Kouhei Ohnishi
Nobuyuki Matsui
Yoichi Hori
Chapter 9
.1. INTRODUCTION
Since th e early years of th e twentiet h century , electric motor s for variabl e speed drives hav e been widely applie d in largecapacit y application s such as th e steel industr y an d th e automobil e industry . I n th e early stage , D C motor s were widely used for adjustabl e speed control . Since th e late 1960s, however, A C motor s hav e been replacin g D C motor s in a wide are a of industr y applications . Since A C drives require d mor e complicate d controller s in th e beginnin g stage , they were no t so economicall y feasible an d did no t mee t wit h wide acceptance . However , allied t o advance s bot h in digital contro l technolog y an d powe r semiconducto r devices, A C drive s became mor e an d mor e economica l an d popular . I n almos t all areas , D C drives ar e no w replaceabl e wit h A C drives.
However , ther e still exist some area s which ar e no t suitabl e for A C drive appli  cations . On e of these is th e are a of applications , whic h require s precise torqu e con  trol . Fo r instance , injection machine s need accurat e torqu e contro l a t a very low speed o r in a standstil l state . A C motor s sometime s generat e torqu e erro r o r torqu e pulsatio n du e t o some paramete r variations . T o overcome such problems , mor e sophisticate d technique s ar e necessary in th e controller . These technique s employ th e recen t developments in digital control , includin g highspeed digita l signal pro  cessors (DSPs) an d paralle l processin g an d ar e based o n estimatio n o r identification of moto r parameters . A descriptio n of th e recent advance s in such area s with a focus o n estimatio n an d system identification is given in this chapter . Th e results ar e no t
9.2. Paramete r Estimatio n in A C Drive s
455
only reflected in contro l design itself bu t also directly used t o dispens e with mechan  ical sensors. Th e chapte r first introduce s th e electrical aspects of A C moto r drives, emphasizin g paramete r estimation , flux identification, an d speed estimatio n based o n variou s methods , includin g selftuning regulators , mode l reference adaptiv e systems, an d so on . Importan t application s ar e th e drives of inductio n moto r an d brushless moto r withou t speed sensor. Theoretica l analyses based o n th e physical viewpoint ar e presented , an d th e associate d experimenta l results ar e shown . Th e chapte r also describes th e design of robus t motio n controller s which tak e mechanica l aspects int o account . By integratin g these two aspects (electrical an d mechanical) , versatile appli  cation s will be possible . A t th e end of th e chapter , a summar y of th e stat e of th e ar t is given.
9.2 . PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN AC DRIVES
9.2.1. Parameter Identification in Brushless Motors
Parameters of Brushless Motors. Th e contro l scheme of brushless motor s with trapezoida l flux distribution s (BLDM , brushless D C motor ) is relatively simple. Usuall y it does no t need paramete r identification. Generall y identification of th e parameter s is necessary for precise contro l of brushless motor s with sinusoida l flux distributio n (PMSM , permanen t magne t synchronou s motor) , as less torqu e pulsa  tio n is required . Particularl y such a metho d is employed for fine torqu e control . Fro m th e contro l viewpoint , th e brushless moto r ha s thre e electric parameters . Th e first is armatur e resistance , th e second is armatur e inductance , an d the thir d is EM F coefficient. They ar e significant parameter s t o be identified.
Tw o effective approache s ar e presente d here . One is selftuning regulato r (STR) , which ha s a tunin g ability t o mak e outputerro r zer o inside th e controller ; th e othe r is mode l reference adaptiv e system (MRAS) , which ha s a referred model in th e controller . It is importan t t o not e tha t direct application s of ST R an d MRA S t o paramete r identification d o no t always lead t o successful results, becaus e of th e limitatio n of th e processin g time of th e controlle r CPU . Since identification shoul d be performe d in paralle l with curren t an d speed control , it is essential t o reduce th e processin g time for identification by a simple algorithm .
STRBased Parameter Identifier. A t steadystate , th e PMS M ha s th e simple equivalen t circuit jus t like a D C motor . Termina l voltage , line current , an d armatur e resistance ar e measure d t o identify th e circuit parameters . Figur e 91 shows a n experimenta l evaluatio n of th e influence of such paramete r variation s in armatur e curren t erro r a t stead y state . A currentregulate d voltag e sourc e inverte r supplies almos t sinusoida l current . I n th e figure, th e ordinat e is th e curren t contro l erro r du e t o th e paramete r variatio n an d th e paramete r variatio n coefficient is defined as
K =
moto r paramete r
controlle —i r  paramete r
(9.1)
_{4}_{5}_{6} 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives
o
o AL • AKe X AR Rated speed 2000 rpm, Rated current
1.0
1.5
Variation Coefficient, K
Figure 91. Experimental estimation of armature current error in steady state via parameter variations.
Th e results show tha t variation s of th e armatur e inductanc e an d th e EM F coefficient give rise t o significant erro r in th e performance , while th e armatur e resistanc e varia  tio n doe s not . Thi s mean s tha t th e resistanc e dro p is considerabl y smaller tha n bot h inductanc e dro p an d counte r EMF . Figur e 92 shows th e STRbase d identifier for armatur e inductanc e an d EM F coefficient with associate d experimenta l results. Her e th e input s of th e identifier ar e applie d voltag e an d armatur e current . Th e armatur e curren t is obtaine d throug h a curren t sensor; however, th e applie d voltag e is calcu  lated using D C link voltage , PW M pattern , an d deadtim e information . T o simplify th e identification algorith m an d save computatio n time , th e following relation s ar e used t o identify th e armatur e inductanc e an d th e EM F coefficient,
L =
y¿("2 )
R _{a} i _{d} {n~2)
i _{d} (n  1)  i _{d} (n  2) + w _{r} TUn  2)
K„
v _{q} (n 
2)  RUn  2)  {Un  1)  Un  2) } ■ + Li _{d} (n  2)
^{(}^{9}^{.}^{2}^{)}
(9.3)
wher e voltag e an d curren t transforme d t o th e dq axis ar e used an d T an d θ{— ω _{Γ} ) ar e th e curren t contro l perio d an d moto r speed, respectively. Th e estimatio n process is repeate d 256 times, an d th e estimate d values ar e averaged t o avoi d noises involved in calculations . Figur e 93 shows th e estimatio n error s against variou s loa d an d speed conditions . Fro m equatio n 9.2, since th e estimatio n of th e armatur e induc  tanc e uses division an d th e relatively small rfaxis voltage , th e erro r is a little large r compare d t o tha t of th e EM F coefficient.
MRASBased Parameter Identifier. Figur e 94 displays a MRASbase d identification approach , which includes a voltagebase d moto r mode l as a reference model . I n addition , th e figure shows th e experimenta l results of identification of armatur e inductanc e an d EM F coefficient for a tested motor . Th e inpu t of th e identifier is a curren t difference between model an d actua l motor . Th e curren t dif
9.2. Parameter Estimation in AC Drives
457
_{I} Ke 
Identification 

