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Grade 9 English

Quarter 1, Module 1
Lesson 1, Punctuations and Capitalization

Lesson 1
Competency: EN9G-Ia-1.6/1.7: Use appropriate punctuation marks and capitalization
to convey meaning

Using Capitalization and Punctuations Correctly

We all know that proper punctuation plays a vital role in written communication. It
saves us from being shamed by the grammar Nazis and it even saves lives as in:
Lets eat Dad!
and
Lets eat, Dad!
So before we get jailed by eating our dads, mastering the skills in
punctuations and even in capitalization would really pay off. Now, let us learn together!

Punctuation and Capitalization Rules


I.

Period (.) Here are some of the instances where we use period in constructing
sentences:
1. At the end of declarative and imperative sentences:
Declarative (a statement): The book is on the desk.
Imperative (a command): Go to the grocery store and buy milk.
2. In abbreviations:
Ed Wilson, Ph.D. will be lecturing about insects.
Ms. Audrey Aimes is an award-winning photographer.
3. As elements of ellipses, which indicate omitted words:
Just before he lost consciousness, the victim whispered, Help me . . .
4. Inside quotation marks:
The determined scientist thought to himself, I must find a solution.

II.

Question Mark(?). These marks are used:


1. At the end of a direct question, but not when the sentence is not a direct question:
Do you know the way to San Jose?
David asked me if I knew the way to San Jose?
2. Within parentheses:
Aristotle died in A.D. 600 (?).

3. With quotation marks:


Inside the quotation marks only when the question mark is part of the quoted
text:
I asked, May I borrow a pencil?
Outside the quotation marks when the question mark is not part of the quoted
text:
Do you know the meaning of the word juxtaposition?
III.

Exclamation Mark (!). An exclamation mark usually shows strong feeling, such as
surprise, anger or joy. An exclamation mark may be used:
1. at the end of an emphatic declaration, interjection, or command.
"No!" he yelled. "Do it now!"
2. to close questions that are meant to convey extreme emotion, as in
What on earth are you doing! Stop!
3. If an exclamation mark is part of an italicized or underlined title, make sure that
the exclamation mark is also italicized or underlined:
My favorite book is Oh, the Places You'll Go!

Before we proceed to other punctuation rules, let us first check what


you know so far:
Every sentence ends with a punctuation mark.
A period [.] is used at the end of a statement.
A question mark [?] is used when you ask something.
An exclamation point [!] is used to show
emphasis or surprise.
Activity 1.
Instructions: Read the following sentences carefully and insert the proper punctuation
mark for each sentence.
1. When is your birthday ___
2. I love pizza ___
3. I am in high school ____
4. One example will explain what I mean ____
5. My bus stops at the next corner ____
6. Do you like to read ____
7. I love to skateboard ____
8. Do you have a library card ____
9. My favorite subject is science ____
10. Where are you going with your cousin ____
11. I was so scared ____
12. My grandmother is an archaeologist ___
13. Suddenly it occurred to me to try something different ____
14. The fireworks were spectacular ____
15. What are the odds of winning the lottery
16. What is your favorite season of the year ____

17. Twenty percent of the people in my class wear glasses ____


18. Do you know how fast a cheetah can run ______
19. Mrs. Thompson screamed, Help ______
20. Do you like sunrise or sunset the best ____
How did you do? Did you get a perfect score? If so, good! If not review the first three
rules and check the items you find difficult. Now, let us proceed to another set of rules.
Get ready!
IV.

Quotation Marks ( ). We use quotation marks when:


1. Around the exact words of a speaker:
The teacher said, We will have an exam next Tuesday.
2. Around titles of songs, short articles or essays, stories, poems:
Nancy quoted from the article Lost Heroes in her research paper.
3. When using quotation marks within a quotation, use single quotation marks:
Tony asked Nancy, Can I read Lost heroes when you are finished using it?
Stop right there. There are still a lot of punctuation rules to learn from! However, lets do
this activity first.
Activity 2. Quotation Marks
Punctuate each of these direct quotations. Write your answers on the space provided.
1. Will is leaving early said Martha
___________________________________________________
2. Ramon asked the conductor is that my train
___________________________________________________
3. Maria thought to herself Ill never meet my dream date
___________________________________________________
4. Were having an earthquake screamed Clara
___________________________________________________
5. Will this class ever end thought Mark.
___________________________________________________

V.

