sentence
would literally translate as I want I buy. This use of the subjunctive is fairly easy to remember,
however, as we can simply place the subjunctive pronoun where we would place to in English.
Look over the following chart, focusing on the conjugation of the subjunctive pronoun. Keep in
mind that while many of these pronouns appear to be the same as the past tense, they are
differentiated from other similar pronouns by tone and vowel length. The subjunctive also acts as
the imperative.
Ina so in saya
Kana so ka saya
Kina so ki saya
Yana so ya saya
Tana so ta saya
Muna so mu saya
Kuna so ku saya
Suna so su saya
Ana so a saya

Note: Saya is a verb that changes its ending, depending on what kind of object it takes. When it
takes a pronoun direct object, it ends in i. When it takes a direct object, it ends in e. And, the
verbal noun is saye.

113

5. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and follow
along in your workbook. Look at the pictures and try to guess the meaning of the
underlined words.

Nadia, tana so ta sayi littafi. Tana a kantin

Sule, yana so ya sayi agogo. Yana a wani

littattafai.

kantin kyaututtuka.

Did you understand the underlined words?


Kantin littattafai means bookstore.
Agogo means clock.
Kantin kyaututtuka means gift store.

6. Match each Hausa sentence in the left column with the English equivalent in the right
column. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. Ina so in sayi burodi da man shanu.
2. Abubakar, yana so ya sayi littafi.
3. Amadu yana so ya sayi kifi.
4. Kabiru, yana so ya sayi agogo.
5. Muna so mu sayi kyauta.
6. Suna so su sayi cuku.
7. anwata tana so ta sayi tufafi.

A. Amadu wants to buy fish.


B. They want to buy cheese.
C. I want to buy bread and butter.
D. My sister wants to buy clothes.
E. Kabiru wants to buy a clock.
F. Abubakar wants to buy a book.
G. We want to buy a gift.

Grammar Note
There is no exact translation in Hausa for the English word of. However, the endings n and r
play a very similar role. The n is attached to masculine nouns and the r to feminine nouns. See
the following examples, many of which you have already seen. This is the same principle as the
attached possessive pronouns except tht it applies to nouns instead of pronouns.

114

Sunanka = your name (the name of you)


Ruwan Lawali = Lawalis water (ruwa is masculine)
asar Niger = the country of Niger (asa = country)

Buying Things: Amounts


In the Hausa marketplace, units of measurement differ somewhat from what we are used to in
America. The terms pound or kilo are used for some things, just like in English, but there are
many terms which would not normally be used in English. One must simply get used to which
units of quantity are used in regard to different items. Below is a list of terminology that should
give an idea of what terms are common and how they are used. Note that the term pile is used
a lot. This is because the market vendors lay out their goods on a mat or table in little piles and
charge per pile. It is also common to see a large pile of an item, in which case you would just tell
the vendor how many francs (or Nairas) worth you would like. To say this, you simply say the
item followed by na for a masculine noun, or ta for a feminine noun and then the amount that
you hope to spend. If the amount given is too small, just ask the vendor to add some. Grains,
flour, sugar, and other such items are often sold by the kwano. This is a standard sized bowl
that is used as an increment of measure.
A kilo of rice
A box of sugar
A mango
A packet

Kilon shinkafa
Kwalin sukari
Mangworo guda
Fakiti (Niger: fake) / unshi / kwali
(kwalin sukari)

A bowl of sorghum
A pile of sweet potatoes
A loaf of bread
A bottle of water
A carton of milk
A dozen eggs

Kwanon dawa

50 worth of meat

Nama na 50

Dankali, kashi guda


Burodi guda
Kwalbar ruwa
Kwalin madara
wai dozen/ wai goma sha biyu

7. Work with a partner or in small groups. Pretend that you are planning to have a
surprise birthday party for one of your classmates. You need to buy some food and gifts.
Make a shopping list and tell your partner in Hausa what you want to buy.
How much is it?
To ask how much something costs in Hausa, the interrogative nawa is used. However, because
bargaining is usually necessary, there are a few more useful words that will be needed in order to
get the right price. The following dialogue shows a simple bargaining scene and gives examples
of some essential bargaining terminology. This dialogue uses some words and grammar that you
115

are not yet familiar with, but it will give you a good idea of how bargaining sounds in Hausa, and
there are certain terms used that should be memorized. Below, you will see the doubling of nawa
to indicate each or a piece. And, you will notice that the last word in a given number is
repeated to indicate each or a piece in the response.

Ali: Mai tebur, ina kwana?

Ali: Mai tebur, how are you?


Mai tebur: Im good. Hows the heat.
Ali: Man! It is hot out.
Mai Tebur: Ok, so what can I get you?
Ali: I would like some tomatoes.
Mai Tebur: Ok, how many would you like?
Ali: I would like five. How much each?
Mai Tebur : Fifty francs a piece.
Ali: Reduce the price for me.
Mai Tebur: Ok, how much will you pay?
Ali: Ill give you 30 francs a piece.
Mai Tebur: Deal, give me the money.
Ali: Here is it.
Mai Tebur: Ok, thanks. See you later.
Ali: See you later.

Mai Tebur: Lafiya lau. Ina rana?


Ali: Kai! Akwai rana.
Mai Tebur: To, mi zan baka?
Ali: Tumatir nike so.
Mai Tebur: To, nawa zan ba ka.
Ali: Guda biyar nike so. Nawa nawa ne?
Mai tebur: Dala goma goma ne.
Ali: Ka rage mini.
Mai Tebur: To, nawa za ka bada ?
Ali: Zan ba ka shidda shidda.
Mai Tebur: To kawo.
Ali: Ga shi.
Mai Tebur: To, na gode. Sai an jima.
Ali: Sai an jima.

How much is it? = Nawa ne?


How much each? = Nawa nawa?
It costs CFA 25. = Kuinsa dala biyar.
25 francs each. = Dala biyar biyar.
Reduce the price for me. = Rage mini.
Its a deal; give me the money. (lit., Ok, bring the money.) = To, kawo kuin.
CFA 125 each. = Dala ashirin da biyar biyar.
Give me more. = Ka ara mini.

116

8. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker.


A. Excuse me. I want to buy cheese. How much is a pound?
A. Gafara dai. Ina so in sayi cuku. Nawa ne kuin laba?
B.
B.
A.
A.
B.
B.

A pound is 50.

uin laba Naira hamsin ne.

OK, thanks.
To, na gode.

No problem.
Ba laifi.

9. Pretend you want to buy the items listed below. One of your classmates is a salesperson.
Role-play an In the Shop dialogue using the dialogue above as a model. Work in pairs or
in small groups.
1. Mangworo ukku

CFA 275

2. Kifi, laba guda

65

3. Buhun dankali

CFA 12,000

4. Ruwan kwalba, guda

35

5. Kwalin madara

CFA 1,050

6. Burodi guda

25

7. wai goma sha biyu

CFA 600

10. Complete the sentences using the words in the box. Check your answers with the
Answer Key.
Kantin tufafi

Kantin kayan cefane

Kantin

Kantin

littattafai

kyautuka

Babban kanti

1. Uwayena suna sayen kyatuka a __________________.


2. Suna sayen tomatir da dankalin turawa a _______________________.
3. Kanena yana sayen littattafai a ______________________.
4. Ni da yata muna sayen tufafi a ______________________.
5. Mun iya sayen tufafi da littattafai da kyautuka a __________________.

117

11. Listen to the following sentences and circle the words you hear. Check your
answers with the Answer Key.
1. I buy books in the clothing store / bookstore.
2. My sister buys gifts at the gift store / grocery store.
3. My mother buys sugar at the gift store / grocery store across from the bank.
4. My grandparents buy milk and butter at the bookstore / grocery store.
5. We buy clothes, books, and gifts at the department store/ bookstore.

The verb can:


The verb iya (can/ to be able to) in Hausa has two features which must be remembered in order
to use it correctly. First of all, it is usually used in the past tense, even when referring to the
present. Note that in the following chart, the English present tense is used to translate the past
tense of the Hausa. This is a feature of Hausa verbs that will reappear frequently as we continue.
I can
You can
You can
He can
She can
We can
You can
They can
One can

Na iya
Ka iya
Kin iya
Ya iya
Ta iya
Mun iya
Kun iya
Sun iya
An iya

<<To Take>>
The Hausa verb to take is one that will teach you to pronounce the glottalized D. You must
also remember that this verb has endings that change depending on the type of object it takes.
I take
You take (m)
You take (f)
He takes
She takes
We take
You take (pl)
They take
One takes

Ina auka
Kana auka
Kina auka
Yana auka
Tana auka
Muna auka
Kuna auka
Suna auka
Ana auka

118

I took. = Na auka.
I took it. = Na aukeshi.
I took a tomato. = Na auki tumatir.

12. a) Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in
the workbook.
A. Hello. I want to buy a loaf of bread. How much is it?
A. Barka da rana. Ina so in saye burodi guda. Nawa ne kuinsa?
B. It is 50.
B. Naira hamsin ne.
A. Can I pay with a credit card?
A. Na iya biya da katin bashi?
B. Im sorry, but we take cash.
B. Gafara, sai kuin hannu.
b) Role-play the dialogue. Make up similar dialogues using the words below.
1. Ruwa, kwalba biyu
2. Littafi
3. Madara, kwali guda
4. Cuku, laba guda
5. wai, dozin guda

13. Read along as you listen to the dialogue and then answer the follow-up questions.
Check your work with the Answer Key.
Lawali: Barka da rana Ali!
Ali: Yawwa Lawali! Barkarka dai!
Lawali: Ina za ka?
Ali: Ina tafiya zuwa kantin kayan cefane.
Lawali: Mi kake so ka saya?
Ali: Ina so in sayi burodi, ruwan kwalba guda biyu, kuma mangworo biyar. Kai fa, ina
za ka?

Lawali: Ina tafiya babban kanti.


Ali: Mi kake so ka saya?
Lawali: Ina so in saya wa kakana kyauta. Ina so in sayi littafi ko agogo.
Ali : Ni, ina sayen kyaututtuka a kantin kyaututtuka.

119

Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Where is Ali going?


What does she want to buy?
Where is Lawali going?
What does he want to buy?

120

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Translate the following into Hausa. Check your work with the Answer Key.
A. Where do you buy tomatoes and potatoes?
B. Can I pay with a credit card? No, we take cash.
C. I will buy the gift for my sister in the clothing store.
D. How much is a loaf of bread? - 25
2. In Hausa, explain where you buy groceries/gifts/books/clothes.

3. What would you tell a salesclerk in Nigeria if you wanted to buy a carton of milk/a
watch/a dozen eggs? How would you ask the price of each item? Role-play the dialogue.

121

Vocabulary List
How much ?
It is
I want to buy sugar
As well
Banana
Butter
Meat
Chicken
Fish
Sweet potato
Milk
Traditional millet drink/food usually with nono
mixed in (This is a Hausa staple food.)
Cooked pounded grain (usually millet) food (This is
the traditional staple of the Hausa diet, and it is also a
generic term for food.)
The traditional yoghurt that is usually mixed with
fura
Tomato
Squash
Beans
Peanuts
Lettuce/ Salad
Cabbage
Mango
Potato
Sugar
Millet
Sorghum
Wheat
Rice
Cheese
Eggs
A pound/kilo of cheese
A sack of sweet potatoes
A loaf of bread
A bottle of water

122

Nawa ne ?
Kuinsa
Ina so in sayi sukari
Kuma
Ayaba
Man shanu
Nama
Naman kaza
Kifi
Dankali
Madara
Fura
Tuwo
Nono
Tomatir
Kabewa
Wake
Gujiya/ Gyaa
Salati
Kabeji (Niger: Shu)
Mangworo (pl., mangworori)
Dankalin turawa
Sukari
Hatsi
Dawa
Alkama
Shinkafa
Cuku
wai (pl., wayoyi/ wayaye)
Cuku, laba guda
Buhun dankali (pl. buhunhunan)
Burodi
Ruwan kwalba guda

wai goma sha biyu/ wai dozin

A dozen eggs
A box of
A carton of milk
Department Store
Clothing Store
Clothing
Grocery Store
Bookstore
Bread
To reduce
For me
Half
Credit card
Cash
Cashier
Salesclerk
To buy
To take
To pay for
Only, just

Akwatin
Kwali guda na madara
Babban kanti
Kantin tufafi
Tufafi/ Kayan jiki
Kantin kayan cefane
Kantin littattafai
Burodi
Rage
Mini
Rabi
Katin bashi (pl., katunnan)
Kuin hannu
Kashiya
Mai jiran kanti
Saya
auka
Biya kuin
Sai

Note that in future lessons, we will explore the various uses of the word sai. In this lesson, we
used this word to express only or just, but in future lessons, you will see that it has many
other uses.

123

ANSWER KEY
Activity 6
.
1. Ina so in sayi burodi da man shanu.
2. Abubakar, yana so ya sayi littafi.
3. Amadu yana so ya sayi kifi.
4. Kabiru, yana so ya sayi agogo.
5. Muna so mu sayi kyauta.
6. Suna so su sayi cuku.
7. anwata tana so ta sayi tufafi.

C. I want to buy bread and butter.


F. Abubakar wants to buy a book.
A. Amadu wants to buy fish.
E. Kabiru wants to buy a clock.
G. We want to buy a gift.
B. They want to buy cheese
D. My sister wants to buy clothes.

Activity 10
1. kantin kyaututtuka
2. kantin kayan cefane
3. kantin litttattafai
4. kantin tufafi
5. babban kanti

My parents buy gifts at the gift


store.
They buy tomatoes and potatoes at
the grocery store.
My brother buys books at the
bookstore.
My sister and I buy clothes at the
clothing store.
We can buy clothes, books and
gifts at the department store.

1. Uwayena suna sayen kyatuka a __________________.


2. Suna sayen tomatir da dankalin turawa a _______________________.
3. Kanena yana sayen littattafai a ______________________.
4. Ni da yata muna sayen tufafi a ______________________.
5. Mun iya sayen tufafi da littattafai da kyautuka a __________________.

Activity 11
1. Ina sayen littattafai a kantin littattafai.
2. anwata tana sayen kyaututtuka a

I buy books in the bookstore.


My sister buys gifts at the gift store.

kantin kyaututtuka.
3. Uwata tana sayen sukari a kantin kayan
cefane da yake kallon banki.

My mother buys sugar at the grocery store


across from the bank.

124

4. Kakannina suna sayen madara da man


shanu a kantin kayan cefane.
5. Muna sayen tufafi da littattafai da
kyaututtuka a babban kanti.

My grandparents buy milk and butter at the


grocery store.
We buy clothes, books, and gifts at the
department store.

Activity 13
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ali is going to the grocery store.


She wants buy bread, two bottles of water, and a pound of pears.
Lawali is going to the department store.
He wants to buy a book or a clock.

Lawali: Barka da rana Ali!


Ali: Yawwa Lawali! Barkarka dai!
Lawali: Ina za ka?
Ali: Ina tafiya zuwa kantin kayan cefane.
Lawali: Mi kake so ka saya?
Ali: Ina so in sayi burodi, ruwan kwalba guda biyu, kuma mangworo biyar. Kai fa, ina
za ka?

Lawali: Ina tafiya babban kanti.


Ali: Mi kake so ka saya?
Lawali: Ina so in saya wa kakana kyauta. Ina so in sayi littafi ko agogo.
Ali: Ni, ina sayen kyaututtuka a kantin kyaututtuka.
End of Lesson Tasks
Activity 1
A. Ina kake sayen tumatir da dankalin turawa? (Where do you buy tomatoes and potatoes?)
B. Na iya biya da katin bashi? Aa, sai kui hannu. (Can I pay with a credit card? No, we

take cash.)
C. Ina saya wa anwata kyauta a kantin tufafi. (I will buy the gift for my sister in the

clothing store.)
D. Nawa ne burodi? Naira ashirin da biyar. (How much is a loaf of bread? - 25)

125

Lesson 8
Eating Out
Tafiya Zuwa Gidan Abinci

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Eating out in a restaurant in Nigeria and Niger
- Various menu items
- How to order menu items
- Different table service items.

Eating Out:
Eating out in Nigeria or Niger is completely unlike how it is done in America. For the majority
of the people, eating out at an actual sit-down restaurant is rare, and many rural people have
never gone to such a restaurant. What is more common is to eat food that is sold by street
vendors. In the markets and in every village, there are a variety of street vendors selling food.
These range from young girls selling snacks from a tray on their head, to the sedentary vendors
who sell hot foods on a plate for those who are looking for more of a meal. The actual restaurants
with menus are usually located in the cities and are frequented mainly by urban professionals,
mainly men. The next section shows a sample of a menu from a restaurant of this sort, but before
moving on to the menu, take a look at the following list of common street foods and vendors.
Bean cakes (fried)
Grain cakes (fried)
Meat skewer
Meat
Millet porridge (watery and hot)
Fermented millet drink
Traditional Yoghurt (to mix with fura)
Rice and beans
Deep fried dough (wheat flour)
Food made from bean flour and oil
Tofu
Hot pepper seasoning (used on all of the above)

126

osai
Waina
Tsire
Nama
Kunu/ Koko
Fura
Nono
Shinkafa da wake

Fanke (from pancake)


an wake
Awara
Yaji

1. Look at the restaurant menu below. Repeat the words after the speaker while
following along in the workbook.

Small World Restaurant


Item
Rice with sauce
Shinkafa da miya
Rice based dish with
Shinkafa dafa-duka
other ingredients mixed in
Salad
Salati
Pounded rice mash

Tuwon shikafa

Rice and beans

Shinkafa da wake

Fried sweet potatoes

Soyayyen dankali

Pasta noodles with sauce

Taliya da miya

Beans

Wake

Chicken

Naman Kaza

Mutton

Naman Tunkiya

Goat

Naman akuya

Fish

Kifi

Orange juice

Ruwan lemun-zai

Drinking water

Ruwan sha

Soft drink

Lemu

Coffee

Gahuwa (Niger: Kafe)

Milk

Madara

Tea

Shayi

Beer

Giya

Wine

Giya (Niger:

Price
500 / CFA 2000
500 / CFA 2000
250 / CFA 1000
300 / CFA 1200
400 / CFA 1600
350 / CFA 1400
400 / CFA 1600
250 / CFA 1000
600 / CFA 2400
500 / CFA 2000
500 / CFA 2000
750 / CFA 3000
150 / CFA 600
25 / CFA 100
150 / CFA 600
100 / CFA 400
100 / CFA 400
100 / CFA 400
200 / CFA 800

duban)/Mai

350 / CFA 1400

2. Imagine that you have 4,500 (CFA 18,500). What would you order at the Small World
Restaurant?

127

3. A) Listen while reading along with the following dialogue between a waiter and a
patron.
A.
A.
B.
B.
A.
A.
B.
B.

Sabis.

Waiter.
Mi kuke so?

What would you like?


Ina so in sha gahuwa.

I want to drink coffee.


To, ba mu da gahuwa. Sai shayi.

We do not have coffee, only tea.

B) Make up similar dialogues using the words and word combinations that are in the box.
1. kofin gahuwa shayi
2. tambulan madara shayi/gahuwa
3. tambulan ruwan lemun zai lemu
4. kifi da taliya naman kaza da soyayyen dankalin turawa

4. Listen to the following dialogue that takes place at a restaurant. Follow along in
your workbook. Pay attention to the new words. Role-play the dialogue. You can substitute
some words with any food from the Small World Restaurant menu.
A.
A.
B.
B.
A.
A.
B.
B.
A.
A.
B.
B.
A.
A.
B.
B.

Barka malam! Mi kake so ka ci?

Hello, sir. What do you want to eat?


To, mi yake da dai yau?

Well, whats good today?


Muna da soyayyen naman kaza da kuma taliya. Suna da dai sosai.

We have fried chicken and pasta. They are delicious.


To. A kawo soyayyen naman kaza da taliya.

Very well. Fried chicken and pasta, please.


Mi za ka sha?

What do you want to drink?


Shayi da sukari da lemun tsami.

Tea with sugar and lemon.


Kuma, kana son kayan zai?

And would you like dessert?


I, a kawo gutsuren kyat.

Yes, bring a piece of cake.

128

A.
A.
B.
B.
A.
A.

Ga lissafi, malam.

Here is your bill, sir.


Na iya biya da katin bashi?

Can I pay with a credit card?


I, babu matsala.

Yes, no problem.

I drink
You drink
You drink
He drinks
We drink
You drink
They drink
One drinks

Ina sha
Kana sha
Kina sha
Yana sha
Muna sha
Kuna sha
Suna sha
Ana sha

I drank
You drank
You drank
He drank
We drank
You drank
They drank
One drank

Na sha
Ka sha
Kin sha
Ya sha
Mun sha
Kun sha
Sun sha
An sha

Note that this is a verb that takes a terminal n in the continuous tense when it is followed by a
direct object.
Saying Please
As you may have noticed by now, there is no word in Hausa that truly translates the English
please. The Hausa term that is most often used to translate please is don Allah, and while in
certain situations it is a good translation for please, it is usually not quite the right word. In
reality, don Allah (literally, for God) carries a more emphatic meaning than please. Often times
it would be translated more precisely as for Gods sake, for the love of God, really, Im
serious, or I beg of you. Fortunately, however, in Hausa, the word please is not usually
necessary. Hausa is a very direct language, and native speakers generally speak in commands. To
the English speaker it can, in fact, sound like a very rude language, but once you become
accustomed to the flow of the language, you will find that the subtleties, albeit not easily
explained, are what determine whether one is speaking rudely or not.
5. Using the restaurant menu above, tell your classmates in Hausa what you ate and drank
at a restaurant the last time you were there.

6. Listen and read along with the dialogue. Fill in the blanks with the missing word in
English. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
Ina ka ci abinci _____________ da ta wuce?
Na ci abinci a ______________.
Ka ci kai aya?
Aa, ___________ ya zo tare da ni.
Mi ya ci?

129

Ya ci taliya da _____.
Mi ya ____?
Ya sha _____.
Mi ka ____?
Na ci _____________ da soyayyen dankalin turawa.
Mi ka sha?
Na sha ___________.

7. Below are some table service items. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

Plate

Bowl (metal)

Cup

Glass

Faranti

Kwano

Kofi

Tambulan (Niger:
Finjali)

Knife

Fork

Spoon

Handkerchief

Wua

Cokali mai yatsa

Cokali / koshiya

Hankici

Ladle

Mug

Clay Bowl

Cooking Pot

Ludayi

Moa

Kasko

Tukunya

130

8. Match the English words in the left column with the Hausa equivalents in the right
column. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Plate
Metal bowl
Cup
Glass
Knife
Fork
Spoon
Handkerchief

A. Cokali
B. Tambulan
C. Wua
D. Cokali mai yatsa
E. Kwano
F. Faranti
G. Hankici
H. Kofi

9. Listen to the following model. Repeat after the speaker. Compose similar sentences
using the words below.
Model: A. Ba ni da cokali. Don Allah ka kawo mini cokali.
A. I do not have a spoon. Can I please have a spoon.
B. To babu laifi. Ga shi nan.
B. Yes, no problem. Here you are.
1. Hankici
2. Kofi
3. Cokali mai yatsa
4. Wua
5. Tambulan

10. Listen to the speaker and circle the words you hear. Check your answers with the
Answer Key.
1. I want a glass of milk / juice.
2. We drank orange juice / soft drink at a restaurant.
3. Did you eat salad / pasta?
4. They ate fried potatoes and chicken / fish.
5. She had soup and hamburger / salad and beef.
6. Can I have a knife / fork?
7. He does not have a glass / plate.

131

End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Say in Hausa what you usually eat and drink for breakfast / lunch / dinner.
2. Say in Hausa what you ate and drank at a restaurant the last time you were there.
3. Pretend that you are at a restaurant now. What would you say in Hausa if you wanted
to eat salad and fried potatoes? You also want a cup of coffee, and you need a fork and
a napkin. What would you say in Hausa if you did not know what to choose? Your
classmate is a waiter. Role-play the dialogue. Work in pairs or in small groups.
4. Read and translate the following text into English. Answer the questions that follow in
complete sentences, in Hausa. Check the Answer Key to review your translation and to
check your answers.
Ran Jumaa da ta wuce, bayan na sauka daga aiki, ni da wana da uwayenmu muka tafi
gidan abinci mai suna Small World. aramin gidan abinci ne da ke fuskantar banki.
Shi sabis ya ce a ganinsa naman kaza da salati da kuma taliya da miya suna da dai
sosai. Wana ya ci naman shanu da dankali; ya kuma sha shayi da sukari da lemun tsami
a ciki. Uwata ta ci naman shanu da miya. Ta sha lemu. Daga baya ta ci gutsuren kyat.
Ubana ya ci naman shanu da soyayyen dankalin turawa da kuma tumatir. Shi ma ya ci
gutsuren kyat, kuma ya sha gahuwa. Ni, na ci naman kaza da salati. Ya yi dai sosai! So
na yi in biya da katin bashi, amma ubana ya biya da kuin hannu. Mun yi nishai sosai!
1. Yaushe iyali suka tafi gidan abinci?
2. Ina gidan abinci yake?
3. Da mi da mi sabis ya ce suna da dai sosai?
4. Wana, mi ya ci?
5. Mi ya sha?
6. Uwata ta ci naman shanu da miya ?
7. Ta sha ruwan lemun zai ko lemu?
8. Ta ci gutsuren kyat ?
9. Mi ubana ya ci?
10. Ya sha giya?
11. Ubana ya biya da katin bashi?
12. Mun yi nishai a gidan abinci?

132

Vocabulary List
Metal bowl
Clay bowl
Cake
Coffee
Cup
Mug
Ladle
Fork
Fried
Glass
Knife
Handkerchief
Rag
Orange juice
Mango juice
Piece
Plate
Please*
Salad
Soup
Spoon
Tea
Beef
Bring to me
Here you are
To Drink/ Drank
To eat/ Ate
In his opinion
Very much
Delicious
Very well
Lemon
Dessert
Bill
Wine

Kwano (pl., kwanoni)


Kasko (pl., kasake)
Kyat (Niger: gato)
Gahuwa (Niger: kafe)
Kofi
Moa (pl. moaye)
Ludayi
Cokali mai yatsa (pl. cokula masu )
Soyayye (pl., soyayyu)
Tambulan (Niger: Finjali)
Wua (pl., wuae)
Hankici
Tsumma (pl., tsummoki)
Ruwan lemun zai
Ruwan mangworo
Gutsure/ Yanki (pl., yankuna)
Faranti
Don Allah
Salati
Miya
Cokali (pl., cokula)
Shayi
Naman shanu
Kawo mini
Ga shi nan/ Ga tan an
Sha
Ci
A ganinsa
Sosai
Da dai/ mai dai
Da kyau
Lemun tsami
Kayan zai
Lissafin kui
Giya (Niger: duban)/ Mai

133

Beer
I wanted to
What all (lit., what
and what?)
[interrogative]
A piece of
Afterwards
To get off work (lit., to
step down from work)
Thats what she did
Only
To enjoy oneself
By yourself
Please*

Giya
So na yi in
Da mi da mi
Gutsuren
Daga baya
Sauka daga aiki
Haka ta yi
Kaai
Yi nishai
Kai aya
Don Allah

134

ANSWER KEY
Activity 6
Ina ka ci abinci _____________ da ta wuce?

Where did you eat last Sunday?


I ate at a restaurant.
Did you eat alone?
No, my brother was with me.
What did he eat?
He ate pasta and fish.
What did he drink?
He drank tea.
What did you eat?
I ate chicken and fried potatoes.
What did you drink?
I drank coffee.

Na ci abinci a ______________.
Ka ci kai aya?
Aa, ___________ ya zo tare da ni.
Mi ya ci?
Ya ci taliya da _____.
Mi ya ____?
Ya sha _____.
Mi ka ____?
Na ci _____________ da soyayyen dankalin turawa.
Mi ka sha?
Na sha ___________.

Activity 8
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Plate
Metal bowl
Cup
Glass
Knife
Fork
Spoon
Handkerchief

F Faranti
E Kwano
H Kofi
B Tambulan
C Wua
D Cokali mai yatsa
A Cokali
G Hankici

Activity 10
1. Madara
2. Ruwan lemun zai
3. Taliya
4. Kifi
5. Salati da naman shanu
6. Wua
7. Tambulan

Milk
Orange juice
Pasta
Fish
Salad and beef
Knife
Glass

135

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 4
Check your translation of the text. Then compare your answers to the questions below.
Last Friday after work, my brother, our parents, and I went to the restaurant Small World. Its
a small restaurant across from the bank. The waiter said that in his opinion the fried chicken,
salad, and pasta with sauce were very good. My brother ate beef and sweet potatoes; he drank tea
with sugar and lemon in it. My mother ate beef and soup. She drank a soft drink. Afterwards she
had a piece of cake. My father ate beef, fried potatoes, and tomatoes. He also ate a piece of cake,
and he drank coffee. I ate chicken and salad. It was delicious! I wanted to pay with a credit card,
but my father paid cash. We enjoyed ourselves very much.
1. When did the family go to the restaurant?
Iyali sun tafi gidan abinci ran Jumaa da ta wuce.