algorithm 

, 1 

\ 

/'* 
Current control 
Brushless 

Input 
algorithm 

Output 

, 

\ 
' 
Identification starts
Figure 92. STRbased parameter identifier with experimental results. L is estimated armature inductance, K _{e} is estimated EMF constant.
ference is decompose d int o two elements, from which the armatur e inductanc e an d th e EM F coefficient ar e identified. Th e identification algorith m is as follows. Rearrangin g th e dq axis voltag e equatio n of the brushless motor , the reference model is given by th e following equation .
i(«l)=
T
L{n  2)
v(n  2)  Ri(n  2)]
+ w _{r} (n2)T
i _{q} (n  2)
_{2}_{)}_{/}_{L}_{(}_{n} _{~} _{2}_{)} + /( «  2) (9.4)
i _{d} (n  2)  K _{e} (n 
Th e curren t difference between the model an d the actua l moto r is
9. Estimation , Identification , an d Sensorless Contro l in A C Drive s
10
0
1 0
2000 (rpm)
10
0
1 0
o/' J = 13.0 A • /J=2.6 A 



L Ke 
Identification 

algorithm 

Reference 
i 

V model 

Current 
\ 
• 
+ 

control 
F 

algorithm 

\ 
Brushless 
l 

motor 
Figure 93. Estimatio n error s for var ious load an d speed conditions .
Identification
starts
(a)
Figure 94. MRASbase d paramete r identifier with experimenta l results.
9.2. Parameter Estimation in AC Drives
Ai[n — 1) = oj _{r} {n  2)T
0
K _{e} /LK _{e} (n2)/L(n2).
+ T
1
L(n 2)
1
L
[v(n  2)  Ri{n  2)]
459
(9.5)
Fro m th e ¿/axis componen t of current , th e daxis curren t difference is
Ai _{d} (nl) = T[v _{d} (n2)Ri _{d} (n2)}
l 
l 

L(n  2) 
¿ 
(9.6)
Th e curren t difference of th e qaxis componen t is given unde r th e assumptio n tha t
th e armatur e inductanc e coul d be identified as L = L(n — 1) by using equatio n 9.5.
Ai _{q} (n\)=jè[K _{e} K _{e} (n2)}.
(9.7)
Usin g these tw o equations , th e identification algorith m is summarize d as
L(n\)
where
« 1
= Kpsgn[A(n  2)]Ai{n l) + K¡^2 ^{s} 8 ^{n} [^( ^{k}  1)]^« W
= Apsg n [Λ[η — Δ)\ηι\η — i ; t Λ /
k=\
(9.8)
A(k)
T{v _{d} (n2)Ri _{d} (n2)}
0 (9.9)
_{2}_{)}
0 θ(η 
an d K _{P} an d K¡ ar e th e gai n matrices , respectively. Figur e 95 shows th e experimenta l estimatio n erro r unde r th e variou s loa d an d speed conditions . I n this case , th e estimatio n erro r of th e EM F coefficient is larger compare d t o tha t of th e armatur e inductance , particularl y in lowspeed range .
Cf
20
10
' 5 !
0
1 0
2
0
Figure 95. Experimental estimation error under various load and speed conditions.
<
20
10
0
10 
2 0
1000 2000 (rpm)
• / ' _{q} = 13.0 A
1000 2000 (rpm)
9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives
Application of Parameter Identification to Torque Control. A n interestin g applicatio n exampl e for th e paramete r identification of th e brushless moto r is a "torqu e sensorless " torqu e control . In Figur e 96a, th e conventiona l currentbase d torqu e contro l system is shown . Th e torqu e reference is divided by a torqu e constan t
With identifier
Figure 96. Torque sensorless torque control system and control character istics.
9.2. Parameter Estimation in AC Drives
461
( = EM F coefficient i n SI unit ) t o generat e a curren t reference. I n Figur e 9.6b, th e abscissa is th e operatin g time of moto r with load which correspond s t o temperatur e rise. Wit h temperatur e rise, th e torqu e constan t decreases du e t o negative tempera 
tur e coefficient of th e permanen t magnet . Since th e armatur e curren t is controlle d t o be constan t du e t o th e curren t mino r loop , th e generate d torqu e also decreases i n proportio n t o torqu e constan t a s shown i n the figure. Howeve r i n Figur e 9.6c, the identified torqu e constan t is used t o modify th e curren t reference t o compensat e for decrease o f th e torqu e constan t of th e motor . As a result, th e torqu e is maintaine d constan t with a n accurac y o f less tha n 1% against temperatur e rise. T o improv e accuracy , th e voltag e calculatio n shoul d be mor e precise by takin g int o accoun t the turno n an d turnoff time o f th e switching devices an d curren t dependenc y o f th e
turnoff time , an d so on .
9.2.2 . Parameter Identification in Induction Motors
Parameters of Induction Motors. Basically inductio n moto r in stead y stat e is represente d by th e equivalen t circuit in Figur e 97. Th e classical noloa d test, locked roto r test , an d electrical quantit y measuremen t test give identified parameter s i n Figur e 97.
Recent compute r technology make s i t possible t o carr y ou t these tests online an d i n a realtime manner . I n th e process, a s i t is requisit e t o use fundamenta l component s o f voltag e an d curren t fo r th e identification process, Fourie r series expansio n is usually used. Also some special method s hav e been propose d t o mea  sure electric quantities . Fo r instance , t o measur e the stato r resistance , th e inverte r is operate d as a choppe r mode . A sampl e o f flowchart i s shown i n Figur e 98 [4].
A direct applicatio n o f this steadystat e approac h is a n automati c boostin g function a t lowspeed i n V/f invertersupplie d inductio n moto r drive . Figur e 99 shows experimenta l results where th e effectiveness o f th e boostin g function i n a lowspeed rang e is observed [4]. Th e deadtim e compensatio n o f th e inverter also prevent s torqu e in th e lowspeed rang e from decreasing , since th e dead time gives th e effect i n fundamenta l component .
Parameter Identification in VectorControlled Induction Motors. Vector controlle d inductio n moto r is on e of th e promisin g driving actuators . Ther e ar e two types of vecto r contro l i n inductio n motors , an d they ca n be specified as follows:
1. Field orientatio n contro l type
2. Slip frequency contro l type .
Lis
" s
o —rjipi—j\M
1
*■*■
ιΤΠΡ
" f
V W
1
Figure 97. Equivalent circuit of caged induction motor without iron loss.
_{4}_{6}_{2} 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives
C Start }
During the 
Number of sampled points 

