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Power Electronics and Variable Frequency Drives: Technology and Applications. Edited by Bimal K. Bose. © 1997
Power Electronics and Variable Frequency Drives: Technology and Applications.
Edited by Bimal K. Bose. © 1997 The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
Published 1997 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

Kouhei Ohnishi

Nobuyuki Matsui

Yoichi Hori

Chapter 9

Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives

.1. INTRODUCTION

Since th e early years of th e twentiet h century , electric motor s for variabl e speed drives hav e been widely applie d in large-capacit y application s such as th e steel industr y an d th e automobil e industry . I n th e early stage , D C motor s were widely used for adjustabl e speed control . Since th e late 1960s, however, A C motor s hav e been replacin g D C motor s in a wide are a of industr y applications . Since A C drives require d mor e complicate d controller s in th e beginnin g stage , they were no t so economicall y feasible an d did no t mee t wit h wide acceptance . However , allied t o advance s bot h in digital contro l technolog y an d powe r semiconducto r devices, A C drive s became mor e an d mor e economica l an d popular . I n almos t all areas , D C drives ar e no w replaceabl e wit h A C drives.

However , ther e still exist some area s which ar e no t suitabl e for A C drive appli - cations . On e of these is th e are a of applications , whic h require s precise torqu e con - trol . Fo r instance , injection machine s need accurat e torqu e contro l a t a very low speed o r in a standstil l state . A C motor s sometime s generat e torqu e erro r o r torqu e pulsatio n du e t o some paramete r variations . T o overcome such problems , mor e sophisticate d technique s ar e necessary in th e controller . These technique s employ th e recen t developments in digital control , includin g high-speed digita l signal pro - cessors (DSPs) an d paralle l processin g an d ar e based o n estimatio n o r identification of moto r parameters . A descriptio n of th e recent advance s in such area s with a focus o n estimatio n an d system identification is given in this chapter . Th e results ar e no t

9.2. Paramete r Estimatio n in A C Drive s

455

only reflected in contro l design itself bu t also directly used t o dispens e with mechan - ical sensors. Th e chapte r first introduce s th e electrical aspects of A C moto r drives, emphasizin g paramete r estimation , flux identification, an d speed estimatio n based o n variou s methods , includin g self-tuning regulators , mode l reference adaptiv e systems, an d so on . Importan t application s ar e th e drives of inductio n moto r an d brushless moto r withou t speed sensor. Theoretica l analyses based o n th e physical viewpoint ar e presented , an d th e associate d experimenta l results ar e shown . Th e chapte r also describes th e design of robus t motio n controller s which tak e mechanica l aspects int o account . By integratin g these two aspects (electrical an d mechanical) , versatile appli - cation s will be possible . A t th e end of th e chapter , a summar y of th e stat e of th e ar t is given.

9.2 . PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN AC DRIVES

  • 9.2.1. Parameter Identification in Brushless Motors

Parameters of Brushless Motors. Th e contro l scheme of brushless motor s with trapezoida l flux distribution s (BLDM , brushless D C motor ) is relatively simple. Usuall y it does no t need paramete r identification. Generall y identification of th e parameter s is necessary for precise contro l of brushless motor s with sinusoida l flux distributio n (PMSM , permanen t magne t synchronou s motor) , as less torqu e pulsa - tio n is required . Particularl y such a metho d is employed for fine torqu e control . Fro m th e contro l viewpoint , th e brushless moto r ha s thre e electric parameters . Th e first is armatur e resistance , th e second is armatur e inductance , an d the thir d is EM F coefficient. They ar e significant parameter s t o be identified.

Tw o effective approache s ar e presente d here . One is self-tuning regulato r (STR) , which ha s a tunin g ability t o mak e output-erro r zer o inside th e controller ; th e othe r is mode l reference adaptiv e system (MRAS) , which ha s a referred model in th e controller . It is importan t t o not e tha t direct application s of ST R an d MRA S t o paramete r identification d o no t always lead t o successful results, becaus e of th e limitatio n of th e processin g time of th e controlle r CPU . Since identification shoul d be performe d in paralle l with curren t an d speed control , it is essential t o reduce th e processin g time for identification by a simple algorithm .

STR-Based Parameter Identifier. A t steady-state , th e PMS M ha s th e simple equivalen t circuit jus t like a D C motor . Termina l voltage , line current , an d armatur e resistance ar e measure d t o identify th e circuit parameters . Figur e 9-1 shows a n experimenta l evaluatio n of th e influence of such paramete r variation s in armatur e curren t erro r a t stead y state . A current-regulate d voltag e sourc e inverte r supplies almos t sinusoida l current . I n th e figure, th e ordinat e is th e curren t contro l erro r du e t o th e paramete r variatio n an d th e paramete r variatio n coefficient is defined as

K =

moto r paramete r

controlle —i r - paramete r

(9.1)

  • 456 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives

o

o AL AKe X AR Rated speed 2000 rpm, Rated current

1.0

1.5

Variation Coefficient, K

Figure 9-1. Experimental estimation of armature current error in steady state via parameter variations.