2. Where is the restaurant?


Gidan abinci yana fuskantar banki.

3. What did the waiter suggest?


Ya ce soyayyen naman kaza, da salati, da taliya da miya suna da dai sosai.

4. What did my brother eat?


Ya ci naman shanu da dankali.

5. What did he drink?


Ya sha shayi da sukari da lemu a ciki.

6. Did my mother eat beef and soup?


I, haka ta yi.

7. Did she drink orange or mango juice?


Aa, ta sha lemu kaai.

8. Did she eat a piece of cake?


I, ta ci gutsuren kyat.

9. What did my father eat?


Ya ci naman shanu da soyayyen dankalin turawa, da tumatir.

10. Did he drink wine?


I, ya sha giya.

11. Did my father pay with a credit card?


Aa, ya biya da kuin hannu.

12. Was it a wonderful evening?


I, mun yi nishai sosai.

136

Lesson 9
Holidays, Customs, and Cultural Traditions
Salloli, Bukukuwa, da Aladu
This lesson will introduce you to the following:
- How to read dates
- How to use ordinal numbers
- Names of the months
- Holidays, customs, and cultural traditions of Nigeria and Niger.

Holidays:
As we have mentioned, the vast majority of Hausas are Muslim, and thus the main holidays are
Muslim holidays. A religious holiday (Salla) is thought of in a very different light than a secular
holiday like Ranar Hutu. Generally, the religious and cultural holidays are the most celebrated,
while the secular holidays are just given a nod, except by the urban elite for whom a national
holiday constitutes a day off from work. Below is a list of the major holidays, and notes
regarding their celebration. The major secular and non-Muslim holidays that are celebrated in
both Nigeria and Niger are listed in a separate list. In addition to certain more specific greetings,
one can say barka da ... followed by the name of just about any holiday or event, meaning
greetings on ... In the case of Muslim religious holidays, their celebration always centers
around some sort of prayer or benediction that is given by the limam, the religious leader.

137

Hausa/ Muslim Holidays:


English /
Arabic

Hausa

Notes

Eid Al-Adha

Babbar Salla/

This is the holiday celebrated on the 10th day of the


month of Zulhajji. Every head of household that is
able, will slaughter a ram on this holiday. The meat
will be preserved and then divided up. Some will be
given to friends, some to the poor, and the rest will
be kept for the family to eat over the coming
months. Children circulate the village asking for a
barka da salla, which in this case means candy or
some money.

Sallar Layya

Eid Al-Fitr

Eid Al Maulud

aramar Salla/
Sallar Azumi

This is the holiday celebrating the end of the


Ramadan fast (azumi). This is a celebration that is
marked by good food and energetic people who are
enjoying the privilege of eating during the daytime.

Mauludi

Celebration of the birthday of the Prophet


Muhammad

During the entire month of Ramadan, Muslims do not eat or drink from dawn till dusk. People
rise at about 4:30 a.m. during this time in order to ensure that they have drunk plenty of water
and eaten food before the ladan begins the call to prayer (kiran salla) at dawn. After this, they do
not eat or drink anything until dusk. At dusk, as soon as the call to prayer rings out, everyone
drinks a bland watery porridge that is easy on the stomach before eating solid food.
Other Nigerian and Nigerien Holidays:
October 1: Nigerian Independence Day
January 1: New Years Day
August 3: Nigerien Independence Day
December 25: Christmas Day

Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijeriya)


Sabuwar Shekara
Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijar)
Krisimati (Niger: Nowal)

Also, there are several other national holidays which are secular in nature in each nation.
Additionally, both countries celebrate (officially) May Day and Easter. These holidays, while
officially recognized, are barely noticed in the rural Hausa environment.

138

Ordinal Numbers: Ordinal numbers are extremely easy to use in Hausa. You simply add na
or ta before the cardinal number, and then you have the ordinal number. Na is used for an
ordinal number that describes a masculine object, and ta is used for an ordinal number that
describes a feminine object. As always, plurals will be treated as masculine. The ordinal number
is an adjective and generally follows the noun that it describes.

1. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook.
aya

1 one
First
2 two
Second
3 three
Third
4 four
Fourth
5 five
Fifth
6 six
Sixth
7 seven
Seventh
8 eight
Eighth
9 nine
Ninth
10 ten
Tenth

na aya/ ta aya
biyu
na biyu/ ta biyu
ukku
na ukku/ ta ukku
huu
na huu/ ta huu
biyar
na biyar/ ta biyar
shidda
na shidda/ ta shidda
bakwai
na bakwai/ ta bakwai
takwas
na takwas/ ta takwas
tara
na tara/ ta tara
goma
na goma/ ta goma

2. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentences. Use the words located in the box. Check your
answers with the Answer Key.
ta biyar

ta biyu

ta farko

ta shidda

ta ukku

ta bakwai

1. Ran Litinin ita ce rana ___________________ cikin sati.


2. Ran Talata ita ce rana __________________ cikin sati.
3. Ran Laraba ita ce rana ___________________ cikin sati.
4. Ran Alhamis ita ce rana _______________________ cikin sati.
5. Ran Jumaa ita ce rana __________________ cikin sati.

139

ta huu

ta bakwai

6. Ran Asabar ita ce rana _______________________ cikin sati.


7. Ran Lahadi ita ce rana ____________________ cikin sati.

Ordinal Numbers (11-19):


The ordinal numbers from 11 through 19 are grammatically identical to those from 1 through 10.

3. Listen and repeat after the speaker the ordinal numbers 11 through 19. Follow
along in the workbook.
11 eleven
eleventh
12 twelve
twelfth
13 thirteen
thirteenth
14 fourteen
fourteenth
15 fifteen
fifteenth
16 sixteen
sixteenth
17 seventeen
seventeenth
18 eighteen
eighteenth
19 nineteen
nineteenth
20 twenty
twentieth

goma sha aya


na (ta) goma sha aya
goma sha biyu
na (ta) goma sha biyu
goma sha ukku
na (ta) goma sha ukku
goma sha huu
na (ta) goma sha huu
goma sha biyar
na (ta) goma sha biyar
goma sha shidda
na (ta) goma sha shidda
goma sha bakwai
na (ta) goma sha bakwai
goma sha takwas
na (ta) goma sha takwas
goma sha tara
na (ta) goma sha tara
ashirin
na (ta) ashinin

4. Practice saying the following ordinal numbers in Hausa.


11th, 13th, 15th, 17th, 19th, 12th, 14th, 16th, 18th
Ordinal Numbers (20-100):
The ordinal numbers from 20 through 100 are grammatically identical to the previous ordinal
numbers.

140

5. Listen to the ordinal numbers 20-30 and repeat after the speaker.
20 twenty
Twentieth
21 twenty-one
twenty-first
22 twenty-two
twenty-second
23 twenty-three
twenty-third
24 twenty-four
twenty-fourth
25 twenty-five
twenty-fifth
26 twenty-six
twenty-sixth
27 twenty-seven
twenty-seventh
28 twenty-eight
twenty-eighth
29 twenty-nine
twenty-ninth
30 thirty
Thirtieth
40 forty
Fortieth
50 fifty
Fiftieth
60 sixty
Sixtieth
70 seventy
Seventieth
80 eighty
Eightieth
90 ninety
Ninetieth

ashirin
na (ta) ashirin
ashirin da aya
na (ta) ashirin da aya
ashirin da biyu
na (ta) ashirin da biyu
ashirin da ukku
na (ta) ashirin da ukku
ashirin da huu
na (ta) ashirin da huu
ashirin da biyar
na (ta) ashirin da biyar
ashirin da shidda
na (ta) ashirin da shidda
ashirin da bakwai
na (ta) ashirin da bakwai
ashirin da takwas
na (ta) ashirin da takwas
ashirin da tara
na (ta) ashirin da tara
talatin
na (ta) talatin
arbain
na (ta) arbain
hamsin
na (ta) hamsin
sittin
na (ta) sittin
sabain
na (ta) sabain
tamanin
na (ta) tamanin
tisain/ gomiya tara
na (ta) tisain/ na (ta) gomiya tara

141

ari

100 one hundred


one hundredth

na (ta) ari

6. Listen to the names of the months and repeat after the speaker.
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Janairu
Febrairu
Maris
Afrilu
Mayu
Yuni
Yuli
Agusta
Satumba
Oktoba
Nuwamba
Disamba

Islamic Calendar
Especially in rural areas, the lunar Islamic calendar is often used alongside the Gregorian
calendar. These months do not correspond to Gregorian months because the year is about 11
days shorter by the Islamic calendar, and thus the correspondence of months is slightly different
each year. You will not need to keep track of the Islamic date; however, it is good to be able to
recognize the Islamic months when you hear them. You will also hear much more talk of the
Islamic calendar as the month of Ramadan approaches. This is the month of fasting that is
observed throughout the Hausa speaking world. See below the names of the months in the
Islamic calendar.
Muharram
Safar
Rabiu Lawwal
Rabiu Lahir
Jimada Lawwal
Jimada Lahir
Rajab
Shaaban
Ramadan (Ramazan)
Shawwal
Zulida
Zulhajji

142

7. Look at the picture and say the dates and days of the week in Hausa. Practice the
different dates, days, and months through the year.
Model : Yau ranar 15 ga watan Afrilu na shekarar 1999. Yau Alhamis ce.

8. Listen as the speaker reads the following years. Repeat after the speaker.
1925 - nineteen twenty-five alif da ari tara da ashirin da biyu
1900 - nineteen hundred
alif da ari tara
2004 - two thousand four
dubu biyu da huu
Dates in Hausa:
Telling dates in Hausa is fairly straightforward. The numbers are said in the same order as in
English and connected by da (and). One thing that must be remembered is that rather than using
the Hausa dubu to express one thousand in the dates from 1000 through 1999, the Arabic
loanword alif is generally used. From the year 2000,however, the Hausa dubu is generally
preferred. When writing dates in Hausa, you must use the European (dd/mm/yyyy) system
although you will often find that Hausa speakers prefer to write out the name of the month. Also,
note that the ne/ce stabilizer is often left out in these sentences. This is not uncommon in Hausa,
and you will get used to identifying the places in which the stabilizer can be left out. In the same
way, the word ran or ranar is often left out before the name of the day of the week. Thus, rather
than saying, Yau rar Jumaa ce, one could simply say, Yau Jumaa. Finally, the ordinal
numbers in dates can take an alternate form. Rather than saying rana ta goma ga wata, one could
say ranar goma ga wata.

143

9. Read the following years in Hausa.


2001

1987

1960

1945

2000

1700

1516

10. Listen and repeat after the speaker the names of Nigerian and Nigerien holidays.
Follow along in the workbook.
1. Eid al-Kabir: Zulhajji 10th
2. Eid al-Fitr: Shawwal 1st
3. Christmas: December 25th

Babbar Salla: rana ta 10 ga watan Zulhajji


aramar Salla: rana ta farko ga watan Shawwal
Sallar Krisimati (Niger: Nowal): rana ta 25 ga watan
Disamba

4. Independence Day
Nigeria: October 1st
Niger: August 3rd

Bikin Mulkin Kai: Nigeria: rana ta 1 ga watan


October, Niger: rana ta 3 ga watan Agusta

11. Listen to the speakers talk about their dates of birth. Follow along in the
workbook.

1. When were you born?

2. When were you born?

3. When were you born?

Yaushe aka haifeka?

Yaushe aka haifeka?

Yaushe aka haifeki?

I was born on the


11th of June, 1936.

I was born on the


31st of July, 1960.

I was born on the


23rd of January, 1987.

An haifeni a ranar 11 ga

An haifeni a ranar 31 ga watan

An haifeni a ranar 23

watan Yuni na shekarar

Yuli na shekarar 1960.

ga watan Janairu na

1936.

shekarar 1987.

144

12. Work in pairs or in small groups. Ask your partner when he was born. Use the model
below.
Model: A. I was born on the 15th of February, 1982. And you, when were you born?
A. An haifeni a ranar 15 ga watan Febrairu a shekarar 1982. Kai fa, yaushe aka
haife ka?

B. I was born on the 4th of September, 1979.


B. An haife ni a ranar 4 ga watan Satumban shekarar 1979.
13 Look at the picture below and imagine that this is your family. Describe each member.
Use the model below. You can use real pictures of your family.
Model: This is my brother. His name is He is years old. He was born on the of19
Model: Wannan anena ne. Sunansa Zabairu. Yana da shekara 12. An haifeshi a ranar
21 ga watan Maris na shekarar 1994.

14. Read and translate the following text into English. Answer the questions below in
English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
Sunana Hama. Daga Nijeriya nike. A Kaduna nike da zama. Ina da babban iyali: mata
guda, yara biyu, kuma da uwayena. Muna zaune a wani babban gida. Matata tana da
shekara 30. An haifeta a ranar 23 ga watan Nuwamba a shekarar 1970. Ita likita ce,
kuma tana da aiki a asibiti. Yaranmu alibai ne. Suna yin karatu a makaranta. An haifi

145

iyata a ranar 26 ga watan Afrilu na shekarar 1992. ana yana da shekara 8 da


haifuwa. An haifeshi a ranar farko ta watan Mayu na shekarar 1996. Uwata ta tsufa
sosai. Shekarunta 78 da haifuwa. An haifeta a ranar 22 ga watan Nuwamba na shekarar
1926. Ubana yana da shekara 79. An haifeshi a ranar 25 ga watan Agusta na shekarar
1925. Ba su aiki. Su, suna karanta littattafai da kallon talabijin ko kuma suna yin wasa
da yaranmu. A gaskiya ina da iyalin kirki!

1. Where does the family live?


2. How old is the wife?
3. When was she born?
4. What is her occupation?
5. Where does she work?
6. How many children do they have?
7. How old is the son? When was he born?
8. How old is the daughter?
9. When was she born?
10. How old is the grandmother?
11. When was she born?
12. How old is the grandfather?
13. When was he born?
14. What do the grandparents do?
Visits and Greetings:
Paying a visit or dropping in are very important parts of Hausa culture. A good community
member is someone who makes an appearance at all of the celebrations for birth, naming,
marriage, death, and so on. To neglect to go and greet someone you know on any of these
occasions is very rude. It is not necessary to have an extravagant gift, but a greeting and a little
money as a gift are important. These greetings can be very simple. It is not necessary to spend
the afternoon at the celebration of someone who is not a good friend, but a quick greeting goes a
long way, especially for a foreigner. Each occasion has its own greetings that are appropriate,
and it is important to know at least the basic greeting for each occasion. Below is a list of the
most common occasions and a proper greeting for each.

English

Hausa

Greeting

Birth

Haifuwa

Ina an bao?/ Ina ar bauwa? These questions ask, How is the

little guest? Also, Allah ya raya could be added if you want to


say, May God grant the child life. A small gift of money usually
accompanies this greeting.
Naming

Suna

Barka da suna. The naming ceremony takes place six days after

the birth. On this day, the father serves food, and friends and
neighbors come to eat and take part in the prayer. The religious
146

leader says a prayer for the child and pronounces the name of the
child. The parents usually take part in the choosing of the name,
but the choice is sometimes left to the religious leader. In any case,
the name is only official once it is announced in this way.
Marriage

Aure/ Arme

Barka! Allah ya bar ku tare. (May God leave you together.)


Allah ya sa ku yi zaman lafiya. (May God cause you to live together

in peace.) In Muslim Hausa culture, a man is allowed up to four


wives. Women generally marry young and are taken to live with
their new husband. There is a separate ceremony that takes place
before the wedding in which the marriage is agreed to and a bride
price is set. At the actual marriage ceremony, the bride is prepared
and taken to her husbands house. The groom has a separate
celebration with friends during this time.
Death

Mutuwa

Ina abin da ya samu? means How is the thing that has

happened? After the bereaved has responded, one could add


Allah ya bada hauri, (May God grant you patience). Beyond this,
one could add Sannu several times, which in this situation means
my condolences or Im so sorry. Again, money is often given.
This use of money as a condolence gift may seem somewhat crass
to our Western sensibilities, but it is truly acceptable and expected.

15. Listen to the following conversation between two people and repeat after the
speakers. Follow along in the workbook, and then answer the questions that follow. Check
your work with the Answer Key.
A. Barka da rana Zabairu! Akwai bikin ranar tuna haifuwa a ranar 6 ga watan Mayu.
Ina gayyatarka ka zo ka kawo mana ziyara, ni da iyalina.

B. To, na gode Ashiru. A arfe nawa?


A. A arfe biyar ko biyar da rabi.
B. To, mene ne adireshinku?
A. 10459, Hanyar Malamai.
B. Yaya zan tafi can.

A. Ka bi babbar hanya har ka kai Hanyar Malamai. A nan sai ka yi hagu.


Ka bi Hanyar Malamai tsawon layi biyu.
Gidanmu shi ne na ukku a hannunka na dama.

B. To, mi ya kamata in kawo?


A. Aa, babu komi.

B. To, na gode da ka gayyace ni haka.

147

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What is the occasion for the invitation?


What is the date?
What time should he arrive?
What is the address?
What directions is he given to get there?
What should he bring?

16. Work with a partner. Invite him or her to your house to celebrate a holiday. Give him
or her directions how to get to your house. Use the dialogue above as a model.

148

End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Tell in Hausa the date when:
-

you were born


you graduated from high school
your wedding was
your child was born
you joined the military

2. Give the names of holidays in Niger and Nigeria and tell when they are celebrated (in
Hausa).
3. Invite your roommate to a Christmas party and give him/her directions how to get
there.

149

Vocabulary List
first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth
eleventh
twelfth
thirteenth
fourteenth
fifteenth
sixteenth
seventeenth
eighteenth
nineteenth
twentieth
twenty-first
twenty-second
twenty-third
twenty-fourth
twenty-fifth
twenty-sixth
twenty-seventh
twenty-eighth
twenty-ninth
one thousand
one thousand (in years)
January
February
March
April

na (ta) aya
na (ta) biyu
na (ta) ukku
na (ta) huu
na (ta) biyar
na (ta) shidda
na (ta) bakwai
na (ta) takwas
na (ta) tara
na (ta) goma
na (ta) goma sha aya
na (ta) goma sha biyu
na (ta) goma sha ukku
na (ta) goma sha huu
na (ta) goma sha biyar
na (ta) goma sha shidda
na (ta) goma sha bakwai
na (ta) goma sha takwas
na (ta) goma sha tara
na (ta) ashirin
na (ta) ashirin da aya
na (ta) ashirin da biyu
na (ta) ashirin da ukku
na (ta) ashirin da huu
na (ta) ashirin da biyar
na (ta) ashirin da shidda
na (ta) ashirin da bakwai
na (ta) ahsirin da takwas
na (ta) ashirin da tara
dubu
alif
Janairu
Febrairu
Maris
Afrilu

150

May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Was born
To grow old
Kindness / goodness
To invite
Invitation
How
I will
I should ...
Address
Drive
To follow a road
Two blocks
Turn right
Turn left
Come over
To visit
To pay a visit
Birthday
Birthday party
Wedding
Funeral
Death
Religious holiday
Non-religious holiday
Muezzin (the one who chants the
call to prayer)
Imam (Muslim religious leader)
The Muslim call to prayer
To bring
I want to invite you

Mayu
Yuni
Yuli
Agusta
Satumba
Oktoba
Nuwamba
Disamba
haifa, haife, haifi
tsufa
kirki
gayyata
gayya
yaya/ aa
zan
Ya kamata in ...
adireshi/ lambar gida /masama
tua mota/ tafi
bi hanya
layi biyu/ hanya biyu
yi dama
yi hagu
zo
ziyarta
kawo ziyara
ranar tuna haifuwa
bikin ranar tuna haifuwa
bikin aure (pl., bukukuwan aure)
janaiza
mutuwa
salla (pl., salloli)
ranar hutu
Ladan/ Ladani
Limam/ limami
kiran salla
kawo(wa)
Ina so in gayyace ka

151

Holidays

Salloli da ranaikun hutu

Eid al-Adha / Tabaski


Eid al-Fitr
Christmas
Ramadan
Prophet Mohammeds birthday
Nigerien Independance Day
Nigerian Independance Day

Babbar Salla/ Layya


aramar Salla
Sallar Krisimati (Niger: Nowal)
Ramadan (Ramazan)
Mauludi
Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijar)
Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijeriya)

152

ANSWER KEY
Activity 2
1. ta biyu
2. ta ukku
3. ta huu
4. ta biyar
5. ta shidda
6. ta bakwai
7. ta aya

Second
Third
Fourth
Fifth
Sixth
Seventh
First

1. Ran Litinin ita ce rana _________________cikin sati.


2. Ran Talata ita ce rana __________________cikin sati.
3. Ran Laraba ita ce rana _________________cikin sati.
4. Ran Alhamis ita ce rana ________________cikin sati.
5. Ran Jumaa ita ce rana _________________cikin sati.
6. Ran Asabar ita ce rana _________________cikin sati.
7. Ran Lahadi ita ce rana _________________cikin sati.

Activity 14
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Where does the family live? -- Kaduna, Nigeria


How old is the wife? -- 30
When was she born? -- November 23, 1970
What is her occupation? -- Doctor
Where does she work? -- Hospital
How many children do they have? -- 2
How old is the son? When was he born? -- 8 years old, May 1, 1996
How old is the daughter? -- 12 years old
When was she born? -- April 26, 1992
How old is the grandmother? -- 78
When was she born? -- November 22, 1926
How old is the grandfather? -- 79
When was he born? -- August 25, 1925
What do the grandparents do? -- Read books, watch television, and play with the
grandchildren

153

My name is Hama. I am from Nigeria. I live in Kaduna. I have a big family: a wife, two children,
and my parents. We live in a big house. My wife is 30. She was born on November 23, 1970.
She is a doctor and works at the hospital. My children are students. They study at school. My
daughter was born on the April 26, 1992. My son is 8 years old. He was born on the 1st of May,
1996. My mother is very old. She is 78. She was born on the 22nd of November, 1926. My
father is 79. He was born on the 25th of August, 1925. They do not work. They read books, watch
television, or play with our children. I have a wonderful family.
Activity 15
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is the occasion for the invitation? A birthday party


What is the date? May 6
What time should he arrive? 5:00 or 5:30
What is the address? 10459 Hanyar Malamai
What directions is he given to get there?
Drive north on the main road to Hanyar Malamai and turn left. Drive along Hanyar Malamai
two blocks and turn right. My house is the third house on the right.
6. What should he bring? Nothing
A. Hi, Zabairu. There is birthday party the 6th of May.
I invite you to come over and visit my family.
B. Thank you, Ashiru. What time?
A. Five or five thirty.
B. What is your address?
A. It is 10459 Hanyar Malamai.
B. How can I get there?
A. Drive north on the main road to Hanyar Malamai and turn left.
Drive along Hanyar Malamai two blocks and turn right.
My house is the third house on the right.
B. What can I bring?
A. Nothing, thanks.
B. Thank you for the invitation.

154

Lesson 10
Around the House
Cikin Gida

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Basic vocabulary related to the home
- Rooms around the house
- Furniture items you may see.,

Hausa Houses:
Traditionally, Hausas have lived in several types of mud huts. This is a way of life that remains
largely unchanged to the present day. Although there is now an urban elite in the Hausa culture
that live a more Western lifestyle, the majority of Hausas still live very much as they have for
most of the last millennium. As we have already touched upon in an earlier lesson, the majority
of Hausa people live in either a kago or a shigifa of some sort, and a few live in a soro. These are
all generally characterized by mud brick construction and the use of straw and sticks for roofing.
In modern times, many people have begun to integrate cement and plastic sheeting into these
methods, but the general techniques remain the same. Furnishings are generally quite sparse.
The most ubiquitous pieces of furniture are the grass or plastic woven mat for sitting on the
ground, the bed, and perhaps a chair or two. In a more urban setting, there would also be a
latrine, a few more chairs, perhaps a sofa, curtains, and maybe even an actual bathroom.
Generally, the term gida includes the yard, and the yard is considered part of the living space
rather than separate from the house. When someone refers to your house, they usually mean
everything inside the fence rather than any particular building or set of buildings. In a normal
village household, the equivalent of the living room and dining room would be the area in the
yard where there is a good shade tree to hang out under. The equivalent of the bathroom would
be either the pit latrine or just the open bush outside of the village. Concepts like office and
garage just wouldnt have any meaning. The word floor in Hausa is still the same as the word
for ground, and so it can be awkward to speak of the floor as an object rather than as a place. The
terminology for multistory buildings is also awkward at times because this is also a new concept
for the language. Many devices such as a microwave or a toaster must be described. For instance
rather than saying toaster one would say naura da take gasa burodi (the device that grills
bread). In short, describing modern living situations can seem somewhat unnatural in Hausa. In
the village, however, there is no such problem.

155

1. Listen to the vocabulary below and repeat after the speaker.


Makewayi/ bayan gida/ bayan aki/mawanka

Bathroom
Bedroom
Door (the opening/ the place)
Door (the actual object)
Floor
Window
Wall
Roof
Antenna
Office
Basement
Yard
Kitchen (traditional)
Kitchen (modern)

aki (pl., akuna)


ofa (pl., ofofi)
Kyaure/ tufaniya
Balbali
Taga (pl., tagogi)
Bango (pl., bangwaye)
Rufi
Eriya
Ofis (niger: buro) (pl., ofisoshi)
Gidan asa (pl., gidajen )
Filin gida (pl., filayen )
Madafa/ murhu
Nigeria: kicin
Niger: kizin
Falo

Living room
One-story
Two-story
First floor
Second floor

Daddali (wanda ba ya da gidan sama)


Soro mai hayi biyu/ ori biyu
Hayin fari
Hayi na biyu

2. Match the Hausa words in the left column with their English equivalents in the right
column. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. Makewayi
2. aki
3. ofa
4. asa
5. Taga
6. Falo
7. Ofis
8. Gidan asa
9. Filin Gida
10. Kicin

A.
B.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
J.
K.
L.

Basement
Yard
Living room
Bathroom
Kitchen
Bedroom
Door
Floor
Office
Window

156

Akwai ko Babu (Are there any, or not?)


Two of the most important words in the Hausa language are akwai (there is/are...) and babu
(there is/are no...). They are simple words to use, and make many expressions much more
concise than they might otherwise be. Remember that these are not to be treated as verbs, just
partials that imply a verb-like concept. Below are some examples of important phrases that show
how these terms are used. Note that babu is often shortened to ba and that da akwai is used rather
than just akwai in some situations. These words are invariable and do not change according to
gender or number.
Akwai ruwa?

Is there water?
Yes, there is.
Its hot. (lit., There is sun.)
No problem.
Do you have one? / Do you have any?
I have one. / I have some.
Its not my concern. (lit., Its not my water.)

I, akwai.
Akwai rana.
Babu laifi. / Ba laifi.
Kana da akwai?
Ina da akwai.
Ba ruwana.

3. Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks from the list of words written in
the box below. Check your work with the Answer Key.
aki

eriya

filin gida

kicin

falo da makewayi

1. Akwai _______________a kan gida.


2. Akwai __________________ tsakanin ofis da makewayi.
3. Akwai _________________ a gaban gida.
4. Akwai kicin tsakanin __________________________.

4. Draw a plan of your house and tell your partner, in Hausa, the types of rooms you have
and where they are located. Work in pairs or in small groups.
5. Match the following questions with the correct answers. Check your work with the
Answer Key.
A

Ina makewayi?

1. aki yana dab da falo.

B. Ina kicin?

2. I, akwai babban gidan asa.

C. Ina aki?

3. Muna da aki ukku.

D. akin kwana nawa gareku?

4. Kicin yana dab da palo.

E. Akwai gidan asa?

5. Makewayi yana dab da aki.

157

<<How Many?>>
We have already introduced the interrogative nawa, which can mean how much or how
many. As with akwai and babu, this word is invariable. It does not change according to gender
or number. Below is a list of some common uses of this word. Words in parentheses are often
left out.
aki nawa (gareku)?
(Akwai) aki nawa?
Nawa ne (kuin)?
Su nawa (ne)?
Akwai su nawa?
Nawa nawa ne?
Akwai mota nawa a garinku.

How many rooms do you have?


How many rooms are there?
How much does it cost?
How many are there?
How many are there?
How much each?
How many cars are there in your town?

6. Pretend that you want to buy a house, and your classmate is a real estate agent. Make up
a dialogue using the model below. Work in pairs or in small groups.
Model:
A. I want to buy a two-story house.
A. Ina so in sayi gida mai hayi biyu.
B. There is a nice small house next to the market.
B. Akwai wani aramin gida mai kyau kusa da kasuwa.
A. How many bedrooms does the house have?
A. Wannan gida, yana da aki nawa?
B. It has one bedroom.
B. Yana da aki aya.
A. How many bathrooms are there in the house?
A. Makewayi nawa cikin gida?
B. There is a big wonderful bathroom in the house.
B. Akwai wani babban makewayi na kirki cikin gida.
A. Is there a kitchen in the house?
A. Akwai kicin cikin wannan gida?
B. Yes, there is.
B. I, akwai.