Semicolon (;) A semicolon is used:


1. In place of a comma and a conjunction to join independent clauses:
Im not hungry; he wants to eat a big lunch.
2. Before a conjunctive adverb (like however or therefore):

I want to transfer to UCLA or USC; therefore, I need to get good grades at LBCC.
3. Between items in a list when the list items have commas:
Three movies I have seen recently are Jaws, about a killer shark off the coast of
New England; K-19, about a Russian submarine; and Pod People, about a little
boy who makes friends with an alien.
VI.

Colon (:) We use a colon:


1. Before a series or list that follows a complete sentence:
To lose weight, you should do the following: exercise regularly, eat healthy foods,
and drink less alcohol.
2. When introducing a quotation after a complete sentence:
Remember the words of the great Yogi Berra: It aint over until its over.
3. In a salutation of a formal letter:
To Whom It May Concern: (Salutations in less formal letters tend to have
commas.)
4. Between hours and minutes and between minutes and seconds of time:
The space shuttle lifted off at exactly 11:40:29 this morning.
5. Before an appositive, explanation, or example that follows a complete sentence:
In the history of major league baseball, two teams have played in Seattle: the
Pilots (1969 only) and the Mariners (1977-present).
6. Between main clauses when the first signals that the second will provide an answer
or definition:
Faith is like love: It cannot be forced.
7. In proportions:
The ratio of students to teachers was 30:2.

VII. Comma (,)


1. Between main clauses with a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so):
The movie was terrible, and the audience was making fun of it.
2. Between individual items in a series or list:
Remember to buy milk, butter, eggs, bread, and juice.
3. After names in a direct address:
Joe, will you please pass the butter?
4. After introductory expressions:
Unfortunately, I only had a 2.5 GPA last semester.
5. Around appositives (a word or phrase that renames or defines a preceding noun):
Barry Bonds, the best home run hitter in baseball, is left-handed.
6. After an introductory dependent clause:

After she had worked at the company for six years, she decided she hated her
job.
7. Before such as when it is followed by an example or a list:
Read a good book, such as The Perks of Being a Wallflower.
8. Around a thrown-in interrupting expression (However, I think, After all, etc):
Bill Clinton is, in my opinion, a terrible role model.
9. Around non-limiting (non-restrictive, non-essential) clauses, phrases, or information:
Strawberries, which happen to be my least favorite fruit, are expensive this year.
10. With quotations:
Sigmund Freud asked, What do women want?
11. Between elements in locations, dates, or addresses:
My father was born on December 31, 1953, in the morning. (Do not use commas
if the date is inverted17 March 204or if it does not include the day.)
12. After introductory verbals or verbal phrases:
Sleeping soundly, Linda did not wake up when the earthquake hit.
13. Before and after an element that contrasts with a previous element:
Now that I have a good job, I get paid a better salary, not minimum wage.

Phew! That was quite a lot of rules over there! Dont get
discouraged if you will not recall them at first glance. You will
get used to them. Just activate your keen eyes and youll be
fine. Now, lets check what you have learned so far.

Activity 3. Commas
Please add commas where it is needed in the following sentences. If the sentence is
correct, put a C after the sentence.

1. After the student worked on the paper he took a break.


2. Rona Mae who sat next to me in class lent me her notes.
3. The students studied these punctuation rules later they took the final.
4. The newspaper did not publish the story however it appeared in Time Magazine.
5. Eric Lee the director of the program gave the students a welcoming speech.
6. Lupita wants to lose weight so she walks two miles every day.
7. Terry sent the story to the instructor after he reviewed it carefully.
8. The concert tickets were expensive so we went to the movies instead.
9. The woman who went swimming at the beach was eaten by a shark.

10. Mindy Susan and Patricia sponsored the new program.


11. You should finish the test check your answers and go home.
12. Lola Anders the famous author has written a new book.
13. The new clerk waited for her supervisor to call her and he never did.
14. Students who wish to proceed to Senior High should pass Junior High.
15. While he was eating lunch Robert suddenly felt ill.
16. Luis Cardoza who lives in San Fernando spoke at the meeting.
17. The police officer spoke to the suspect but did not arrest him.
18. Jack felt a terrible pain in his chest as he slowly climbed the stairs.
19. Someone broke into the house nothing seemed to be missing.
20. Whenever Krista leaves her dog barks for hours.