noload and 

singlephase 
Online sampling of current an d voltag e 
10* 

tests 
= 167 points 

(samples ar e save d in file memory) 
^{6}^{0} 
per period 

I 

Compute Fourier 
Compute Fourier 

series coefficient 
series coefficient 

of voltage: 
of current: 

a _{v} i an d b _{v} j 
aff and b,i 

3 
w 

^ 
h 

cos<j> 
Thi s is repeated 120 time s in orde r t o get 

" 
' ^{1} 
averag e value s 

Compute equivalent 

circuit parameters 
Figure 98. Flow chart of autonomous identification of induction motor parameters.
Ther e ar e some direct orientatio n feedback loop s in th e forme r method , which is sometime s called direc t vector control . A Hal l device was used for th e purpos e in th e first stage . On th e contrary , th e magneti c flux vector is no t explicitly oriente d in th e latte r method . Th e phas e an d th e magnitud e of magneti c flux ar e regulate d throug h slip frequency control , an d th e latte r is sometime s classified int o indirec t control . Since slip frequency contro l type is a n inherentl y ope n loo p control , th e variatio n of electric parameters , particularl y roto r resistance , gives significant effect t o th e per  formance . Ther e hav e been man y paper s o n th e estimatio n of roto r resistanc e o r
roto r time constan t for vectorcontrolle d inductio n motor s with shaft encoders. Mos t of th e paper s hav e been base d o n th e LM S (least mea n square ) o r similar approach . As shown in a n early pape r [15], PRB S (pseudorando m binar y sequence) adde d t o ¿/axis curren t reference is effective for th e well convergenc e of th e estimate d roto r time constant . I t will b e shown late r tha t such kin d of persistentl y excited (PE) conditio n of ¿axis curren t is indispensabl e for sensorless drive since roto r speed an d roto r resistanc e canno t be estimate d simultaneously .
No t only th e secondar y resistanc e bu t othe r parameter s ar e also estimated . Holt z an d coworkers propose d an d realized a selfcommissioning scheme for vec torcontrolle d inductio n moto r drive , wher e 80196 microcontroller s wit h ASI C ar e employe d t o identify th e parameters , such a s stato r resistance , stato r transien t time constant , roto r time constant , roto r magnetizin g current , an d mechanica l time con  stan t [5]. Followin g his approach , several commerciall y availabl e inverters hav e been supple d with such functions.
9.2. Parameter Estimation in AC Drives
_{4}_{6}_{3}
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
»»»««■»»»— g
ι
·
■
5OO0 0
ΟθΟ °
.
.
y X
^{x}
_L _l _
»
»
»
g
X X X
_L
0 20 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
o(rpm)
Reference torque
° Before deadtime compensation
• After deadtime compensation
x Without voltage autoboost
k °
°
;
;
x x * * ^{;}
^{;} ^{s} ^{s} ^{x} ^{»} ^{«} ^{»} ^{*}
Figure 99. Experimental torque control characteristics (2.2 kW, fourpole induc tion motor).
_l
_
_L _{J} _{_}
J _
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800' co(rpm)
Flux Estimation in VectorControlled Induction Motors. Fro m th e field orientatio n contro l view, man y paper s hav e been propose d t o estimat e th e roto r flux. I n general , th e caged inductio n moto r represente d in Figur e 97 ha s a dynamica l system equatio n a s
where
~A _{n} A _{n} ~
=
An
A _{2}_{2} .
i
s =
10]
is
_{+}
Bi
_ 0 .
A\i =
(jJL/^JLit
I *^r
I — u) _{r} J
(9.10)
_{4}_{6}_{4} 9. Estimation , Identification , an d Sensorless Contro l in A C Drive s
L m K r
σΖ,,
L s L r
"1 0"
0
_1
 Γ
Since this equatio n is observable , it is possibl e t o construc t a n observe r t o estimat e th e roto r flux. Th e minimu m orde r observe r is derived from th e wellknown Gopinath' s method .
Ψ , = A _{2}_{i} i _{s} + Α _{2}_{2} Ψ, + G[Í,  {A _{n} i _{s} + A _{u} V _{r} + B^)}
(9.11)
Th e first tw o term s o n th e righthan d side shows th e "simulation " of flux circuit, an d th e last o n th e righthan d side is a "correction " term . Figur e 910 shows a realization . Flu x estimatio n erro r denote d by e is
¿ =
(A _{2}_{2} GA _{n} )e
= He
(9.12)
Eigenvalues of H determin e th e erro r dynamics . Th e paramete r variatio n of th e inductio n moto r gives transien t erro r in flux observation . It is prove n tha t sensitivity t o th e roto r resistanc e variatio n is minimized if H is skew symmetrica l as
H = aIßJ
(9.13)
Her e —a ±jß ar e th e allocate d pole s of flux observer, a an d ß ar e
a
(Rr
β
=
ω,
(914 )
Figure 910. Flu x observe r realization .
9.3. Sensorless Drives of AC Motors
465
W is a weighting coefficient t o be determine d by takin g maximu m variatio n rati o of
roto r resistanc e ε, as
_{W} _{<}
_{1} _{+}
_{} _{1}
(9.15)
Fo r instance , for ε = 0.3 , th e recommende d value of W is less tha n 3 o r 4. Figur e 911 is also effective in minimizing othe r paramete r variations . Whe n th e estimate d flux is fed back , this approac h is a kind of an extension of original vector contro l by Blaschke [14]. Figur e 911 is an exampl e of a realization . Th e flux observer ha s a function similar t o a flux detector .
9.3. SENSORLESS DRIVES OF AC MOTORS
Basically, the vectorcontrolle d A C motor s requir e speed o r positio n sensors. However, these sensors brin g several disadvantage s from th e standpoin t of drive cost , reliability, machin e size, an d noise immunity . Fo r these reasons , it is necessary t o achieve th e precise contro l of torqu e an d speed withou t using positio n an d speed sensors, tha t is, socalled sensorless drives of A C motors . In this chapter , first sen sorless drive of brushless motor s is described , the n th e inductio n moto r is considered .
9.3.1. Sensorless Drives of Brushless Motors
As stated , ther e ar e two kind s of brushless motors : th e moto r with a trapezoida l flux distributio n an d tha t with a sinusoida l flux distribution . Th e approache s t o sensorless drive of th e brushless moto r vary, dependin g o n th e roto r flux distribu  tion . Th e brushless moto r with a trapezoida l roto r flux distributio n provide s an attractiv e candidate , because two of th e thre e stato r windings ar e excited at a time. As a result, the unexcited winding can be used as a sensor [10, 11]; tha t is,
—»o—
+