158

7. Familiarize yourself with these terms for furniture and furnishings. Listen and
repeat after the speaker.

Bathtub

Bed

Bookcase

Chair

baho/ wurin

gado

kanta

kujera

Table

Refrigerator

Lamp

Microwave oven

tebur

firji

fitila

naurar zazafa

wanki

abinci

Radio

Carpet

Kitchen sink

Sofa

rediyo

kafet/ darduma

wurin wankin

babbar Kujera

kwanuka

Telephone

Television

Toilet

Mat

tarho

talabijin

salanga

tabarma

159

Curtain

Bench

Stove (traditional)

Cell Phone

labule

banci

murhu

salula

Closet

Stove (modern)

an kabad

kuka
(Niger: resho/
murhun
zamani)

8. Below is a chart with rooms you would find in a typical home. Under each room, list in
Hausa the furniture and furnishings (from the list above) that you would expect to find
there. Some items will be used more than once.
Kicin

Falo

aki

160

Makewayi

9. Using the chart above, ask each other questions, in Hausa, about the furniture in your
rooms.
Model:
1. What do you have in the kitchen?

I have a stove, a. in the kitchen.

1. Da mi da mi kuke da su cikin kicin?

Ina da kuka da obin ... cikin kicin.

2. What do you have in the living room?


2. Da mi da mi kuke da su cikin falo?

I have a table, a.in the dining room.


Akwai tebur da tabarma da kuma fitila cikin falo.

10. Listen and read along as a speaker talks about his home and then answer the
questions about the passage. Check your work with the Answer Key.
Sunana Suleman. Ina zaune a Kano tare da matata guda da yaranmu biyu. Muna da
wani an aramin gida mai hayi biyu. Ubana shi ma yana zama a gidanmu. Gidan yana
da aki biyu cikin hayin sama, akwai na ubana da kuma na yara. Ni da matata muna
kwana cikin akin da yake kusa da kicin. Muna da makewayi biyu. Muna da kicin babba
inda akwai kuka da wurin wankin kwanuka da firji. Cikin kicin akwai babban tebur inda
muke cin abinci. Ba mu da akin cin abinci. Cikin falo akwai babbar kujera da tebur da
ananan kujeru biyu da kuma aramin talabijin. Da marece bayan an ci abinci ni da
iyalina mukan kallon talabijin.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.

Where does the family live?


How many people live in the house?
Is the house one story or two stories?
How many bedrooms are there?
How many bedrooms are on the first floor? Who sleeps there?
How many bathrooms are there in the house?
Where do they eat their meals?
What does the family do in the evening after dinner?

161

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the speaker and circle the terms that you hear. Check your work with the
Answer Key.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

bedroom
lamp
toilet
sofa
carpet
chair
garage

bathroom
oven
bathtub
chair
floor
dresser
basement

living room
stove
kitchen sink
bed
window
radio
roof

2. You have a guest in your home. Give him or her answers, in Hausa, to the following
questions.
Where is the bathroom?
Ina makewayi yake?

Where is the kitchen?


Ina kicin yake?

How many bedrooms do you have?


aki nawa gare ku?

Where is the telephone?


Ina tarho yake?

Can I watch television?


Don Allah in kallo talabijin?

When do you eat dinner?


Yaushe kuke cin abincin dare?

When do you get up in the morning?


Yaushe kake tashi da safe?

What time do you go to work?


A arfe nawa kake tafiya wurin aiki?

162

Vocabulary List
Basement
Bathroom
Bathtub
Bed
Bedroom
Bookcase
Chair
Closet
Table
Door (location / opening)
Door (object)
Floor
Kitchen
Kitchen (modern)
Lamp
Living room
Microwave oven
One-story
Oven (modern)
Oven (traditional mud)
Radio
Carpet
Second floor
Sink
Sofa
Stove (modern)
Stove (traditional)
Television
Toaster
Toilet
Two-story
Small chairs
Window
Where (not in questions)
May I please ...

gidan asa (pl., gidajen )

makewayi (also: bayan aki, ban aki, or bayan gida)


wurin wanki/ baho
gado (pl., gadaje)
aki (pl., akuna)
kanta (ta littattafai) (pl., kantuna )
kujera (pl., kujeru)

an kabad (Niger: almuwar or kwaba)


tebur (pl., teburori)
ofa
kyaure
kasa/ balbali
wurin girki/ akin girki/ madafa
kicin (Niger: kizin)
fitila (pl., fitiloli)
falo
naurar zazzafa abinci/ mazazafin abinci/ mazazafi.
gidan da ba ya da gidan sama
obin (Niger: huru)
tanda
rediyo (pl., rediyoyi)
kafet/ darduma (Niger: tapi)/ gyauda
gidan sama/ hawa ta biyu
mawankar kwanuka
babbar kujera (pl., Manyan kujeru)
kuka (Niger: resho)
murhu (pl., murahu)
talabijin
naurar gasa burodi (pl., naurorin ...)
salanga
bene/ mai gidan sama/ mai hawa biyu
ananan kujeru
taga (pl., tagogi)
inda
don allah in ...

163

On top of ...
The one that ... (m)
The one that ... (f)
The one belonging to ... (m)
The one belonging to ... (f)

a kan ...
wanda ...
wadda ...
na ...
ta ...

164

ANSWER KEY
Activity 2
1. E
2. G
3. H
4. J
5. L
6. D
7. K
8. A
9. B
10. F

Bathroom
Bedroom
Door
Floor
Window
Living room
Office
Basement
Yard
Kitchen

Makewayi
aki
ofa
asa
Taga
Falo
Ofis
Gidan asa
Filin Gida
Kicin

Activity 3
1. Akwai eriya a kan gida.
2. Akwai aki tsakanin ofis da makewayi.
3. Akwai filin gida a gaban gida.
4. Akwai kicin tsakanin falo da makewayi.

Activity 5
A

Ina makewayi?

5. Makewayi yana dab da aki.

B. Ina kicin?

4. Kicin yana dab da palo.

C. Ina aki?

1. aki yana dab da falo.

D. akin kwana nawa gareku?

3. Muna da aki ukku.

E. Akwai gidan asa?

2. I, akwai babban gidan asa.

Activity 10
My name is Suleman. I live with my wife and two children in Kano. We have a small two-story
house. My father lives with us. The house has two bedrooms on the second floor; one for our two
sons and one for my father. My wife and I sleep in the bedroom near the kitchen. We have two
bathrooms. We have a large kitchen with a stove, oven, sink and refrigerator. In the kitchen
there is a large table where we eat. We do not have a dining room. Our living room has a sofa, a
table, two chairs, and a small television. In the evening after dinner, my family and I watch
television.

165

Sunana Suleman. Ina zaune a Kano tare da matata guda da yaranmu biyu. Muna da
wani an aramin gida mai hayi biyu. Ubana shi ma yana zama a gidanmu. Gidan yana
da aki biyu cikin hayin sama, akwai na ubana da kuma na yara. Ni da matata muna
kwana cikin akin da yake kusa da kicin. Muna da makewayi biyu. Muna da kicin babba
inda akwai kuka da wurin wankin kwanuka da firji. Cikin kicin akwai babban tebur inda
muke cin abinci. Ba mu da akin cin abinci. Cikin falo akwai babbar kujera da tebur da
ananan kujeru biyu da kuma aramin talabijin. Da marece bayan an ci abinci ni da
iyalina mukan kallon talabijin.

a. kano
b. biyar
c. mai hayi biyu
d. ukku
e. aya, miji da mata
f.

biyu

g. cikin kicin
h. kallon talabijin

Where does the family live?


How many people live in the house?
Is the house one story or two stories?
How many bedrooms are there?
How many bedrooms are on the first floor? Who sleeps there?
How many bathrooms are there in the house?
Where do they eat their meals?
What does the family do in the evening after dinner?

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 1
1. makewayi
2. fitila
3. wurin wankin kwanuka
4. gado
5. taga
6. rediyo
7. gidan asa

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

bathroom
lamp
kitchen sink
bed
window
radio
basement

166

Lesson 11
Weather and Seasons
Yanayi da Lokutan Shekara

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Vocabulary related to weather, seasons, and climate
- How to ask for and give temperatures
- How to understand weather reports
- How to discuss the weather and climate in Hausa.

1. Listen to the weather terms as they are read aloud. Repeat the weather terms after
the speaker.

Rain

Sun

Wind

Ruwan sama

Rana

Iska

Snow

Fog

Clouds

urwa

Hazo

Gizagizai

167

2. Match the pictures with the correct weather term. Check your answers with the Answer
Key.

Iska
Rana
Ruwan sama
urwa

3. What do you hear? Circle the terms you hear spoken by the native speaker. Check
your answers with the Answer Key.
PLAY AUDIO
snow

wind

rain cloud

fog

sun

4. Familiarize yourself with the following terms related to the weather. Pause the
recording as many times as you need. Repeat after the speaker.
Temperature
Fahrenheit
Celsius
Weather
Weather forecast
Weather report
Rainy Season
Dry Season
Hot Season
Harvest Season
It is clear
It is cloudy (light clouds)
It is cloudy (storm clouds)
It is overcast
Windy
Cold
It is freezing

Yanayi, yawan zafi/sanyi


Fahrenheit
Celsius
Yanayi
Hasashen Yanayi
Rahoton yanayi
Damina
Rani
Bazara
Kaka
Gari ya yi garau
Akwai gizagizai
Akwai hadari
Gari ya lumshe
Iska
ari, Sanyi
Akwai sanyi har ruwa ya daskara

168

Warm
High temperature
It is hot
It is dry (lit., there is no
moisture)
It is sunny
It is rainy

umi, zafi-zafi
Zafi
Akwai zafi
Babu Lema
Akwai rana
Akwai ruwan sama/ ana yin ruwa

Talking About the Weather


Given what we know about the Hausa emphasis on greetings, it should be no surprise to learn
that talking about the weather is a central part of Hausa dialogues. Many of the greetings in
Hausa involve a question about the weather, and even though the weather in Hausaland is
notable only for its unchanging predictability, the topic is of genuine interest to most people. The
general themes are fairly predictable, even if the language has a wide range of ways to express
the ideas. See some common greetings listed below that refer to the weather.
Question
Answer
OR
Question
Answer
Question
Answer
OR

How is the heat?


It is the time for heat
Thanks be to God.
How is the moisture? (after a
rain)
The water has fixed things
(for the crops).
How is the sunshine?
There is really some sun
today!
It really is beating down
today!

Ina zafi?
Zafi, lokacinshi ne.
Zafi, alhamdulilah
Ina lema?
Lema ta yi gyara.
Ina rana?
Akwai rana yau!
Rana tana bugawa!

The climate in Hausaland has also naturally dictated what kind of terminology is common. For
instance, the thermometer is not really an everyday devise in Nigeria or Niger, and thus, terms
like degrees are uncommon. The terms Fahrenheit and Celsius are likewise rarely used in
Hausa, and if so, they are used as borrowed words. Hot and Cold are spoken of in a general
sense, and rarely quantified by reference to a thermometer. Also, snow and freezing are
somewhat foreign to the language. The word for snow is sometimes the same as the word for ice,
and often requires some explanation. However, when it comes to talking about rain and sun and
how people and crops are affected by rain and sun, synonyms abound.
Note that, as is common in Hausa, nouns are used in phrases which would require adjectives in
English. The word akwai (there is) is used in combination with the noun to express the adjectival
concept in a nominal manner. See the examples of this form:

169

Akwai ruwa (ana

It is raining

ruwa)

It is sunny
It is hot
It is muggy/ hot and humid
It is windy
It is cloudy (light white clouds)
It is stormy
It is cold

Akwai rana
Akwai zafi
Akwai gumi
Akwai iska
Akwai gizagizai
Akwai hadari
Akwai sanyi

There are other forms and phrases, however, which do not follow this pattern. See below for a
few examples.
It is overcast
It is raining
It is clear

Gari ya lumshe
Ana (yin) ruwa
Gari ya yi garau

5. Listen to typical questions and responses about the weather. Repeat them after the
speaker.
- How is the weather in December?
- Its cold, and there is no rain.

Yaya yanayi yake a watan Disamba?

- How is the weather in April?


- Its hot and humid.

Yaya yanayi yake a watan Afrilu?

- How is the weather in July?


- Its very rainy.

Yaya yanayi yake a watan Yuli?

- How is the weather in October?


- Its cool.

Yaya yanayi yake a watan Oktoba?

Akwai sanyi, kuma babu ruwan sama.

Akwai zafi da gumi.

Akwai ruwan sama dayawa.

Akwai sanyi-sanyi.

170

6. Read the following short dialogues on weather and match each one to a picture below.
Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Yaya yanayi yake yau?
Gari ya lumshe, kuma ana ruwa.
2. Yaya yawan zafi yau?
Akwai rana da zafi sosai. Zafi ya kai awu 44 a maaunin zafi na Celsius!
3. Yaya yanayi yake a can?
Akwai urwa da sanyi sosai.
4. Akwai rana?
Aa, akwai hazo da sanyi.

A #____________

B #_______________

C #_____________

D #_____________

171

7. Work with a partner. Complete the dialogues according to the models in Exercise 5 and
Exercise 6. Use the vocabulary given below.
Akwai

Akwai ruwan sama

Akwai zafi

rana
Akwai

Akwai gumi

Akwai gizagizai

Akwai sanyi-

Akwai

sanyi

iska

Akwai sanyi

Akwai

hazo

hadari

Yaya yanayi yake a watan Janairu?


Akwai da .
Yaya yanayi yake a watan Mayu?
Akwai da .. .
Yaya yanayi yake a watan Agusta?
Akwai da .
Yaya yanayi yake a watan Nuwamba?
Akwai .. da

8. Work with a partner. Put the given words in a correct order so that you can ask a
question and give an answer about the weather in different places. Check your work with
the Answer Key.
Model: a / Moscow / ana yin ruwa / watan Disamba / aa / yin urwa / ana / a
Student 1: Ana yin ruwa a Moscow a watan Disamba?
Student 2: Aa, ana yin urwa a Moscow a watan Disamba.
1) Kano / zafi / a / akwai / I / watan Yuni / a / da / rana
2) Agadas / a / sanyi / watan Nuwamba / akwai / aa / akwai / da / zafi-zafi / a / iska
3) Watan Maris / ruwa / ana / a / I / a / Paris

172

9. Listen to the speaker. Mark the statement that you hear. Check your work with the
Answer Key.
1.

A. The weather in September is clear and sunny.


B. The weather in September is rainy and warm.
C. The weather in September is foggy and cold.

2.

A. What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees Celsius.


B. What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees Fahrenheit.
C. What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees.

3.

A. Is it cold in the hot season? No, its sunny and hot.


B. Is it raining in hot season? No, its cold and sunny.
C. Is it windy in hot season? No, its warm and cloudy.

4.

A. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Overcast and cold.


B. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Cloudy and cold.
C. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Sunny and cold.

5.

A. The cold season is cool and rainy. The hot season is hot and sunny.
B. The hot season is hot and rainy. The cold season is cool and sunny.
C. The hot season is hot and sunny. The cold season is cool and rainy.

10. Familiarize yourself with the following terms related to weather and natural
disasters. Pause the recording as many times as you need. Repeat after the speaker.

Lightning
Waliya

Thunderstorm
Hadari

173

Tornado
Jansami/ Babbar Guguwa

Hurricane

Flood

Guguwar iska mai arfi

Ambaliyar ruwa

11. What do you hear? Circle the three terms you hear spoken by the native speaker.
Check your answers with the Answer Key.
PLAY AUDIO
hurricane flood tornado thunderstorm

lightning

12. Answer the questions. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. Hadari ne?
Aa, .. ce.

B. Ambaliya ce?

C. Guguwar iska mai arfi ce?

Aa ce.

D. Babbar guguwa ce?

Aa ne.

E. Waliya ce?

Aa ce.

Aa ce.

174

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following weather report for four different cities in Nigeria and Niger.
In English, fill in the chart below with the weather and temperature for each city. Pause or
replay the audio if needed. Check your work with the Answer Key.
Play Audio

City

Weather

Temperature

1.
2.
3.
4.

2. Listen to the following weather report and answer the questions below. Check your
work with the Answer Key.

Play Audio
1.
2.
3.
4.

What city is the weather report for?


What is the date?
What day of the week is this?
What is the forecast for today?
175

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

What will be the high and low temperatures for today?


What is the forecast for tomorrow?
What will be the high and low temperatures for tomorrow?
What time of the day tomorrow is the high temperature expected?
Are the temperatures in Fahrenheit, Celsius, or was it not mentioned?

3. Working in pairs or small groups, describe the pictures. Use the vocabulary youve
learned in this lesson to compose a story to match the pictures. (Include the season of the
year, the name of the month, the type of weather it seems to be, etc).

176

Vocabulary List
Weather
Weather forecast
Weather report
Rain
Sun
Wind
Snow
Fog
Lightning
Thunderstorm
Tornado
Hurricane
It is rainy
It is sunny
It is cloudy
It is freezing
It is clear
Temperature
Fahrenheit
Celsius
It is hot
It is cold
It is warm
Dry
It is overcast
It is windy
Rainy Season (June Sept)
Harvest Season (Sept Nov)
Dry Season (Sept March)
Hot Season (March June)
It is muggy/ hot and humid
High
Low
Here is
Maybe
In regards to

Yanayi
Hasashen yanayi
Rahoton Yanayi
Ruwan sama
Rana
Iska
urwa
Hazo
Walkiya
Hadari
Babbar Guguwa
Guguwar iska mai arfi
Akwai ruwan sama/ ana ruwa
Akwai rana
Gari ya lumshe
Akwai sanyi har ruwa ya daskara
Gari ya yi garau
Awon zafi
Fahrenheit
Celsius
Akwai zafi
Akwai sanyi
Akwai zafi-zafi/ akwai umi
Babu laima
Gari ya lumshe
Akwai iska
Damina
Kaka
Rani
Bazara
Akwai gumi
Tsanani
aranci
Ga
Watakila
Wajen

177

To turn out to be
So much so that

Kasance
Har da

178

Answer Key
Activity 2
Iska

Wind
Sun
Rain
Snow

Rana
Ruwan sama
urwa

Activity 3
A. Sun
B. Wind
C. Clouds

Rana
Iska
Gizagizai

Activity 6
A 4
B 1
C 2

Its foggy and cold. -- Aa, akwai hazo da sanyi.


It is overcast and raining. -- Gari ya lumshe, kuma ana ruwa.
It is 44 degrees Celsius! It is very hot and sunny. -- Akwai rana da zafi sosai. Zafi ya
kai awu 44 a maaunin zafi na Celsius!

D 3

Its snowing and cold. -- Akwai urwa da sanyi sosai.

Activity 8
1) Is it hot and sunny in Kano in June? Yes, it is hot and sunny in Kano in June.
2) Is it warm in Agadas in November? No. it is cold and windy.
3) Is it rainy in Paris in March? Yes, it is rainy in Paris in March.
Activity 9
1. B

The weather in September is rainy and warm. -- A watan Satumba akwai ruwan sama
da umi.

2. B

What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees Fahrenheit. -- Yaya awon zafi yake
yau? Yau ya kai awu 35 a maaunin zafi na Fahrenheit.

3. A

Is it cold in hot season? No, its hot and sunny. -- Akwai sanyi a lokacin azaar? Aa,
akwai zafi da rana.

4. C

What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Sunny and cold. -- Yaya as ashen yanayi

na gobe yake? Rana da sanyi.

179

5. C

The hot season is hot and sunny. The cold season is cool and rainy. -- A lokacin bazara
akwai zafi da rana. A lokacin damina akwai sanyi-sanyi da ruwan sama.

Activity 11
thunderstorm
lightning
flood

Hadari
Waliya
Ambaliyar ruwa

Activity 12
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Is it a thunderstorm? No, it is lightning.


Is it a flood? No, it is a tornado.
Is it a hurricane? No, it is a thunderstorm.
Is it a tornado? No, it is a flood.
Is it lightning? No it is a hurricane.

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 1
Ga hasashen yanayi. A birnin Kano akwai hadari, kuma ana samun ruwan sama. Zafi ya
kai awu 44 a maaunin zafi na Celsius. A birnin Agadas gari ya lumshe kuma ana
samun ruwan sama da sanyi-sanyi. A tsakar rana zafi yan kai awu 19. A Zinder kuma
akwai zafi, kuma gari ya yi garau. Zafin ya kai awu 40. A Zaria ma akwai rana da zafi,
kuma akwai iska sosai. Zafin ya kai awu 41.

1.
2.
3.
4.

City
Kano
Agadez
Zinder
Zaria

Weather
Thunderstorms, rain
Overcast, cool, rain
Hot, clear
Sunny, hot, windy

Temperature
44 degrees C
19 degrees
40 degrees
41 degrees

Here is the weather forecast. In the city of Kano, there are thunderstorms and it is raining. The
temperature is 44 Celsius. In the city of Agadez, it is overcast and cool and raining. At noon, the
temperature reached 19 degrees. In Zinder, it is hot and clear. The temperature there is 40
degrees. In Zaria, it is also sunny and hot, and also windy. The temperature is 41 degrees.

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Activity 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

What city is the weather report for? Paris.


What is the date? April 21.
What day of the week is this? Friday.
What is the forecast for today? Rainy with a chance of a thunderstorm this evening.
What will be the high and low temperatures for today? High of 18 and low of 8.
What is the forecast for tomorrow? Cloudy in the morning but sunny in the afternoon.
What will be the high and low temperatures for tomorrow? High of 22 and low of 12.
What time of the day tomorrow is the high temperature expected? 3:00 pm.
Are the temperatures in Fahrenheit, Celsius, or was it not mentioned? Celsius.

Ga rahoton yanayi na Paris a yau Jumaa, ranar 21 ga watan Afrilu. Yau za a yi ruwa,
kuma watakila za a ga hadari da marece. Gobe gari zai lumshe da safe, amma da
marece zai yi garau. Kuma za a yi iska. Wajen awon zafi, karanci zai kai awu 8 kuma
tsananci zai kai awu 18 ta maaunin Celsius. Ran Subdu tsanani zai kai 22 a karfe 3:00
da rana kuma karanci zai kasance 12.

This is the weather report for Paris for Friday the 21st of April. Todays weather will be rainy
with a chance of a thunderstorm this evening. Tomorrows weather will be cloudy in the morning
but sunny in the afternoon. It will also be windy. The low temperature for today will be 8 degrees
Celsius with a high temperature of 18. Saturdays high temperature will be 22 at 3:00 in the
afternoon and the low temperature will be 12 degrees.

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Lesson 12
Personal Appearance and Clothing
Surar Mutane da Kayan Jiki

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Ones physical features (hair color, weight, height, etc.)
- Articles of clothing
- Colors
- Description of a persons physical appearance, including the clothing
- Appropriate ways to ask about someones appearance.

1. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary.
Listen to the descriptions of peoples appearances.

Tall

Short

Heavy

Thin

Young

Old

Dogo (m)

Gajere (m)

Jibgege (m)

Siriri (m)

Matashi (m)

Doguwa (f)

Gajera (f)

Jibgegiya (f)

Siririya (f)

Matashiya (f) Tsofuwa (f)

Tsofo (m)

Short

Long

Blond

Red

Gray

Gajere (m)

Dogo (m)

Fari (m)

Ja

Furfura

Gajera (f)

Doguwa (f)

Fara (f)

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2. Look at the pictures below and listen to the descriptions of peoples appearances.

This is a young woman.

This man is young.

Wannan budurwa ce.

Wannan saurayi ne.

She is tall and thin.

He has an average height and medium frame.

Ita doguwa ce siririya.

Yana da matsakaicin tsawo da jiki.

Describing People
The Hausa people tend to be quite comfortable talking about how people appear and their
differences. Of course, focusing excessively on someones disability or deformity would be rude,
but people do tend to discuss openly their appearance and characteristics. Race, skin color,
hairstyles, clothing, and culture are all up for discussion. Additionally, being heavy is generally
seen in a positive light, and it is not at all taboo to mention someones weight.
Another peculiarity of Hausa is that there are only a few words that specifically refer to a color.
The rest of the colors are referred to by a reference to some other thing that shows the intended
color. These constructs will require different grammatical treatment than the proper color words.
In some cases, the word ruwan is used before this reference to express the concept of water
mixed with ... See the list of color words below.
Proper Colors
Red
Blue
Green
Black
White
Derived Colors

Ja

Yellow
Brown

Rawaya/ Ruwan masara (Lit., corn water)

Shui (Bula)
Tsanwa
Bai
Fari

asa-asa (Lit., dirt-like)

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Pink
Gray
Orange

Ruwan hoda (Lit., powder water)


Toka-toka (Lit., ash-like)
Ruwan Goro (Lit., Kola nut juice)

Reduplicating the proper color words can result in what would translate in English to the suffix
ish. Accordingly, Bai-Bai is a blackish color that is not pure black, and fari-fari is whitish or
off-white. You will see further examples in this chapter and upcoming chapters.
Here are some examples of terms referring to age.
Yana tsakar arfinsa.

He is middle-aged.
She is a young woman/ girl. (not yet married)
She is a young woman.
He is a young man.
They are adults. / They are important people.
They are young people.
They are children.
They are elderly people.
He is an old man.
He is old.
Old woman

Ita budurwa ce.


Ita matashiya ce.
Shi saurayi ne. / Shi matashi ne.
Su manya ne.
Su matasa ne.
Su yara ne.
Su tsofi ne.
Shi tsofo ne.
Ya tsufa.
Tsofuwa

3. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary.
Listen to the speaker and repeat as you follow along in the workbook.
Blond hair
Brown hair
Red hair
Gray hair
Curly hair
Straight hair

Farin gashi
Gashi asa-asa
Jan gashi
Furfura
Nannaaen gashi
Miaen gashi

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This woman has short brown hair.

This young man has short dark hair.

Wannan mace tana da gajeren gashi asa-

Wannan saurayi yana da gajeren gashi

asa.

bai-bai.

The young girl has long blond hair.

The old man has gray hair.

Yarinya tana da farin gashi dogo.

Tsofo, gashinsa ya yi furfura.

4. Work with a partner. Look at the pictures and describe each of the people. See if your
partner can correctly identify the body type and their color and style of hair from your
description.

185

5. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary.
Listen to the speaker and repeat as you follow along in the workbook.

Ear

Nose

Eye

Mouth

Glasses

Beard

Kunne/

Hanci

Ido

Baki

Tabarau

Gemu

kunya

Light Skin

Medium Skin

Farin fata

Dark Skin

Fata mai wankan tarwaa

Baar fata

6. From the lists above, choose the characteristics and adjectives that are used to
describe each feature. Fill in the chart below in Hausa. Check your answers with the
Answer Key.
Hair

Skin

Height

Frame

Facial Features

7. In each line of text below, cross out the term that does not logically belong. Check
your work with the Answer Key.
Shui

Tsanwa

Siriri

asa-asa

Gajere

Tabarau

Dogo

Matsakaici

Hanci

Gemu

Babba

Idanu

Fari

Furfura

Tsawo

Bai-bai

186

8. Listen to the descriptions of different peoples appearances while you read the
following dialogues. Answer the questions. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. Wane launi ne gashin Amira ? - Launin gashinta asa-asa ne.
- Gashin Amira dogo ne ko gajere ? - Gajere ne.
- Gashin Amira nannaae ne ko miae? - Mikakke ne.
2. Shaibu yana san tabarau? - Aa, ba ya san tabarau.
- Wane launi ne idanun Shaibu. - Idanunsa shui ne.
3. Ali dogo ne? - Yana da matsakaicin tsawo.
- Shi babba ne, mai iba ? - Aa, shi siriri ne.

Questions:
1. How many people were described?
2. What were their names?
3. What kind of hair does Amira have?
4. Does Shaibu wear glasses?
5. Does Shaibu have brown eyes?
6. Is Ali short and heavy?

9. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary on clothing and colors. Listen and
repeat after the speaker.
Black
Gray
Green
Red
Blue
Yellow
White
Reddish Orange

Bai
Toka-toka
Tsanwa
Ja
Shui (Bula)
Rawaya
Fari
Jawa

187

Red Coat

Gray Suit

Brown Pants

Blue Jeans

Jar kwat

Riga da wando,

Wando asa-asa

Jin shui

toka-toka

Headscarf

Brown Sweater

Orange Shirt

Blue T-Shirt

Kallabi

Rigar sanyi asa-

Riga jawa

Riga mai gajeren

asa

hannu, bula

Green Skirt

Womans Gown

Mens Robe

Yellow Shorts

Tsanwan buje

Rigar mata

Riga zaleka

Gajeren wando
rawaya

188

Brown Boots

Blue Shoes

Black Hat

Gray Uniform

Kuuttai asa-asa

Kwandran shui

Bain hula

Kayan aiki toka-toka

Baar tagiya

Black Socks

White Socks

Bain suseti, Baar safa

Farin suseti, Farar safa

11. Match each description with the corresponding picture. Fill in the blank with the
correct letter. Note that there could be more than one match. Check your work with the
Answer Key.

1. . tsofuwa ce.

4. .. yana sanye da riga da

2. . Tana da farin gashi.

wando, toka-toka

3. . Tana da dogon gashi asa-

5. .. Yana sanye da wando bula.

asa.