Th e results show tha t variation s of th e armatur e inductanc e an d th e EM F coefficient give rise t o significant erro r in th e performance , while th e armatur e resistanc e varia - tio n doe s not . Thi s mean s tha t th e resistanc e dro p is considerabl y smaller tha n bot h inductanc e dro p an d counte r EMF . Figur e 9-2 shows th e STR-base d identifier for armatur e inductanc e an d EM F coefficient with associate d experimenta l results. Her e th e input s of th e identifier ar e applie d voltag e an d armatur e current . Th e armatur e curren t is obtaine d throug h a curren t sensor; however, th e applie d voltag e is calcu - lated using D C link voltage , PW M pattern , an d dead-tim e information . T o simplify th e identification algorith m an d save computatio n time , th e following relation s ar e used t o identify th e armatur e inductanc e an d th e EM F coefficient,

L =

y¿("-2 )

-R a i d {n~2)

i d (n - 1) - i d (n - 2) + w r TUn - 2)

K„

v q (n -

2) - RUn - 2) - -{Un - 1) - Un - 2) } ■ + Li d (n - 2)

(9.2)

(9.3)

wher e voltag e an d curren t transforme d t o th e d-q axis ar e used an d T an d θ{— ω Γ ) ar e th e curren t contro l perio d an d moto r speed, respectively. Th e estimatio n process is repeate d 256 times, an d th e estimate d values ar e averaged t o avoi d noises involved in calculations . Figur e 9-3 shows th e estimatio n error s against variou s loa d an d speed conditions . Fro m equatio n 9.2, since th e estimatio n of th e armatur e induc - tanc e uses division an d th e relatively small rf-axis voltage , th e erro r is a little large r compare d t o tha t of th e EM F coefficient.

MRAS-Based Parameter Identifier. Figur e 9-4 displays a MRAS-base d identification approach , which includes a voltage-base d moto r mode l as a reference model . I n addition , th e figure shows th e experimenta l results of identification of armatur e inductanc e an d EM F coefficient for a tested motor . Th e inpu t of th e identifier is a curren t difference between model an d actua l motor . Th e curren t dif-

9.2. Parameter Estimation in AC Drives

457

 

I Ke

Identification

 

algorithm

, 1

 

\

/'*

Current control

Brushless

Input

algorithm

  • V motor

Output

 

,

 

\

'

Identification starts

Figure 9-2. STR-based parameter identifier with experimental results. L is estimated armature inductance, K e is estimated EMF constant.

ference is decompose d int o two elements, from which the armatur e inductanc e an d th e EM F coefficient ar e identified. Th e identification algorith m is as follows. Rearrangin g th e d-q axis voltag e equatio n of the brushless motor , the reference model is given by th e following equation .

i(«-l)=

T

L{n - 2)

v(n - 2) - Ri(n - 2)]

+ w r (n-2)T

-i q (n - 2)

2)/L(n ~ 2) + /( « - 2) (9.4)

i d (n - 2) - K e (n -

Th e curren t difference between the model an d the actua l moto r is

9. Estimation , Identification , an d Sensorless Contro l in A C Drive s

10

0

-1 0

2000 (rpm)

10

0

-1 0

 

o/' J = 13.0 A • /J=2.6 A

 
  • 1000 2000 (rpm)

L Ke

Identification

 

algorithm

 

Reference

i

V

model

Current

\

 

+

control

 

F

algorithm

\

Brushless

l

motor

Figure 9-3. Estimatio n error s for var- ious load an d speed conditions .

Identification

starts

(a)

Figure 9-4. MRAS-base d paramete r identifier with experimenta l results.

9.2. Parameter Estimation in AC Drives

Ai[n — 1) = oj r {n - 2)T

0

K e /L-K e (n-2)/L(n-2).

+ T

1

L(n -2)

1

L

[v(n - 2) - Ri{n - 2)]

459

(9.5)

Fro m th e ¿/-axis componen t of current , th e d-axis curren t difference is

Ai d (n-l) = T[v d (n-2)-Ri d (n-2)}

l

l

L(n - 2)

¿

(9.6)

Th e curren t difference of th e q-axis componen t is given unde r th e assumptio n tha t

th e armatur e inductanc e coul d be identified as L = L(n — 1) by using equatio n 9.5.

Ai q (n-\)=jè[K e -K e (n-2)}.

(9.7)

Usin g these tw o equations , th e identification algorith m is summarize d as

L(n-\)

£(«-!)

where

  • «- 1

= Kpsgn[A(n - 2)]Ai{n -l) + K¡^2 s 8 n [^( k - 1)]^« W

= Apsg n [Λ[η — Δ)\ηι\η — i ; -t- Λ /

k=\

(9.8)

A(k)

T{v d (n-2)-Ri d (n-2)}

  • 0 (9.9)

2)

  • 0 θ(η -

an d K P an d ar e th e gai n matrices , respectively. Figur e 9-5 shows th e experimenta l estimatio n erro r unde r th e variou s loa d an d speed conditions . I n this case , th e estimatio n erro r of th e EM F coefficient is larger compare d t o tha t of th e armatur e inductance , particularl y in low-speed range .

Cf

20

10

' 5 !

0

-1 0

-2

0

Figure 9-5. Experimental estimation error under various load and speed conditions.

<

20

10

0

-10 -

-2 0

  • 1000 2000 (rpm)

• / ' q = 13.0 A

  • 1000 2000 (rpm)

9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives

Application of Parameter Identification to Torque Control. A n interestin g applicatio n exampl e for th e paramete r identification of th e brushless moto r is a "torqu e sensorless " torqu e control . In Figur e 9-6a, th e conventiona l current-base d torqu e contro l system is shown . Th e torqu e reference is divided by a torqu e constan t

With identifier

Figure 9-6. Torque sensorless torque control system and control character- istics.