PI
^{J} M
TV* .
+ >
^ >r
> — PI
1
,
'T
> Γ^
+ 1 .
>
ΙΨΓΙ
ω,
_{P}_{I} V«,
PI
^
■
'
J ^{L}
Vector
rotator
COS Ö
sine
1
>—
sin/cos
generator
IM
¡f
"
'
Vector
rotator
Vas
/^Τ" "
V^O s
Figure 911. Flux observerbased field orientation.
_{4}_{6}_{6} 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives
th e speed EM F induced in th e unexcited windin g is use d t o determin e th e roto r positio n an d speed. On th e contrary , th e brushless moto r wit h a sinusoida l flux distributio n excites thre e windings a t a time an d th e sensorless contro l algorith m becomes complicated . Figur e 912 shows a n analytica l mode l of a brushless moto r wher e th e dq axis correspond s t o a n actua l roto r positio n an d th e ηδ axis is a fictitious roto r position . Since th e actua l roto r positio n is no t know n withou t a positio n sensor, th e ai m is t o mak e th e angula r difference ΔΘ betwee n th e fictitious an d actua l roto r position s converg e t o zero .
Tw o approache s hav e been proposed . Bot h ar e th e estimatio n of th e angula r
difference by usin g th e detecte d stat e variable s an d th e estimate d
stat e variable s
which ar e obtaine d from a moto r mode l in th e controller . Th e approache s differ
accordin g t o th e moto r model , tha t is,
• Voltag e modelbase d drive [12]
• Curren t modelbase d drive [13]
These two ar e basically th e modelbase d contro l an d generally requir e online identification of th e moto r parameter s if highe r performanc e is required . However , it is interestin g t o not e tha t th e second metho d ha s robus t contro l characteristic s against th e moto r paramete r variation .
I n th e voltag e modelbase d sensorless drive , th e voltag e equatio n is given as follows, wher e P is th e differential operator .
R + PL
L9 _{C} R + PL
+ Κ
Ε
Θ
— sinAff
co s ¿10
(9.16)
O n th e othe r hand , th e voltag e equatio n unde r th e ideal conditio n tha t th e fictitious an d actua l axes ar e coinciden t is
^{V}
6M.
R + PL
Lé
~L9
R + PL ^{l} _{s}_{\}
^{κ}^{,}^{θ}
(9.17)
Figure 912. Analytical model of brush less motor.
9.3. Sensorless Drives of AC Motors
467
Takin g a difference between 7axis voltag e assumin g ΔΘ is small, th e following
relatio n is obtained .
_{Δ}_{ν} _{Ί} _{=} _{v} _{7}
(9.18)
Since th e voltag e difference ca n be calculated by th e actua l applied voltag e in equa  tio n 9.16 an d th e mode l voltag e calculate d from equatio n 9.17, th e angula r difference ca n be mad e t o converge t o zer o by th e following rule:
if
Av _{r} > 0, the n 6 _{C} decreases
ii Av _{r} < 0, then 6 _{C} increases
(for clockwise rotation )
Th e curren t mode l is given in equatio n 9.20.
■7
_{"}_{7}
R
Lè _{r}
L6 _{C}
R
Κ
κ
θ