Activity 4. Commas, colons and semi-colons


Select the sentence that uses commas, colons, and semi-colons correctly.
1.
A. Murray missed work again on Monday, Tuesday he was fired.
B. Murray missed work again on Monday: Tuesday he was fired.
C. Murray missed work again on Monday; Tuesday he was fired.
2.
A. I am making three desserts for the party: eclairs, strawberry tarts, and chocolate
cake.
B. I am making three desserts for the party, eclairs, strawberry tarts, and chocolate
cake.
C, I am making three desserts for the party; eclairs, strawberry tarts, and chocolate
cake.
3.
A. Caroline has never, as you know; been interested in sports.
B. Caroline has never; as you know, been interested in sports.
C. Caroline has never, as you know, been interested in sports.
4.
A. The three winners of the contest were Ann, Lee, and Carlotta.
B. The three winners of the contest were: Ann, Lee, and Carlotta.
C. The three winners of the contest were; Ann, Lee, and Carlotta.
5.
A. Ahn has always given one person credit for her success: her father.
B. Ahn has always given one person credit for her success; her father.
C. Ahn has always given one person credit for her success, her father.
6.
A. Leah loves math, Rachel prefers science.
B. Leah loves math; Rachel prefers science.
C. Leah loves math: Rachel prefers science.

VIII. Hyphen (-). We use hyphens:


1. In the middle of compound words:
My great-grandmothers name was Mary.
Two-year-olds often get into trouble.
2. Between two words functioning as a single adjective before a noun:
Ross Perot was not a well-known political figure before 1992.
The game-show contestant missed a terribly obvious question.
3. In the middle of compound numbers and fractions:
He claims that he caught twenty-four trout while fishing in one day.
One-third of my paycheck goes to pay for my rent.
4. With some prefixes and suffixes:
Larry King has several ex-wives.
The president-elect must wait almost three months to be sworn in.
Maria is a self-motivated woman.
Many cultures believe in an all-knowing deity.
IX. Dash (). A dash is used:
1. Around a sudden break in thought:
In 1991, the Minnesota Twinswhat a season Jack Morris had that year!won
the World Series in seven games. (When the interrupting thought ends the
sentence, the second dash is replaced by end punctuation, such as a period.)
2. To introduce a summary or explanation:
The Cincinnati Reds won the 1990 National League pennant by going wire-towire they were in first place for the entire season.
3. To indicate a hesitation or other awkwardness in speech:
After losing the game, one of the players stammered, I justI just cannot
believe it. We tried so hard.
4. To set of information that deserves emphasis:
Johnny ate the whole jar of peanut butterthe whole jar!
Activity 5. Hyphen and Dash
Instructions: Edit the following phrases using the appropriate hyphen (-) or dash ().
1. The article reported the results of the placebo controlled trial.
2. The study included 32 HIV 1 positive patients
3. Computed tomography revealed a 5 cm diameter necrotic lesion.
4. A group of 5 year old to 13 year old girls were enrolled in the study.
5. Osler, Billings, Apgar these were the physicians she tried to emulate.
6. The investigators examined health risks in very low birth weight infants.
7. One fourth of the patients were lost to follow up.

8. The facility was state of the art.


9. The patients high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was normal.
10. Stevens Johnson syndrome is a life-threatening skin disorder.
11. The physician agreed to an on-call duty of 12 hours.
12. To be enrolled in the study, patients had to have at least a sixth grade reading level.
13. The study results were revealed to be false negative.
14. The bruises progressed from a bluish red to a blue black color.
15. The patients self reported their age and weight.
Now, let us proceed to the next punctuation
X. Apostrophe (). We use apostrophes:
1. In possessives, between the end of the word and s when the word does not end in s;
but after the s in words ending in s:
That is Andys jar of pickles.
That is Mr. Rodrigues house.
2. In contractions, to signify where letters have been omitted:
The bad guys in movies sometimes arent very smart. (The o in arent has been
left out.)
3. Before the s in plurals of letters, numbers, and words.
Dr. Yenser gave six As, three Bs, nince Cs, and two Ds in his literature class.
XI. Italics. Italics are used:
1. For foreign words not accepted in common usage in English:
The citizens staged a coup detat and overthrew the dictator.
2. For emphasis:
After Lisa got home, her mother said, I said not to take the car!
3. For titles of larger works (books, magazines, movies, albums/CDs)
Have you ever read The Great Gatsby?
The Beatles released their album Rubber Soul on December 3, 1965.
4. For words that are mentioned rather than used in normal speech or writing:
The word egg comes from the Danish language.
XII. Capitalization. Here are the major points to be remembered in capitalization:
1. For proper nouns and adjectives derived from them:
Many people from Vietnamese descent live in Los Angeles.
2. For generic names with a proper noun:
The college is located on Carson Street.
3. For the first word in a sentence:
Did you leave the oven on when you left the house?
4. For the pronoun I:
Even if I wanted to, I could not ski.