9.2. Parameter Estimation in AC Drives

461

( = EM F coefficient i n SI unit ) t o generat e a curren t reference. I n Figur e 9.6b, th e abscissa is th e operatin g time of moto r with load which correspond s t o temperatur e rise. Wit h temperatur e rise, th e torqu e constan t decreases du e t o negative tempera -

tur e coefficient of th e permanen t magnet . Since th e armatur e curren t is controlle d t o be constan t du e t o th e curren t mino r loop , th e generate d torqu e also decreases i n proportio n t o torqu e constan t a s shown i n the figure. Howeve r i n Figur e 9.6c, the identified torqu e constan t is used t o modify th e curren t reference t o compensat e for decrease o f th e torqu e constan t of th e motor . As a result, th e torqu e is maintaine d constan t with a n accurac y o f less tha n 1% against temperatur e rise. T o improv e accuracy , th e voltag e calculatio n shoul d be mor e precise by takin g int o accoun t the turn-o n an d turn-off time o f th e switching devices an d curren t dependenc y o f th e

turn-off time , an d so on .

9.2.2 . Parameter Identification in Induction Motors

Parameters of Induction Motors. Basically inductio n moto r in stead y stat e is represente d by th e equivalen t circuit in Figur e 9-7. Th e classical no-loa d test, locked roto r test , an d electrical quantit y measuremen t test give identified parameter s i n Figur e 9-7.

Recent compute r technology make s i t possible t o carr y ou t these tests on-line an d i n a real-time manner . I n th e process, a s i t is requisit e t o use fundamenta l component s o f voltag e an d curren t fo r th e identification process, Fourie r series expansio n is usually used. Also some special method s hav e been propose d t o mea - sure electric quantities . Fo r instance , t o measur e the stato r resistance , th e inverte r is operate d as a choppe r mode . A sampl e o f flowchart i s shown i n Figur e 9-8 [4].

A direct applicatio n o f this steady-stat e approac h is a n automati c boostin g function a t low-speed i n V/f inverter-supplie d inductio n moto r drive . Figur e 9-9 shows experimenta l results where th e effectiveness o f th e boostin g function i n a low-speed rang e is observed [4]. Th e dead-tim e compensatio n o f th e inverter also prevent s torqu e in th e low-speed rang e from decreasing , since th e dead time gives th e effect i n fundamenta l component .

Parameter Identification in Vector-Controlled Induction Motors. Vector- controlle d inductio n moto r is on e of th e promisin g driving actuators . Ther e ar e two types of vecto r contro l i n inductio n motors , an d they ca n be specified as follows:

1. Field orientatio n contro l type

2. Slip frequency contro l type .

Lis

" s

o —rjipi—j\M|

1

*■*■

ιΤΠΡ

" f

V W

1

Figure 9-7. Equivalent circuit of caged induction motor without iron loss.

  • 462 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives

C Start }

During the

Number of sampled points

no-load and

single-phase

On-line sampling of current an d voltag e

10*

 

tests

= 167 points

(samples ar e save d in file memory)

60

per period

 

I

Compute Fourier

Compute Fourier

 

series coefficient

series coefficient

 

of voltage:

 

of current:

a v i an d b v j

a-ff and b,i

3

w

 

^

 

h

 
 

cos<j>

Thi s is repeated 120 time s in orde r t o get

 

"

' 1

averag e value s

Compute equivalent

 

circuit parameters

Figure 9-8. Flow chart of autonomous identification of induction motor parameters.

Ther e ar e some direct orientatio n feedback loop s in th e forme r method , which is sometime s called direc t vector control . A Hal l device was used for th e purpos e in th e first stage . On th e contrary , th e magneti c flux vector is no t explicitly oriente d in th e latte r method . Th e phas e an d th e magnitud e of magneti c flux ar e regulate d throug h slip frequency control , an d th e latte r is sometime s classified int o indirec t control . Since slip frequency contro l type is a n inherentl y ope n loo p control , th e variatio n of electric parameters , particularl y roto r resistance , gives significant effect t o th e per - formance . Ther e hav e been man y paper s o n th e estimatio n of roto r resistanc e o r

roto r time constan t for vector-controlle d inductio n motor s with shaft encoders. Mos t of th e paper s hav e been base d o n th e LM S (least mea n square ) o r similar approach . As shown in a n early pape r [15], PRB S (pseudo-rando m binar y sequence) adde d t o ¿/-axis curren t reference is effective for th e well convergenc e of th e estimate d roto r time constant . I t will b e shown late r tha t such kin d of persistentl y excited (PE) conditio n of ¿-axis curren t is indispensabl e for sensorless drive since roto r speed an d roto r resistanc e canno t be estimate d simultaneously .

No t only th e secondar y resistanc e bu t othe r parameter s ar e also estimated . Holt z an d coworkers propose d an d realized a self-commissioning scheme for vec- tor-controlle d inductio n moto r drive , wher e 80196 microcontroller s wit h ASI C ar e employe d t o identify th e parameters , such a s stato r resistance , stato r transien t time constant , roto r time constant , roto r magnetizin g current , an d mechanica l time con - stan t [5]. Followin g his approach , several commerciall y availabl e inverters hav e been supple d with such functions.

9.2. Parameter Estimation in AC Drives

463

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

»»»««■»»»— g

ι

·

5OO0 0

ΟθΟ °

.

.

y X

x

_L _l _

»

»

»

g

X X X

_L

  • 0 20 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

o(rpm)

Reference torque

° Before dead-time compensation

• After dead-time compensation

  • x Without voltage autoboost

k °

°

;

;

x x * * ;

; s s x » « » *

Figure 9-9. Experimental torque control characteristics (2.2 kW, four-pole induc- tion motor).