sin ΔΘ
cos ¿do
(9.19)
(9.20)
Similarly, th e curren t difference is calculated an d th e result is as
AL
l _{l}_{M}
K _{E} T
0 sin ¿10
L 0cos¿l 0 + 0 _{M}
ΚκΤ ΘΔΘ
Δθ
(9.21)
wher e T is a samplin g perio d an d Θ _{Μ} is th e moto r speed of th e model . Equatio n 9.21
mean s tha t th e curren t error s of each componen t of curren t correspon d t o positio n
an d speed errors , respectively. Therefore , th e following algorith m is obtained .
(9.22) 

_{Θ}_{,}_{.} = /( *> _{M} + K _{e} AL)dt 
(9.23) 
Figur e 913 shows torquespee d characteristic s unde r a curren t modelbase d algorithm . Th e moto r ratin g is 1.2 (kW) , 6poles, 1200 (rpm) , 98 (kgf cm) . Th e maximu m speed is 1500 (rpm) , th e minimu m speed is 60 (rpm) , an d a steadystat e maximu m speed erro r is withi n 0.4% .
9.3.2 . Sensorles s Drive s of Vector Controlled
Induction Motors
Ther e hav e been man y report s o n th e speed sensorless drive of th e vector controlle d inductio n motor s [6]. Variou s approache s hav e been propose d where th e basi c idea is estimatio n of speed by usin g applie d voltage , line current , an d fre quency .
Slip frequency contro l approac h is relatively simple, as shown in Figur e 914. Here , th e inverte r frequency is controlle d so tha t th e vecto r contro l condition s ar e satisfied by estimatin g a slip frequency from th e stato r curren t transforme d t o th e synchronousl y rotatin g coordinate s {dq axis) system. Th e slip frequency is given by
_{4}_{6}_{8} 9. Estimation, Identification, an d Sensorless Control in A C Drives
1000Φ
Q.
<z>
J
L
J
I
L
Reference speed 

o1500(rpm) 

——o 1400 (rpm) 

 o 1200 (rpm) 

 o 
1000 (rpm) 

 o 800(φm) 

 o 
600 (rpm) 

 o 400 (φm) 

 o 
200 (φηι) 

^ 
100 (rpm) 

^ 
60 (φm) 

J 
L 
50 100
Load Torque (kg cm)
Figure 913. Torquespeed characteristics of sensorless brushless motor under current modelbased control.
4 

Slip 
1 
Hdq 

vector control 
_{d}_{}_{q}_{/}_{a}_{} _{ß} 

Estimation of 
*— 

slip frequency 
~Γ Motor j — * ~
Figure 914. Basic schematic diagram of slip frequencybased sensorless control of induction motor.
R r
l
^{s}^{q}
(9.24)
an d th e moto r speed is indirectly estimate d by th e inverte r frequency an d th e esti
mate d slip frequency a s
ώ
_{Γ}
=
ω —
û
_{s}
(925)
I n this approach , a s th e estimate d slip frequency is directly fed bac k t o th e vector controlle d algorithm , th e vector contro l an d th e speed estimatio n ar e coupled , an d they shoul d ru n simultaneously .
I n th e field orientatio n contro l approach , no t only th e speed bu t als o th e roto r flux ar e simultaneousl y estimate d for th e sensorless drive in a wide speed range . Schaude r attacke d this proble m with MRA S [7]. His approac h was base d o n th e
9.3. Sensorless Drives of AC Motors
469
socalled voltag e reference mode l where the speed terms ar e no t explicitly included . Th e stato r equatio n is used for correctio n of adjustabl e curren t reference model . Th e speed is estimate d by a kind of erro r of flux component s which is derived from Popov' s stability criteria . On e modified implementatio n of this approac h is shown in Figur e 915, which is for applicatio n in th e th e lowspeed rang e as well as mid  o r highspeed ranges . Th e roto r flux observer based o n th e moto r voltage mode l estimate s th e roto r flux by using the stato r curren t transforme d t o th e stationar y coordinate s (aß axis) system, an d the vector contro l is carrie d ou t o n the basis of th e estimate d roto r flux while th e moto r speed is directly estimate d throug h MRA S by using the flux an d th e stato r current . Therefore , unlik e th e slip frequencybase d approach , th e estimate d speed is used t o adjust th e moto r model . Th e vector contro l ca n be decouple d with th e speed estimatio n an d be selfcontrolled. Th e speed is estimate d accordin g t o th e following relations .
= K _{P}  e¡ x Ψ _{Γ} II +K, j
II e¡ x
Ψ
,
_{d}_{t}
^i
' s
' s
(9.26)
It shoul d be note d her e tha t "x " in equatio n 9.26 mean s th e oute r product . Since th e speed estimatio n is based o n th e moto r model , th e paramete r variation , especially th e roto r resistance , ha s some effect on the speed estimation . Wit h refer ence t o this problem , Shinnak a clarified th e impossibility of simultaneou s estima  tio n of bot h th e speed an d th e roto r resistance theoreticall y [8].
Fro m th e voltage equatio n based on the stationar y coordinate s system, th e relatio n
d_
Jt
V _{r} \\ ^{2} =2V?[R _{r} i _{r}
+ uj _{r} JV _{r}
— —2/v _{r} x _{r} l _{r}
(9.27)
(9.28)
is obtained . Rearrangin g equation s 9.27 an d 9.28, equatio n 9.29 holds .
^{R} ^{r}
irJ*r) ^{l} ±*r
(9.29)
Field orientationbased
vector control
"2αβ
Figure 915. Basic schematic diagram of vectorcontrolled sensorless control of induction motor.
/
Motor model
observer
àm(
MRAS
2οβ . 