5. For the title of a relative when the relative is named:


That blonde woman is Aunt Delia.
6. For titles that precede a proper name (but not when a name is not given):
That man in the blue suit is President Barack Obama.
My doctor is Doctor Moore.
My friend is a professor of English.
7. For words in titles (except coordinating conjunctions, articles, and prepositions):
Lord of the Rings is one of my favorite movies.
8. For races and ethnic groups:
My friend Laurie married a Nigerian last year.
9. For historical, religious, or political groups:
Many Catholics tend to consider themselves Republicans.
10. For points on the compass:
The hurricane traveled NW toward the Florida coast.
11. For specific course titles:
I took Renaissance Literature last semester.
12. For seasons only if they refer to semesters or issues of magazines:
Jim plans to enroll at Yale in the Fall 2005 semester.
13. For formal systems, organized departments, etc.:
Most personal computers have Windows installed on them.
The English Department has some great instructors.
14. For the first word of a complete sentence in parentheses:
She was nearly hit in the head. (Of course, she never knew.)
15. For names and abbreviations of associations, clubs, and organizations:
The Kiwanis Club meets once a month.
16. For sacred names:
The Bible is a very important book for Christians.
17. For directions when they are used as specific geographic places:
Have you ever visited the Northeast?
I have only been to New York City and Boston.

Activity 6. Capitalization
Instructions. In the sentences below, please capitalize where necessary.
1. my aunt has lived in miami, florida, since June.
2. i spoke to uncle Jim and mr flores last tuesday.
3. my doctor lives in east los angeles but works in Encino.

4. did mrs chung drive east or west the ventura freeway?


5. my american literature class will study the old man and the sea in july.
6. will professor smith teach french or italian next summer?
7. this semester joe is taking Spanish, geography, and accounting 101.
8. aunt lulu loves to hike and often visits the parks in the southwest.
9. the director of the program invited the president of the college to the graduation.
10. the garcias usually go camping in davao city on labor day weekend.
11. araceli was born in mexico, but her husband was born in sweden.
12. last wedenesday dr. washington took his class to an exhibit of Filipino art.
13. jeremiah veliz, the director of human resources, will see applicants at 9am
tomorrow.
14. last may when we were in new york we visited the empire state building
15. josefina enjoys french roast coffee, but I prefer colombian.

How did you do in our activities? If you think you have mastered the
concepts in punctuations and capitalization, you may now proceed to
module 2. If not, review the lesson from the beginning and check the
parts where you have difficulty. Good luck!

Activity 7. Punctuations and Capitalization


Provide punctuation and capitals. Some sentence combining may be appropriate.
1. I decided to travel across canada all the way to the west coast last summer I did
some photography a highly profitable way to see the country it would also give me an
insight into the Canadian people I thought.
2. my route would take me through the appalachian mountains to edmunston new
brunswick the capital of the madawaska republic from there I planned to travel
to Quebec City where I would meet aunt sarah and my cousin Jill.
3. together we would visit all the major cities toronto ontario winnipeg manitoba
regina saskatchewan calgary alberta and vancouver british columbia
4. on july 2 the wipers stopped in the middle of a heavy rain I got a good
picture of the repair job which cost me $7500
5. my car which is a 1988 Mustang has become a trusted comfortable travelling
companion so I didnt expect any adventures wow was I wrong

Answer key:
Activity 1
1. When is your birthday?
2. I love pizza!
3. I am in high school.
4. One example will explain what I mean.
5. My bus stops at the next corner.
6. Do you like to read?
7. I love to skateboard!
8. Do you have a library card?
9. My favorite subject is science.
10. Where are you going with your cousin?
11. I was so scared!
12. My grandmother is an archaeologist.
13. Suddenly it occurred to me to try something different.
14. The fireworks were spectacular!
15. What are the odds of winning the lottery?
16. What is your favorite season of the year?
17. Twenty percent of the people in my class wear glasses.
18. Do you know how fast a cheetah can run?
19. Mrs. Thompson screamed, Help!
20. Do you like sunrise or sunset the best?
Activity 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Will is leaving early, said Martha.


