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International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2014; 2(2)


P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

DR. B.R. PANDEY

FORMER

DIRECTOR (RESEARCH)
SKY I NSTITUTE, KURSI ROAD, L UCKNOW, U.P, INDIA
FORMER JOINT DIRECTOR, C OUNCIL OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, UP, LUCKNOW
(DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, UP GOVERNMENT), I NDIA
PROFESSOR, INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HERBAL MEDICINE (IIHM), LUCKNOW , U.P., INDIA
E-MAIL ID : editorijsir02@gmail.com, MOBILE-: 9794849800

COMMITTEE FOR EDITORIAL ASSISTANCE


Dr. B.C.Tripathi

Dr. Pankaj Verma

Shri Sanjay Pandey

Shri Ashish Tiwari

Shri Sanjay Dixit

Assistant Prof.
Deptt. of Education,
Rama P.G. College,
Chinhat, Lucknow,
Uttar Pradesh

Senior Research Fellow,

Assistant Prof.
National Institute of
Fashion Technology,
Raebareli,
Uttar Pradesh

Research Scholar,
Sai Nath University,
Ranchi,
Jharkhand

Scientist,
Sky Institute
Lucknow
Uttar Pradesh

Deptt. of Oral & Maxillofacial


Surgery,
Faculty of Dental Sciences,
K.G. Medical University,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

ADVISORY BOARD
Prof.(Dr.)S. P. Ojha

Prof. (Dr.) S.P. Singh

Former Vice Chancellor, CCS Meerut University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh

Former Prof & Head, Deptt. of Pharmacology,


G. S. V. M. Medical College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

Prof.(Dr.)V.K. Srivastava
Former Prof & Head, Deptt. of Community Medicine

Prof. (Dr.) R. L. Singh

King George Medical University, Lucknow.


Former Director, Integral Institute of Medical Sciences & Research,
Integral University, Lucknow
Former Vice -Chancellor,
Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana, South America

Prof & Head, Department of Biochemistry & Coordinator Biotechnology


Program , Dr. R. M. L. University Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Sarita Verma


Head, Deptt. of Home Sci., Mahila P.G. College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

Prof. (Dr.) S.K.Agarwal

Prof.(Dr.) M.I. Khan

Pro. & Ex-Head, Deptt. of Biochemistry, Lucknow University,


Lucknow, U.P.

Prof & Head, Deptt. of Mechanical Engg.,


Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Bharat Sah

Prof. (Dr.) S.K. Avasthi


Former Director, H.B.T.I., Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

Director,
National Institute of Fashion Technology, Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh

Prof.(Dr.) Amrika Singh

Prof.(Dr.)N.S. Verma

Prof & Head (Chemistry), Deptt. of Applied Sciences,


Institute of Engg. & Technology, Sitapur Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof., Deptt. of Physiology,


K. G. Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof.(Dr.) U.N. Dwivedi

Prof.(Dr.)A.K. Tripathi

Prof & Ex- Head, Deptt of Biochemistry, Former Pro- Vice Chancellor,
Former Dean, Faculty of Science, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, U.P.

Prof. & Head, Deptt. of Clinical Hematology & Medical Oncology,


K. G. Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof.(Dr.) U.K. Misra

Prof.(Dr.)C.M. Pandey

Head, Deptt. of Neurology, Ex Dean,


Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, U.P.

Prof. & Head, Deptt. of Biostatistics & Health Informatics,


Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar
Pradesh

Dr. A.K. Gupta


Former Deputy Director General,
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ansari Nagar, New Delhi

Dr. Rupesh Chaturvedi

Former Prof & Head, Deptt. of Chemistry, Ex- Dean Faculty of Science,
University of Lucknow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Associate Prof., School of Biotechnology,


Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Former Asstt. Prof., Deptt. of
Pharmaceutical Sciences , College of Pharmacy, Vanderbilt University,
Tennessee, USA

Prof. (Dr.) Amod Kumar Tiwari,

Dr. S.Sinha

Prof.- Director, Bhabha Institute of Engg.& Technology, Kanpur, U.P.