_l

_

_L J _

J _

  • 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800' co(rpm)

Flux Estimation in Vector-Controlled Induction Motors. Fro m th e field orientatio n contro l view, man y paper s hav e been propose d t o estimat e th e roto r flux. I n general , th e caged inductio n moto r represente d in Figur e 9-7 ha s a dynamica l system equatio n a s

where

~A n A n ~

=

An

A 22 .

i

s =

10]

is

+

Bi

_ 0 .

A\i =

(jJL/^JLit-

I *-^r

}

I u) r J

(9.10)

  • 464 9. Estimation , Identification , an d Sensorless Contro l in A C Drive s

    • L m K r

σΖ,,

  • L s L r

"1 0"

U iJ , J =

0

|_1

- Γ

o J

Since this equatio n is observable , it is possibl e t o construc t a n observe r t o estimat e th e roto r flux. Th e minimu m orde r observe r is derived from th e well-known Gopinath' s method .

Ψ , = A 2i i s + Α 22 Ψ, + G[Í, - {A n i s + A u V r + B^)}

(9.11)

Th e first tw o term s o n th e right-han d side shows th e "simulation " of flux circuit, an d th e last o n th e right-han d side is a "correction " term . Figur e 9-10 shows a realization . Flu x estimatio n erro r denote d by e is

¿ =

(A 22 -GA n )e

= -He

(9.12)

Eigenvalues of H determin e th e erro r dynamics . Th e paramete r variatio n of th e inductio n moto r gives transien t erro r in flux observation . It is prove n tha t sensitivity t o th e roto r resistanc e variatio n is minimized if H is skew symmetrica l as

H = aI-ßJ

(9.13)

Her e —a ±jß ar e th e allocate d pole s of flux observer, a an d ß ar e

a

^i )+w * £>-**

(Rr

β

=

-ω,

(914 )

Figure 9-10. Flu x observe r realization .

9.3. Sensorless Drives of AC Motors

465

W is a weighting coefficient t o be determine d by takin g maximu m variatio n rati o of

roto r resistanc e ε, as

W <

1 +

- 1

(9.15)

Fo r instance , for ε = 0.3 , th e recommende d value of W is less tha n 3 o r 4. Figur e 9-11 is also effective in minimizing othe r paramete r variations . Whe n th e estimate d flux is fed back , this approac h is a kind of an extension of original vector contro l by Blaschke [14]. Figur e 9-11 is an exampl e of a realization . Th e flux observer ha s a function similar t o a flux detector .

  • 9.3. SENSORLESS DRIVES OF AC MOTORS

Basically, the vector-controlle d A C motor s requir e speed o r positio n sensors. However, these sensors brin g several disadvantage s from th e standpoin t of drive cost , reliability, machin e size, an d noise immunity . Fo r these reasons , it is necessary t o achieve th e precise contro l of torqu e an d speed withou t using positio n an d speed sensors, tha t is, so-called sensorless drives of A C motors . In this chapter , first sen- sorless drive of brushless motor s is described , the n th e inductio n moto r is considered .

  • 9.3.1. Sensorless Drives of Brushless Motors

As stated , ther e ar e two kind s of brushless motors : th e moto r with a trapezoida l flux distributio n an d tha t with a sinusoida l flux distribution . Th e approache s t o sensorless drive of th e brushless moto r vary, dependin g o n th e roto r flux distribu - tion . Th e brushless moto r with a trapezoida l roto r flux distributio n provide s an attractiv e candidate , because two of th e thre e stato r windings ar e excited at a time. As a result, the unexcited winding can be used as a sensor [10, 11]; tha t is,

-—»-o—

+

|

-

PI

J M

-TV* .

+ >

^ >r

> — PI

A

1

,

'T

> Γ^

+ 1 .

->-

ΙΨΓΙ

ω,

PI V«,

PI

1

^

'

J L

Vector

rotator

COS Ö

sine

1

>—

sin/cos

generator

IM

¡f

"

'

Vector

rotator

Vas

v bs Flux Î J Vbr , I 'as 'bs , 1
v
bs
Flux
Î
J Vbr
,
I
'as
'bs
,
1

/^Τ" "

A

  • c a

V^O s

Figure 9-11. Flux observer-based field orientation.

  • 466 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives

th e speed EM F induced in th e unexcited windin g is use d t o determin e th e roto r positio n an d speed. On th e contrary , th e brushless moto r wit h a sinusoida l flux distributio n excites thre e windings a t a time an d th e sensorless contro l algorith m becomes complicated . Figur e 9-12 shows a n analytica l mode l of a brushless moto r wher e th e d-q axis correspond s t o a n actua l roto r positio n an d th e η-δ axis is a fictitious roto r position . Since th e actua l roto r positio n is no t know n withou t a positio n sensor, th e ai m is t o mak e th e angula r difference ΔΘ betwee n th e fictitious an d actua l roto r position s converg e t o zero .

Tw o approache s hav e been proposed . Bot h ar e th e estimatio n of th e angula r

difference by usin g th e detecte d stat e variable s an d th e estimate d

stat e variable s

which ar e obtaine d from a moto r mode l in th e controller . Th e approache s differ

accordin g t o th e moto r model , tha t is,

• Voltag e model-base d drive [12]

• Curren t model-base d drive [13]

These two ar e basically th e model-base d contro l an d generally requir e on-line identification of th e moto r parameter s if highe r performanc e is required . However , it is interestin g t o not e tha t th e second metho d ha s robus t contro l characteristic s against th e moto r paramete r variation .

I n th e voltag e model-base d sensorless drive , th e voltag e equatio n is given as follows, wher e P is th e differential operator .