6. .. uwa ce arama.

189

7. doguwa ce siririya.

9. tana sanye da wani riga mai

8. ...tana sanye da rigar mata

gajeren hannu, bula.

ruwan masara.

10. yana da iba.

12. Translate the following descriptions into English. Check your work with the Answer
Key.
1. Amina doguwa ce siririya. Tana da shekara 30. Tana da farin gashi nannaae,
tsanwan idanu, da farar fata.
2. Ali dogo ne babba. Yana da shekara 45. Gashinsa gajere ne kuma ya yi furfura. Yana
da idanu bula kuma farin fata.
3. Soji yana da gajeren gashi bai-bai. Shi gajere ne siriri.
4. Akwai yarinya mai shekara 10. Doguwa ce siririya. Tana da dogon gashi asa-asa,
kuma idanunta ma asa-asa ne. Tana da fata mai wankan tarwaa.

190

End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Describe the people you see in the pictures. For each person, include the approximate
age, skin tone, color and length of hair, and what he or she is wearing. Use the model:

2. Come up with a simple description for each of the people listed below. (You may
substitute any individual you wish for those listed.) Be sure to include hair color and
length, approximate height and age, eye color, and skin tone.
Example:
My mother is 63 years old. She is tall and has a medium frame. She has short gray hair and
brown eyes. She has light skin. She wears glasses.
A. Mother
B. Father
C. Co-worker

191

D. President of the United States


E. Your next door neighbor
2. Work in pairs. Pretend that you and your partner are roommates. When you went to
the store, someone came to visit you. Now you are back. Ask your roommate questions
about that persons appearance. Your partner will describe the visitor. In Hausa, say how
he or she looks (Is he or she tall or short? Heavy or thin? What kind of hair does he or she
have? What was he wearing? What colors were the clothes?).

192

Vocabulary List
Average
Beard
Black
Blond
Blue
Blue jeans
Boots
Brown
Color
Curly
Dark
Womans gown
Ears
Eyes
Face
Frame
Glasses
Gray
Green
Hair
Hat
Jacket
Large
Light
Heavy, Fat (person)
Man
Medium
Mouth
Nose
Old
Pants
Red
Shirt
Shoes

Matsakaici (m.) Matsakaiciya (f.)


Gemu, Gemuna (pl.)
Bai (m.), Baa (f.), Baae (pl.)
Fari
Shui (m.), Shuiya (f.), Shua (pl.)
Jin
Kuuttai/ shuhuddai
asa-asa
Launi, Launuka (pl.)
Nannaae (m.); -iya (f.); -I (pl.)
Mai duhu, bai-bai
Rigar mata, Rigunan mata (pl.)
Kunne, Kunnuwa (pl.)
Ido, Idanu (pl.)
Fuska, Fuskoki (pl.)
Jiki, Jikuna (pl.)
Tabarau, Gilashi, Luleti
Furfura (hair), toka-toka (general)
Tsanwa
Gashi
Hula, Huluna (pl.)
Kwat, Babbar riga
Babba, Manya (pl.)
Maras nauyi
Mai iba, Masu ia (pl.)
Namiji, maza (pl.)
Madaidaici
Baki, Bakuna (pl.)
Hanci, Hantuna (pl.)
Tsofo (m.), tsofuwa (f.)
Wando, Wanduna (pl.)
Ja, Jajaye (pl.)
Riga, Riguna (pl.)
Takalmi, Takalma (pl.)

193

Short
Skin
Skirt
Small
Straight
Suit
Headscarf
Sweater
To go gray (hair)
Tall
Thin
To wear
Wearing
T-shirt
White
Woman
Yellow
Young
Orange
Reddish orange
Pink
Medium skin color
Big, old, important
He is middle aged.
Appearance (of a person)
Clothing

Gajere (m.), Gajera (f.), Gajeru (pl.)


Fata
Siket
arami (m.), arama (f.)
Miae (m.), Miaiya (f.), Miau (pl.)
Riga da wando
Kallabi, Kalluba (pl.)
Suweta, Rigar Sanyi
Yi furfura
Dogo (m.), Doguwa (f.), Dogaye (pl.)
Siriri (m.), Siririya (f.), Sirara (pl.),
Sa
Sanye da
Riga mai gajeren hannu
Fari (m.), Fara (f.), Farare (pl.)
Mace, Mata (pl.)
Ruwan masara
arami (m.), arama (f.), anana (pl.)
Ruwan goro
Jawa
Ruwan hoda
Mai wanken tarwaa
Babba (m/f), Manya (pl.)
Yana tsakar arfinsa.
Sura/ Kama
Kayan jiki

194

ANSWER KEY
Activity 6
Hair

Skin

Height

Frame

Facial Features

Gajere

Fari

Dogo

Babba

Kunne

Dogo

Mai

Gajere

Siriri,

Hanci

wankan

Siririya

tarwaa
Fari

Bai

Ido

Ja

Baki

Furfura

Tabarau
Gemu

Activity 7
1.
2.
3.
4.

thin
glasses
heavy
height

Siriri
Tabarau
Jibgege/ mai nauyi
Tsawo

Activity 8
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

How many people were described? Three.


What were their names? Amira, Shaibu, and Ali.
What kind of hair does Amira have? Short, straight, brown.
Does Shaibu wear glasses? No.
Does Shaibu have brown eyes? No, he has blue eyes.
Is Ali short and heavy? No, average height and thin.

Activity 11
1. D is an old woman.
2. E has blond hair.
3. B has long brown hair.
4. A is wearing a gray suit
5. E is wearing blue pants.
6. C is a young mother.
7. C is tall and thin.
8. C is wearing a yellow dress.
9. B is wearing a blue t-shirt.
10. A is heavy.
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Activity 12
1.
2.
3.
4.

Amina is tall and thin. She is 30 years old. She has blond curly hair, green eyes, and fair skin.
Ali is tall and heavy. He is 45 years old. He has short gray hair, blue eyes, and light skin.
The soldier has dark short hair. He is short and thin.
There is a young girl who is 10 years old. She is tall and thin. She has long brown hair, brown
eyes, and dark skin.

1. Amina doguwa ce siririya. Tana da shekara 30. Tana da farin gashi nannaae,
tsanwan idanu, da farar fata.

2. Ali dogo ne babba. Yana da shekara 45. Gashinsa gajere ne kuma ya yi furfura. Yana
da idanu bula kuma farin fata.

3. Soji yana da gajeren gashi bai-bai. Shi gajere ne siriri.


4. Akwai yarinya mai shekara 10. Doguwa ce siririya. Tana da dogon gashi asa-asa,
kuma idanunta ma asa-asa ne. Tana da fata mai wankan tarwaa.

196

Lesson 13
Transportation
Sufuri

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Verbs of motion
- Ways of asking questions regarding the different modes of transportation
- Different types of transportation available in Niger and Nigeria.

On the Road in West Africa


The first word that comes up when discussing travel in West Africa is bush taxi. These
ubiquitous jalopies of all sorts dominate the roads in this part of the world and provide the most
common and readily available mode of transportation. The bush taxis are (officially) government
regulated and operate out of stations in every town, but they also make stops wherever there is a
passenger waiting by the road. They are notoriously slow and unsafe, but they can get you where
you want to go for a reasonable price. Buses are also very common; however, they are generally
more expensive and thus not used by the working class very much. These are much more
scheduled and organizednot to mention saferand tend to be the preferred mode of transport
for foreign travelers. There are no trains in Niger, but there are some train lines in Nigeria. This
is a much less common mode of transportation. There are a few ferry boats in the Hausa
speaking world, as well as river boats. Only a small percentage of the populations of Nigeria and
Niger own private cars. A more common possession would be a bicycle or an ox-cart. In the
cities, small motor scooters are often used as taxis. There is room for only one passenger on
each, but there are usually swarms of these taxis available. Air travel is, of course, very
uncommon among the Hausa, except for among the very elite class. The only exception to this is
that many Hausa men and women do manage to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at some point in
their life, and this requires a flight to Saudi Arabia.
The transportation system in this part of the world is organized around the tasha, the station
where one can catch a car, truck, or bus. The driver or a sales person who works a section of
the station will accept the money and give you a place. After that, you must wait (a few minutes
or half a day) until the car is full to depart. The vehicles are generally very overcrowded and in
disrepair, but inexpensive. In every village there is a small tasha which is often no more than a
log to sit on or a shade hangar by the side of the road.
At most of these stations there will be a an kamasho (station manager) who will take money and
talk to the driver. (Note that if you are unsure of the status of the person taking the money, you
can always insist upon paying the driver personally). You will also find these tashas at
unpopulated points along the road where trails from bush villages come to the road. It is also
possible to flag a bush taxi anywhere along the road provided that there is room in the taxi. The
loading and juggling of baggage is the job of the karen mota (dog of the car). This is usually a
young man or teenager who rides in the least comfortable spot in the car and arranges the
luggage of the people who come and go at each of the all-to-frequent stops that the car makes.

197

1. Listen and repeat the following words as you read along.

Airplane

Bicycle

Ship

Bus

Jirgin sama

Keke

Jirgin ruwa

Bas

Car

Ferry Boat

Helicopter

Mota

Jirgin fito

Jirgin sama mai saukar


angulu

Motorcycle

Taxi

Train

Truck

Moto, Babur

Tasi

Jirgin asa

Babbar Mota

Ox cart.

Horse

Camel

Donkey

Amalanke

Doki

Raumi

Jaki

Traveling Verbs:
By far, the most important verb to know when it comes to traveling is tafiya (to go/ travel).
This word is used to express to travel, to walk, and to go. The word tua is used to express
to drive with vehicles that you can get inside of. The word hau (to get on) is used to express to
ride on a bicycle or motorcycle, as well as on an animal or as a passenger on an ox-cart.

198

The verb tura (to push) is used to express to drive in the case of an ox-cart. With modes of
travel, a is generally used to express by, and it is sometimes interchangeable with the word
cikin (in). See the examples below:
Ina tafiya a asa zuwa gidan littattafai.

I am going by foot to the library.


I am going by car.
I am going to the concert in a car.
The driver is driving the car to the gas station.
The child is riding a motorcycle.
I will drive the truck.
Lawali is driving the ox-cart.
Amiru rides a horse.

Ina tafiya a mota.


Ina tafiya zuwa wasa cikin mota.
Direba yana tuin mota zuwa gidan mai.
Yaro yana hawan moto.
Zan tua babbar mota.
Lawali yana turin amalanke.
Amiru yana hawan doki.

2. Listen to the questions and answers about using different forms of transportation.
Repeat after the speaker as you read along.
How do you go to work? Yaya kake tafiya zuwa wurin aiki?
by car a mota
by bus cikin bas
I go
by train cikin jirgin asa
Ina
by bicycle a keke
tafiya by boat cikin jirgin ruwa
by motorcycle a moto
by truck cikin lori

I take the
Ina
aukan

car mota
bus bas
train jirgin asa
bicycle keke
boat jirgin ruwa
motorcycle moto
truck lori

I walk
Ina
tafiya
a asa

Model: who + the verb of motion + mode of transportation + destination


Example: I ride a bus to school.
Model:

wa + fiili + abin da ake hawa ko shiga + wurin da ake tafiya

Example: Ina hawan keke zuwa makaranta.


Note that in Hausa, there are many different ways to express this sentence, and it varies as to
which is more correct. The simplified model above will serve as a starting point, but be prepared
to see many alternate word orders.

199

3. Read each statement below and match it with the correct picture. Check your work with
the Answer Key.

A. Ina tafiya makaranta cikin bas kowacce safiya.


B. Sojoji suna hawan babbar mota ta soji.
C. In an yi ruwa, mukan shiga tasi.
D. Ina tuin motata zuwa wurin aiki.
E. Abokina yana hawan kekensa zuwa aiki.
F. anena yana hawan moto.

4. Practice creating complete sentences out of the words below. Use the following model.
Model: who + the verb of motion + mode of transportation + destination
Example: Ina hawan keke zuwa makaranta.
Ina

moto

wana

hawan

zuwa

makaranta

keke

uwayenmu

mota

filin

abokina

wasa

gidan

tua

jirgin asa

tasi

bas

tafiya

jirgin

littattafai

asa

sama

200

Asking Directions:
In the Hausa speaking world, you will rarely encounter any problem in trying to find someone to
give you directions. In fact, people are generally so eager to help that they will give directions
even if they are really not sure; thus, it is usually good to ask people a few times along the way to
confirm your directions. See the exchange below to get an idea of how one asks directions in
Hausa. Pay special attention to how one approaches people in Hausa. This is very important.
Speaker approaches a group of men sitting by the side of the street drinking tea and chatting.
Speaker: Salama alekum.
Men: Amin, alekum asalam.
Speaker: Ina wuninku?
Men: Lafiya lau! Kana lafiya?
Speaker: Lafiya lau wallai!
Men: To madalla.
Speaker: Ya yi kyau To, don Allah, ina gidan waya yake daga nan?
Man: To, gidan waya yana da nisa. Sai ka shiga tasi ka tafi.
Speaker: To, ina zan samu tasi?
Man: Ga taksi nan. Bari in kira direba ku je.
Speaker: To na gode sosai.
Man: Ba laifi.

The greeting salama alekum is used whenever entering a house or approaching a group of
people, anywhere. The response amin, alekum asalam is the standard response. Although
this is technically a Muslim greeting, it has been adopted as a standard part of Hausa propriety.
This formula is considered good manners, and is taught to children from a young age. Foreigners
are accorded a lot of leeway for not knowing to use this greeting, but it makes a very good
impression if you remember. Likewise, it is generally best to exchange a few greetings before
asking for help.

5. Listen to while reading along the following exchanges. Repeat after the speaker.
Gafara dai. Ina so in tafi gidan litattafai. Yaya ake tafiya can daga nan?
A shiga bas mai lamba 14.
To, na gode.
Ba komi.

201

Yaya ake tafiya zuwa asibiti daga nan?


A shiga tasi.
To, na gode sosai.
Babu laifi.
Don Allah yaya za ni tafi masauki daga nan?
A shiga jirgin asa.
Wace lamba?
Jirgi mai lamba 22.

6. Working with a partner, make up similar exchanges. Use the words from Exercise 5 and
the pictures below to choose the destination.

7. Now listen to the dialogues and mark the statements that you hear. Check your
answers with the Answer Key.
1.

A. Do you take a taxi to the concert? No, I take my car.


B. Do you take a bus to the concert? No, I take my car.
C. Do you take a train to the concert? No, I take my car.

2.

A. What bus should I take to the post office? Bus number 18.
B. What street should I take to the post office? 18th Street.
C. What exit should I take to the post office? Exit 18.

3.

A. My parents drive their cars to work, but we ride our bicycles.


B. My parents drive their cars to work, but we walk.
C. My parents drive their cars to work, but we take the train.

202

At a Service Station

8. Familiarize yourself with the following vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and
follow along in your book.
Gas
Gas station
Diesel
Oil
Tires
Air
Water
Flat tire
To wash a car

Mai, fetur
Gidan mai

Gas, gazwal (Niger), bain mai


Mai, man fetur, luwul (Niger)
Taya, tayoyi (pl.)
Iska
Ruwa
Faci
Wanke mota

Note that the word mai can be used to indicate either gas or oil in a general sense. Remember not
to use the logical bain mai (black oil) to distinguish oil from gas, as this term generally refers
to thick engine grease for lubricating moving parts.

203

Measurement:
Niger and Nigeria use the metric system for all measurements. However, it is still useful to at
least be able to recognize the English measurement terms as well. See below a list of some of the
most common terms.
Kilometer
Mile
Meter
Foot
Yard
Gallon
Liter
Kilogram
Gram
Pound
Ounce

Kilomita
Mil
Mita
afa
Yadi
Galan
Lita
Kilo
Giram
Laba
Oza

In the Hausa marketplace, however, you will also need to know some otherand generally more
abstractterms of measurement. Review Chapter 7 for some of these terms.
1 gallon = 3.785 liters
1 quart = .946 liters
1 liter = 2.1 pints
10 liters = 2.63 gallons

9. Listen to the people at a service station and find out what each needs. Circle the
English equivalents of the terms you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
A.

Air

Gas

Diesel

Tires

Oil

Car Wash

B.

Air

Gas

Diesel

Tires

Oil

Car Wash

C.

Air

Gas

Diesel

Tires

Oil

Car Wash

D.

Air

Gas

Diesel

Tires

Oil

Car Wash

204

10. Familiarize yourself with these terms identifying infrastructure.


Road
Highway
City street (on grid)
Small city street
Railroad

Hanya
Babbar Hanya
Layi
Titi
Reluwe, hanyar jirgin asa

205

End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Explain how you would get to the following places using various modes of
transportation. Try to make your story interesting and include as many details as you
can.

2. Listen and write down the responses to the questions below. Check your work with
the Answer Key.
A. Ba ni da mai. Ina gidan mai yake?
--_________________________________.
B. Ina da matsala wajen tayar motata. Mi ya kamata in yi?
-______________________________.
C. Nawa ne kuin litar na mai ?
- _______________________________.
D. Lita nawa kake so?

- _______________________________.

206

Vocabulary List
Air
Airplane
Bicycle
Boat
Bus
Car
Concert
Diesel
Ferry boat
Gallon
Gas

Iska

Helicopter
Highway
Library
Liter
Small city street
Motorcycle
Oil
Railroad
Service station
School
Ship
Taxi
Station worker / manager
Assistant (in bush taxi)
Take (taxi, bus, etc...)
Take / get on (motorcycle,
bike, car, etc)
Morning
Drive
Very well!
Call
Driver
Very much

Jirgin sama mai saukar angulu, jiragen (pl.), helikafta

Jirgin sama, jiragen sama (pl.)


Keke, kekuna (pl.)
Jirgin ruwa, jiragen ruwa (pl.)
Bas
Mota, motoci (pl.)
Wasa, kia da wae-wae
Gas, gazwal
Jirgin fito, jiragen fito (pl.)
Galan

Mai, fetur (mai is the more general term used, while fetur is more
specific)
Babbar hanya, manyan hanyoyi (pl.)
Gidan Littattafai, Gidajen littattafai (pl.)
Lita
Titi, tituna (pl.)/ rariya
Babur, Baburori (pl.)/ Moto (niger)
Mai, man fetur
Reluwe, Hanyar jirgin asa
Gidan mai, Gidajen mai (pl.)
Makaranta, Makarantu (pl.)
Jirgin ruwa, Jiragen ruwa (pl.)
Tasi, Taksi
an kamasho
Karen mota
Shiga
Hau, Hawa
Safe, safiya
Tua, Tui
Lafiya lau wallahi !
Kira
Direba, Direbobi (pl.)/ matui
Sosai

207

Tire/tires
Train
Truck
Water
Work
Ox Cart
Horse
Camel
Donkey
Workplace
Taxi Driver
To push (or drive an ox-cart)

Taya, tayoyi (pl.)


Jirgin asa, jiragen asa (pl.)
Babbar mota, Manyan motoci (pl.), Lori, Kamiyo (niger)
Ruwa, Ruwaye (pl.)
Aiki
Amalanke, Amalankai (pl.)
Doki (m.), Goiya (f.), Duwaki (pl.)
Raumi (m.), Rauma (f.), Raumai (pl.)
Jaki (m.), Jaka (f.), Jakai (pl.)
Wurin aiki, Wuraren aiki (pl.)
an tasi, an tasi (pl.)
Tura, Turin

208

ANSWER KEY
Activity 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

F. My brother rides a motorcycle. - anena yana hawan moto.


D. I drive my car to go to work. - Ina tuin motata zuwa wurin aiki.
E. My friend rides his bike to work. - Abokina yana hawan kekensa zuwa aiki.
B. Soldiers ride in an army truck. - Sojoji suna hawan babbar mota ta soji.
C. When its raining, we take a taxi. - In an yi ruwa, mukan shiga tasi.
A. I take the bus to school every morning. - Ina tafiya makaranta cikin bas kowacce
safiya.

Activity 7
1. A. Do you take a taxi to the concert? No, I take my car. -- Kuna shiga tasi in za ku
tafi wasa? Aa ina tafiya cikin motata.

2. B. What street should I take to the post office? 18th Street. -- Wace hanya ya kamata
in bi in tafi gidan waya? Hanya ta 18.

3. C. My parents drive their cars to work, but we take the train. -- Uwayena suna tafiya
wurin aiki cikin motocinsu, amma muna shigan jirgin asa.

Activity 9
A.
B.
C.
D.

Air
Gas Oil
Gas Car Wash
Diesel Oil

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 2
A. - I have no gas. Where is the gas station?
- Two kilometers down the freeway.
B. I have a problem with my tire. What should I do?
- Ill put some air in the tires.
C. - How much is the gas per liter?
- CFA 1200 a liter.
D. How much gas do you want?
- 12 liters.

209

A. Ba ni da mai. Ina gidan mai yake?


- Kilomita biyu nan gaba a kan wannan babbar hanya.
B. Ina da matsala wajen tayar motata. Mi ya kamata in yi?
- Zan ara wa tayoyi iska.
C. Nawa ne kuin lita na mai ?
- 1200 CFA / jika da arbain.
D. Lita nawa kake so?
- A ba ni lita 12.

210

Lesson 14
Travel
Tafiya

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Vocabulary related to travel
- How to buy a train, bus, or airplane ticket
- How to understand schedules
- Border crossing and roadblock procedures.

Buying Tickets:
Buying tickets for trains and buses in Niger and Nigeria is usually a simple matter of going to the
ticket window and buying a ticket. However, this only applies to the more formal train and bus
lines. Bush taxis can be a little more complicated. In some cases there is a ticket window where
you are supposed to purchase tickets, but in other cases you must figure out whether you need to
pay the driver or another person who is taking money for the driver. Bush taxis do not really have
a first and second class, but the front seat can carry a premium.
Note that when buying something in Hausa, it is normal to be quite direct. Rather than to say,
I would like or Could I please have as we do in English, it is normal in Hausa to
simply say, Give me You will see many examples of this in these lessons. Below are a
few of the most common ways to ask for something that you want to buy.

211

Ba ni guda.

Give me one.
I need millet.
Pour some for me. (with something that is
measured out)
I need to buy a shirt.
Cut me off 150 CFA of meat.
How many do you want?
I want three.
Give me one ticket.
Get in the front seat.

Ina bukatar hatsi.


Ka zubo mini shi.
Ina bukata in sayi riga.
A yanko mini nama na talatin.
Nawa kake so?
Ukku nike so.
Ba ni tikiti guda.
Ka shiga gaba.

1. Listen to the following dialogue about buying a ticket at a train station while reading
along in the workbook.
Soldier:

Excuse me, maam.

Soji

Gafara dai, malama.

Ticket Seller:

Can I help you?

Mai saida tikitoci

Mi zan ba ka?

Soldier:

I need to buy a ticket to Zaria.

Soji

Ina bukata in yanki tikiti zuwa Zaria

Ticket Seller:

Departing on what day?

Mai saida tikitoci

Wace rana za ka tashi?

Soldier:

Today.

Soji

Yau.

Ticket Seller:

One-way or roundtrip?

Mai saida tikitoci

Tikitin zuwa, ko zuwa da dawowa?

Soldier:

Roundtrip.

Soji

Zuwa da dawowa.

Ticket Seller:

First class or second class?

Mai saida tikitoci

Tikitin faskila ko gama-gari

Soldier:

Second class, please.

Soji

Gama-gari

Ticket Seller:

Returning on what day?

Mai saida tikitoci

Yaushe za ka dawo.

Soldier:

Friday.

Soji

Ran Jumaa

Ticket Seller:

Morning, afternoon, or evening?

Mai saida tikitoci

Da safe, da rana, ko da marece?

Soldier:

Afternoon.

212

Soji

Da rana.

Ticket Seller:

Twenty-two dollars, please. The next train leaves in one hour from
platform number 5.

Mai saida tikitoci

To, kuinsa jika tara. Jirgi mafi kusa zai tashi bayan awa aya
daga wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 5.

Soldier:

Thank you. What is the train number?

Soji

To, an gode. Mine ne lambar jirgi?

Ticket Seller:

76

Mai saida tikitoci

Sabain da shidda.

Soldier:

Is this an express train?

Soji

Jirgin ujila ne.

Ticket Seller:

Yes, it is an express train.

Mai saida tikitoci

I, jirgin ujila ne.

Verbs for the Road:


The verbs in Hausa for boarding, departing, arriving, and so on are fairly simple to learn, but they
do have some nuances that can be a little confusing. Note that the verb hau is fixed in the past and
future tenses, but in the present tense, hawa is used. Also, this verb applies especially to things that
one rides on, while shiga is used for something that you get into. That said, however, it should be
noted that hau is often used in places where shiga would be the proper verb, such as a car or bus.
The verb iso/isowa is the verb that most accurately translates to to arrive, but it is also common
for people to simply use zo/zuwa (to come) instead. The verb tashi (to get up/set out) is generally
used for departure, but tafiya is also often used in this capacity.

Get on! (for a bike, motorcycle, truck bed, or


animal or ox-cart)
Get in the car.
I ride a bike.
I am going by train.
The train has arrived.
The plane is arriving now.
When is the car departing?
When will the car come?
How much is the fare? (for a car or truck)
Pay the fare?

Hau!
Ka shiga mota.
Ina hawan keke.
Zan shiga jirgin asa in tafi.
Jirgi ya iso.
Jirgin sama yana isowa yanzu.
Yaushe mota za ta tashi?
Yaushe mota za ta zo?
Nawa ne kuin mota?
Ka biya kuin mota.

2. Read the dialogue with a partner. Take turns being the ticket seller and the soldier.

213

3. Role-play the dialogue. You can substitute the name of a city where you need to buy a ticket to,
the time and day of arriving and departing, and the price of the ticket.
The Simple Future Tense:
We have already seen many examples of the future tense in this lesson. Now we will provide a
complete explanation of this tense and its conjugation. See below the conjugation of the future tense
pronoun.
I will
You will (masc.)
You will (fem.)
He will
She will
One will
We will
You will (pl.)
They will

Za ni / Zan
Za ka
Za ki
Za ya / Za shi / Zai
Za ta
Za a
Za mu
Za ku
Za su

Now see the following examples of the future tense in use. It is relatively straightforward.
I will come home.
They will eat.

Zan dawo gida.


Za su ci abinci.

Note also that future pronouns can be used without a verb to imply the verb to go. See the following
examples of the use of this alternate form.
Where are you going?
I am going to the market.

Ina kake tafiya?

Ina za ka?

Ina tafiya kasuwa.

Kasuwa za ni.

The Indefinite Future Tense:


Any Hausa learner needs to know how to recognize the indefinite future tense. This is an alternate
future tense that indicates that something will happen at some unspecified time in the future. It is
somewhat complicated to explain the exact differences between the two different future tenses, and
it is even more difficult to teach the pronunciation. At this point, however, we will only provide a
brief introduction to this form so that the student will be able to recognize the form when hearing it.
The student at the elementary level does not need to use this form. In any place where this form
could be used, the simple future tense would also be perfectly acceptable. See below the
conjugation chart. Bear in mind that while this form has a strong resemblance to the past tense, it is
differentiated by a distinctive extended falling tone.

214

I will
You will (masc.)
You will (fem.)
He will
She will
One will
We will
You will (pl.)
They will

Na
Ka
Kin/ kya
Ya
Ta
A
Mun/ ma
Kun/ kwa
Sun/ sa

4. Listen to the following statements while reading along in the workbook.


Attention, travelers! The next express train to Zaria will depart from platform 10 in 15 minutes.
Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin ujila mafi kusa zuwa Zaria zai tashi wurin shiga jirgi mai
lamba 10 bayan minti 15.

Attention, travelers! The next local train will arrive at platform 10 in 5 minutes.
Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin daddawa mafi kusa zai iso wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 10
bayan minti 5.

Attention, travelers! Flight number 92 from Kano will be one hour late. Please check the screen
for updates.
Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgi mai lamba 92 daga Kano zai makara da awa guda. A duba
allo na bidiyo don samun arin bayyani.

Attention, travelers! The bus from Abuja will arrive at platform 3 in 10 minutes.
Masu tafiya, a saurara! Bas daga Abuja zai iso wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 3 bayan
minti 10.

215

5. Match each picture with the correct Hausa term by writing the term below the correct picture.
Check your work with the Answer Key.

A__________

D__________

B__________

E__________

G__________

H__________

Fasinjoji
Kaya
Wurin shiga jirgi
Takardar tsari
Tikiti
Wurin saida tikitoci
Wurin jira
ofa

216

C__________

F__________

Necessity:
There are several ways of expressing must, have to, should, and similar concepts in Hausa.
Ina bukata in tafi.

I need to go.
I should go.
I must go.
I must go.
Should I go?
You should rest.

Ya kamata in tafi.
Dole ne in tafi.
Tilas ne in tafi.
In tafi?
Sai ka huta.