91T 

^{φ} 2αβ. Ίαβ 

e 
470 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives
It is noted here that the following relation is obtained from basic equations of the vectorcontrolled induction motor.
det [i , 
7Ψ 
] 
= 
Ψ 
/ 
(9.30) 

By substituting equation 9.30 into equation 9.27, the following relation is derived.
^V _{r}   ^{2} =2i? _{r} det[/ _{r} /Ψ _{Γ} ]
(9.31)
Equation 9.31 and equation 9.29 mean that a simultaneous identification of the rotor resistance and the motor speed is possible only when the rotor flux is persistently time variant (PE condition). Under the vector control, the rotor flux is kept constant in principle for the orthogonality of rotor flux and rotor current. Then the simulta neous identification is theoretically impossible in the vectorcontrolled induction motor. This problem is overcome by adding small AC component to the daxis current. The convergence is improved if such an AC component has a rich frequency spectrum like PRBS [15, 9]. Figure 916 shows an example of the sensorless control characteristics of 2.2 (kW), 4poles induction motor. The maximum speed is 2400 (rpm) under the field weakening control and the minimum speed is 15 (rpm). It is noted here that the speed control accuracy is 0.4% under the tuned condition; however, it is 1.4% under the detuned condition. Like the conventional vector control with sensors, the identifica tion of the rotor resistance is important and difficult.
9.4 . ROBUST MOTION CONTROL BY ESTIMATION
OF MECHANICAL PARAMETERS
9.4.1. Estimation of Disturbance Torque
In general, the outputs of the motion system are position or force. There is a certain relational function between them as equation 9.32.
f = g(x)
(932)
In this equation, / is force applied to the mechanical system, and x is deviation by / . The control stiffness is defined as in equation 9.33.
control stiffness = —
ox
(9.33)
Ideal force control has zero stiffness, and ideal position control has infinite stiffness. Any compliant or hybrid motion occupies the midway place between posi tion and force control. The robust controller should be both insensitive to external disturbances and parameter variations. In the motion system, the former characteristics correspond to a very high rejection capability against disturbance effects. As the external distur bance is the load, a robust motion controller should have an infinite control stiffness.
9.4.
Robust Motion Control by Estimation of Mechanical Parameters
Έ
&
3
250 0 1 
 
co* _{r} = 2400 rpm 

 
ω*=220 0 rpm 

 
ω* = 2000 rpm 

2000 ' 

 
ω*= 1800 rpm 

~ o>*= 1500 rpm 

1500 

 
ω* = 1200 rpm 

1000 
 
<o* = 900rp m 

 
ω* = 600 rpm 

50 0 = 
 
ω* = 450 rpm 

400 

ω* = 300 rpm 

300 

20 0  o>í=150rp m 

100 
. 

60 
1 r 

4 0 j 
" co* = 30rp m 9 

20 
, 

_{r} (oJ= 15 rpjn "il 0 
l 
•
0
Afte r moto r war m up
Befor e moto r warmu p
,
.
Φ
9
a _ 9
Q
MB
9
9
Constant power operation
a
\
9
^{V} ^{v} " 9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
g_
9
a
9
...... .
a_
9
9
9
$
9
9
9
I
I
5
o
0
9
I
0
1
0
0
1
Tj. (N.m )
0
I
0
8
l
10
i
9
0
O
1
1
Figure 916. Example of control characteristics of stator fluxcontrolled sensorless vector control of induction motor.
T o realize a versatil e motio n system whos e contro l stiffness change s widely, th e tota l motio n system shoul d hav e th e doubl e cascad e structur e o f th e acceleratio n reference generato r t o regulat e tota l stiffness an d th e acceleratio n controlle r a s shown i n Figur e 917. T o clarify th e robus t motio n controller , a t first, simple onedegreeoffreedom motio n is analyzed . Th e dynamica l equatio n is
(9.34)
472 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives
Input
ûCm d
f cmd
Acceleration
reference
Acceleration
reference
generator
;,
/
,
Robust
motion
controller
Mechanical
system
.
1
Acceleration
Po sition (speed), force
Output
M
Figure 917. General structure of motion system based on robust control.
J = inerti a abou t moto r shaft (kgm ^{2} )
T¡ = loa d torqu e (Nm )
T _{m} = moto r torqu e (Nm )
Th e loa d torqu e is th e sum of inertia l torqu e T _{m} , externa l torqu e T _{n}_{l} , an d friction torqu e T _{{}_{i}_{c} . The y ar e function s of positio n and/o r time . Th e moto r torqu e is th e produc t of th e generalized torqu e coefficient K¡ correspondin g with th e mag  netic flux by th e generalized torqu e curren t I _{a} . Since th e generalized torqu e curren t is assume d t o be regulate d by th e highgai n curren t controlle r an d th e outpu t curren t will completel y coincide with its reference, th e following equatio n holds .
T _{m} = K,I _{a} = K _{t} lf
(9.35)
Combinin g equatio n 9.35 with equatio n 9.34, th e following equatio n is obtained .
'*=«'*
άω
^{■}^{r}^{e}^{f}
(Tin t + Text + Tfrc)
^{(}^{9}^{.}^{3}^{6}^{)}
I n equatio n 9.36, th e paramete r variation s denote d by A ar e shown in equatio n 9.37,
J = J _{n} + AJ K, = K _{m} + AK,
(9.37)
Usin g equatio n 9.37, th e paramete r variatio n an d th e loa d ar e treate d in th e torqu e dimension . Th e sum of bot h gives th e disturbanc e torque .
ref
Tdis ^{=} T¡ + AJsiú — AK _{t} I _{a}
— Tint + T _{e}_{x} , + T{ _{f}_{r}_{c}
+
ref
(JJ„)sLJ+(K _{m} K _{t} )I _{i}
(9.38)
Th e basi c dynami c equatio n 9.34 is transforme d int o equatio n 9.39 by equation s 9.37
an d 9.38.
* dis ~ "tn'a
du
·*·
_{"}_{T}_{t}
(9.39)
Th e left side of th e equatio n is th e sum of unknow n factors, tha t is, th e unpredictabl e
loa d an d th e unknow n paramete r variation ; however, th e righ t side of th e equatio n is
9.4. Robust Motion Control by Estimation of Mechanical Parameters
Figure 918. Calculation of distur bance torque based on acceleration.
473
know n o r detectable . Thu s th e disturbanc e torqu e can be calculate d as shown in Figur e 918. As Figur e 918 ha s a pur e differentiation process, it is modified t o be realizable as shown in Figur e 919, where on e lowpass filter (LPF ) is inserted . Althoug h an y LP F is applicable , a simple firstorder LP F is chosen here . In this case, the distur  banc e is estimate d as
Tdis — '
s + g
_{Z} _{d}_{i}_{s}
(9.40)
where g is a cutoff angula r frequency of a firstorder LPF . If g is large enough , th e
estimate d disturbanc e torqu e is almos t similar t o th e real one . Figur e 919 is called a
disturbance observer.
By direc t feedback of th e estimate d disturbanc e torqu e shown in Figur e 920, th e modified diagra m shown in Figur e 921 is obtained . Figur e 921 mean s tha t th e disturbanc e ha s little effect o n th e motio n system, since th e feedback loo p of dis
turbanc e is jus t th e same a s th e feedforward effect
of disturbanc e t o cancel it. By
attachin g a n auxiliary gai n element J _{n} /K _{t}_{n} in front of the curren t controller , it is clear tha t th e physical meanin g of th e inpu t of Figur e 921 is acceleration . It is possibl e t o exten d such a robus t motio n contro l from onedegreeoffreedom systems t o multi  degreesoffreedom systems [17].
Figure 919. Calculation of disturbance torque by disturbance observer.
i reí 