Asstt. Prof. Deptt. of Internal Medicine, CD University,


C. David Giffen School of Medi., University of California, Los Angeles, USA

Prof.(Dr.) V.K.Tondon

Prof.(Dr.) Chandra Dhar Dwivedi

Dr. K.Raman

Former Prof. & Chairman, Deptt. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of


Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Borokings, South Dakota, USA

Prof.(Dr.) Vimal Kishore

Principal Scientist, Martek Biosciences Corporation,


6480 Dobbin Road, Columbia, MD 21045, USA

Prof. & Chairman, Deptt. of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences,


Xevier College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana, 7325,
Palmetto Street New Orlens, Louisiana USA

Dr. P.K.Agarwal
Editor in Chief, Natural Product Communication,
Natural Product Inc 7963, Anderson Park Lane West Terville, OH, USA

Prof .(Dr.) M.C. Pant,

Dr. R.K.Singh,

Former Director,
R. M. L. Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow and Prof. & Head,
Deptt. of Radiotherapy, K. G. Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar
Pradesh

Chief Scientist, Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research


Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

www.ijsir.co.in

Dr. Mohd. Tarique


Prof., Deptt of Physical Edu., Lucknow University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

163

International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2014; 2(2)


P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971

EDITORIAL BOARD
Prof.(Dr.) Y.B. Tripathi

Dr. Vinod Singh

Prof. & Head, Deptt. of Medicinal Chemistry,Institute of Medical Sciences,


Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

Assoc. Prof. & Head, Deptt. of Microbiology, Baruktulla University, Bhopal,


Madhya Pradesh

Prof.(Dr.) R.K. Singh

Dr. K.K.Verma

Prof. & Head , Deptt. of Biochemistry, Shri Guru Ram RaiInstitute of Medical &
Health Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand & Former Prof. & Head, Department of
Biochemistry, K. G. Medical University , Lucknow, U.P.

Assoc. Prof., Deptt. of Physics & Electronics.Dr. R. M. L. Awadh University ,


Faizabad,Uttar Pradesh

Prof. (Dr.) R.S.Diwedi

Senior Scientist, CSIR- Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants,


Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Atul Gupta

Former Director, National Research Centre for Groundnut (NRCG) , ICAR,


Junagarh, Gujarat & Former Principal Scientist Head, Deptt. of Plant
Physiology, Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Saudan Singh,


Senior Principal Scientist,CSIR- Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants ,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof. (Dr.) Nuzhat Husain


Prof. & Head , Deptt of Pathology & Acting Director, R. M. L. Institute of
Medical Sciences, Lucknow,Uttar Pradesh

Dr. S.K.Tiwari

Prof. (Dr.) Amita Jain

Senior Principal Scientist ,CSIR- National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow,


Uttar Pradesh

Prof. Deptt. of Microbiology, K.G. Medical University, Lucknow, U.P.

Dr. Shivani Pandey,

Dr. Sudhir Mahrotra

Asstt. Prof., Deptt. of Biochemistry,K.G.Medical University, Lucknow, U.P.

Associate Prof., Deptt. of Biochemistry, Lucknow University, Lucknow, U.P.

Dr. B.C. Yadav,

Prof. (Dr.) Vibha Singh

Lucknow Associate Prof. & Coordinator, Deptt. of Applied Physics, School for
Physical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P.

Prof., Deptt. of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences,


K. G. Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Anchal Srivastava,

Prof. (Dr.) U.S. Pal

Prof., Deptt of Physics, Lucknow University,Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof. & Head, Deptt. of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences,
K. G. Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Shalini Bariar

Prof. (Dr. ) K.K. Pant

Dr.A.K.Pandey

Asstt. Professor, Durga Devi Saraf Institute of Management, Mumbai, India

Prof. & Head , Deptt. of Pharmacology & Therapeutics,


K. G. Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Principal Scientist, National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources,Lucknow, U.P.

Dr.S.K.Pandey

Dr. C.M.K.Tripathi

G.M. LML Factory, Kanpur Uttar Pradesh

Former Deputy Director & Head, Division of Fermentation Technology, CSIRCentral Drug Research Institute , Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Suneet Kumar Awasthi,


Asst. Prof ,Deptt.of PhysicsJ.P. University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. R.D. Tripathi

Dr.G. N. Pandey

Chief Scientist & ProfessorPlant Ecology & Environmental Science Division,


Uttar Pradesh CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, U.P.