In this category of words, special attention should be paid to ya kamata. This is a fixed construct that
precedes a sentence, and it is especially common. Thus, the literal translation of ya kamata in tafi would
run something like It should be that I go. Also note that the word sai, in addition to its other uses, can
imply should.
The subjunctive in Hausa:
The above examples provide us with an ideal segue to a discussion of the Hausa subjunctive. While the
subjunctive in used relatively little in modern English, it is very important in Hausa. The subjunctive is
used in all of the above examples, and it is also used to form the imperative and several other types of
phrases. Without getting into an exhaustive grammar lesson, we will go over a few important functions
of the subjunctive in Hausa. First of all, look over the following conjugation chart for the subjunctive
pronoun in Hausa.
I
You (masc.)
You (fem.)
You (pl.)
He
She
They
We

In
Ka
Ki
Ku
Ya
Ta
Su
Mu

Note that with the exception of the first person singular, these are spelled like other conjugations that
we have already seen in this book. Note also, however, that there is a tonal/tone length difference that
distinguishes them as subjective. You will become accustomed to this difference as you go along. For
now, it will suffice to say that the subjunctive pronouns have a short low tone.
We have already seen how the subjunctive is used with certain terms in the preceding section. Now,
we will look at how the subjunctive is used to form the imperative. The imperative is formed by simply
placing the subjunctive pronoun before the verb. The pronoun can also be omitted, but the implication
remains. See the following examples.

217

Go! (to a man)

Ka tafi!

Be careful! (to a woman)

Ki yi hankali!

Another rather unique feature of the Hausa language is that when the imperative construct is stated as
a question, the meaning becomes much like a question beginning with should in English. Remember
that in this case, the pronoun cannot be omitted. See the following examples:
Should I go?
Should we stop?

In tafi?
Mu tsaya?

The subjunctive is also used to express what in English would be expressed using the word to; an
example would be a sentence that uses the English infinitive, such as Do you want to go? In Hausa,
this sentence would be expressed as Kana so ka tafi? (You want you go?). In this sentence, the verb
conjugated in the subjunctive is used to express what would be expressed by the infinitive (to go) in
English. In grammatical terms, this is somewhat confusing, but it should be fairly clear in the below
examples.
English
Do you want (yourself) to go?
Do you want (us) to go?
I want to buy this.

Hausa
Kana so ka tafi?
Kana so mu tafi?
Ina so in sayi wannan.

Literal translation
You want you go?
You want we go?
I want I buy this.

6. Listen to the following statements while reading along in the workbook.


You must have a ticket to board the train.
Dole ne kana da tikiti in za ka shiga jirgin asa.

You must have a ticket to board the airplane.


Dole ne kana da tikiti in za ka shiga jirgin sama.

Passengers for flight number 25 must go to gate 14.


Fasinjoji na jirgin sama mai lamba 25 ya kamata su tafi ofa 14.

You must pay for your ticket.


Dole ne ka biya kuin tikiti.

Passengers have to wait in the waiting area.


Dole ne fasinjoji su jira a wurin jira.

You have to wait for your luggage at the baggage claim area.
Dole ne ka jira kayanka a wurin amsar kaya.

218

7. Fill in the blanks with the correct term from the list below. Check your answers with the
Answer Key.
Listen!
Baggage claim area
Express
First class
Platform
Schedule
Second class
Ticket window
Gate

A saurara!
Wurin amsar kaya
Ujila
Faskila
Wurin shiga jirgi
Takardar tsari
Gama-gari
Wurin saida tikitoci
ofa

A. Tafi ______________ ka yanki tikitoci.


B. Za ka iya amsar kayanka a _____________________.
C. _________________! Dole ne kowanne fasinja yana da tikiti in zai shiga bas.
D. Duba ____________________ domin ka ga yaushe jirginka zai tashi.
E. Jirgin ______________ ya fi saui saboda ba ya tsayawa.
F. Kowanne jirgi yana isowa _______________ daban.
G. Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin sama mai lamba 725 zai tashi daga _____________ A17.

8. For each question below, there is a corresponding answer. Match them by writing the letter of
each question on the blank line in front of the appropriate answer. Check your answers with
the Answer Key.
A. Ina za ni iya yankan tikitin jirgin

1. ________ I, sannu.

daddawa?
B. Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano, yaushe

2. ______ Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano

zai tashi?

zai tashi bayan minti 20.

C Nawa ne kuin tikitin faskila zuwa

3. _____ A wurin saida tikitoci da

Kaduna?

yake dab da wurin shiga jirgi.

D. Kana son wurin zama dab da taga?

4. _____ Wancan jirgi zai iso wurin


shiga jirgi mai lamba

16 bayan minti 10.

219

E. Jirgin ijila daga Kano, wane wurin

5. _____ Kuinsa CFA 30,000.

shiga jirga zai iso?

9. Role-play the short dialogues from Exercise 8. Change the cities and numbers.

10. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and determine which statement is spoken.
Check your work with the Answer Ky.
1. A You must have a ticket to board the bus.
B You must have a ticket to board the ferry.
2. A I need a first-class roundtrip ticket to Niamey.
B I need a first-class one-way ticket to Niamey.
3. A. The next express train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes.
B The next local train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes.

At Border Crossings and Roadblocks

11. Listen to these new words and phrases.


Border
Customs
Checkpoint
Roadblock
Passport
Drivers license
Documents

Iyaka
Kwastan, Duwan (Niger)
Wurin duba motoci
Wurin tsai da motoci
Fasfo
Lasin tui
Takardu

220

Papers
ID card
Show me
Give me
Search
Inspect
Inspection
Trunk (of a car)
Proceed
Rental (car)
Citizen

Takardu
Katin shaida
Nuna mini
Ba ni
Caje
Duba
Duba
But, Kyas (Niger)
Ci gaba
Motar haya
an asa

12. At roadblocks and border crossings, officials usually ask questions about driver
identification and vehicle documents. Try to match the Hausa border
crossing requests and questions with their English equivalents. Check your work
with the Answer Key.
1. Nuna mini takardun motarka.

A Give me your drivers license.

2. Ba ni fasfonka.

B Do you have an ID card?

3. Daga ina kake.

C Why do you need to go there?

4. Saboda mi kake bukata ka tafi can?

D Show me your car papers.

5. Ba ni lasin tuinka.

E Give me your passport.

6. Kana da katin shaida?

F Where are you from?

13. Listen to and read the following dialogue at a border crossing, and then
answer the questions below. Try to guess the meaning of unknown words from
the context. Check your work with the Answer Key.

221

Maaikacin kwastan

Ba ni fasfonka da lasin tui.

Direba

To.

Maaikaci

Kai mutumin Amirka ne?

Direba

I.

Maaikaci

Kana da takardun mota.

Direba

I. Motar haya ce.

Maaikaci

Ina za ka?

Direba

amai za ni.

Maaikaci

Kwana nawa za ka yi a can?

Direba

Kwana goma.

Maaikaci

Mi za ka yi can?

Direba

Zan ziyarci dangi.

Maaikaci

Ka bue but. Muna bukata mu caje mota.

Direba

To.

Maaikaci

To, an gode. Ka ci gaba.

Did you understand the words trunk and search?


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

Where is the driver from?


Does the driver own the vehicle he is driving?
Where is the driver going?
Why is he going there?
How long will he be there?
What does the guard ask the driver to do at the end?
Why?

14. Work with a partner. Take turns role-playing the Customs Official and the Car Driver.

222

End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
A. Ina bukata in yanki tikitin tafiya da dawowa zuwa Kaduna.
Zan tashi a rana 12 ga watan Nuwamba kuma zan dawo a rana 3 ga watan Disamba.
Ina so wurin zama da yake dab da taga.
B. Wannan jirgin ujila ne?
C. Daga wace tasha bas mai zuwa Kaduna yake tashi.
D. Jirgi mai lamba 34 zai tashi daga wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 3 bayan minti 5.

2. Work with a partner or in a small group. Look at the pictures and come up with
a story. Do you think these people are arriving or departing? Do you think they are
on time? Is their flight late? Mention their name, age, profession, what they are wearing,
and where and why they need to fly or where they are arriving from. Also, tell how they
got to the airport (by car, by bus, by train).

223

Vocabulary List
Arriving/Arrivals
Attention! (listen)
Travelers
Baggage
Border
Bus station
Checkpoint
Citizen
Customs
Delay/ed
Departing/Departures
Documents
Drivers license
Express
First class
Flight
Fly
Give me
ID card
Inspect
Inspection
Inspector
To be late
One-way
On-time
Papers
Passenger
Passport
Platform
Proceed
Rental car
Roadblock
Roundtrip
Schedule
Large video screen

Masu isowa/ Masu zowa


A saurara!
Masu tafiya
Kaya
Iyaka, Iyakoki (pl.)
Tashar Bas, Tashoshin bas (pl.)
Wurin duba motoci, Wuraren (pl.)
an asa (m.), ar asa (f.), an asa (pl.)
Kwastan, Duwan
Makara, jinkiri
Masu tashi
Takardu
Lasin tui
Ijila
Fasakila
Jirgi, Jirage (pl.)
Tafi cikin jirgin sama, tashi sama
Ba ni
Katin shaida, Katunan (pl.)
Duba, caje
Caje
Mai duban motoci, Masu (pl.)
Makara
Zuwa
A lokaci
Takardu
Fasinja, Fasinjoji (pl.)
Fasfo
Wurin shiga jirgi, Wuraren (pl.)
Ci gaba,
Motar haya, Motocin (pl.)
Wurin tsai da motoci, Wuraren (pl.)
Tafiya da dawowa/ Zuwa da dawowa
Takardar tsari, Takardun (pl.)
Allo na bidiyo, Alluna (pl.)

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Second class
Show me .
Drivers assistant
Local train
Ticket
The next
Ticket window
To buy a ticket
To board, get in
To board, get on
To leave, set out, depart
To return/come back
To pay
To accept / receive
Baggage Claim
To visit
Taxi fare
Fare for train / plane / bus
To arrive (somewhere else)
To arrive (where you are)
To rest
Why?
Train station
Trunk (of a car)
Waiting area
Window seat

Gama-gari
Nuna mini

Karen mota (Literally: Dog of the car)


Jirgin daddawa, Jiragen (pl.)
Tikiti, Tikitoci (pl.), Tike (Niger)
... mafi kusa
Wurin saida tikitoci, Wuraren (pl.)
Yanki tikiti/ Sayi tikiti
Shiga
Hau, Hawa
Tashi
Dawo, Dawowa
Biya
Amsa / Kara
Wurin amsar kaya, Wuraren (pl.)
Ziyarta/ Ziyarci/ Ziyarce
Kuin mota
Kuin shiga
Isa, Isawa
Iso, Isowa
Huta, Hutawa
Saboda mi? / Mi ya sa? / Dommi?
Tashar jirgi, Tashoshin (pl.)
But, Kyas
Wurin jira, Wuraren (pl.)
Wurin zama dab da taga

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 5
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

Schedule
Ticket Window
Platform
Ticket
Passengers
Baggage
Gate
Waiting area

Takardar tsari
Wurin saida tikitoci
Wurin shiga jirgi
Tikiti
Fasinjoji
Kaya
ofa
Wurin jira

Activity 7
A. Wurin saida tikitoci
B. Wurin amsar kaya
C. A saurara!
D. Takardar tsari
E. Ujila
F. Wurin shiga jirgi
G. ofa

Go to the ticket window to buy the tickets.


You can get your baggage at the baggage claim area.
Attention! All passengers must have a ticket to board the bus.
Check the schedule to find out when your flight departs.
The express train is faster because it does not make local stops.
Each train arrives at a different platform.
Attention, passengers! Flight #725 is departing from gate A17.

A. Tafi ______________ ka yanki tikitoci.


B. Za ka iya amsar kayanka a _____________________.
C. _________________! Dole ne kowanne fasinja yana da tikiti in zai shiga bas.
D. Duba ____________________ domin ka ga yaushe jirginka zai tashi.
E. Jirgin ______________ ya fi saui saboda ba ya tsayawa.
F. Kowanne jirgi yana isowa _______________ daban.
G. Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin sama mai lamba 725 zai tashi daga _____________ A17.

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Activity 8
1. D. Do you want a window seat? Yes, please
2. B. When is the next bus to Kano? The next bus to Kano departs in 20 minutes.
3. A. Where can I buy a local train ticket? At the ticket window next to platform one.
4. E. At which platform is the express train from Kano arriving? That train will arrive at platform 16 in
ten minutes.
5. C. How much is a first class ticket to Kaduna. It is 64 dollars.

D. Kana son wurin zama dab da taga?

1. ________ I, sannu.

B. Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano, yaushe

2. ______ Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano

zai tashi?

zai tashi bayan minti 20.

A. Ina za ni iya yankan tikitin jirgin

3. _____ A wurin saida tikitoci da

daddawa?

yake dab da wurin shiga jirgi.

E. Jirgin ijila daga Kano, wane wurin

4. _____ Wancan jirgi zai iso wurin

shiga jirga zai iso?

shiga jirgi mai lamba 16 bayan minti


10.

C. Nawa ne kuin tikitin faskila zuwa

5. _____ Kuinsa CFA 30,000.

Kaduna?

Activity 10
1. A You must have a ticket to board the bus.
A. Dole ne kana da tikiti in za ka shiga bas.

2. B I need a first-class one-way ticket to Niamey.


B. Ina bukata tikiti zuwa Niamey.

3. A. The next express train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes.


A. Jirgin asa ujila mafi kusa zai tashi daga 15 nan da minti 10.

Activity 12
1. Nuna mini takardun motarka.

D Show me your car papers.

2. Ba ni fasfonka.

E Give me your passport.

3. Daga ina kake.

F Where are you from?

4. Saboda mi kake bukata ka tafi can?

C Why do you need to go there?

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5. Ba ni lasin tuinka.

A Give me your drivers license

6. Kana da katin shaida?

B Do you have an ID card?

Activity 13
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

Where is the driver from? U.S.


Does the driver own the vehicle he is driving? No, it is a rental car.
Where is the driver going? Niamey
Why is he going there? To visit family
How long will he be there? Ten days
What does the guard ask the driver to do at the end? Open the trunk
Why? To do an inspection
Maaikacin kwastan

Ba ni fasfonka da lasin tui.

Direba

To.

Maaikaci

Kai mutumin Amirka ne?

Direba

I.

Maaikaci

Kana da takardun mota.

Direba

I. Motar haya ce.

Maaikaci

Ina za ka?

Direba

amai za ni.

Maaikaci

Kwana nawa za ka yi a can?

Direba

Kwana goma.

Maaikaci

Mi za ka yi can?

Direba

Zan ziyarci dangi.

Maaikaci

Ka bue but. Muna bukata mu caje mota.

Direba

To.

Maaikaci

To, an gode. Ka ci gaba.

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 1
A. I need to buy a roundtrip ticket to Kaduna, please.
I leave on November 12 and return on December 3.
I want a window seat.
B. Is this an express train?
C. What platform does the bus to Kaduna leave from?
D. Train 34 is departing from platform three in five minutes.

228

A. Ina bukata in yanki tikitin tafiya da dawowa zuwa Kaduna.


Zan tashi a rana 12 ga watan Nuwamba kuma zan dawo a rana 3 ga watan Disamba.
Ina so wurin zama da yake dab da taga.
B. Wannan jirgin ujila ne?
C. Daga wace tasha bas mai zuwa Kaduna yake tashi.
D. Jirgi mai lamba 34 zai tashi daga wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 3 bayan minti 5.

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Lesson 15
At School
A Makaranta

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Vocabulary related to classroom activities
- Vocabulary related to being a student
- The education system in Nigeria and Niger.

Education
The educational systems in Niger and Nigeria reflect two different colonial pasts. While
education in Nigeria is based upon the English system of education that was inherited from
England during colonial rule, education in Niger is based upon the French system. The border
between Niger and Nigeria was once the border between French West Africa and English West
Africa. In Niger, all education continues to be conducted in French, while in Nigeria it is in
English. All of the terminology is different, as are the texts used and the methods employed. In
Nigeria, the school year runs January through December. There are three quarters, with a one
month break between each. English is the language of instruction, although some local languages
are taught. Uniforms are required. For those who go on to university, there are a number of

230

universities in Nigeria. Nigeria is attempting to create a situation in which a basic education is a


universal obligation, but currently only about 65 percent of school age children are enrolled in
school, and the adult literacy rate is about the same. In Niger, the schools run on a schedule that
much more closely mirrors the American schedule. School starts in September or October, unless
the teachers are on strike (a common situation) in which case the start of school may be delayed
for months. Education is conducted in French, although there is some experimentation with using
local languages and even Arabic. Primary level education is officially compulsory, but in reality
the enrollment rate in primary school stands at about 25 percent of the school age children. The
adult literacy rate is under 20 percent.
Throughout the Hausa speaking world, the Western educational system is still in some ways a
newcomer to the area. The Islamic education system, centered on the traditional madrasas,
predates the Western system by several centuries and is seen by Hausas as the native form of
education. This education system is one in which children (especially young men) are sent to a
makaranta where a malam teaches them to recite the Quran and provides some explanation of
the meaning of the versesalthough not always full translations. This is an accepted form of
education, which is encouraged but is not officially accepted as a replacement for state
education. Because of this traditional use of the word makaranta, the Western style school is
often distinguished from the traditional one by use of the term boko (secular).

1. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and read the
following text under each of the pictures.

A student writes on the


blackboard with chalk.

A student raises her hand


to ask a question.

A teacher teaches students


math.

aliba tana rubuta wani

aliba ta aga hannunta

Malami yana koya wa

abu a kan allo da alli.

domin ta yi tambaya.

alibai lissafi.

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Students study chemistry in


middle school.

First grade students read a


textbook.

Students will study art in


this class.

alibai suna koyon

aliban aji na aya suna

alibai za su koyi fasahar

kimiyyar harhaa

karanta littafi.

zane-zane cikin wannan

magunguna a makaranta.

aji.

There is a book, a
notebook, and a calculator.

There is a desk and a chair


in the classroom.

Students write with pens


and pencils.

Akwai littafi, littafin

Akwai teburin rubutu da

alibai suna rubutawa da

rubutu, da naurar lissafi.

kujera cikin wannan akin

biruna da fensirori.

aji.

2. Work with a partner. Look around the classroom. Name the items you see.
Class
Desk
Chair
Blackboard
Chalk
Pen
Pencil
Notebook
Computer
Printer

Aji
Teburin rubutu
Kujera
Babban allo
Alli
Biro
Fesur
Littafin rubutu
Naura mai wawalwa
Mai buga takardu

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Tafintar kwanfyuta

Keyboard
Monitor
Teacher
Student

Allon Kwanfyuta
Malami (m.), Malama (f.)
alibi (m.), aliba (f.)

3. Working with a partner, name the items you bring with you to class and the items
found in your classroom.

Naura mai wawalwa

Babban Allo

Gulob

LIttafi

Naurar lissafi

Kasat

4. Listen to the dialogue while you read along in the workbook. Underline the new
vocabulary.
What is your name?

My name is Salisu.

Yaya sunanka?

Sunana Salisu.

How old are you?

I am 16 years old.

Shekara nawa gareka?

Ina da shekara 16.

What grade are you in?

I am in 10th grade.

Wane aji ne kake ciki?

Ina cikin aji na 10.

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What subjects do you study?

Math, biology, music, literature, and history.

Waanne fannoni kake karatu?

Lissafi, ilimin halittu, kii da waa, adabi,


da tarihi.

What is your favorite subject?

My favorite subject is biology.

Wane fanni ka fi so?

Ilimin halittu ne wanda na fi so.

Are you a good student?

Yes, Im a good student.

Kai kyakyawan alibi ne?

I, ni kyakyawan alibi ne.

What will you do after school?

I will go to the college; I want to be a doctor.

Mi za ka yi bayan makaranta?

Zan tafi jamia; ina so in zama likita.

What do you like to do after school?

After school I like to listen to music.

Mi kake son yi bayan ka sauka daga

Bayan makaranta ina son sauraron waa

makaranta?

da kii.

5. Read along while listening to some of the new words you might have underlined in
Exercise 4.
Grade
Subject
My favorite
Math
Biology
Music
Literature
History
College
Like
Listen to

Aji
Fanni
Wanda na fi so
Lissafi
Ilimin halittu
Waa da kii
Adabi
Tarihi
Jamia
So
Saurara

The Verb fi (Comparatives and Superlatives)


In this chapter, we have introduced some new vocabulary for expressing likes and dislikes in
Hausa. When discussing likes and dislikes, it is important to be able to express that you like one
thing more that another. To do this in Hausa, requires use of the verb fi. This word can be
somewhat awkward at first for an English speaker, but once learned it is simple to use.
Essentially the verb fi translates as to exceed, and it modifies a word that usually follows it. In
this way, it expresses what would be expressed in English using a comparative or superlative.
See below some examples of the various uses of this word.
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English
Math is harder than Literature.
I prefer this one.
This one is the best.

Hausa
Lissafi ya fi Adabi wuya.
Na fi son wannan.
Wannan shi ne wanda ya fi.

Studying is harder than farming. Karatu ya fi noma wuya.


I am taller than you.

Na fi ka tsawo.

Literal Translation
Math exceeds literature in
difficulty.
I exceed in liking this one.
This one is the one that
exceeds.
Studying exceeds farming in
difficulty.
I exceed you in height.

Note that generally speaking, the past tense is used in these sentences, even when it is placed in
the present. You should also be able to recognize the word mafi (the most ), which is a
conjunction of the prefix ma- (the owner of, that which) and fi. Note that if what is being
described is feminine, mafi becomes mafiya. Here are a few examples.
English
The kindest person
The longest road
The most expensive

Hausa
Mutum mafi kirki
Hanya mafiya tsawo
Mafi tsada

Likes and Dislikes


The most common word for expressing that you like something is so. This word expresses both
to like and to love. There are also a few other terms that are used to express similar concepts.
See the below examples.
English
I like this music.

Hausa
Ina jin dain wannan kii.

She made a big impression on


me!
I like her. / I love her.

Ta burge ni sosai!

Literal Translation
I feel the goodness of this
music.
She impressed me a lot!

Ina son ta.

6. Work with a partner. Make up a dialogue similar to the one in Exercise 4. List your
favorite subjects, say how good you think you are at each of them, tell what profession you
are going to choose, and say what you like to do after school.

235

7. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker as you go over
the dialogue.
A. Listen to the recording and take notes.
A. A saurara magana kuma a rubuta abubuwan lura da ke ciki.

B. Put your pencils down.


B. Ajiye fensirorinku.

C. Write your answer on the blackboard.


C. A rubuta amsarka a allo.

D. Open your textbooks.


D. Bue littattafanku.

E. Raise your hand if you have a question.


E. In kana da tambaya, sai ka aga hannunka.

F. Write down the homework.


F. A rubuta aikin gida.

8. Role-play s a teacher. Have the students follow your directions. Use the expressions from
Exercise 7.

9. Listen to the following questions and mark the answers that you hear. Check your
answers with the Answer Key.
1. Mi kake yi a makaranta?

A. I read the textbooks at school.


B. I write letters and numbers in Hausa.
C. I study many subjects.
2. Wane aji ne kake ciki?

A. I am in 5th grade.
B. I am in 6th grade.
C. I am in 8th grade.

3. Waanne fannoni kake karatu?

A. Math, Hausa, science, geography, and English.


B. Math, history, science, geography, and English.
C. Math, chemistry, science, geography, and English.
4. Wane fanni ka fi so?

A. English
B. Geography
C. Science

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5. Kai kyakyawan alibi ne?

A. Im very good at English, but Im bad at math.


B. Im very good at geography, but Im bad at math.
C. Im very good at chemistry, but Im bad at math.

10. Work with a partner and make up similar dialogues using expressions from Exercise 9.
11. Work in small groups and describe the following pictures. Come up with ages for the
students and the teacher, their names, the subjects they study/teach, what theyre doing
right now, what they are wearing, if they seem to like their class and their teacher, etc.

12. Listen to and read the following text about the students schedule, and then
answer the questions below. The new word busy is introduced in the text. Try to guess
this and other new words from the context. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
Sunana Aminatu Ayuba. Ni aliba ce a Jamiar Kaduna. Ina karatun Inglishi. Ina so in
zama tafinta. Kullum ina da ayyuka dayawa. Ranaikun Litinin da Laraba da Jumaa nikan
tashi zuwa makaranta a arfe takwas da safe. In na sauka daga makaranta, a arfe
huu da marece, ina tafiya aiki. Ina aiki kamar sabis a wani gidan abinci. Bayan na
sauka daga aiki a arfe goma da dare, sai na koma gida. Ranaikun Talata da Alhamis
ina tafiya makaranta a arfe 10 da safe. Bayan makaranta, a arfe 12 ina tafiya gidan
littattafai. Ina yin karatu a gidan littattafai awa ukku da rana. Ina yin aikin gida da safe
kuma a arshen mako, watau Asabar da Lahadi.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

What is the students name?


Where does she go to school?
What does she study?
What is her school schedule on Monday, Wednesday and Friday?
What is her schedule on Tuesday and Thursday?

237

F. What job does she have and when does she work?
G. When does the student do homework?
H. What does the student want to do after finishing school?

238

End-of-Leson Tasks
1. Go over the text from Exercise 12 again. Tell the class about your schedule. Use the
questions after the text as an outline for your story.

2. Look at the pictures and tell a story about what you see. Include the grade the students
are in, the subjects they are studying, what the teacher is doing, what the students and
teachers are wearing, and so on.

239

3. Read and compare the following texts and find the errors in the English translations.
Make corrections so that the translation is accurate. Check your work with the Answer
Key.
1. A. Sunana Ali Isaka. Daga Kano nike, amma yanzu ina zama a Kaduna. Ina cikin aji
na 6 a makaranta. Ina da abokai dayawa. Ina son harshen Inglishi da karatu da kuma
wasan wallon kwando.

B. My name is Ali Isaka. Im from Kano, but now I live in Kaduna. Im in fifth grade.
I have many friends. I like music, reading, and basketball.
2. A. Sunana Yau Muhammadu. Daga Matamai nike, amma ina zama a amai. Ina son
koyon lissafi da kimiyya.

B. My name is Yau Muhammadu. Im from Magaria, but I live in Niamey.


I like math and geography.
3. A. Sunana Hadiza. An haifeni a ranar 8 ga watan Afrilu a shekara 1989. Ina cikin aji
na 8 a makaranta. Ina son aji na kii da waa, da na fasahar zane-zane, da na aukar
hotuta. Ina so in zama mai zane, ko likita, ko mai aukar hotuna.

B. My name is Hadiza. I was born on August 4, 1989. Im in the ninth grade.


I like music class and photography. I want to be a doctor or a photographer.

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Vocabulary List
Art
Artist (painting / drawing)
Basketball
Biology
Blackboard
I am busy
Affair, Business
Chair
Chalk
Chemistry
Class
College/University
Computer

Fasahar zane-zane
Mai zane
Wasan wallon kwando
Ilimin halittu
Babban allo, Manyan alluna (pl.)
Ina harkoki, ina cikin aiki
Harka, Harkoki (pl.)
Kujera, Kujeru (pl.)
Alli, Farin Kasa
Kimiyyar harhaa magunguna
Aji, Azuzuwa (pl.), Kilas
Jamia, Jamioi (pl.)
Naura mai wawalwa, Naurori masu
wawalwa (pl.), Kwamfyuta

Desk
Globe
Elementary School
English
Grade
High School
Secular / Western
education
History
Homework
Literature
Math
Middle School
Music
Photo
Notebook

Teburin rubutu, Teburorin rubutu (pl.)


Gulob, Gwalaf (Niger)
Firamare, Firimar (Niger)
Inglishi
Aji, Azuzuwa (pl.)
Sakandare, Lise (Niger)
Boko
Tarihi
Aikin gida
Adabi
Lissafi
Midil, seeje (niger)
Kii da waa
Hoto, Hotuna (pl.)
Littafin rubutu, Littattafan rubutu (pl.) Kaye
(niger)

Pen
Pencil
Photography

Biro, Birori (pl.), Bik (Niger)


Fensir, Fensirori (pl.)
aukar hotuta

241

Reading
Student
Subject(s)
Tape recorder
Teacher
To like
To read
Reading
To study
To write
Letter (of alphabet)
Number
To exceed
I like
To impress / To make a
good impression
To prefer
Good
I can / I am good at
When (not in questions)
To become
As (I worked as a reporter)
Which (questions)
Listen to the recording and
take notes.

Karatu
alibi (m.), aliba (f.), alibai (pl.)
Fanni, Fannoni (pl.)
Rakoda, Rakododi (pl.)
Malami (m.), Malama (f.), Malamai (pl.)
So, Son
Karanta
Karatu
Karanta, Yin karatu
Rubuta
Bai, Baae (pl.)
Lamba, Lambobi (pl.)
Fi
Ina jin dain
Burge
Fi so
Kyakaywa
Na iya
In
Zama
Kamar
Wane (m.), Wace (f.), Waanne (pl.)
Sauraren nai (sautin da ake ji daga rakoda)
kuma rubuta dukan abubuwan lura da ke
ciki.

Put your pencils down.


Write your answer on the
blackboard.
Open your textbooks.
Raise your hand!
Write down your
homework, please
That is to say

Ajiye fensirorinku
Rubuta amsoshinka a allo.
Bue littattafanku.
aga hannunka!
Rubuta aikinka na gida.
Wato, Watau

242

Answer Key
Activity 9
1. Mi kake yi a makaranta? C. Ina karatun fannoni daban daban.