* a 
K, 

Kin 

1 
1
¿O* Js
¿r>£ 
^{V} ' '
9
s+g
QJn
*—
\ J
_{t}
_{'}
>
.
QJn
_{4}_{7}_{4} 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives
r ref
'cmp
Kin
Js
QJn
s+g
+ "
&η
'di s
Figure 920. Feedback of estimated dis
turbance torque.
_{¿} r ef
1^
Jn
Km
rref
1
G _{s} (s)
s+g
Kin
Figure 921. Acceleration controller by
modifying Figure 920.
9.4.2 . Estimation of Instantaneous Speed
and Varied inertia
Fo r mor e accurat e motio n control , th e instantaneou s speed accurac y is very impor 
tant . Th e incrementa l positio n encode r with a very shor t samplin g time will lose
resolutio n of th e speed du e t o a small numbe r of incrementa l pulse s in a samplin g
period . O n th e contrary , in case of longe r samplin g time , resolutio n will b e higher.
However , th e tota l motio n system tend s t o be unstable . Th e instantaneou s speed
observe r which is a n expansio n of th e disturbanc e observe r solves this antinomy ; tha t
is, accurac y is kep t highe r even in th e case of a very shor t samplin g time . Figur e 922
shows a timin g char t in such a case .
A t th e shorte r samplin g point s of T _{2} (represente d by k = 0,1,2, , K), th e tota l
...
acceleratio n torqu e T _{m}_{e}_{<}_{A} [m,k} (1 < k
< K) is given by th e sum of th e moto r torqu e
an d th e estimate d disturbanc e torqu e as
^mechKfe] = K,„i[m,k] + f _{d}_{i}_{s} [m\
(9.41)
By integratin g equatio n 9.41 , th e instantaneou s speed a t T _{2} point s ca n b e estimate d
by
9.4. Robust Motion Control by Estimation of Mechanical Parameters
_{4}_{7}_{5}
Figure 922. Timing chart of the instan
taneous speed observer (position input
type).
m 1
m
fc=0
m+1
K
Readout period Control period of DSP of position
9(m+1)
Position from encoder
_{û}_{[}_{m}_{,}_{k}_{]} _{=}_{w}_{[}_{m}_{,}_{k}_{}
_{1}_{]} _{+} ^2 (f _{m}_{e}_{c}_{h} [m,k) +
T _{m}_{e}_{c}_{h} [m,k 1]
_{(}_{9}_{.}_{4}_{2}_{)}
Th e positio n is calculate d by integratin g equatio n 9.42 an d th e positio n erro r ΔΘ ca n
be obtaine d a t th e next point , k = K, when readin g ou t th e counter .
ΔΘ = ê[m,k]  θ[πι)
_{(}_{9}_{.}_{4}_{3}_{)}
I t is importan t t o evaluat e ΔΘ in th e observe r design. Suppos e tha t 71 ¿10 (0 < η _{χ} < 1)
is caused by Δω _{0} (th e erro r in th e initial value of th e estimate d
speed) an d
7 _{2} ΔΘ (0 < 72 < 1) by dT _{d}_{i}_{s}_{0} (th e erro r in th e estimate d disturbanc e in th e section),
namel y
Ύ\ΔΘ — Τ\Δω
_{1}_{ι} ΔΘ
=
T ^{2}
^ _{Γ} ΔΤ _{&} ζ
(9.44)
(9.45)
Based o n equation s 9.44 an d 9.45, th e value s i n th e nex t section of [m+ 1,/c] ar e
modified a s follows before startin g th e speed estimation .
T _{d} \s[m+\} = f _{d}_{i}_{s} [m\  ΔΤ^
T
û[m+ 1,0] = ûj[m,k] jΔΤ _{ά}_{ί}_{5}  Δω
(9.46)
(9.47)
Th e observe r poles ca n be designed by 7 , an d 72 introduce d in equation s 9.44
an d 9.45 [22]. Th e mai n advantag e of th e speed observe r is th e improvemen t of
system stabilit y by th e equivalentl y reduce d samplin g period . By addin g adaptiv e
algorith m t o instantaneou s speed observer , th e varie d inerti a is identified an d th e
selftuning regulato r (STR ) is realized.
A t th e rath samplin g poin t of T _{x} t o rea d th e encoder , th e mechanica l system's
behavio r is approximatel y given by
an d
Jú[m] = K _{m} i[m] + T _{d}_{i}_{s} [m]
Jù>[m  1] = K _{t}_{n} i[m  1] + T _{d}_{i}_{s} [m  1]
_{(}_{9}_{.}_{4}_{8}_{)}
_{(}_{9}_{.}_{4}_{9}_{)}
_{4}_{7}_{6} 9. Estimation, Identification, and Sensorless Control in AC Drives
Since th e variatio n in th e torqu e coefficient K, is include d in th e disturbanc e torqu e
T _{&}_{%} , a paramete r K,„ is used in these equations . By subtractin g equatio n 9.49 from
equatio n 9.48, th e following is obtained .