Asst. Prof, Deptt. of Physics Amity University, Noida ,Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Mukesh Verma

Prof.(Dr.) Ashwani K. Srivastav

Asst. Prof., Deptt. of Physical Education, Dr. R.M.L. Avadh University, Faizabad,
Uttar Pradesh

Prof. & Head, Deptt. of Biosciences, Integral University,Lucknow,


Former Senior Scientist, Birbal Sbahani Institute Paleobotany, Lucknow, U.P.

Dr. Abhay Singh,

Prof.(Dr.) L. Pandey

Head, Physical Education, Delhi Public School, Lucknow Uttar Pradesh

Prof. & Head , Postgraduate Deptt . of Physics,Former Dean, Faculty of Science,


Rani Durgawati University, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India

Dr. Santosh Gaur


Asst. Prof. Deptt. of Physical Education, Jawahar Lal Nehru P.G. College,
Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh

Prof .(Dr.) Bali Ram


Prof., Deptt. of Chemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

Dr.Sanjeev Kumar Jha

Prof.(Dr.) J.P.N.Rai

Senior Scientist, DEOACC Patna

Prof.& Head, Deptt. of Environmental Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agr. &
Technology, Pant Nagar, Uttarakhand

Dr. Shivlok Singh


Scientist, DEOACC, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof.(Dr. )R. S. Dubey

Dr. Anurag Tripathi,

Prof. & Head, Deptt. of Biochemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P.

Asstt . Prof. , Deptt. of Electrical Engg., Institute of Engg. & Technology, Sitapur
Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof. (Dr.) Omkar


Deptt. of Zoology, Lucknow University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof. V.P.Sharma

Prof.(Dr.) Sudhir Kumar

Senior Principal Scientist, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research,


Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof., Deptt. of Zoology, Lucknow University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof.(Dr.) Naveen Khare

Dr. Krishna Gopal

Prof., Deptt. of Chemistry, Lucknow University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Former Deputy Director & Head , Aquatic Toxicology Division, CSIR- Indian
Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Prof.(Dr.) S. M. Natu
Prof., Deptt. of Pathalogy,K.G. Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. S.P. Shukla

Dr. Kusum Lata Mishra,

Prof. , Deptt. of Civil Engg., Institute of Engg. & Technology, Sitapur Road ,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

In-charge, Coagulation Laboratory, Deptt. of Pathology,


K.G. Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Ajay Mishra

Prof.(Dr.)V.K. Sharma,

Associate Prof. , Deptt. of Geology, Lucknow University, Lucknow , U. P.

Prof., Deptt. of Chemistry, Lucknow University, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Ashutosh Singh

Prof.(Dr.) R.K. Shukla

Prof., Deptt. of Chemistry,Saket P.G. College, Ayodhya,

Prof., Deptt. of Physics, Lucknow University, Lucknow Uttar Pradesh

Prof.(Dr.)Anil Gaur

Principal, Gita College of Education , Nimbari, Panipat, Haryana

Prof., Deptt. of Biotechnology & Genetic Engg., G.B. Pant University of Agr. &
Technology, Pant Nagar, Uttarakhand

Shri Sudesh Bhat


Advisor (Education), Sky Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Mahesh Pal

Dr. Krishna Gopal

Principal Scientist ,Phytochemistry Division, CSIR- National Botanical Research


Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

164

Faizabad, U. P.

Dr. S.K. Singh

Asst. Prof., Deptt. of English,Rama University, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

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International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2014; 2(2)