R + PL

-L9 C R + PL

+ Κ

Ε

Θ

— sinAff

co s ¿10

(9.16)

O n th e othe r hand , th e voltag e equatio n unde r th e ideal conditio n tha t th e fictitious an d actua l axes ar e coinciden t is

V

6M.

R + PL

~L9

R + PL l s\

κ,θ

(9.17)

Figure 9-12. Analytical model of brush- less motor.

9.3. Sensorless Drives of AC Motors

467

Takin g a difference between 7-axis voltag e assumin g ΔΘ is small, th e following

relatio n is obtained .

Δν Ί = v 7

ν = -Κ θήη ΔΘ ~ -Κ Θ ■ Δθ ηΜ Ε Ε
ν
= -Κ θήη
ΔΘ
~
Θ
Δθ
ηΜ
Ε
Ε

(9.18)

Since th e voltag e difference ca n be calculated by th e actua l applied voltag e in equa - tio n 9.16 an d th e mode l voltag e calculate d from equatio n 9.17, th e angula r difference ca n be mad e t o converge t o zer o by th e following rule:

if

Av r > 0, the n 6 C decreases

ii Av r < 0, then 6 C increases

(for clockwise rotation )

Th e curren t mode l is given in equatio n 9.20.

■7

"7

R

r

-L6 C

R

Κ

κ

θ

-

sin ΔΘ

cos ¿do

(9.19)

(9.20)

Similarly, th e curren t difference is calculated an d th e result is as

AL

l lM

K E T

0 sin ¿10

  • L -0cos¿l 0 + 0 M

ΚκΤ ΘΔΘ

-Δθ

(9.21)

wher e T is a samplin g perio d an d Θ Μ is th e moto r speed of th e model . Equatio n 9.21

mean s tha t th e curren t error s of each componen t of curren t correspon d t o positio n

an d speed errors , respectively. Therefore , th e following algorith m is obtained .

 

(9.22)

Θ,. = /( *> M + K e AL)dt

(9.23)

Figur e 9-13 shows torque-spee d characteristic s unde r a curren t model-base d algorithm . Th e moto r ratin g is 1.2 (kW) , 6-poles, 1200 (rpm) , 98 (kgf cm) . Th e maximu m speed is 1500 (rpm) , th e minimu m speed is 60 (rpm) , an d a steady-stat e maximu m speed erro r is withi n 0.4% .

9.3.2 . Sensorles s Drive s of Vector Controlled

Induction Motors

Ther e hav e been man y report s o n th e speed sensorless drive of th e vector- controlle d inductio n motor s [6]. Variou s approache s hav e been propose d where th e basi c idea is estimatio n of speed by usin g applie d voltage , line current , an d fre- quency .

Slip frequency contro l approac h is relatively simple, as shown in Figur e 9-14. Here , th e inverte r frequency is controlle d so tha t th e vecto r contro l condition s ar e satisfied by estimatin g a slip frequency from th e stato r curren t transforme d t o th e synchronousl y rotatin g coordinate s {d-q axis) system. Th e slip frequency is given by

  • 468 9. Estimation, Identification, an d Sensorless Control in A C Drives

1000Φ-

τ

Q.

<z>

*

J

L

J

I

L

Reference speed

 

o1500(rpm)

——o 1400 (rpm)

 

- o 1200 (rpm)

- o

1000 (rpm)

- o 800(φm)

- o

600 (rpm)

- o 400 (φm)

- o

200 (φηι)

^

100 (rpm)

^

60 (φm)

J

L

  • 50 100

Load Torque (kg cm)

Figure 9-13. Torque-speed characteristics of sensorless brushless motor under current model-based control.

 

4

Slip

1

Hdq

vector control

d-q/a- ß

Estimation of

*

slip frequency

Motor j * ~

Figure 9-14. Basic schematic diagram of slip frequency-based sensorless control of induction motor.

R r

l

sq

(9.24)

an d th e moto r speed is indirectly estimate d by th e inverte r frequency an d th e esti-

mate d slip frequency a s

ώ

Γ

=

ω —

û

s

(9-25)

I n this approach , a s th e estimate d slip frequency is directly fed bac k t o th e vector- controlle d algorithm , th e vector contro l an d th e speed estimatio n ar e coupled , an d they shoul d ru n simultaneously .

I n th e field orientatio n contro l approach , no t only th e speed bu t als o th e roto r flux ar e simultaneousl y estimate d for th e sensorless drive in a wide speed range . Schaude r attacke d this proble m with MRA S [7]. His approac h was base d o n th e

9.3. Sensorless Drives of AC Motors

469

so-called voltag e reference mode l where the speed terms ar e no t explicitly included . Th e stato r equatio n is used for correctio n of adjustabl e curren t reference model . Th e speed is estimate d by a kind of erro r of flux component s which is derived from Popov' s stability criteria . On e modified implementatio n of this approac h is shown in Figur e 9-15, which is for applicatio n in th e th e low-speed rang e as well as mid - o r high-speed ranges . Th e roto r flux observer based o n th e moto r voltage mode l estimate s th e roto r flux by using the stato r curren t transforme d t o th e stationar y coordinate s (a-ß axis) system, an d the vector contro l is carrie d ou t o n the basis of th e estimate d roto r flux while th e moto r speed is directly estimate d throug h MRA S by using the flux an d th e stato r current . Therefore , unlik e th e slip frequency-base d approach , th e estimate d speed is used t o adjust th e moto r model . Th e vector contro l ca n be decouple d with th e speed estimatio n an d be self-controlled. Th e speed is estimate d accordin g t o th e following relations .