JAw[m\ = K _{t}_{n} Ai[m] + AT _{d}_{i}_{s} [m\
_{(}_{9}_{.}_{5}_{0}_{)}
Equatio n 9.50 is th e basi c equatio n for inerti a momen t identification . I t is importan t
tha t AT _{á}_{i}_{s} [m] ca n be assume d rando m Gaussian , if th e disturbanc e torqu e is assume d
t o b e constan t in th e neighborin g section s of T _{x} . By summin g u p th e equatio n erro r
between th e left an d righ t terms of equatio n 9.50, th e objective function t o be mini
mized take s th e form of
M
/(/ ) = Y^(JAú[m}  K,„Ai [m]f > mi n
m= l
(9.51)
By takin g th e partia l differentiation of /(/ ) by J, th e estimatio n equatio n of th e
inerti a momen t is obtaine d by
J
^{M}
^{K} <» m=l
¿lcj[m]¿lí[w]
~~M
Em=l(^M )
(9.52)
Th e actua l calculatio n is performe d by equatio n 9.53 replacin g th e oldest dat a with
th e newest dat a which comes int o th e rectangula r window of equatio n 9.51 .
/
AÚ[j]Ai[j]
j=mM+\ 12j=mM+l (¿M .
(9.53)
Th e identified inerti a momen t is applie d t o th e speed controlle r in a ST R manne r as
is shown in Figur e 923.
Speed controller
1 + t„,s
Current controller
1 +t; S
/
IsL
Km
it 
Speed
observer
—i
Adaptive identification of the inertia moment
Figure 923. ST R based o n inerti a identification.
9.5. Conclusion
_{4}_{7}_{7}
Figur e 924 shows th e identification performanc e when the inertia momen t
varies from nomina l value t o thre e times of it. Th e varying inerti a momen t is esti
mate d exactly with enoug h respons e time .
Th e systems described her e led t o improvemen t bot h in th e robustnes s an d
preciseness in th e motio n systems. It is interestin g tha t robus t contro l is used for
very fast improvemen t of contro l characteristic s like disturbanc e rejection, an d adap 
tive identification helps th e robus t contro l t o increase th e stability in a relatively slow
mod e [24].
9.5. CONCLUSION
A descriptio n of motio n system is given in this chapte r with a n emphasis on bot h
estimatio n an d identification of parameter s an d contro l variable s of A C motor 
drive n motio n systems. I n moder n electrical drive systems, it is require d t o tak e
no t only th e electrical aspec t bu t also th e mechanica l ones int o tota l system design.
Improvemen t in th e electrical aspec t needs variou s informatio n pertainin g t o
electrical machine s an d powe r electroni c circuits of A C variabl e speed drives.
Importan t technique s of identification o r estimatio n of parameter s an d contro l vari
ables in A C drives ar e explained . Such informatio n includes machin e parameters ,
flux, an d so on . Ther e is some theoretica l limit of performanc e in the identification or
estimatio n process. Fo r th e mechanica l phase , th e estimatio n of th e disturbanc e
torque , instantaneou s speed, an d varied inerti a ar e described .
It is shown tha t th e tota l robustnes s is attaine d by integratin g th e electrical
improvemen t an d th e mechanica l improvement . Ther e ar e a wide variety of control 
lers based o n combination s of these two aspects dependin g on applications . Furthe r
research is expected for tota l performanc e improvement .
j 
0.00588 (kgm ^{2} /div), ω  50.0 (rpm/div)
f _{d}_{i} _{s}  2.0 (N m/div),
time  250 (ms/div)
Figure 924. Identification performance
of inertia moment. (T _{2} = 100μ/ , Τ
χ
= 5ms,' pole: z =0.6 , M = 50.) The
inertia moment changes between J„ and
3Λ.
478 9. Estimation , Identification , an d Sensorless Contro l in A C Drive s
Acknowledgmen t
Th e author s woul d like t o express thei r thank s t o B . K . Bose an d A . Denke r fo r
thei r helpful suggestions in preparin g this chapter .
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