1. What do you do at school? C. I study many subjects.


2. Wane aji ne kake ciki? B. Ina cikin aji na 6.

2. What grade are you in? B. I am in 6th grade.

3. Waanne fannoni kake karatu? A. Lissafi, Hausa, kimiyya, labarin asa, da Inglishi.

3. What subjects are you studying? A. Math, Hausa, science, geography, and English.
4. Wane fanni ka fi so? B. Labarin asa.

4. What is your favorite subject? B. Geography


5. Kai kyakyawan alibi ne? C. Na iya kimiyyar harhaa magunguna sosai, amma ban
iya lissafi sosai ba.

5. Are you a good student? C. Im very good at chemistry, but Im bad at math.
Activity 12
A. What is the students name?
Her name is Aminatu Ayuba.
B. Where does she go to school?
She goes to Kaduna University.
C. What does she study?
She studies English.
D. What is her school schedule on Monday, Wednesday and Friday?
She goes to school from 8:00am until 4:00pm.
E. What is her schedule on Tuesday and Thursday?
She goes to class at 10am then at 12:00 she goes to the library to study for three hours.
F. What job does she have and when does she work?
She works as a waitress in a restaurant from 4:00 to 10:00pm on Monday, Wednesday and
Friday.
G. When does the student do homework?
She does homework on weekends and in the mornings.
H. What does the student want to do after finishing school?
She wants to be an interpreter.
My name is Aminatu Ayuba. I am a student at Kaduna University. I study English. I want to be
an interpreter. I have a busy schedule. On Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, I go to school at
8:00. After school, at 4:00pm, I go to work. I work at a restaurant as a waitress. After work, at 10
pm, I go home. On Tuesday and Thursday, I go to class at 10am. After school, at 12:00, I go to
the library. I study at the library for three hours in the afternoon. I do my homework in the
mornings and on the weekends, that is, Saturdays and Sundays.

243

Sunana Aminatu Ayuba. Ni aliba ce a Jamiar Kaduna. Ina karatun Inglishi. Ina so in
zama tafinta. Kullum ina da ayyuka dayawa. Ranaikun Litinin da Laraba da Jumaa nikan
tashi zuwa makaranta a arfe takwas da safe. In na sauka daga makaranta, a arfe
huu da marece, ina tafiya aiki. Ina aiki kamar sabis a wani gidan abinci. Bayan na
sauka daga aiki a arfe goma da dare, sai na koma gida. Ranaikun Talata da Alhamis
ina tafiya makaranta a arfe 10 da safe. Bayan makaranta, a arfe 12 ina tafiya gidan
littattafai. Ina yin karatu a gidan littattafai awa ukku da rana. Ina yin aikin gida da safe
kuma a arshen mako, watau Asabar da Lahadi.

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 3
Your English translation should be as follows. The terms in bold are the corrected errors.
1. My name is Ali Isaka. Im from Kano, but now I live in Kaduna. Im in sixth grade.
I have many friends. I like English language, reading, and basketball.
2. My name is Yau Muhammadu. Im from Matamai, but I live in Niamey. I like math and
science.
3. A. My name is Hadiza. I was born on April 8, 1989. Im in 8th grade.
I like music class, art, and photography. I want to be an artist, doctor or a photographer.
1. A. Sunana Ali Isaka. Daga Kano nike, amma yanzu ina zama a Kaduna. Ina cikin
aji na 6 a makaranta. Ina da abokai dayawa. Ina son harshen Inglishi da karatu
da kuma wasan wallon kwando.

2. 2. A. Sunana Yau Muhammadu. Daga Matamai nike, amma ina zama a amai.
Ina son koyon lissafi da kimiyya.

3. 3. A. Sunana Hadiza. An haifeni a ranar 8 ga watan Afrilu a shekara 1989. Ina


cikin aji na 8 a makaranta. Ina son aji na kii da waa, da na fasahar zane-zane,
da na aukar hotuta. Ina so in zama mai zane, ko likita, ko mai aukar hotuna.

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Lesson 16
Recreation and Leisure
Wasa da Shaatawa

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Vocabulary related to recreational and leisure activities
- Ways to discuss hobbies in Hausa.
1. Read the sentences with the new vocabulary and try to guess the meaning of any
unknown words.

Namiji da mace suna rawa. Rawa,

Tana kian biyano kamar

Wannan namiji yana

ita ce abin da suke yi domin su

sanaa. Makaiyar biyano tana

aukar hotuna. Shi

shaata.

yin kii a wasan kie-kie.

mai aukar hoto ne.

Sunansa Andrew. Wasan wallon

Waannan maza biyu suna yin

Abokiyata Sandy

afa ne abin da yakan yi domin

dambe a dandali. Dambe ne

takan yi gudu

ya shaata.

abin da sukan yi domin su

kowacce rana bayan

shaata.

ta sauka daga
karatu.

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anena yana son kokowa.

In da akwai zafi, yara suna yin

Wannan saurayi

Kokowa ce abin da yake yi domin

iyo kowacce rana a lokacin

yana yin wasan

ya shaata.

bazara.

tanis a filin tanis.

anwata tana son yin zane-zane.

Sojoji suna yin karta cikin

Kullum da marece

tanti. Suna jin dain yin karta.

wannan namiji da
matarsa suna yin
yawo.

Sojoji biyu suna dara (yin wasan shaaranji).

Wannan namiji yana kia garaya tare da

Ita ce abin da sukan yi domin su shaata.

yin waa.

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2. Now listen to the speaker. Check to see if your guesses were correct. Repeat the
new words as many times as you need to feel comfortable with the pronunciation.
Play
Cards
To ski
Hobby
To dance
Tennis
Tennis Court
Play piano
Musician
To take photos
Photographer
To play guitar
To sing
Songs
Chess
To walk
To swim
Swimming pool
To run
To wrestle (traditional)
Soccer
To paint
To play the garaya
To box (traditional)
To play the talking drum
To play dara

Yi wasa
Karta
Yi gudun urwa/ gudun anara
Abin da ake yi domin a shaata
Yi rawa
Wasan tanis
Filin tanis
Kia biyano
Makai (m.), Makaiya (f.)
auki hotuna / aukar hotuna
Mai aukar hoto
Kia garaya
Yi waa
Waoi
Dara / Shaaranji
Yi yawo
Yi iyo
Wurin wanka
Gudu
Yi kokowa
Wasan wallon afa
Yi zane-zane
Kia garaya
Yi dambe
Kia kalangu
Yi wasan dara

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3. Listen to the dialogues as you read them.


1. Mi za su yi bayan makaranta?

A. Za su yi iyo bayan makaranta.


B. Za su yi rawa bayan makaranta.
C. Za su yi waa bayan makaranta.

2. Wane wasa ne yake yi?

A. Yana yin wallon afa da wallon


kwando.
B. Yana yin wallon afa da wallon raga
C. Yana yin wallon afa da tanis.

3. Mi take yi yau?

A. Tana yin waa.


B. Tana yin zane-zane.
C. Tana aukar hotuna.

4. Ka iya shaaranji?

A. I, na iya shaaranji.

Ka iya garaya?

B. Aa, amma na iya biyano.

Ka iya biyano?

C. I na iya biyano.

5. Mi kake yi domin ka shaata.

A. Ina son yin gudu da aukar hotuna.


B. Ina son yin karatu da iyo.
C. Ina son yin yawo da wasan wallon
afa.

4. Work with a partner. Take turns reading the dialogues in Exercise 3.

5. Work with a partner or in a small group. Make up exchanges using the models and
phrases from Exercise 3.
6. Reconstruct the questions in Hausa. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. - .?
- I, na iya shaaranji.

B. - .?
- I, na iya garaya.

C. -?
- Ina yin gudu da aukar hotuna domin in shaata.

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D. - ?
- Yana yin wallon afa da kokowa.

E. - ?
- Ina yin karatu da iyo domin in shaata.

F. - .?
- Tana son yin yawo da kian garaya.

7. Read and translate the following text, noting the new vocabulary. Do you understand
all the words in bold? Check the grammar note for some explanations. Check the
Answer Key for an English translation.
Grammar Notes
In the following text, take special note of the following words and how they are used: kuma,
zuwa, ma. Kuma generally translates as also or sometimes and. There are some cases in
which the difference between kuma and da is subtle, as you will see in the examples below.
Kuma also has many other uses that change its meaning. Ma translates as too. Here are some
examples:

From one oclock to three oclock.


Me too.
I also speak French. OR - And I speak French.
Also, I speak French. OR - And, I speak
French.

Daga arfe aya zuwa arfe ukku.


Ni ma.
Na kuma iya Faransanci.
Kuma na iya Faransanci.

Sunana Amadu Yahayya. Daga Magarya nike a Nijar. Ina yin karatu a Jamiar Amadu
Bello a Kano, Nijeriya. Kullum ina da harkoki dayawa, ga karatu ga wasanni. Ina koyon
ilimin kwamfiyuta kuma ina cikin tim in wallon afa na Jamia. Ina da azuzuwa daga
arfe 8:30 da safe zuwa arfe 3:00 da rana. Bayan haka muna yin faratis in wallon
afa kowacce rana daga arfe 4:00 zuwa 6:00 da marece. Ina jin dain yin wasan
wallon afa. A arshen mako ma ni da Abokaina mukan yi wallon afa. Ina kuma son
yin iyo da kain garayar bature, wato gitar. Ban iya gitar sosai ba. Wannan arshen sati
abokaina da ni za mu tafi wani wasa da ake yi a filin wasan Zinder, cikin Nijar. Mawai
duk da muka fi so shi zai yi waa. Bayan wasa za mu tafi gidan abinci mu ci abincin
dare.

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8. Now read the text as many times as you want and mark the following statements as
either True or False. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. _____Amadu Yahaya is from Magaria, Niger.


B. _____He is a high school student at Amadu Bello University in Kano, Nigeria.
C. _____ Amadu studies chemistry.
D. _____ Amadu plays on the university soccer team.
E. _____ He has class every day from 8:30 to 3:00.
F. _____ Amadu likes to swim and play the piano.
H. _____ After the concert Amadu will go home to do his homework.

9. Work with a partner or in a small group and make up a description of a busy schedule.
Use the statements from Exercise 8 as an outline for your story. The pictures given
below can help you choose the activities to describe.

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Games, Sports, and Pastimes


Few of the games that are common in America are widely known or played in Nigeria and Niger.
In fact, soccer is the only game that is really popular in both places. Hausas, however, have their
own sports and games that few Americans have ever heard of but which are very popular in the
Hausa speaking world. The most popular sport in Hausaland is kokowa, or traditional wrestling.
This sport is the main sport of rural villages, where it is performed in the village center, or
dandali. Champions from rural matches go to the city for the championship rounds, and it is one
of the few undertakings where the rural villagers are able to be truly competitive against the city
people. Traditional boxing, or dambe, is practiced in a similar manner in the villages and cities
alike. Soccer, or wasan wallon afa, is popular as well. However, in the rural villages, it is
more of a pastime for children and young men, and the rules are only loosely followed. It is only
practiced in a serious manner in the larger towns and cities.
Music is also very different. The traditional instruments that still dominate the scene in Hausa
music are completely unlike those that are common in America. In the urban areas, certain
Western instruments have long since become popularespecially the guitarbut for the vast
majority of Hausas, the traditional instruments remain the ones that are used and seen on a
regular basis. Drums, or ganguna, remain the core of Hausa music, and at many events, they are
the only instrument. The most popular drum is the talking drum, or kalangu. This instrument is a
ubiquitous part of nearly all Hausa events. The most popular instrument other than drums is the
garaya, a two stringed guitar made with a gourd. This instrument is often played while singing
or to accompany a singer.
There are many popular childrens games that are played with nothing but sticks and rocks on the
ground. A common adult (young men) game to play is dara. This is a game that has similarities
to chess and checkers, but has many variants. Cards, karta, are also popular, but generally
among the more educated or urbanized men.

10. Listen to the vocabulary as you look at the pictures. Try to match the Hausa
words with the pictures. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

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Wurin waha
Filin wasa
Filin tanis
Dandali
akin motsa jiki
Hanya

11. Read the statements below and think about their meanings. Cross out the words or
phrases that do not make sense and replace them with an appropriate word from
the list below. Check your work with the Answer Key.

Gymnasium

Stadium

akin motsa jiki

Filin wasa

tennis courts

Village square

Filin tanis

Dandali

playing field

swimming pool

Filin wasa

Wurin waha

A. alibai suna yin wasan wallon raga cikin gida.


B. Yara suna yin iyo a filin wasa.
C. an mata suna yin gudu a dandali.
D. Abokaina suna yin wasan tanis a kan hanya.
E. Yara suna yin wasan wallon afa a wurin waha.

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12. Listen to the statements and mark the ones that you hear. Check your answers
with the Answer Key.
1.

A. She will swim after school.


B. She will dance after school.
C. She will sing after school.

2.

A. He likes to play soccer and basketball.


B. He likes to play soccer and volleyball.
C. He likes to play soccer and tennis.

3.

A. She doesnt sing, but she plays piano.


B. She doesnt paint pictures, but she takes photographs.
C. She doesnt dance, but she sings.

4.

A. Do you play dara?


B. Do you play garaya?
C. Do you play piano?

No, I play checkers.


No, I play piano.
Yes, I play piano.

5.

A. What are your hobbies?


B. What are your hobbies?
C. What are your hobbies?

I like to run and sing.


I like to read and dance.
I like to walk and play cards.

13. Work with a partner. Look at the pictures and make up dialogues about someones
hobbies. Use the models and phrases from Exercise 12.

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254

End-of-Lesson Tasks.
1. Answer the following questions in Hausa.
A. What is your favorite sport or recreational activity?
B. How often do you participate in your activity?
C. What is your favorite hobby?
D. What did you do last weekend?
E. What will you do next weekend?

2. Work with a partner or in a small group. In Hausa, describe the pictures below,
using the vocabulary you have learned in this lesson.

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Vocabulary List
Cards
Chess
Computer science
Gymnasium
Hobby
Paint pictures
Playing field
To dance
To play chess
To play dara
To play cards
To play soccer
To play guitar (traditional)
Guitar (western)
Drum
To play piano
To wrestle (traditional)
To box (traditional)
To run
To sing
To ski
To swim
To take pictures
Soccer field
Song
Stadium
Swimming pool
Tennis
Tennis court
Town square
Talking Drum
While (at the same time)
Our favorite singer

Karta, Kwaf (Niger)


Shaaranji
Ilimin naura mai wawalwa, ilimin kwamfiyuta
akin motsa jiki, akunan (pl.)
Mashaata / Abin da ake yi domin shaatawa
Yin zane-zane
Filin wasa, filayen (pl.)
Yi rawa
Yi shaaranji
Yi dara
Yi karta
Yi wasan wallon afa
Kia garaya
Garayar bature, Gitar
Ganga, Ganguna (pl.)
Kia biyano
Yi kokowa
Yi dambe
Yi gudu
Yi waa
Yi gudun anara
Yi iyo
auki hotuna
Filin wasa, Filayen wasa (pl.)
Waa, Waoi (pl.)
Filin wasa, filayen (pl.)
Wurin waha
Tanis
Filin tanis, filayen (pl.)
Dandali
Kalangu, Kalanguna (pl.)
Tare da
Mawai duk da muka fi so

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Team

Tim (English loanword), ungiya (pure Hausa),


ungiyoyi (pl.)

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 6
A. - Kana yin shaaranji?
- I, na iya shaaranji.

B. Ka iya biyano?
- I, na iya garaya.

C. Mi kake yi domin ka shaata?


- Ina yin gudu da aukar hotuna domin in shaata.

D. - Wane wasa ne yake yi?

- Yana yin wallon afa da kokowa.

E. - Mi kake yi domin ka shaata?

- Ina yin karatu da iyo domin in shaata.

F. - Mi take son yi?

- Tana son yin yawo da kian garaya.

Activity 7
My name is Amadu Yahaya. I am from Magaria. I go to college at Amadu Bello University in
Kano, Nigeria. I am very busy with my classes and my hobbies. I study computer science, and I
play on the university soccer team. I have class every day from 8:30 to 3:00 in the afternoon.
After school I have soccer practice every day from 4:00 to 6:00. I like to play soccer. My
friends and I play on the weekends too. I also like to swim and to play the guitar. Im not very
good at the guitar. This weekend my friends and I will go to a concert at the stadium in Zinder,
Niger. Our favorite singer will sing. After the concert we will go to a restaurant and have dinner.
Sunana Amadu Yahayya. Daga Magarya nike a Nijar. Ina yin karatu a Jamiar Amadu
Bello a Kano, Nijeriya. Kullum ina da harkoki dayawa, ga karatu ga wasanni. Ina koyon
ilimin kwamfiyuta kuma ina cikin tim in wallon afa na Jamia. Ina da azuzuwa daga
arfe 8:30 da safe zuwa arfe 3:00 da rana. Bayan haka muna yin faratis in wallon
afa kowacce rana daga arfe 4:00 zuwa 6:00 da marece. Ina jin dain yin wasan
wallon afa. A arshen mako ma ni da Abokaina mukan yi wallon afa. Ina kuma son
yin iyo da kain garayar bature, wato gitar. Ban iya gitar sosai ba. Wannan arshen sati
abokaina da ni za mu tafi wani wasa da ake yi a filin wasan Zinder, cikin Nijar. Mawai
duk da muka fi so shi zai yi waa. Bayan wasa za mu tafi gidan abinci mu ci abincin
dare.

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Activity 8
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
H.

T Amadu Yahaya is from Magaria, Niger.


F He is a high school student at Amadu Bello University in Kano, Nigeria.
F Amadu studies chemistry.
T Amadu plays on the university soccer team.
T He had class every day from 8:30 to 3:00.
F Amadu likes to swim and play the piano.
F After the concert, Amadu will go home to do his homework.

Activity 10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Village Square
Gymnasium
Soccer field
Road
Swimming pool
Tennis court

Dandali
akin motsa jiki
Filin wasa
Hanya
Wurin Waha
Filin tanis

Activity 11
A. alibai suna yin wasan wallon raga a akin motsa jiki.

A. The students play volleyball in the gymnasium.


B. Yara suna yin iyo a wurin waha.

B. The children swim in the swimming pool.


C. an mata suna yin gudu a kan hanya.

C. The girls go running on the road.


D. Abokana suna yin wasan tanis a filin tanis.

D. My friends play tennis at the tennis court.


E. Yara suna yin wasan wallon afa a filin wasa.

E. The kids are playing soccer in the playing field.


Activity 12
1.

C. She will sing after school.


Za ta yi waa bayan makaranta.

2.

A. He likes to play soccer and basketball.

3.

B. She doesnt paint pictures, but she takes photographs.

Yana son wasan wallon afa da wallon kwando.


Ba ta yi zane-zane, amma tana aukar hotuna.)

4.

B. Do you play garaya?

No, I play piano.

Ka iya kiin garaya?

Aa, amma na iya biyano.

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5.

B. What are your hobbies?


Mi kake yi kamar abin shaatawa?

I like to read and dance.


Ina jin dain yin karatu da rawa.

260

Lesson 17
Health and the Human Body
Lafiya da Jikin Mutum

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


Vocabulary related to the human body
Asking questions about a persons state of health
Answering questions about health conditions
Typical exchanges at the doctors office

1. Listen as the speaker recites the vocabulary. Then study the diagram and match
the Hausa terms for each body part with the diagram.
Abdomen
Arm
Back
Chest
Chin
Ear
Elbow
Eye
Face
Fingers
Foot/Feet
Genitals
Groin
Hair
Hand
Head
Heart
Hip
Knee
Leg
Mouth

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Ciki, Tumbi
Hannu
Baya
irji
Haa
Kunne
Gwiwar hannu
Ido
Fuska
Yatsu
afa / afafuwa
Alaura
Kwankwaso
Gashi
Hannu
Kai
Zuciya
uwawu
Gwiwa
afa
Baki

Neck
Nose
Pelvis
Shoulder
Stomach
Toes
Tooth/Teeth
Waist

Wuya
Hanci
Kwatangwalo
Kafaa
Ciki
Yatsun afa
Haori / Haora
ugu, Gindi

2. In Hausa, name the body parts that come in pairs. Check your work with the Answer
Key.
3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate body part in Hausa. Check your answers with
the Answer Key.
Idanu

Kunnuwa afafuwa Zuciya

Kai

Hannuwa Wuya

Baki

A. I use my ____________ to read a book.


B. I listen to music with my _____________.
C. Walking is good for my ____________.
D. I wear shoes and socks on my _____________.
E. In the winter, I wear a hat on my __________, gloves on my ___________ , and a scarf
around my __________.
F. I eat and drink with my __________________.

Talking About Health


In Hausa culture, there is a lot of talk about health. Many of the standard greetings involve
asking the person how his or her health is. For instance, the greeting kana lafiya literally
means You are in health? and many other greetings carry this same meaning. It is also an
unfortunate fact of life in the Hausa speaking world that poor health is a very common
occurrence, and so it is important to be able to talk about health. Health is often spoken of very
openly in Hausa culture. It is important, however, to understand a few of the nuances of these
discussions. For instance, when a person inquires about your health in the form of a greeting, it is
normal to answer that you are well even if you are on deaths door. Only after the greeting phase
of the conversation has passed will a person reiterate the question in hope of a real answer. Also,

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it is very important in Hausa culture to go and greet anybody you know who is sick. The Western
habit of leaving the sick person alone does not apply in Hausa culture. If you are sick, you can
expect all of your acquaintances and neighbors to come and inquire about your health. In fact, it
would be rude if they didnt. The same will be expected of you. See below some common
phrases about health with explanatory notes.

How are you?

Ina lafiya? / Yaya lafiya?

This is generally just a


greeting to which you just
answer lafiya lau.
This is usually asked of a
person who is known to be
sick. The person will then
answer jiki da saui (the
body is getting better) or jiki
ya yi saui as a courtesy.
Only after further inquiry will
you talk about what is really
wrong.
This is similar to the above
question, but it is asked of
someone who is known to
have a loved one who is ill.

How is the body?

Ina jiki?

How is the sick one?

Ina mai jiki?

is somewhat better.
Are you feeling ill?

da saui-saui.

I am not felling well.

Ba ni jin dai.

To take medicine

Sha magani

Kana jin jikinka?

Note how jin jiki is an


idiomatic phrase meaning to
feel ill.
Note that this phrase can mean
either I am not feeling well
or I am not happy,
depending on context.
Literally to drink medicine.

Here is a short dialogue that portrays a typical house visit to someone who is not feeling well.
Ali: Salama alekum.

Salama alekum

Usman (mai jiki): Wa alekum assalam

Wa alekum assalam

Ali: Ina wuni?

How are you?

Usman: Lafiya lau.

Good.

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Ali: Ina jiki?

How is the body?

Usman: Jiki ya yi saui.

It is getting better.

Ali: Allah ya ara saui.

May God add to that.

Usman : Amin, amin.

Amen, Amen.

Ali : Allah ya ara saui.

May God add to that.

Usman : Amin, amin, amin.

Amen, amen, amen.

Ali : Mi ya sameka ne ?
Usman : Zazzai ne.
Ali : Kai ! Babu dai!

What do you have?


Yes, its a fever.
Oh ! Thats no fun !

Usman: Wallai!

Seriously !

Ali: Ka sha magani?

Did you take any medicine?

Usman: Aa ban sha ba.


Ali: To, mi ya sa ba ka sha magani ba?

No, I didnt take any.


Well, why didnt you take any medicine?

Usman: Wallai, ba ni da kuinsa. Da ina da


kui, da sai in sayi magani, amma babu.

Seriously, I dont have the money. If I had the


money, I would buy medicine, but I dont have
any.

Ali: Ai, to, bari in je in sayo maka magani.

Oh, well, hold on. Ill go buy you some.

Usman: To na gode.

Ok, thank you.

Ali: Aa, ba komi.

Oh no, not a problem.

Usman: Na gode sosai.

Thank you very much.

Ali: Ba komi, sai na dawo.

No problem. See you when I get back.

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Usman: To sai ka dawo.

Ok, see you then.

Here are some additional question and responses.


How do you feel?

I feel sick.

Yaya jiki?

Ba ni da lafiya.

I feel weak right now.


Ba ni da arfi yanzu.

I feel bad.
Ba ni jin dai.

What symptoms do you have?


Mine ne alamun rishin lafiyarka?

I have a sore throat.


Ina da ciwon wuya.

I have a fever.
Ina da zazzai.

I have a headache.
Ina da ciwon kai.

Where does it hurt?

My left ankle hurts.

Ina yake maka ciwo.

afata ta hagu tana yi mini ciwo.

My back hurts.
Ina da ciwon baya.

My stomach hurts.
Ina da ciwon ciki.

4. Listen to the following questions and answers, and read along in the workbook.
A. How do you feel?

I feel sick.

A. Ina jiki?

Ba ni da lafiya.

B. What is the matter with her?

Her leg hurts.

B. Mi yake mata ciwo?

Tana da ciwon afa.

C. How do you feel?

My head hurts.

C. Ina jiki?

Ina da ciwon kai.

D. Are you in pain?

Yes, my arm is broken.

D. Kana jin ciwo?

I, hannuna ya karya.

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E. Where does it hurt?

My stomach hurts.

E. Ina kake jin ciwo?

Ina jin ciwon a ciki.

F. Are you sick?

No, Im pregnant.

F. Ba ka da lafiya ne?

Aa, ina da ciki ne.

G. Are you OK?

I dont feel good. I feel nauseous and have a


stomachache.

G. Lafiya?

Ba ni jin dai. Ina jin tashin zuciya da


ciwon ciki.

H. Are you taking any medication?

Yes, over-the-counter ones.

H. Kana shan magani?

I, waanda ake saya a kasuwa.

5. Work with a partner and role-play the dialogues from Exercise 4.


6. Match each picture with the corresponding statement. Check your work with the
Answer Key.

1. Mace ba ta da rishin lafiya. Ta auki ciki ne.


2. Yarinya tana da zazzai, ciwon wuya, da tsamin jiki, kuma tana yin attishawa
da tari. Sanyi-jiri ne ya kama ta.
3. Yaro yana da tashin zuciya da ciwon ciki.

7. Work with a partner. Role-play the doctor and patient. Use the questions from Exercise
5 as a model. Use the phrases from Exercise 6 to describe your symptoms.

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8. Listen to and read the list of the typical symptoms for each ailment.
Flu
Fever
Congestion
(mucus)
Sore throat
Body aches
Sneezing
Coughing

Sanyi-jiri

Head cold
Congestion
Sore Throat
Sneezing
Coughing
Severe Pain

Mura

Broken Bone
Swelling
Bruise
Bleeding

Karyayyan ashi

Sprain
Swelling
Pain

Targae, gure

Zazzai
Majina
Ciwon wuya
Tsamin jiki
Attishawa
Tari

Majina
Ciwon wuya
Attishawa
Tari
Tsananin ciwo

Kumburi
urma
Zubar jini

Kumburi
Ciwo

9. Look at the chart of symptoms in Exercise 8. Work with a partner or in a small group
and develop questions the doctor might ask about ones symptoms in order to diagnose
the problem. Use the following model to create a dialogue.
Model:
Do you have fever?
No, I dont.
Do you have a cough and body aches?
No, doctor.
Thats very good. You dont have the flu. Its a cold.
Thank you, doctor.
You are welcome.

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Conversion of Measurements
1 foot = 30 centimeters
1 inch = 2.5 centimeters
100 centimeters = 1 meter
1 pound = 0.454 kilograms

afa 1 = santimeta 30
inci 1 = santimeta 2.5
santimeta 100 = meta 1
laba 1 = kilo 0.454

- How tall is he, and how much does he weigh?


- Mine ne tsawonsa, kuma mine ne nauyinsa.
- He is 175 centimeters tall and weighs 90 kilograms.
- Tsawonsa santimeta 175 kuma nauyinsa kilo 90.
- How tall are you? How much do you weigh?
- Mine ne tsawonka? Mine ne nauyinka?
- I am 160 centimeters tall and weigh 60 kilograms.
- Tsawona santimeta 160, kuma nauyina kilo 60.
10. Work with a partner. Take turns asking each other about your height and weight. Do
not forget to use the units of measure appropriate for Niger and Nigeria.

11. Listen to the speaker while you read the statements below. Translate each exchange.
You can check the English translation in the Answer Key.
A. Yaya kake jin jikinka?
- Ba ni jin dai. Akwai tashin zuciya.
B. Yaya kike jin jikinki?
- Lafiya lau, amma da tashin zuciya kaan.
C. Yaya kake jin jikinka?
- Ba ni lafiya, amma babu tashin zuciya.
D. Ina tsammani na karya afata. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!
E. Ina tsammani ya karya afarsa. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!
F. Ya karya afarsa ne ? I, ina tsammani. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!

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12. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statement that you hear.
Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. A. Where does it hurt? My stomach hurts.
B. Where does it hurt? My back hurts.
C. Where does it hurt? My neck hurts.
2.

A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a headache.


B. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a stomachache.
C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and my body aches.