= K P || x Ψ Γ II +K, j

II x

Ψ

,

dt

^i

' s

' s

(9.26)

It shoul d be note d her e tha t "x " in equatio n 9.26 mean s th e oute r product . Since th e speed estimatio n is based o n th e moto r model , th e paramete r variation , especially th e roto r resistance , ha s some effect on the speed estimation . Wit h refer- ence t o this problem , Shin-nak a clarified th e impossibility of simultaneou s estima - tio n of bot h th e speed an d th e roto r resistance theoreticall y [8].

Fro m th e voltage equatio n based on the stationar y coordinate s system, th e relatio n

d_

Jt

V r \\ 2 =2V?[-R r i r

+ uj r JV r

— —2/v r x r l r

(9.27)

(9.28)

is obtained . Rearrangin g equation s 9.27 an d 9.28, equatio n 9.29 holds .

R r

-irJ*r)- l ±*r

(9.29)

Field orientation-based

vector control

"2αβ

Figure 9-15. Basic schematic diagram of vector-controlled sensorless control of induction motor.

/

Motor model

observer

àm(

MRAS

 

2οβ .

 

9-1

-T

 

φ 2αβ. Ίαβ

 

e

  • 470 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives

It is noted here that the following relation is obtained from basic equations of the vector-controlled induction motor.

det [-i ,

]

=

/

(9.30)

 

By substituting equation 9.30 into equation 9.27, the following relation is derived.

^||V r | | 2 =2i? r det[-/ r Γ ]

(9.31)

Equation 9.31 and equation 9.29 mean that a simultaneous identification of the rotor resistance and the motor speed is possible only when the rotor flux is persistently time variant (PE condition). Under the vector control, the rotor flux is kept constant in principle for the orthogonality of rotor flux and rotor current. Then the simulta- neous identification is theoretically impossible in the vector-controlled induction motor. This problem is overcome by adding small AC component to the d-axis current. The convergence is improved if such an AC component has a rich frequency spectrum like PRBS [15, 9]. Figure 9-16 shows an example of the sensorless control characteristics of 2.2 (kW), 4-poles induction motor. The maximum speed is 2400 (rpm) under the field- weakening control and the minimum speed is 15 (rpm). It is noted here that the speed control accuracy is 0.4% under the tuned condition; however, it is 1.4% under the detuned condition. Like the conventional vector control with sensors, the identifica- tion of the rotor resistance is important and difficult.

9.4 . ROBUST MOTION CONTROL BY ESTIMATION

OF MECHANICAL PARAMETERS

  • 9.4.1. Estimation of Disturbance Torque

In general, the outputs of the motion system are position or force. There is a certain relational function between them as equation 9.32.

f = g(x)

(9-32)

In this equation, / is force applied to the mechanical system, and x is deviation by / . The control stiffness is defined as in equation 9.33.

control stiffness = —

ox

(9.33)

Ideal force control has zero stiffness, and ideal position control has infinite stiffness. Any compliant or hybrid motion occupies the midway place between posi- tion and force control. The robust controller should be both insensitive to external disturbances and parameter variations. In the motion system, the former characteristics correspond to a very high rejection capability against disturbance effects. As the external distur- bance is the load, a robust motion controller should have an infinite control stiffness.

9.4.

Robust Motion Control by Estimation of Mechanical Parameters

Έ

&

3

250 0 1

-

co* r = 2400 rpm

-

ω*=220 0 rpm

-

ω* = 2000 rpm

2000 '

 

-

ω*= 1800 rpm

~ o>*= 1500 rpm

1500

 

-

ω* = 1200 rpm

1000

-

<o* = 900rp m

-

ω* = 600 rpm

 

50 0 =

-

ω* = 450 rpm

400

 

ω* = 300 rpm

300

20 0 - o>í=150rp m

100

.

60

1

r

 

4 0 j

" co* =

30rp m

9

20

,

 
 

r (oJ= 15 rpjn "il

0

l

0

Afte r moto r war m -up

Befor e moto r warm-u p

,

.

Φ

9

a _ 9

Q

MB

9

9

Constant power operation

a

\

9

V v " 9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

g_

9

a

9

...... .

a_

9

9

9

$

9

s

9

9

I

I

5

o

0

9

I

0

1

0

0

1

Tj. (N.m )

0

I

0

8

l

10

i

9

0

O

1

1

Figure 9-16. Example of control characteristics of stator flux-controlled sensorless vector control of induction motor.

T o realize a versatil e motio n system whos e contro l stiffness change s widely, th e tota l motio n system shoul d hav e th e doubl e cascad e structur e o f th e acceleratio n reference generato r t o regulat e tota l stiffness an d th e acceleratio n controlle r a s shown i n Figur e 9-17. T o clarify th e robus t motio n controller , a t first, simple one-degree-of-freedom motio n is analyzed . Th e dynamica l equatio n is

(9.34)

  • 472 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives

Input

ûCm d

f cmd

Acceleration

reference

Acceleration

reference

generator

;,

/

,

Robust

motion

controller

Mechanical

system

.

1

Acceleration

Po sition (speed), force

Output

M

Figure 9-17. General structure of motion system based on robust control.

J = inerti a abou t moto r shaft (kgm 2 )

T¡ = loa d torqu e (Nm )

T m = moto r torqu e (Nm )

Th e loa d torqu e is th e sum of inertia l torqu e T m , externa l torqu e T nl , an d friction torqu e T {ic . The y ar e function s of positio n and/o r time . Th e moto r torqu e is th e produc t of th e generalized torqu e coefficient correspondin g with th e mag - netic flux by th e generalized torqu e curren t I a . Since th e generalized torqu e curren t is assume d t o be regulate d by th e high-gai n curren t controlle r an d th e outpu t curren t will completel y coincide with its reference, th e following equatio n holds .