P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971

ABOUT EDITOR-IN- CHIEF : DR. B. R. PANDEY


Dr. B. R. Pandey is a well known academician and scientist with brilliant academic career and
research accomplishments . He has done M.Sc. ( organic chemistry) from Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi, India in the year 1972. He has done PhD in Medicinal Chemistry under the guidance of world
renowned Biochemist & Medicinal Chemist, Professor S.S. Parmar , Professor of Medicinal Chemistry &
Chemical Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, K. G. Medical College, Lucknow (
Presently K. G. Medical University), Faculty of Medicine, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India in the
year 1976. Dr. Pandey has all throughout first class educational qualifications and his research interest
covers medicinal chemistry, biochemical pharmacology, neurochemistry, neuro-toxicology, environmental
chemistry, herbal medicine & natural products. He is having extensive research experience of more than 40
years and published several research papers in peer reviewed journals of international repute. His research
particularly on the studies of central nervous system acting drugs and anti-inflammatory drugs and their
biochemical mode of action using animal models and enzymes such as monoamine oxidase, acetylcholine
esterase, purine catabolizing enzymes , proteolytic enzymes, membrane stabilizing enzymes, respiratory
enzymes, microsomal enzymes etc. has been well recognized as evidenced by his research publications .
Further, his research on developing herbal medicines has been found very useful in prevention and treatment
of chronic diseases and other refractory diseases for which modern system of medicine have no permanent
cure. He has worked on the position of Joint Director, Council of Science & Technology, U.P., Lucknow,
Department of Science & Technology, Uttar Pradesh Government, India from the year 1979 to 2011, where
he successfully executed several R & D projects in various disciplines of Science & Technology including
chemical & pharmaceutical sciences, medical sciences, biological sciences, environmental sciences etc.
During his tenure as Joint Director, he has been instrumental in launching and implementing important
schemes: Young Scientists Scheme, Young Scientist Visiting Fellowship Scheme, Establishment of Centre of
Excellence- Encephalitis Research Centre of Excellence in Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical
Sciences ( SGPGIMS), Lucknow , U. P. India ; Centre of Excellence in Materials Science ( nano materials)
in Z. H. College of Engg. & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P. India, Establishment of
Patent Information Centre in the premises of Council of Science & Technology , U.P. He has also worked
on the post of Secretary ( as additional charge ) , Council of Science & Technology, U.P. several times and
functioned as Administrative Head of the Organization. Prior to taking over the position of Joint Director,
Council of Science & Technology, U.P. in the year 1979, he has worked as Junior Research Fellow/ Senior
Research Fellow ( Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi ), Assistant Research Officer (
Jawaharlal Nehru Laboratory of Molecular Biology) at Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, K.
G. Medical College ( presently K. G. Medical University), Faculty of Medicine, University of Lucknow,
Lucknow, India from the year 1972 to 1979 and involved in multidisciplinary biomedical research leading to
drug development . He has worked as Visiting Scientist / Faculty in the Department of Physiology, School
of Medicine, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA and also visited scientific
institutions in Sweden, U.K. and U.S.A. under Training Program on Capacity Building in Environmental
Research Management (World Bank Funding Project). After his superannuation in the year 2011, he has
been associated with International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Lucknow, India as Professor and is
presently associated with Sky Institute, Lucknow , India as Director ( Research) and involved in programs
related to higher education and research of scientific & technological fields. He has organized several
www.ijsir.co.in

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P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971

national and international conferences. He has actively participated in national and international conferences,
symposia and workshops and presented research papers and chaired scientific / technical sessions. He is
life member and fellow of many scientific societies such as National Academy of Sciences India , Society
of Toxicology of India, Indian Academy of Neurosciences, Bioved Research Society India, International
Society for Herbal Medicine (ISHM), Society of Biological Sciences and Rural Development, India. He has
been member of several scientific expert committees/ advisory committees to evaluate scientific research
proposals. Dr. Pandey has been actively associated with various universities and institutions in India as
examiner for conducting graduate, post graduate and doctoral level examinations in disciplines like chemical
sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, biochemical sciences, biotechnology and allied areas and member of
Board of Studies for the academic development in the department. He has been approved research supervisor
for guiding research in chemistry, biotechnology and related areas from various universities of India leading
to PhD Degree. In view of his vast research and administrative experience and broad R & D vision, Dr.
Pandey has been associated with International Journal of Scientific & Innovative Research (IJSIR) as
Editor-in-Chief.

166

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International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2014; 2(2)


P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971

FROM THE DESK OF CHAIRMAN, SKY INSTITUTE


It is my privilege to state that I have great desire to contribute to the
development of our country and to bring about social transformation through
education, higher learning and research. This inner feeling prompted me to establish
Sky Institute in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), the city known for its rich cultural heritage
and vibrant academic institutions of higher learning. Sky Institute, since its inception
in the year 2006, has been functioning to impart various educational and training
courses with a vision to improving lives through education, research and innovation. The institute provides
a professional learning environment that acts as a catalyst, for the exponential growth of student as well as
extracurricular abilities. It conducts regular courses at the level of graduate and post graduate followed by
research courses leading to M Phil and PhD in all subjects in association with universities .
I feel great pleasure to highlight that Sky Institute has started to publish a bi-annual journal
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research ( IJSIR ) which encourages to publish research
articles in all branches of science, technology ,engineering, health, agriculture and management. Research
articles in the field of education are also considered in order to improve educational standard in educational
institutions with innovative technologies. First volume of the journal has been successfully published. The
present issue of second volume of the journal contains useful and informative research articles which
may be interesting to readers and educational and research organizations. The association of eminent
faculty and scientists of reputed organizations with our journal is highly appreciable.
I call upon all the students who are willing to join various programs/courses being run at Sky
Institute in association with selected universities, to strive hard to gain knowledge, transform it into skills
with right attitude and inculcate the habit of learning, which will drive them to self directed learning.
My best wishes to all the aspiring students.