3.

A. How do you feel? I dont feel well. Im nauseous.


B. How do you feel? I feel fine, but Im a little nauseous.
C. How do you feel? I dont feel well, but Im not nauseous.

4. A. I think I broke my leg. Please call an ambulance!


B. I think he broke his leg. Please call an ambulance!
C. Did he break his leg? I think so, please call an ambulance!

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End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Ask and answer the following questions in Hausa. Check the Answer Key for a
translation of the questions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

When you have the flu, what are your symptoms?


Are you taking any medications?
Have you ever broken a bone? If yes, which one(s)?
What is your height and weight?
How often do you see a doctor? Every month? Every year? Every 3 years?

2. Tell the class what you do in order to keep a healthy weight? Do you exercise? What
types of exercise do you do? How often and for how long do you exercise? Do you have
a special diet? What kind? What do you eat and not eat? Give an example of your
menu. What do you order when you eat out? How does it affect your diet the next day?

3. Work with a partner or in a small group. Describe the picture below.

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Vocabulary List
Allergy
Ambulance
Arm
Forearm
Chest
Chin
Are you in pain?
Are you taking any
medication?
Body aches
Broken bone
Bruise
Call an ambulance!
Congestion
Coughing
Ear
Elbow
Eye
Finger
Foot
Feel
Fever
Flu/Influenza
Hand
Head
Hip
Knee
Help!
How do you feel?
Hurt, Pain
Leg
Thigh
Calf
Mouth
Nose

Saminya (Rishin lafiyar a ci wani abu ko a taa shi).


Motar asibiti, Motocin asibiti (pl.), Ambulan
Hannu, Hannuwa (pl.)
Damtse, Damatsa (pl.)
irji
Haa, Haoi
Kana jin ciwo?
Kana shan wani magani?
Tsamin jiki
Karyayyan ashi
urma, Je-ka-huda
A kira motar asibiti!
Mura
Tari
Kunne, Kunnuwa (pl.)
Gwiwar hannu, Gwiwowin hannu (pl.)
Ido, Idanu (pl.)
Yatsa, Yatsu (pl.)
afa, afufuwa (pl.)
Ji
Zazzai
Sanyi-jiri
Hannu, Hannuwa (pl.)
Kai, Kawuna (pl.)
uwawu, uwaiwai (pl.)
Gwiwa, Gwiwowi (pl.)
A taimakeni!
Yaya kake jin jikinka?
Ciwo, Ciwace-ciwace (pl.)
afa, afafuwa
Cinya, Cinyoyi
Sha-raa
Baki, Bakuna
Hanci, Hantuna

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Neck
Medicine
Nausea
Pain
Pregnant
To get pregnant
Shoulder
Toe
Waist
Sick
Sneezing
Sore throat
Stomach
Stomach cramps
Cramps (pregnancy)
Strain
Swelling (noun)
To swell
Symptoms
Illness (general)
What is the matter?
Where does it hurt?
Centimeter
To buy and bring back
Betterness (noun)
To add
To take medicine
Medicine
Time (one time )
Coughing
To return
See you when I get back.
How are you feeling?
I caught a cold.

Wuya, Wuyoyi
Magani, Magunguna
Tashin zuciya
Ciwo
Mai ciki, da ciki
auki ciki
Kafaa, Kafau
Yatsar afa, Yatsun afa (pl.)
Gindi, ugu (esp. with clothes)
Rishin lafiya, marar lafiya
Attishawa
Ciwon wuya
Ciki, Cikkuna (pl.)
Murar ciki
Ciwon mara
Gure
Kumburi
Kumbura
Alama, Alamu (pl.), Bayyanar cuta
Rishin lafiya
Mi ya sameka?
Ina yake maka ciwo?
Santimeta
Sayo
Saui
ara
Sha magani
Magani
Sau
Tari
Dawo
Sai na dawo.
Yaya kake jin jikinka?
Mura ta kama ni.

272

ANSWER KEY
Activity 2
Kunnuwa
Gwiwowin hannu
Idanuwa
afafuwa
Hannuwa
Gwiwowi
Kafau
Hannuwa
afafuwa
uwaiwai

Activity 3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

eyes
ears
heart
feet
head, hands, neck
mouth

A. Idanu
B. Kunnuwa
C. Zuciya
D. afafuwa
E. Kai, hannuwa, wuya
F. Baki

Activity 6
A. 2 The little girl has a fever, a sore throat, body aches, and she is sneezing and coughing. She
has the flu. (Yarinya tana da zazzai, ciwon wuya, da tsamin jiki, kuma tana yin
attishawa da tari. Sanyi-jiri ne ya kama ta.)

B. 1 The young woman is not sick. She is pregnant. (Mace ba ta da rishin lafiya. Ta auki
ciki ne.)

C. 3 The little boy is nauseous and has a stomachache. (Yaro yana da tashin zuciya da
ciwon ciki.)

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Activity 11
A. How do you feel? - I dont feel well. Im nauseous.
B. - How do you feel? - I feel fine, but Im a little nauseous.
C. How do you feel? - I dont feel well, but Im not nauseous.
D. I think I broke my leg. Please call an ambulance!
E. I think he broke his leg. Please call an ambulance!
F. Did he break his leg? I think so. Please call an ambulance!
A. Yaya kake jin jikinka?
- Ba ni jin dai. Akwai tashin zuciya.
B. Yaya kike jin jikinki?
- Lafiya lau, amma da tashin zuciya kaan.
C. Yaya kake jin jikinka?
- Ba ni lafiya, amma babu tashin zuciya.
D. Ina tsammani na karya afata. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!
E. Ina tsammani ya karya afarsa. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!
F. Ya karya afarsa ne ? I, ina tsammani. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!

Activity 12
1. B. Where does it hurt? My back hurts.
Ina yake miki ciwo? Ina jin ciwo a baya.

2.

A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a headache.

3.

A. How do you feel? I dont feel well. Im nauseous.

4.

C. Did he break his leg? I think so, please call an ambulance!

Mine ne alamun rishin lafiyarki? Akwai zazzai da ciwon kai.


Yaya kake jin jikinka? Ba ni jin dai. Akwai tashin zuciya.
Ya karya afarsa ne? I, ina tsammani. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!

End-of-Lesson Tasks
Activity 1
A. In kana da sanyi-jiri, mine ne alamunsa?
B. Kana shan magani?
C. Ka taa karya ashi? In ka taa yin haka, wane ashi ne ka karya?
D. Mine ne tsawonka da nauyinka?
E. Sau nawa kakan tafiya likita? Kowanne wata? Kowacce shekara? Kowaanne shekaru
ukku?

274

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

When you have the flu, what are your symptoms?


Are you taking any medications?
Have you ever broken a bone? If yes, which one(s)?
What is your height and weight?
How often do you see a doctor? Every month? Every year? Every 3 years?

275

Lesson 18
Politics and International Affairs
Siyasa da Harkokin Waje
This lesson will introduce you to following:
- Vocabulary associated with politics and international issues
- How they are reported in Hausa news
- How to read and understand political events written in Hausa language newspapers.

Politics:
Both Nigeria and Niger are, at least nominally, democratic countries. Democratic institutions are
in place and voting takes place at regular intervals. Both of these democracies, however, have
their own share of problems. Nigeria is so rife with corruption as to sometimes be referred to as a
kleptocracy (rule by theft). Niger has had numerous coups dtat since independence was
declared, and more recently an extended rebellion in the northern part of the country. In both
countries, there is a constant tension between traditionalist Islam and modernist tendencies, and
this tug-of-war has manifested in every election that has taken place. Hausa culture tends to be
very traditional, and thus the leaders that have been chosen are usually fairly conservative in
their values. Northern Nigeria is known for its more extremist leanings, and often chooses
leaders that even their fellows Hausas in Niger find to be frighteningly radical in their ultratraditional Islamic form of governing. Human rights issues continue to be one of the major issues
in the Hausa speaking world, at least according to outside observers. Niger is one of the last
places in the world still suspected of having traditional hereditary slavery taking place. And, the
Tuareg rebels in the north continue to show discontent (often in the form of highway banditry) at
the treatment of the northern people of Niger by the government. The Muslim majority in
northern Nigeria, meanwhile, is constantly at odds with the wealthier Christian majority in the
South, and these tensions frequently flare up in the form of interfaith violence.

1. Familiarize yourself with the political terms.


Government
Prime minister
President
Leader
Dictator
Parliament
Ministry
Election
Officials

Gwamnati
Firayim Minista
Shugaba
Shugaba / magabaci
Mai mulkin kama-karya
Majalisar dokoki
Maaikata
Zae
Maaikata

276

Political Party
Vote
Republic
State (country)
Democracy
Democratic
Term of office
Policy
Human Rights
Religious
Racial
Radical
World
Conflict
War
Invade
Nuclear weapons

Jamiyya
Yin zae, Jefa uria
Jamhuriya
asa
Dimokaraiya
Na dimokaraiya
Ajalin iko
Siyasa / Manufa
Hakkin an Adam
Addini
Na launin fata
Mai tsaurin raayi
Duniya
Rikici, Rigima
Yai
Kai wa hari
Makamashin nukiliya

2. Listen to and read the following terms and statements. While reading, note the use
of new vocabulary.
The Iraqi leader
The Russian officials
The South African government
Religious differences
Middle East conflict
The war in Iraq
The radical political party
Islamic fundamentalism

Shugaban Irai
Jamian Rasha
Gwamnatin Afirka ta Kudu
Bambance-bambancen addini
Rikici a gabas ta tsakiya
Yai cikin Irai
Jamiyyar siyasa mai tsaurin raayi
Musulumci na masu raayin riau

The President of the United States is George Bush.


George Bush, shi ne shugaban Amirka.

Japan and Great Britain have prime ministers.


Japan da Ingila suna da firayim ministoci.

This was the first political election in that country.


Wannan shi ne zae na farko a wannan asa.

Human rights are a very important issue in the world today.


Hakkokin an Adam lamiri ne mai muhimmancin gaske a duniya yau.

277

The News:
The news in Nigeria is generally reported and written in English, while in Niger it is in French.
There are a few Hausa language newspapers in Nigeria, as well as some Hausa language radio
stations in Nigeria and Niger. One of the main sources of news for the Hausa speaking public,
however, is shortwave radio. In any Hausa village, you can expect to hear the familiar theme
songs of BBC, Deutsche Welle, and Voice of America, as people tune in to the Hausa language
reports several times a day. The British, German, American, Chinese, and Iranian national radio
stations all broadcast daily Hausa language programming to Africa via shortwave. Hausa news
reporters generally have a very specific tone and cadence to their speech that is easily recognized
to a Hausa speaker as radio speech. There are also some words and expressions that are common
on these international news broadcasts that are not part of everyday speech for most Hausas. It is
sometimes seen as a dialect of its own, referred to playfully as Bibisanci, meaning the language
of the BBC (British Broadcasting Network). One very noticeable characteristic of this style of
speech is that rather than borrowing a word from English or French, the news stations will seek
out a genuine Hausa term even at the expense of using less common terminology. This is done
intentionally in order to strengthen the Hausa language as it attempts to adapt to new situations
and technology. However, this can sometimes result in a language that is quite unlike what is
normally used on the street. That being said, however, you will notice many words relating to
politics that are clearly derived from English but have become so integrated in the Hausa
language as to be considered proper Hausa.

3. Listen to and read the following transcript of a radio news report from Nigeria.
Then answer the questions that follow. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
To, masu sauraro, yanzu za mu koma Nijeriya inda Salifu Ayuba ya shirya mana
wannan rahoto a kan zanga-zangar da aka yi jiya a birnin Kano.
Jiya da safe aliban jamia masu umbin yawa suka fito tituna su yi zanga-zanga
domin su nuna rishin gamsuwarsu da cewa gwamnatin jahar Kano ta kasa biyan kuin
tallafi ga daliban jamia tun wata ukku.
Fiye da mutune dubu 15 suka haa a wurin domin su kai wa gwamnatin koke-kokensu
cewa gwamnati ba ta kula da su kamar yadda ya kamata.
Mai magana da yawun gwamnati Abdu Sale ya ce a halin yanzu gwamnati kanta ba ta
da kui.
Ya ce maaikitan gwamnati su ma ba su sami cikakken albashinsu ba. Amma kuma ya
ce in sha ma Allahu gwamnati zai sami kuin ba da daewa ba.
Domin haka ya ce ya kamata su alibai su bar wannan zanga-zanga su yi hauri.
Amma su alibai a nasu angare suka ce ba za su bar yin zanga-zanga sai gwamnati ta
cika alkawarinta. Salifu Ayuba, daga Kano, Nijeriya.

278

Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Where is the reporter reporting from?


What happened?
When did it happen?
How many people came out?
What did the government spokesperson think the students should do?

4. Work in small groups. Pretend that you are a crew working for a news program.
Make up a short description of a political event. Use the questions from Exercise 3 as an
outline for your report.
5. Work in a small group or with a partner. Go over the information on the political
system in the Nigeria and Niger one more time. Recall the information in the Hausa.
Report to your teacher and to the class.

279

International Geography

Geography:
The Hausa speaking world is located primarily in a hot, flat, and dry sub-desert region known as
the Sahel. Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger both lie in this climatic zone, the Sahel, which
extends from Senegal to Sudan south of the Sahara Desert. There are no real mountains in the
Hausa speaking areas, just a few hills and rock outcrops. There are few major lakes, and many of
the rivers and small lakes are seasonal. There are many dry river beds, especially in Niger; a sign
of the encroachment of the Sahara Desert into the Sahel. This process of desertification has
devastated the farmlands of the Sahel and contributed to the diminishment of the species of
animals and plants that live in the region. The diminishing yields of the farms (caused by the

280

encroachment of sands and reduction in annual rainfall) represent a major dilemma for the
Hausas. They have farmed this land for centuries. Fortunately, in the last couple of decades
governments and the global community have undertaken some real efforts to stem the advance of
desertification, and there is some evidence that these efforts are having an effect. Some native
trees, such as the Gao tree, are now protected, and new methods of clearing the fields are
improving the nutrient quality of the soils. It must be noted, however, that this fragile land also
faces an imminent threat from the population boom that is taking place in the region and the
specter of overpopulation.
Kano is often considered the cultural center of Hausaland, but there are several other major
population centers in Hausaland, including Katsina, Sokoto, Zaria, Maiduguri, Kaduna, Bauci,
Zinder, Maradi, Tahoua, Daura, and several others. The area sometimes called Hausaland, where
the Hausa city-states once formed a sort of Hausa kingdom, has now been bisected by the border
between Niger and Nigeria, a line which follows no culturally significant boundary. Historically
the line divided French West Africa (including what is now Niger) and British West Africa
(including what is now Nigeria). The border has gained real cultural significance over the years
because of differing governments and, more importantly, different colonial languages.
The rainy season, also the season for farming, runs May through September. These are the most
important months of the year as the rainfall largely determines the crop output for the year. A
drought year is a real life and death crisis for many families, and thus the rains are anticipated
anxiously as May rolls around each year. The high temperatures in the hot seasonusually
March and Aprilcan top 115 degrees in the shade; another reason why the rains are so
welcome.
6. Now that you have read the information about Nigeria and Niger, answer the following
questions. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. Which Nigerian city is often considered the cultural center of Hausaland?
2. Name three Hausaland cities that lie in Niger.
3. What is the name of the climate zone in which Hausaland lies?
4. What was the colonial era name of the area in which modern day Niger lies?

7. Listen to the speaker while following along in your book.

Afghanistan
Canada
China
Burkina
Egypt
England
Finland

Afganistan
Kyanada
(asar) Sin/ Caina
Burkina
Masar/ Misira
Ingila
Finland

281

France
Germany
Great Britain
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Jordan
Korea
Sudan
Senegal
Netherlands
Norway
Pakistan
Ethiopia
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Cameroon
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
Syria
Ghana
Vietnam
Chad
North America
Central America
South America
Western Europe
Central Europe
Eastern Europe
Middle East
Southwest Asia
Southeast Asia

Faransa
Jamus
Britaniya
Indiya
Indunisiya
Iran/ Farisa
Ira/ Irai
Ireland
Israila
Italiya
Japan
Jordan
Koriya
Sudan
Senegal
(asar) Holan
Norwai
Pakistan
(asar) Habasha
Rasha
Saudiya / asar Maka
Kamaru
Afirka ta Kudu
Spain
Swidin
Siriya / Sham
Gana
Vietnam
(asar) Cadi
Amirka ta Arewa
Amirka ta Tsakiya
Amirka ta Kudu
Yammacin Turai
Tsakiyar Turai
Gabashin Turai
Gabas ta Tsakiya
Asiya ta Kudu Maso Yamma
Asiya ta Kudu Maso Gabas

282

Africa
Australia
Eastern Asia

Afirka
Ostareliya
Asiya ta gabas

Nations and Nationalities:


In Hausa, it is fairly simple to form the name of the nationality once you know the name of the
nation. See the example below using America. The same basic rules apply to most other
countries.
America /

American

American (more
an implication of
race rather than
just nationality)

American Citizen

Mutumin

Baamrike

an asar

Amirka

Masculine

Amirka

Feminine

Mutumniyar

Amirka
Baamrikiya

Amirka

Plural

Mutanen

ar asar
Amirka

Amrikawa

Amirka

an asar
Amirka

Note that the ba form for describing race and/or nationality can be difficult to use and is not
commonly used with certain countries or peoples.

8. Listen to and read the dialogues about nationality. Note the ways to determine
ones nationality.
Are you from Syria?

No, Im from Egypt. Im an Egyptian.

Daga Siriya kake?

Aa, daga Masar nike. Ni mutumin Masar ne.

Are you American?

No, Im Canadian.

Ke mutumniyar Amirka ce?

Aa ni mutumniyar Kyanada ce.

What are you?

Im Vietnamese.

Kai an ina ne?

Ni mutumin Vietnam ne.

Where are you from?

Im from India. Im Indian.

Daga ina kake?

Daga Indiya nike. Ni mutumin Indiya ne.

283

Are you Indonesian?

Yes, Im Indonesian. I live in Jakarta.

Kai mutumin Indunisiya ne?

I, ni mutumin Indunisiya ne. Ina zaune a


Jakarta.

Are you from Afghanistan?

I live in Afghanistan, but I am Pakistani.

Daga Afganistan kike?

Ina zaune a Afganistan, amma ni mutumniyar


Pakistan ce.

9. Create questions in Hausa that are appropriate to the answers provided. Check your
work with the Answer key.
1. - ..?
I, ni mutumin Vietnam ne.
2. - ?
Aa, ni ba mutumniyar Amirka ce. Ni mutumniyar Kyanada ce.

3. - or ..?
A Pakistan nike da zama, amma ni mutumin Afganistan ne.
4. - ..?
I, mu mutanen Irai ne.

10. What do you hear? The speaker will read one word from each line of text. Mark
the word that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Afghanistan
Ireland
Vietnam
Saudi Arabia
Kuwait

Pakistan
Thailand
Indonesia
Syria
Iraq

Iran
Netherlands
Japan
Israel
Egypt

284

India
England
China
Jordan
Russia

End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Translate the following headlines into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Kofi Annan ya ziyarci birnin Tehran
2. Shugaban Amirka George Bush ya yi jawabi a kan manufofin Gwamnatin Amirka
a game da Irai
3. Shugabannin asashen Afirka ta Yamma sun hau a Bamako domin su halarci
wani babban taro a kan tattalin arziki
4. Jawabi A kan yai da jahilci a Nijar
5. Hukumar zae a asar Jamus ta fai sakamakon zae

2. Listen to and read the following news report from Nigeria, and then answer the
questions that follow. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
An jinkirta fain sakamakon zae a Kongo
Hukumar zae ta asar Kongo ta bayar da sanarwar jinkirta fain sakamakon zaen
an majalisar dokoki, har zuwa ranar alhamis ta jibi idan Allah ya kaimu.
Sakamakon zaen da aka shirya fai a farko farkon makon nan, an age shi ne a cewar
hukumar zaen bayan gano magui da wasu jamiai 10 suka yi, don ba wa jamiyyun
adawa nasara.
Ya zuwa yanzu dai sakamakon bayan fage na nuni da cewa jamiyyar hain gwiwa da
shugaba Joseph Kabila ke wa jagoranci ce a kan gaba da yawan uriun da aka kidaya.
Idan dai an iya tunawa, shugaba Joseph Kabila ne a kan gaba a yawan uriu na zaen
shugaban asa, to amma ya gaza samun uriun da ake bukata domin lashe zaen.
Hakan yasa a watan gobe zasu sake arawa, a zagaye na biyu da mai rufa masa baya a
yawan uriun , wato Jean Pierre Bemba.
(From Deutsche Welle Hausa Section)

Questions:

285

1. What did the electoral commission announce that it was doing?


2. Who is the leader of the party that is currently in the lead?
3. When will the runoff vote take place?
4. What was the reason for the delay?
5. When will the results be announced?
3. Work with a partner or in a small group. From the list of the countries above, choose
one and give a briefing on its location and political system. Pretend that you are giving a
press conference. Your classmates will role-play the news reporters by asking you
questions.
The following questions may help you in your work:
1. Does this country have a president? Who is the current president?
2. How many political parties are there in this country?
3. Is there a war in this country now?
4. Does this country have a parliament?
5. Is there a democracy in this country?
6. Does this country have a prime minister?
7. Is the leader of this country a dictator?
8. Is this country a republic?
9. What is a specific geographical feature of this country?

286

Vocabulary List
Conflict
Democracy/democratic
Dictator
Dispute
Election
Government
Human Rights
Invade/invasion
Leader
Ministry
Nuclear weapons
Official
Parliament
Policy
Political Party
President
Prime minister
Racial
Radical
Religious
Republic
State
Term of office
To kill
To vote
To invade
War
World
Vocabulary for Radio
Transcript
A great number of
To come out into the
streets
Discontentment
Support money
Since

Rikici/ Rigima
Dimokuraiyya
Mai mulkin kama karya
Rikici/gardandami
Zae
Gwamnati, gwamnatoci (pl.)
Hakkokin an Adam
Kai wa hari/ Hari
Shugaba, shugabanni (pl.)
Maaikata, Maaikatu (pl.)
Makamai nukiliya
Jamii, jamiai (pl.)/ Maaikaci, maaikata (pl.)
Majalisa, majalisu (pl.)
Manufa, manufofi (pl.)
Jamiyyar Siyasa, Jamiyyun Siyasa
Shugaba, Shugabanni (pl.)
Firayim Minista
Na launin fata
Mai tsaurin raayi
Na addini
Jamhuriya, jamhuriyoyi (pl.)
asa, asashe (pl.)
Ajalin iko
Kashe
Yin zae, jefa uria
Kai wa hari
Yai, yae-yae (pl.)
Duniya, Duniyoyi (pl.)

masu umbin yawa


Fito tituna
Rishin gamsuwa
Kuin tallafi
Tun

287

More than
To join, connect, meet
up
Complaint
To take care of
How (not in questions)
Government
spokesperson
At the current time
Itself (fem.)
Full, complete
Pay, salary
To linger, To take a long
time
Because of that
To leave (someone or
something), or to stop
doing something
Area, Section
Promise
Vocabulary for Article
from Deutsche Welle
If
The day after tomorrow
To delay
Electoral commission
To give
Announcement
Results
One week from
Thursday (it is Tuesday)
If God takes us there
To prepare
The very beginning of ...
To postpone
According to
Fraud
Opposition party
Success/ Victory
To the present time

Fiye da
Haa
Kuka, Koke-koke (pl.)
Kula da
Yadda, Yanda
Mai magana da yawun gwamnati
A halin yanzu
Kanta
Cikakken
Albashi
Daewa
Domin haka
Bari, Bar
angare
Alkawari

Idan/ In
Jibi
Jinkirta
Hukumar zae
Ba da/ Bayar da
Sanarwa
Sakamako
Ranar Alhamis ta jibi
Idan Allah ya kai mu
Shirya
Farko farkon...
age
A cewar
Magui
Jamiyyar adawa
Nasara
Ya zuwa yanzu

288

Unofficial results
To show
Coalition party
Leadership
In the lead
Votes
Counting
Remember
To fail (followed by
verb)
To win
Next month
To repeat
To add
Second round
His runner up
Number of votes

Sakamakon bayan fage


Nuna/ Nuni
Jamiyyar hain gwiwa
Jagoranci
A kan gaba
uriu
Kidaya
Tunawa
Gaza
Lashe
Watan gobe
Sake
arawa
Zagaye na biyu
Mai rufe masa baya
Yawan uriu

289

ANSWER KEY
Exercise 3

Transcript for radio report on the student strike in Kano.


Alright, listeners, now we turn to Nigeria where Salifu Ayuba has prepared this report on the
protest that took place yesterday in the city of Kano.
Yesterday morning a large number of university students took to the streets to show their
unhappiness, claiming that the government has failed to pay them their support money for the
past three months. More that fifteen thousand people gathered in order to bring the complaint to
the government, that it is not taking care of them as it should. The government spokesperson,
Abdou Sale, said that at the current time the government itself lacks money, and that even
government workers have not received their full pay. But he said that the government is
expecting to receive funds in the near future. Because of that, he said the students should put an
end to the protest and be patient. But the students, for their part, responded that they will
continue to protest until the government fulfills its promise.
Salifu Ayouba, Kano, Nigeria.
Answers for questions:
1. Kano, Nigeria
2. There was a student strike.
3. Yesterday morning
4. More that 15,000
5. He said that they should quit striking and be patient
To, masu sauraro, yanzu za mu koma Nijeriya inda Salifu Ayuba ya shirya mana
wannan rahoto a kan zanga-zangar da aka yi jiya a birnin Kano.
Jiya da safe aliban jamia masu umbin yawa suka fito tituna su yi zanga-zanga
domin su nuna rishin gamsuwarsu da cewa gwamnatin jahar Kano ta kasa biyan kuin
tallafi ga daliban jamia tun wata ukku.
Fiye da mutune dubu 15 suka haa a wurin domin su kai wa gwamnatin koke-kokensu
cewa gwamnati ba ta kula da su kamar yadda ya kamata.
Mai magana da yawun gwamnati Abdu Sale ya ce a halin yanzu gwamnati kanta ba ta
da kui.
Ya ce maaikitan gwamnati su ma ba su sami cikakken albashinsu ba. Amma kuma ya
ce in sha ma Allahu gwamnati zai sami kuin ba da daewa ba.
Domin haka ya ce ya kamata su alibai su bar wannan zanga-zanga su yi hauri.
Amma su alibai a nasu angare suka ce ba za su bar yin zanga-zanga sai gwamnati ta
cika alkawarinta. Salifu Ayuba, daga Kano, Nijeriya.

290

Exercise 6
1.
2.
3.
4.

Kano
Zinder, Maradi, Tahoua
The Sahel
French West Africa

Exercise 9
1.
2.
3.
4.

Are you Vietnamese?


Are you American?
Are you Pakistani?
Are you Iraqis?

1. Kai mutumin Vietnam ne?


2. Ke mutumniyar Amirka ce?
3. Kai mutumin Pakistan ne?
4. Ku mutanen Irai ne?

1. - ..?
I, ni mutumin Vietnam ne.
2. - ?
Aa, ni ba mutumniyar Amirka ce. Ni mutumniyar Kyanada ce.

3. - or ..?
A Pakistan nike da zama, amma ni mutumin Afganistan ne.
4. - ..?
I, mu mutanen Irai ne.

Exercise 10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

India
England
Indonesia
Israel
Russia

Indiya
Ingila
Indunisiya
Israila
Rasha

End of Lesson Exercise 1


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Kofi Annan Visits Tehran.


American President George Bush Gives a Speech About American Policy on Iraq.
Leaders of West African Countries Gather in Bamako to Attend an Economic Summit.
A Report on The Literacy Campaign in Niger.
The German Electoral Commission Announces Election Results.

291

1. Kofi Annan ya ziyarci birnin Tehran


2. Shugaban Amirka George Bush ya yi jawabi a kan manufofin Gwamnatin Amirka
a game da Irai
3. Shugabannin asashen Afirka ta Yamma sun hau a Bamako domin su halarci
wani babban taro a kan tattalin arziki
4. Jawabi A kan yai da jahilci a Nijar
5. Hukumar zae a asar Jamus ta fai sakamakon zae

Exercise 2

Announcement of Election Results in Congo Delayed


The electoral commission in Congo has announced that the announcement of the results of the
parliamentary election will be delayed until Thursday of next week.
The announcement of the election results was scheduled for the beginning of this week, but it
was delayed, according to the electoral commission, after the discovery of election fraud that was
committed by 10 election officials in an attempt to give an advantage to certain parties.
At the present time, the unofficial results show the coalition party of Joseph Kabila in the lead
with the majority of the votes that have been counted so far.
It should be remembered, however, that although President Joseph Kabila is leading, according
to the initial ballot count, he does not have the majority required in order to win the presidency.
For this reason, there will be a runoff vote next month between Joseph Kabila and the
presidential runner up Jean Pierre Bemba.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Delaying the announcement of the election results


Joseph Kabila
Next month
Election fraud by 10 election workers
Thursday of next week

292

Lesson 19
The Military
Soja

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Basic military vocabulary
- The rank structure of the U.S. Army and Nigerian and Nigerien military forces
- Names of weapons and army vehicles.
1. What do soldiers do? What do soldiers use? What do soldiers wear? The pictures will
help you guess the meaning of unknown terms.