T m = K,I a = K t lf

(9.35)

Combinin g equatio n 9.35 with equatio n 9.34, th e following equatio n is obtained .

'-*=«'*

άω

ref

(Tin t + Text + Tfrc)

(9.36)

I n equatio n 9.36, th e paramete r variation s denote d by A ar e shown in equatio n 9.37,

J = J n + AJ K, = K m + AK,

(9.37)

Usin g equatio n 9.37, th e paramete r variatio n an d th e loa d ar e treate d in th e torqu e dimension . Th e sum of bot h gives th e disturbanc e torque .

ref

Tdis = T¡ + AJsiú — AK t I a

— Tint + T ex , + T{ frc

+

ref

(J-J„)sLJ+(K m -K t )I i

(9.38)

Th e basi c dynami c equatio n 9.34 is transforme d int o equatio n 9.39 by equation s 9.37

an d 9.38.

-* dis ~ "-tn'a

du

·*·

"Tt

(9.39)

Th e left side of th e equatio n is th e sum of unknow n factors, tha t is, th e unpredictabl e

loa d an d th e unknow n paramete r variation ; however, th e righ t side of th e equatio n is

9.4. Robust Motion Control by Estimation of Mechanical Parameters

Figure 9-18. Calculation of distur- bance torque based on acceleration.

473

know n o r detectable . Thu s th e disturbanc e torqu e can be calculate d as shown in Figur e 9-18. As Figur e 9-18 ha s a pur e differentiation process, it is modified t o be realizable as shown in Figur e 9-19, where on e low-pass filter (LPF ) is inserted . Althoug h an y LP F is applicable , a simple first-order LP F is chosen here . In this case, the distur - banc e is estimate d as

Tdis — '

s + g

Z dis

(9.40)

where g is a cutoff angula r frequency of a first-order LPF . If g is large enough , th e

estimate d disturbanc e torqu e is almos t similar t o th e real one . Figur e 9-19 is called a

disturbance observer.

By direc t feedback of th e estimate d disturbanc e torqu e shown in Figur e 9-20, th e modified diagra m shown in Figur e 9-21 is obtained . Figur e 9-21 mean s tha t th e disturbanc e ha s little effect o n th e motio n system, since th e feedback loo p of dis-

turbanc e is jus t th e same a s th e feedforward effect

of disturbanc e t o cancel it. By

attachin g a n auxiliary gai n element J n /K tn in front of the curren t controller , it is clear tha t th e physical meanin g of th e inpu t of Figur e 9-21 is acceleration . It is possibl e t o exten d such a robus t motio n contro l from one-degree-of-freedom systems t o multi - degrees-of-freedom systems [17].

Figure 9-19. Calculation of disturbance torque by disturbance observer.

 

i reí

* a

K,

 
 

Kin

 

1

1

  • -¿O*- Js

ω θ 1 s
ω
θ
1
s

-¿r>£ -

  • V ' '

9

s+g

QJn

-*—

  • \- J

t

'

>

.

QJn

  • 474 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives

r ref

¿

o

'cmp

Kin

¿ 6

±

Js

QJn

s+g

+ "

  • 0 5 -

'di s

Figure 9-20. Feedback of estimated dis-

turbance torque.

¿ r ef

1^

Jn

Km

rref

1' 1

1

G s (s)

s+g

Kin

μ&

Figure 9-21. Acceleration controller by

modifying Figure 9-20.

9.4.2 . Estimation of Instantaneous Speed

and Varied inertia

Fo r mor e accurat e motio n control , th e instantaneou s speed accurac y is very impor -

tant . Th e incrementa l positio n encode r with a very shor t samplin g time will lose

resolutio n of th e speed du e t o a small numbe r of incrementa l pulse s in a samplin g

period . O n th e contrary , in case of longe r samplin g time , resolutio n will b e higher.

However , th e tota l motio n system tend s t o be unstable . Th e instantaneou s speed

observe r which is a n expansio n of th e disturbanc e observe r solves this antinomy ; tha t

is, accurac y is kep t highe r even in th e case of a very shor t samplin g time . Figur e 9-22

shows a timin g char t in such a case .

A t th e shorte r samplin g point s of T 2 (represente d by k = 0,1,2, , K), th e tota l

...

acceleratio n torqu e T me<A [m,k} (1 < k

< K) is given by th e sum of th e moto r torqu e

an d th e estimate d disturbanc e torqu e as

^mechKfe] = K,„i[m,k] + f dis [m\

(9.41)

By integratin g equatio n 9.41 , th e instantaneou s speed a t T 2 point s ca n b e estimate d

by

9.4. Robust Motion Control by Estimation of Mechanical Parameters

475

Figure 9-22. Timing chart of the instan-

taneous speed observer (position input

type).

m- 1

m

fc=0

m+1

K

Readout period Control period of DSP of position

9(m+1)

Position from encoder

û[m,k] =w[m,k-

1] + ^2 (f mech [m,k) +

T mech [m,k- 1]

(9.42)

Th e positio n is calculate d by integratin g equatio n 9.42 an d th e positio n erro r ΔΘ ca n

be obtaine d a t th e next point , k = K, when readin g ou t th e counter .