Mohit Bajpai
Chairman

Sky Institute

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International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2014; 2(2):000-000,


P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971

CONTENTS
1. BACOPA MONNIERI PROMOTOR OF ANIOXIDANT PROPERTY IN MPTP-INDUCED
PARKINSONS DISEASE

PAGE
1

Babita Singh, Abbas Ali Mahdi and Shivani Pandey

2. THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA : AN OVERVIEW

B. R. Pandey, Pankaj verma, Raju Saw, Nidhi Sharma and Aashish Tiwari

3. ORGANIC POLY HERBAL INTERVENTION IN DISEASE MANAGEMENT:


A COMPERATIVE STUDY

17

B. R. Pandey, Raju Saw and Pankaj Verma

4. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF DISEASE VECTORS FOR RICHER HARVEST OF


QUALITY SEED POTATOES IN THE NORTHERN PLAINS

21

S. S. Misra

5. SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF


COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF RUTHENIUM(III) WITH SCHIFF BASES
DERIVED FROM SULPHA DRUGS

26

Rachna and V. K. Sharma

6. NEED OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN INSTITUTION EDUCATION

34

Amod Tiwari, Suman Sharma and O.M. Awasthi

7. IMPACT OF FDI IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

39

Manish Kumar Awasthi, Jyoti Agarwal, and S. C. Pandey

8. ACHIEVING SERVICE QUALITY THROUGH ITS VALUABLE DIMENSIONS


TANGIBILITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE INDIAN AIRLINES

45

Renuka Singh

9. STUDY OF WORKPLACE STRESS, STRESSORS & IMPORTANCE OF


STRESS MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN AVIATION SECTOR OF INDIA

53

Renuka Singh

10. TO CREATE A CUSTOMER OR SERVE THE SHAREHOLDER? WHAT DRIVES


THE CORPORATE BOARD ROOMS TO ACT UPON?

60

Rajesh Kumar Nigah

11. GREEN MARKETING AND FORMING OF GREEN STRATEDGIES

65

Masood H. Siddiqui and Jyotishree Pandey

12. ECONOMY UPGRADATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION:


A CASE STUDY ON UTTRAKHAND DISASTER

75

Shruti Aggarwal and Neeraj Jain

13. AIM, SCOPE & EDITORIAL POLICY OF THE JOURNAL

81

14. INSTRUCTION TO AUTHORS

82

15. SUBSCRIPTION FORM

86

16. UNDERTAKING

87

17. COVER LETTER

88

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International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2014; 2(2) : 1-7,