Ramon asked the conductor, Is that my train?
Maria thought to herself, Ill never meet my dream date.
Were having an earthquake! screamed Clara.
Will this class ever end? thought Mark.

Activity 3
1. After the student worked on the paper, he took a break.
2. Rona Mae, who sat next to me in class, lent me her notes.
3. The students studied these punctuation rules, later they took the final.
4. The newspaper did not publish the story, however it appeared in Time Magazine.
5. Eric Lee, the director of the program, gave the students a welcoming speech.
6. Lupita wants to lose weight, so she walks two miles every day.
7. Terry sent the story to the instructor after he reviewed it carefully. C
8. The concert tickets were expensive, so we went to the movies instead.
9. The woman who went swimming at the beach, was eaten by a shark.
10. Mindy, Susan, and Patricia sponsored the new program.
11. You should finish the test, check your answers, and go home.
12. Lola Anders, the famous author, has written a new book.
13. The new clerk waited for her supervisor to call her, and he never did.

14. Students who wish to proceed to Senior High should pass Junior High. C
15. While he was eating lunch, Robert suddenly felt ill.
16. Luis Cardoza, who lives in San Fernando, spoke at the meeting.
17. The police officer spoke to the suspect but did not arrest him. C
18. Jack felt a terrible pain in his chest as he slowly climbed the stairs. C
19. Someone broke into the house, nothing seemed to be missing.
20. Whenever Krista leaves, her dog barks for hours.

Activity 4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

C
A
C
A
A
B

Activity 5
1. The article reported the results of the placebo-controlled trial.
2. The study included 32 HIV-1positive patients.
3. Computed tomography revealed a 5-cm-diameter necrotic lesion.
4. A group of 5- to 13-year-old girls were enrolled in the study.
5. Osler, Billings, Apgarthese were the physicians she tried to emulate.
6. The investigators examined health risks in very low-birth-weight infants.
7. One-fourth of the patients were lost to follow-up.
8. The facility was state-of-the-art.
9. The patients high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was normal.
10. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a life-threatening skin disorder.
11. The physician agreed to an on-call duty of 12 hours.
12. To be enrolled in the study, patients had to have at least a sixth-grade reading
level.
13. The study results were revealed to be false-negative.
14. The bruises progressed from a bluish red to a blue-black color.
15. The patients self-reported their age and weight.
Activity 6
1. My aunt has lived in Miami, Florida, since June.
2. I spoke to uncle Jim and Mr. Flores last Tuesday.
3. My doctor lives in East Los Angeles but works in Encino.
4. Did Mrs Chung drive east or west the Ventura Freeway?
5. My American Literature class will study The Old Man and the Sea in July.
6. Will Professor Smith teach French or Italian next summer?
7. This semester Joe is taking Spanish, Geography, and Accounting 101.
8. Aunt Lulu loves to hike and often visits the parks in the Southwest.
9. The director of the program invited the president of the college to the graduation.

10. The Garcias usually go camping in Davao City on Labor Day weekend.
11. Araceli was born in Mexico, but her husband was born in Sweden.
12. Last Wedenesday Dr. Washington took his class to an exhibit of Filipino art.
13. Jeremiah Veliz, the director of human resources, will see applicants at 9am
tomorrow.
14. Last May when we were in New York we visited the Empire State Building
15. Josefina enjoys French roast coffee, but I prefer Colombian.
Activity 7
1. I decided to travel across Canada all the way to the West Coast last summer. I did
some photography, a highly profitable way to see the country. It would also give me an
insight into the Canadian people, I thought.
2. My route would take me through the Appalachian Mountains to Edmunston, New
Brunswick, the capital of the Madawaska Republic. From there, I planned to travel
to Quebec City where I would meet Aunt Sarah and my cousin, Jill.
3. Together, we would visit all the major cities: Toronto, Ontario, Winnipeg, Manitoba,
Regina, Saskatchewan, Calgary, Alberta, and Vancouver, British Columbia
4. On July 2, the wipers stopped in the middle of a heavy rain. I got a good
picture of the repair job which cost me $7500.
5. My car, which is a 1988 Mustang has become a trusted comfortable travelling
Companion, so I didnt expect any adventures. Wow, was I wrong!

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