Sojojin nan suna sanye da kayan soja. Suna da shuhuddai a afa da huluna na kwano a
kai. Hular kwano tana kare kansu daga igwa da harsashi da nakiyoyi. Sojoji suna da
makamai a hannu.

Wannan soji yana yin


Wannan soji yana harba bindigarsa.

magana da

Wannan soji yana da

kwamandansa a rediyo.

maharbin roka.

293

2. Now listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker.
Soldier
Uniform
Boots
Helmet
To protect
Artillery
Ammunition
Explosive
Weapons
Radio
Commander
To fire
Rifle
Rocket launcher

Soji
Kayan soja
Manyan Takalma / shuhuddai
Hular kwano
Kare, Yi tsaro
Igwa
Harsashi
Nakiya
Makamai
Rediyo
Kwamanda
Harba
Bindiga
Maharbin roka

Military Terminology
You will notice that the Hausa military language contains a lot of English loanwords that have
been thoroughly integrated into Hausa speech. The rank titles are a good example of this
borrowing. Even so, a Hausa vocabulary has been formed for discussing military issues, and the
terminology used in this chapter is of the type that will be heard in the Hausa news broadcasts.
For those who will be working alongside Nigerian soldiers, however, it is important to note that
there is a style of Hausa that is particular to the military. This style is often referred to as
barikanci (barracks speech), and it is full of English words that the majority of Hausas would
not know. It is a style of speech that is not looked upon very favorably by the rural Hausas. In
addition to being known as an unattractive form of Hausa, it is also associated with soldiers who
try to use English to pull status while bullying civilians and with the barroom talk of drunken
soldiers. Nevertheless, it is something that is prevalent in military circles, and it may be
interesting to learn. The important thing to remember is that what is comprehensible in the
barracks may not be understood in the villageor worse yet, it may be misconstrued. This
prevalence of English (or French in Niger) in military circles is natural, however, considering
that it is the language in which the military is conducted. Soldiers will use Hausa with each other
or with people who do not speak English, but all documents and official orders will be in
English, or French in Niger.

294

3. Read the statements and match each one with the correct picture. Check your answers
with the Answer Key.

1.

2.

3.

A. Farar hula ne. Ba ya da makamai. Yana da yara.


B. Soji ne. Yana da makami.
C. Soji yana caje farar hula domin ya gane ko yana da makamai.

Do you understand what caje means?


4. Listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker.

1.

2.
maharbin roka mai tafiya

Waannan motoci ana kiransu HUMMVEE.

295

da kansa.

3.

4.

5.

Tanki/ Shar da kwamba

Igwa mai tafiya da kansa

Mota mai garkuwa

5. Now cover the names of the vehicles with a sheet of paper and name them. Repeat
Exercise 4 as many times as you need to feel comfortable with the new terms.
1. ..
2. ..
3. ..
4. ..
5. ..
6. ..

6. Listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker.

296

1 Sword
2 Rifle
3 Machine gun
4 Grenade

Takobi
Bindiga
Bindiga mai ruwa
Gurnat, Nakiya

5 Mine
6 Pistol
7 Missile
8 Weapons cache

Nakiya da ke hae da waya


aramar bindiga
Harsashi
Maajiyar makamai

7. Look at the pictures in Exercise 6. Cover the Hausa translations and the English words
in Exercise 6. Match each term with the correct picture. Replay the sound as many times
as you need. Check your work with the Answer key.
A. Nakiya da ke hae da waya
B. Harsashi mai linzami
C. Gurnat, Nakiya
D. Wurin ajiye makamai
E. aramar bindiga
F. Takobi
G. Bindiga mai ruwa
H. Bindiga

8. In the following lists of items, three belong to the group, but the fourth does not logically
belong. Cross it out. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Tanki

Gurnat

Babar mota

Humbee

Bindiga

Takobi

Hular kwano

Bindiga mai ruwa

Kayan soja

Soji

Mai farar hula

Kwamanda

Rediyo

Taswira

Wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi

Makami

Hular kwano

Igwa

Kayan soja

Manyan takalma

Hafsa

Soji

Farar hula

Kwamanda

297

9. Translates the following statements into English. Check your answers with the Answer
Key.
1. Sojoji sukan sa huluna na kwano domin su kare kansu daga harsashi.
2. Sojoji sukan sa huluna na kwano domin su kare kansu daga nakiyoyi da igwoyi.
3. Muna caje dukan fararen hula domin mu nemo makamai.
4. Muna caje dukan sojoji na magabcinmu domin mu nemo makamai.

10. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statements that you hear.
Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. A. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from ammunition.
B. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives and artillery.
2. A. We are searching all vehicles for weapons.
B. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons.

11. Listen and repeat the new words after the speaker.
Army base
Be careful!
Curfew
In charge of
Minefield
Roadblock
Checkpoint
Identification
Patrol
Base
Barracks

Sansanin soja
Yi hankali!
Dokar hana fitar dare
Mai shugabancin
Wuri mai dasasshin nakiyoyi
Wurin tsaida motoci
Wurin duba motoci
Katin shaida
Sintiri
Sansani
Bariki

298

12. Fill in the blanks with the correct word from the vocabulary list above. Check your
answers with the Answer Key.
A. Wane ne ____________________ an sintiri? Shi kwamandan an sintiri.
B. Akwai _____________________? I, daga 8:00 PM zuwa 6:00 AM.
C. _______________________! Akwai ____________________ can gabanmu!
D. Dole ne kowa ya nuna __________________ a _________________.
E. Ina _____________yake? A wancan angaren sansani.

13. Work with a partner and take turns reading and role-playing the dialogues from
Exercise 12.
14. Work in a small group and come up with similar dialogues, and then role-play them.
15. Study the list of U.S. Army ranks. Compare them with the Nigerian and Nigerien
military equivalents.
Enlisted
Private
Corporal
Sergeant
Sergeant Major

Farabiti

Farman-kilashi

Kofur

Kafaran

Saja

Sarjan

Samanja

Sarjan-majar

Officer
Lieutenant
Captain
Major
Lt. Colonel
Colonel
General

Hafsa

hafsa

Laftanan

Litinan

Kyaftin

Kaftan

Manja/ Manjo

Majar

Laftanan-kanar

Litinan-kwalanal

Kanar

Kwalanal

Janar

Janaral

299

End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Work with a partner or in a small group. In Hausa, come up with a caption for each
picture below.

1. .
2. .
3. .

2. a) Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the Answer
Key.
A. Ina wurin ajiye makamai yake?
B. Wane ne mai shugabancin waanan an sintiri?
C. Dole sai ka nuna katin shaida in za ka wuce wannan wurin duba motoci.
D. Dole sai a caje dukan masu fararen hula a nemo makamai.
E. Dokar hana fitar dare ta fara aiki daga arfe 9:00 pm. arfe 9:45 ne yanzu. Ka
koma gidanka.
F. Sojoji kaai suna da izini su shiga sansanin soja.

b) Work with a partner or in a small group. Come up with situations where you can
use sentences C, D, E, and F as a reply. Create the first part of the conversation so that you
have short dialogues. Role-play them.

3. a) Translate the following into Hausa. Compare your translation against the Answer
Key.

300

A. Please step out of the car. We must search the vehicle for weapons.
B. It is after curfew. You must come with me for questioning.
C. The weapons cache is on the other side of Checkpoint Delta.
D. Be careful. There is a minefield east of the railroad.
E. Every soldier needs to have a radio and a map.
F. You must know all the checkpoints and roadblocks in this area.

b) Work with a partner or in a small group. Come up with situations where you can
use these sentences as a reply. Create the first part of the conversation so that you have
short dialogues. Role-play them.

301

Vocabulary
Ammunition
Army base
Artillery
Barracks
Base
Be careful!
Boots
Checkpoint
Civilian
Commander
Curfew
Enemy
Explosive
Grenade
Gun
Helmet
In charge
(of a patrol, base)
Machine gun
Map
Area (region)
Section
Military
Mine
Minefield
Missile
Sword
Officer
Planted (mines)
Protection
Radio
Rank
Rifle
Roadblock
Rocket

Harsashi
Sansanin soja
Igwa, Igwoyi
Bariki
Sansani, Sansanoni (pl.)
Yi hankali!
Manyan talakma
Wurin duba motoci
Farar hula, Fararen hula (pl.)
Kwamanda
Doka hana fitar dare
Abokin gaba, Magabci
Nakiya, Nakiyoyi (pl.)
Gurnat, Nakiya
Bindiga, Bindigogi (pl.)
Hular kwano, Huluna na kwano (pl.)
Mai shugabancin
Bindiga mai ruwa, Bindigogi masu ruwa
Taswira, Taswirori (pl.)
Lardi
angare, angarori (pl.)
Soja
Nakiyar da ke hae da waya
Wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi
Harsashi mai linzami
Takobi,
Hafsa, Hafsoshi (pl.)
Dasasshe
Tsaro
Rediyo, Rediyoyi (pl.)
Ranki, Muami
Bindiga
Wurin tsaida motoci
Roka

302

Rocket launcher
Search
Soldier
Tank
To take effect
Uniform
Weapon
Weapons cache
You must
Enlisted
Private
Corporal
Sergeant
Sergeant Major
Officer
Lieutenant
Captain
Major
Lt. Colonel
Colonel
General

maharbin roka
Caje, bincika
Soji, Sojoji (pl.)
Tanki, Shar da kwamba
Fara aiki
Kayan soja
Makami, Makamai (pl.)
Wurin ajiye makamai
Dole sai ka
Farabiti/ Farman-Kalashi
Kofur/ Kararan
Saja/ Sarjan
Samanja/ Sarjan-majar
Hafsa
Laftanan/ Litinan
Kyaftan/ Kaftan
Manja, Manjo/ Majar
Laftanan-kanar/ Litinan-kwalanal
Kanar/ Kwalanal
Janar/ Janaral

303

ANSWER KEY
Activity 3
1. C. The soldier searches the civilian for weapons. -- Soji yana caje farar hula domin ya
gane ko yana da makamai.

2. B. He is a soldier. He has a weapon. -- Soji ne. Yana da makami.


3. A. He is a civilian. He does not have weapons. He has children. -- Farar hula ne. Ba ya da
makamai. Yana da yara.

Activity 7
A. 5
B. 7
C. 4
D. 8
E. 6
F. 1
G. 3
H. 2

mine
missile
grenade
weapons cache
pistol
sword
machine gun
rifle

Nakiyar da ke hae da waya


Harsashi mai linzami
Gurnat, Nakiya
Maajin makamai
aramar bindiga
Takobi
Bindiga mai ruwa
Bindiga

Activity 8
1. Grenade
2. Helmet
3. Uniform
4. Minefield
5. Artillery
6. Civilian

Gurnat
Hular kwano
Kayan soja
Wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi
Igwa
Farar hula

Activity 9
1.
2.
3.
4.

Soldiers wear helmets for protection from ammunition.


Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives and artillery.
We are searching all vehicles for weapons.
We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons.

304

Activity 10
1. A. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives.
A. Sojoji sukan sa huluna na kwano domin su kare kansu daga nakiya.

2. B. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons.

B. Muna caje dukan sojoji na magabcinmu domin mu nemo makamai.

Activity 12
A. Who is in charge of the patrol? The patrol leader is. (Mai shugabancin)
B. Is there a curfew? Yes, from 8:00pm to 6:00am. (Dokar hana fitar dare)
C. Be careful! There is a minefield across the road! (Yi hankali! Wuri mai dasasshin
nakiyoyi)

D. Everyone must show their identification at the checkpoint. - (Wuri mai dasasshin
nakiyoyi, Wurin duba motoci)

E. Where are the barracks? They are on the other side of the base. (Bariki)
A. Wane ne ____________________ an sintiri? Shi kwamandan an sintiri.
B. Akwai _____________________? I, daga 8:00 PM zuwa 6:00 AM.
C. _______________________! Akwai ____________________ can gabanmu!
D. Dole ne kowa ya nuna __________________ a _________________.
E. Ina _____________yake? A wancan angaren sansani.

End of Lesson Tasks


Activity 2a
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Where is the weapons cache?


Who is in charge of this patrol?
You must show your identification when you pass the checkpoint.
All civilians must be searched for weapons.
Curfew starts at 9:00pm. Its 9:45 now. Go back to your home.
Only soldiers may enter the army base.

A. Ina wurin ajiye makamai yake?


B. Wane ne mai shugabancin waanan an sintiri?
C. Dole sai ka nuna katin shaida in za ka wuce wannan wurin duba motoci.
D. Dole sai a caje dukan masu fararen hula a nemo makamai.

305

E. Dokar hana fitar dare ta fara aiki daga arfe 9:00 pm. arfe 9:45 ne yanzu. Ka
koma gidanka.
F. Sojoji kaai suna da izini su shiga sansanin soja.

Activity 3a
A. Please step out of the car. We must search the vehicle for weapons.
A. Ku sauko daga mota. Muna bukata mu caje mota domin mu nemo makamai.

B. It is after curfew. You must come with me for questioning.


B. Dare ya yi. Ka taka dokar hana fitar dare. Sai ka zo mu yi maka wasu tambayoyi.

C. The weapons cache is on the other side of Checkpoint Delta.


C. Wurin ajiye makamai yana can bayan wurin duba motoci mai suna Delta.

D. Be careful. There is a minefield east of the railroad.


D. Yi hankali. Akwai wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi a gabashin reluwe.

E. Every soldier needs to have a radio and a map.


E. Kowane soji yana bukatar radio da taswira.

F. You must know all the checkpoints and roadblocks in this area.
F. Dole sai ka san dukan wuraren duba motoci da wuraren tsaida motoci a wannan
yankin.

306

Lesson 20
In the Hospital
Cikin Asibiti

This lesson will introduce you to the following:


- Vocabulary related to medical emergencies and life-saving measures
- Terminology related to internal organs
- Ways to ask questions about vital signs.

Health Care:
Health care in Nigeria and Niger is, on average, quite dismal. As in most countries there is an
elite class that can afford decent health care, but for the majority of the population such services
are far out of reach. Clinics are available to the population at large, which offer a few basic
services at a minimal charge. However, even that charge can be prohibitive for the poor. Also,
these clinics only offer a few basic services. In Niger, it is estimated by the World Health
Organization (WHO) that only 50 percent of the population has access to health care at all.
Malaria and malnutrition are major killers in Niger, and the infant mortality rate is one of the
highest in the world. A large percentage of pre-mature deaths are due to preventable illness. In
short, health care in Niger is in a desperate situation. The situation in Nigeria is somewhat better,
but there remains a high infant mortality rate and high mortality levels due to malaria,
malnutrition, and preventable illness. The health care system in Nigeria is more advanced that
that of Niger, but it remains inaccessible and/or insufficient for much of the population. In both
countries there is a continuous effort to have universal childhood immunization and to eradicate
polio. This is done through rural tourneys for vaccination and low cost maternal checkups as well
as training of midwives. For the time being, though, the system remains under-funded and far
from universal, and sanitary conditions in health care facilities leave much to be desired.

307

Emergencies:
The point bears repeating here that a large percentage of Hausas do not speak English or French.
When there is an emergency or disaster, one cannot choose with whom to speak or whom to
work with. It may not be possible to resort to any other language than Hausa to communicate
vital information. Also, there may not be time to seek out a translator when trying to ascertain
vital information. Therefore, a working knowledge of Hausa terminology regarding health
emergencies can be a valuable skill. Also, remember that auto accidents are tragically common
in this area of the world and that these accidents often involve people from all walks of life,
many of which will not speak English or French. It is also possible that the military will be called
upon to carry out emergency health assistance. In this case, it would be very important to verify
that the aid is going to those in need.
Grammar Note: na and ke
We will add just one final grammar note for now. The regular continuous and the relative
continuous pronoun forms are commonly abridged. This is done by simple removing the first
syllable, leaving only na or ke. Note that this is only done when the subject is already stated in
the sentence. See the examples below, and look for the use of this form throughout this lesson.
Abdou is going.
The gun that is in your hand.
Everyone is feeling good.
Where is Nura going?

Abdu na tafiya.
Bindiga da ke a hannunka.
Kowa na jin dai.
Ina Nura ke tafiya?

In Lesson 17, you already learned the names of human body parts, how to ask questions
about a persons state of health, and how to describe health conditions and symptoms of
sickness. You also know how to handle a visit to the doctors office. In this lesson, you will
familiarize yourself with the vocabulary used for life threatening health conditions, such as
heart attacks, gunshot wounds, severe bleeding, and head injuries.
1. Go over the text with the pictures. Try to guess the meaning of the words in bold from
the context.

1
Wannan namiji ya yi rauni a damtse.

2
Wannan mace tana da rauni a
hannunta.

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3
Wannan namiji yana da raunananniyar

Wannan mace tana da raunanannen

afa.

wuya.

Did you understand the words in bold rauni and raunananne/ raunananniya?
Rauni means wound or injury
Raunananne means wounded or injured (masc. object)
Raunananniya means wounded or injured (fem. object)
Raunanannu means wounded or injured (pl. object)

Note that in everyday usage, the noun rauni (examples 1 and 2) will be used more often than the
adjectival form (examples 3 and 4).
2. Look at the pictures in Exercise 1 and match the number of the picture with the correct
definition. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
A. Raunananniyar afa

picture number _____.

B. Raunanannen wuya

picture number _____.

C. Raunananen hannu

picture number _____.

D. Rauni a hannu

picture number _____.

3. Tell your classmates in Hausa if you ever had an injury or wounds.

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4. Listen to and read the dialogue between the doctor and the nurse in the emergency
room of a military hospital. Note the use of new vocabulary.
Doctor: How does Sergeant Lawali feel?
Likita: Yaya jikin saja Lawali?

Nurse: He feels bad, Doctor Amadou.


Nas: Ba ya jin dai, Malam Amadu.

Doctor: What is the matter with him?


LIkita: Mi ya same shi?

Nurse: His leg hurts.


Nas: Yana jin ciwo a afarsa.

Doctor: Is it injured?
Likita: Akwai rauni?

Nurse: Yes. He has a gunshot wound. He is bleeding.


Nas: I. An harbe shi da bindiga. Yana zubda jini.

Doctor: Does he have fever?


Likita: Akwai zazzai.

Nurse: Yes, he does.


Nas: I, akwai.

Doctor: Is he taking any medications?


Likita: Yana shan magani?

Nurse: Yes, antibiotics and painkillers.


Nas: I, maganin rigakafi da magungunan ciwo.

5. Work with a partner. Role-play the dialogue from Exercise 4.


6. Match each of the pictures with the corresponding statement. Try to guess the
meanings of unknown words from the context. Check your answers with the Answer
Key.

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1. An aura wa namiji raunin da ke a hannu.


2. Namijin bai sa hula ba. Ya yi zafi sosai yau. Shi kuma, yana fama da
zufa sosai har da ya kai shi ya yi rishin lafiya.
3. Sojin nan yana da rauni a afarsa.

Did you understand the meanings of the words in bold?


Fama da zufa means to suffer from heat.
aura rauni means to dress a wound.

7. Listen to the speaker and read along in your textbook. Check the translation in the
Answer Key for the meanings of unknown words.

Waannan bandeji da filasta ne. Ana bukatar su in za a aura rauni. Amma sai a yi aiki
da masu tsabta.

8. Familiarize yourself with some new medical terminology. Listen as the speaker
recites the names of internal organs. Repeat after the speaker.

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Zuciya

1. heart
2. brain
3. lung
4. kidney
5. liver

wawalwa
Huhu
wada / oda
Hanta

9. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate name of the organ in Hausa. Check your answers
with the Answer Key.
Zuciya

Hanta

Huhu

wada

wawalwa

A. The human ____________ is in charge of all body system functions.


B. The _________ is a very important organ because it helps our body get rid of fat.
C. Exercising is very important for my ____________.
D. Smoking can cause ____________cancer.
E. Drinking a lot of water is necessary for the ___________ .

10. Listen to and read the dialogue between a doctor and a patient in a military
hospital emergency room.
In the Military Hospital Emergency Room

Doctor: Hello, Major Zakari.


Likita: Barka da safe, Majar Zakari.

Major: Good morning, Doctor Yau.


Maja: Yawwa barka kadai Malam Yau.

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Doctor: What happened to you?


Likita: Mi ya same ka?

Major: I dont know. I didnt feel well. I had chest pain, a headache, and dizziness.
Maja: Ban sani ba. Ban ji dai ba. Na yi ciwon irji, ciwon kai, da jiri.

Doctor: For how long did you have your symptoms?


Likita: Tun yaushe ne kake fama da matsalolin nan?

Major: For about two days.


Maja: Tun wajen kwana biyu.

Doctor: Did you take any medications?


Likita: Ka kuma sha magani?

Major: Yes, I took painkillers.


Maja: I, na sha magungunan ciwo.

Doctor: For how long?


Likita: Tun yaushe?

Major: For about two days What happened to me, doctor?


Maja: Wajen kwana biyu Mi ya same ni Malam likita?

Doctor: Well, when you came into the ER, you couldnt breathe. We had to do CPR.
Likita: To, da ka zo nan akin haari, ba ka iya lumfashi ba. Sai muka farfao da
kai ta hanyar CPR.

You had abnormal blood pressure. It was 230 over 180. You had a heart attack.
Majar: arfin bugawar jininka ya fi abinda ya kamata. Ya kai 230 kan 180. Ciwon
zuciya ne ka yi.

How do you feel now?


Likita: Yaya kake ji yanzu?

Major: I feel weak.


Majar: Ba ni jin arfi.

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Doctor: Are there any medications that you are allergic to?
Likita: Akwai magungunan da bai kamata ka sha su ba.

Major: Yes, Im allergic to penicillin.


Majar: I, bai kamata ba in sha penicillin ba.

Doctor: Do you have any kidney, liver, lung, or brain diseases? Diabetes? Cancer?
Likita: Kana da cuta a wada, hanta, huhu, ko wawalwa ? Cutar sukari? Cutar
kansa?

Major: No, I dont.


Majar: Aa, babu.

Doctor: Do you smoke?


Likita: Kana shan taba?

Major: No, I dont.


Majar: Aa, ba ni sha.

Doctor: Have any members of your family had heart disease or had a heart attack?
Likita: Kana da an uwa waanda suna da cuta ta zuciya, ko waanda suka taa yi
ciwon zuciya?

Major: Yes, my father died three years ago from heart disease.
Majar: I, ubana ya rasu shekara ukku da suka wuce saboda ciwon zuciya.

Doctor: Well, I think you must stay in the hospital and rest for a few days.
Likita: To, ina ji ya kamata ka yi an kwanaki kaan a nan asibiti domin ka huta.

Major: But I need to get back to my unit!


Majar: Amma ina bukata in koma rukunina.

Doctor: No, you have to stay in the hospital, rest, and take aspirin.
Likita: Aa, kana bukata ka tsaya a asibiti, ka huta, kuma ka sha asfirin.

11. Work with a partner. Pretend to be a doctor and a patient and role-play the dialogue
from Exercise 10.

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12. Match the questions and answers. When you have finished, check your work with the
Answer Key.
A. Yaya kake jin jikinka?

1. I, na samu raunin harsashi a hannuna.

B. Mi ya sameka?

2. Ina jin rishin arfi da jiri.

C. Mi kake ji?

3. Raunina na yin jini.

D. Kana jin ciwo?

4. Ina jin ciwo a ciki.

E. Ina yake maka ciwo?

5. I, akwai ciwon irji. Ba ni iya lumfashi.

F. Ka samu rauni?

6. I, maganin ciwo.

G. Kana shan magani?

7. Ba ni jin dai ko kaan.

13. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statement that you hear.
Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my arm.
B. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my leg.
C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my neck.
2. A. How do you feel? I dont feel well. I have a chest pain.
B. How do you feel? I dont feel well. I feel dizziness.
C. How do you feel? I dont feel well. I cant breathe.
3. A. Is there a doctor here? This man just had a heart attack.
B. Are you a doctor? This man just had a heart attack.
C. I am a doctor. This man just had a heart attack.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Practice answering the following questions in Hausa:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

What is your normal pulse?


What is your normal blood pressure?
Are you allergic to any medications?
Have you ever had a head injury?
Have you ever had heat stroke?

2. Work with a partner or in a small group. Look at the picture and tell in Hausa what you
think has happened with a patient. You might want to mention the following things: Is the
patient a man or a woman? What is his/her age? Is he/she a soldier? Is he/she wounded? Is
he/she injured? Is he/she in pain? Does he/she have bleeding? Does he/she have a fever?
Will he/she need to stay in the hospital? Does he/she have high blood pressure? Does he/she
have chest pain? Is he/she having a heart attack? Can he/she breathe? Will he/she need
CPR? Is he/she allergic to the medications? Does he/she take any medications?

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Vocabulary list
Abnormal (bad)
Antibiotic
Aspirin
Bandage
Band-aid
Bleeding
Brain
Breathing
Cancer
Perform CPR on
Cut
Diabetes
To dress a wound
ER
Gunshot wound
Head injury
Heart
Heart attack
Heart disease
To suffer from the heat
High blood pressure
I am allergic to
Injured
Injury
Kidney
Liver
Lungs
Organ (in body)
Painkiller
Penicillin
Pulse
Sterile (clean)
To die
To stay

Ba lafiyayye ba, Ba cikin daidai yadda ya kamata ba


Magani rigakafi, Magunguna (pl.)
Asfirin
Bandeji, Bandejoji (pl.)
Filasta
Yin jini, Zub da jini
walwa / wawalwa
Yin lumfashi
Cutar kansa
Farfao da ta hanyar CPR
Rauni, Yanka
Cutar sukari
aura rauni
akin haari / akin taimako
Raunin harsashi
Rotsi
Zuciya, Zukata (pl.)
Ciwon zuciya
Cuta ta zuciya
Fama da zufa
arfin bugawar jini fiye da yadda ya kamata
Ina da rishin lafiyar cin ko taa shi. / Bai kamata in sha
Raunananne (m.), Raunananniya (f.), Raunanannu (pl.)
Rauni, raunuka (pl.)
oda, odoji (pl.)
Hanta, Hantuna (pl.)
Huhu, Huhuna (pl.)
Halitta, Halittu (pl.)
Maganin ciwo, magungunan ciwo (pl.)
Penicillin
Bugun zuciya
Mai tsabta, Masu tsabta (pl.)
Mutu
Zama

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Unit (military)
Wound

Rukuni, rukunai (pl.)


Rauni, raunuka (pl.)

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 2
A. 3
B. 4
C. 1
D. 1

Wounded leg (Raunananniyar afa)


Injured neck (Raunanannen wuya)
and/or 2 Wounded arm (Raunananen hannu)
Injured arm (Rauni a hannu)

Activity 6
A. 3 This soldier has an injured leg.
B. 2 This man didnt wear his hat. It was very hot today. He suffered from the heat to the
point where it made him sick. (i.e. he has heat stroke)
C. 1 This man has a dressing on his wounded arm.
A. 3. Sojin nan yana da rauni a afarsa.
B. 2. Namijin bai sa hula ba. Ya yi zafi sosai yau. Shi kuma, yana fama da zufa sosai
har da ya kai shi ya yi rishin lafiya.

C. 1. An aura wa namiji raunin da ke a hannu.

Activity 7
These are bandages and band-aids. You need them to make a dressing for a cut or wound. But
you have to use sterile ones.
Waannan bandeji da filasta ne. Ana bukatar su in za a aura rauni. Amma sai a yi aiki
da masu tsabta.

Activity 9
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

brain
liver
heart
lung
kidneys

walwa
Hanta
Zuciya
Huhu
wada

Activity 12
A.
B.
C.
D.

How do you feel?


What is the matter with you?
What do you feel?
Are you in pain?

7. I feel really bad.


3. My wound is bleeding.
2. I feel weak and dizzy.
5. Yes, I have a chest pain. I cant breathe.
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E. Where does it hurt?


4. My stomach hurts.
F. Are you injured?
1. Yes, I have a gunshot injury in my arm.
G. Are you taking any medication? 6. Yes, painkillers.
A. Yaya kake jin jikinka?

7. Ba ni jin dai ko kaan.

B. Mi ya sameka?

3. Raunina na yin jini.

C. Mi kake ji?

2. Ina jin rishin arfi da jiri.

D. Kana jin ciwo?

5. I, akwai ciwon irji. Ba ni iya lumfashi.

E. Ina yake maka ciwo?

4. Ina jin ciwo a ciki.

G. Kana shan magani?

6. I, maganin ciwo.

Activity 13
1. C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my neck.
Mine ne alamun rishin lafiyarka? Akwai zazzai da kuma ciwo a wuyana.

2. A. How do you feel? I dont feel well. I have a chest pain.


Yaya kake jin jikinka? Ba ni jin dai. Akwai ciwon irji.

3. B. Are you a doctor? This man just had a heart attack.


Kai likita ne? Wannan namijin nan yanzu ya yi ciwon zuciya.

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