P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971

BACOPA MONNIERI PROMOTOR OF ANIOXIDANT PROPERTY


IN MPTP-INDUCED PARKINSONS DISEASE
BABITA SINGH, ABBAS ALI MAHDI, * SHIVANI PANDEY
Department of Biochemistry, King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Address for correspondence: Dr. Shivani Pandey , Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry,
King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India,
E-mail ID : drshivani111263@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Bacopa monnieri (BM), an ayurvedic medicinal plant, has attracted considerable interest owing
to its diverse neuro-pharmacological properties. The standardized extract of Bacopa monniera
(BM) is a multifarious mixture of ingredients with a uniquely wide spectrum of
neuropharmacological influences upon the central nervous system including enhanced learning
and memory with known antioxidant potential and protection of the brain from oxidative damage.
The present study demonstrates the therapeutic efficacy of standardized ethanolic extract of
BM against MPTP induced oxidative damage, in Parkinsons disease mice model. This
experimental study comprises of twenty four Swiss albino mice (30-45grams) grouped as follows:
Control (A), MPTP (B), BM (C), and MPTP+ BM (D), 6 mice in each. Experimental mice were
given 40mg/kg bodyweight BM treatment orally for one month with prior use of 15mg/kg b.w of
MPTP treatment for two weeks (total duration was 45 days). After that, behavioral study was
performed and assessment of neuroprotective effect was studied via biochemical analysis. Our
study shows that BM extract treatment reduces the oxidative stress, prevent dopaminergic
neurodegenration through increase in antioxidants SOD and Catalse, thereby proving its
antioxidant properties. These results support further investigations on this plant, and its active
constituent compounds, as possible therapeutic intervention against Parkinsons disease.
Keywords: Parkinsons disease (PD), Bacopa monnieri (BM), Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen
species (ROS)
INTRODUCTION
Brain is more prone to undergo oxidative
damage due to its relatively low content of
antioxidant enzymes and high content of iron,
which becomes easily released when cells are
injured and cannot be safely bound because
cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) has no significant iron
binding capacity. Because of the sensitivity of the
nervous system to oxidative damage, oxidants
are involved in the pathology of
neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinsons
disease (PD or simply idiopathic Parkinsonism,
primary Parkinsonism or paralysis agitans) is one
of the most widespread progressive
neurodegenerative disease found in the aging
population [1]. The selective loss of the neurons
in the midbrain area called the substantia nigra
pars compacta which contains the
neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), and their
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projecting nerve fibers reside in the striatum. The


degeneration of these dopaminergic neurons
leads to four cardinal, debilitating symptoms:
resting tremor, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia,
and postural imbalance. At current research, the
etiology of PD is still not clearly known.
Evidences suggest massive oxidative stress
leading to the formation of free radical. Familial
forms of PD involving mutations in a number of
genes and the mechanism by which mutation of
these genes lead to degeneration of the nigral
neurons [2]. In both idiopathic and genetic cases
of PD, oxidative stress is thought to be the
common underlying mechanism that leads to
cellular dysfunction. As such, the substantia nigra
of PD patients exhibit increased levels of
oxidized lipids [3], proteins and DNA [4] and
decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH)
[5]
. Oxidative stress occurs when an imbalance
1

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is formed between production of reactive oxygen


species (ROS) and cellular antioxidant activity.
Because of the presence of ROS-generating
enzymes such as tyrosine hydroxylase and
monoamine oxidase, the DAergic neurons are
particularly prone to oxidative stress. In addition,
the nigral DAergic neurons contain iron, which
catalyzes the Fenton reaction, in which
superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide can
contribute to further oxidative stress [6].
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), is a potent neurotoxin & highly
lipophilic. After systemic administration it rapidly
crosses the blood-brain barrier, enters astrocytes
and is metabolized to its active metabolite MPP+
by monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) [7, 8]. MPP+ is
able to inhibit complex 1 of the mitochondrial
electron transport chain, resulting in the formation
of ROS & leading to reduced ATP production.
Neuroprotection suggests preventing or
slowing disease progression. Nevertheless,
despite advances toward this goal, all current
treatments are symptomatic; none halt or retard
dopaminergic neuron degeneration. L-dopa
treatment produces many distressing side
effects, and its possible that metabolism of
excess dopamine by the monoamine oxidase
enzymes in the brain produces too much H2O2.
An initial good response to symptomatic
pharmacological treatment declines with time,
and severe side effects develop and later on
surgical interventions are to be used. The
progressive neurodegeneration in PD is not
arrested by the currently used drug therapies.
Hence, recent researches are focusing on finding
therapies, preferentially herbal drugs.
In recent existence, a number of natural
compounds have been identified that could
potentially help in prevention and treatment of
diseases. One plant that has been used in mental
conditions and illnesses is Bacopa monnieri
Wettst. (syn Herpestis monniera). It is commonly
known as Indian water hyssop or Brahmi and
belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae and
useful in increasing the sharpness of perception
by the sense organs and in the promotion of
memory in children [9] . Extracts of Bacopa
monnieri have been reported to exert cognitive
enhancing effects in animals [10]. Research on
anxiety, epilepsy, bronchitis and asthma, irritable
2