ΔΘ = ê[m,k] - θ[πι)

(9.43)

I t is importan t t o evaluat e ΔΘ in th e observe r design. Suppos e tha t 71 ¿10 (0 < η χ < 1)

is caused by Δω 0 (th e erro r in th e initial value of th e estimate d

speed) an d

7 2 ΔΘ (0 < 72 < 1) by dT dis0 (th e erro r in th e estimate d disturbanc e in th e section),

namel y

Ύ\ΔΘ — Τ\Δω

1ι ΔΘ

=

T 2

^ Γ ΔΤ & ζ

(9.44)

(9.45)

Based o n equation s 9.44 an d 9.45, th e value s i n th e nex t section of [m+ 1,/c] ar e

modified a s follows before startin g th e speed estimation .

T d \s[m+\} = f dis [m\ - ΔΤ^

T

û[m+ 1,0] = ûj[m,k] --j-ΔΤ άί5 - Δω

(9.46)

(9.47)

Th e observe r poles ca n be designed by 7 , an d 72 introduce d in equation s 9.44

an d 9.45 [22]. Th e mai n advantag e of th e speed observe r is th e improvemen t of

system stabilit y by th e equivalentl y reduce d samplin g period . By addin g adaptiv e

algorith m t o instantaneou s speed observer , th e varie d inerti a is identified an d th e

self-tuning regulato r (STR ) is realized.

A t th e rath samplin g poin t of T x t o rea d th e encoder , th e mechanica l system's

behavio r is approximatel y given by

an d

Jú[m] = K m i[m] + T dis [m]

Jù>[m - 1] = K tn i[m - 1] + T dis [m - 1]

(9.48)

(9.49)

  • 476 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives

Since th e variatio n in th e torqu e coefficient K, is include d in th e disturbanc e torqu e

T &% , a paramete r K,„ is used in these equations . By subtractin g equatio n 9.49 from

equatio n 9.48, th e following is obtained .

JAw[m\ = K tn Ai[m] + AT dis [m\

(9.50)

Equatio n 9.50 is th e basi c equatio n for inerti a momen t identification . I t is importan t

tha t AT áis [m] ca n be assume d rando m Gaussian , if th e disturbanc e torqu e is assume d

t o b e constan t in th e neighborin g section s of T x . By summin g u p th e equatio n erro r

between th e left an d righ t terms of equatio n 9.50, th e objective function t o be mini-

mized take s th e form of

M

/(/ ) = Y^(JAú[m} - K,„Ai [m]f -> mi n

Σ

m= l

(9.51)

By takin g th e partia l differentiation of /(/ ) by J, th e estimatio n equatio n of th e

inerti a momen t is obtaine d by

J

M

K m=l

Σ

¿lcj[m]¿lí[w]

~~M

Em=l(^M )

(9.52)

Th e actua l calculatio n is performe d by equatio n 9.53 replacin g th e oldest dat a with

th e newest dat a which comes int o th e rectangula r window of equatio n 9.51 .

/

fM= Σ

AÚ[j]Ai[j]

j=m-M+\ 12j=m-M+l (¿M .

(9.53)

Th e identified inerti a momen t is applie d t o th e speed controlle r in a ST R manne r as

is shown in Figur e 9-23.

Speed controller

1 + t„,s

Current controller

1 +t; S

/

IsL

Km

-it -

Speed

observer

—i

Adaptive identification of the inertia moment

Figure 9-23. ST R based o n inerti a identification.

9.5. Conclusion

477

Figur e 9-24 shows th e identification performanc e when the inertia momen t

varies from nomina l value t o thre e times of it. Th e varying inerti a momen t is esti-

mate d exactly with enoug h respons e time .

Th e systems described her e led t o improvemen t bot h in th e robustnes s an d

preciseness in th e motio n systems. It is interestin g tha t robus t contro l is used for

very fast improvemen t of contro l characteristic s like disturbanc e rejection, an d adap -

tive identification helps th e robus t contro l t o increase th e stability in a relatively slow

mod e [24].

9.5. CONCLUSION

A descriptio n of motio n system is given in this chapte r with a n emphasis on bot h

estimatio n an d identification of parameter s an d contro l variable s of A C motor -

drive n motio n systems. I n moder n electrical drive systems, it is require d t o tak e

no t only th e electrical aspec t bu t also th e mechanica l ones int o tota l system design.

Improvemen t in th e electrical aspec t needs variou s informatio n pertainin g t o

electrical machine s an d powe r electroni c circuits of A C variabl e speed drives.

Importan t technique s of identification o r estimatio n of parameter s an d contro l vari-

ables in A C drives ar e explained . Such informatio n includes machin e parameters ,

flux, an d so on . Ther e is some theoretica l limit of performanc e in the identification or

estimatio n process. Fo r th e mechanica l phase , th e estimatio n of th e disturbanc e

torque , instantaneou s speed, an d varied inerti a ar e described .

It is shown tha t th e tota l robustnes s is attaine d by integratin g th e electrical

improvemen t an d th e mechanica l improvement . Ther e ar e a wide variety of control -

lers based o n combination s of these two aspects dependin g on applications . Furthe r

research is expected for tota l performanc e improvement .

j -

0.00588 (kgm 2 /div), ω - 50.0 (rpm/div)

f di s - 2.0 (N m/div),

time - 250 (ms/div)

Figure 9-24. Identification performance

of inertia moment. (T 2 = 100μ/ , Τ

χ

= 5ms,' pole: z =0.6 , M = 50.) The

inertia moment changes between J„ and

  • 478 9. Estimation , Identification , an d Sensorless Contro l in A C Drive s

Acknowledgmen t

Th e author s woul d like t o express thei r thank s t o B . K . Bose an d A . Denke r fo r

thei r helpful suggestions in preparin g this chapter .

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