bowel syndrome, and gastric ulcers also support


the Ayurvedic uses of Bramhi [9, 11].
Therefore, in view of the above mentioned
multiple beneficial qualities of Bacopa, in this
study, an effort has been made to demonstrates
the therapeutic efficacy of standardized ethanolic
extract of BM against MPTP induced oxidative
damage, in Parkinsons disease mice model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicant was purchased
from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).
Prepared Ethanolic plant extract of Baccopa
monnieri was purchased from Natural remedies
private limited, Bangalore for treatment of
animals. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trichloroacetic
acid (TCA), Malonaldialdehyde (MDA), EDTA,
Phenazine
methosulphate
(PMS),
nitrobluetetrazolium (NBT) and NADH etc were
procured from Sigma Chemicals Co., St. Louis,
USA. All other chemicals used in study were of
highest purity grade available.
Healthy male Swiss albino mice (8-10
weeks old, 30-45g) were used for the study.
Animals were obtained from the breeding colony
of IITR (Indian Institute of Toxicological Research)
Lucknow and were used throughout the study
with the permission of the Institutional Animal
Ethics Committee in accordance with the
CPCSEA guideline. All the mice were maintained
on Hindustan Lever LTD (Mumbai; India) Pellets
diet and water ad libitium. The cages were kept
in temperature and humidity controlled room with
12-hr lightdark cycle.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Male Swiss albino mice with weight 3045grams were segregated into 4 groups with six
animals in each group. Group A (Control)
received normal saline water 10 ml/kg body
weight orally. Group B (MPTP) was injected i.p.
with MPTP (15mg/kg b.wt.) [12] for 15 consecutive
days. Group C (BM) received 40 mg/kg body
weight [13] of Bacopa monnieri extracts (BM) orally
for a period of one month. Group D (MPTP+BM)
received MPTP treatment for 15 days thereafter
BME treatment for 30 consecutive days. Next to
entire dosing, neuro-behavioral studies were
performed again to understand motor skill
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abnormalities by Spontaneous loco-motor activity


(SLA) in each group. On completion of
experimental period, animals were sacrificed by
euthanasia under ketamine anaesthesia.
Neurobehavioral analysis
Spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA)
SLA was monitored in a computerized
Actimot (TSE, system Columbus Instruments
Ohio USA). The Actimot system is a horizontal 2
D-activity meter, consisting of two arrays of 15
infrared beams, which are placed perpendicular
to each other. The beams are spaced about 1
inch and each beam is very narrow (3 mm
diameter). It has an activity monitor with a set of
programmer/processor. This system helps in
eliminating observers bias in quantification of
motility following previously described method [14].
Mice were individually placed in the chamber,
acclimatized for 5 min and their locomotor activity
scores were recorded for 5 min. Effect on
different parameters including total distance
travelled, resting time, stereotypic time and time
moving was studied in all the control and treated
groups.
Biochemical analysis
To evaluate free radical mediated effects
following MPTP neurotoxicity and scavenging
potential of standardized ethanolic extract of
Bacopa Monnieri, estimation of lipid peroxidation
(LPO) and Conjugated dienes (CD), Superoxide
dismutase (SOD) and Catalase was carried out
in tissue homogenate [Ten percent (w/v)] of
striatum region of mice brain. Mice were
sacrificed by cervical dislocation followed by
decapitation and brains were dissected quickly
on ice pack according to region required.
Regions were then, weighed and processed fresh
for preparation of tissue homogenate. Ten
percent (w/v) homogenate of Straitum regions
was prepared with the aid of Yorks homogenizer
fitted with Teflon plunger in cold KCl (0.15M) or
0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.1), as per
requirement. The whole homogenate was first
centrifuged at 2500 x g for 10 minutes in a
refrigerated centrifuge. The pellet consisting of
nuclear fraction and cell debris was discarded.
The supernatant was further centrifuged at
11,000 x g for 15 minutes and mitochondrial
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fraction was separated. The clear supernatant


was further centrifuged at 105,000 x g in ultra
centrifuge for 90 minutes and the resultant
supernatant (cytosolic fraction) was used for
estimation of oxidative stress. LPO was
measured by estimating malonaldialdehyde
(MDA) levels following the method of Ohkawa et
al [15]. Conjugated dienes (CD) were measured
by the method of Racknagel and Ghosal [16].
Catalase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Aebi [17]. SOD activity
was determined spectrophotometrically
according to the method of McCord and
Fridovich[18].
Statistical analysis
All data were expressed as means +
standard deviation. The test of one-way variance
(ANOVA) followed by Student Newman Keuls
test Compare experimental vs. Control in InStat3
package program was used to detect the
significant difference between the treated groups
and the control. The p-value less than 0.05 were
considered statistically significant.
RESULTS
Effect of Standardized ethanolic extract of
BME on Neurobehavioral studiesTo recognize the motor skill abnormalities
caused by neurotoxicant MPTP and to see the
efficacy of BM, we have studied neurobehavioral
changes by Spontaneous locomotor activity
(SLA). Exposure of MPTP in mice causes a
significant decrease (p < 0.001) in total distance
travelled, stereotypic time, time moving and an
increase in resting time as compared to mice in
the control group (Table1). Simultaneous treatment with Bacopa monnieri extract (BM) in MPTP
treated mice (D) increases the total distance
travelled, stereotypic time, time moving and
decrease in the resting time as compared MPTP
treated groups (B). Although distance travelled,
stereotypic time and time moving decreased in
the only BME treated group (C) as compared to
control group (A). But no significant change was
observed between the control (A) and BM (C)
group. Results are given in the table-1.

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Values are mean SE of six animals in each group. * p- value <0.01 considered as significant
** p- value <0.001 considered as highly significant.
Table-1 Showing effect of Standardized ethanolic extract of BME on different parameters of locomotor
activity in mice: Neurobehavioral studies

Biochemical analysis
MPTP treatment produced significant
changes in oxidant parameters (LPO and CD)
and antioxidant parameters (SOD and Catalase)
as compared to control (p < 0.001). BM
administration in MPTP treated animals (group
D) brought the levels of SOD, Catalase levels
close to control values. Activities of enzymes
were attenuated in group D as compared to group
B. Statistical significance between groups D and

A was observed (p < 0.001) in MDA and Catalase


levels. No significant change was observed
between the control (A) and BM (C). The results
are summarized in Fig -1, 2, 3, 4.

DISCUSSION
Our results reveal that Bacopa monnieri
(BM) can be regarded as a neuroprotective agent
in view of its facilitators effect on retention of
locomotion activity, preventing neurodegeneration and promoting neurogenesis. A decrease in
4

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locomotor activity in MPTP treated animals has


been observed, which could be closely linked to
the degree of dopaminergic dysfunctioning and
deterioration of motor performance. However, the
animals treated with BME have shown marked
protection in the neuro-behavioral activity.
Oxidative stress, associated with increased
formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS),
modifies phospholipids and proteins leading to
lipid per-oxidation and oxidation of thiol groups
[19]
. Results of the present study clearly
demonstrates that MPTP causes significant
oxidative damage in mice brain, as evidenced
by significant increase in brain malondialdehyde
(MDA an end product of lipid per-oxidation) and
Conjugated dienes levels whereas decrease in
antioxidant status in brain. There is growing
evidence that generation of reactive oxygen
species and mitochondrial dysfunction in the
substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons
are implicated in the neuronal death in PD [20].
Dopaminergic neurons provide fertile
environment for the generation of ROS, as the
metabolism of DA produces hydrogen peroxide
and superoxide radicals, and auto- oxidation of
DA produces DA-quinone a molecule that
damages protein by reacting with cysteine
residues. ROS generation also causes
peroxidation of the mitochondria-specific lipid
cardiolipin, which results in release of
cytochrome c to the cytosol, triggering apoptosis
[21]
. Thus ROS scavenging antioxidants may play
an important role in the prevention of PD and
combat against OS-induced progressive loss of
neurons. Studies have also shown that 1-methyl4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)
causes marked depletion of dopamine (DA)
levels by reducing the activity of tyrosine
hydroxylase (TH) in the nigrostriatal DA pathway.
In the brain, the enzyme monoamine oxidase B
converts MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium
(MPP+) which enters DA terminals via DA uptake
sites. Within the DA terminals, MPP+ blocks the
mitochondrial complex I and causes ATP
depletion. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
generated after blockade of the complex I as well
as those generated due to DA oxidation could
be the main cause of MPTP-induced terminal
degeneration [21, 22]. Certain brain regions like
hippocampus & straitum are highly enriched with
non heme iron, which is catalytically involved in
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the generation of ROS. There are similar reports


claiming oxidative damage in nervous tissue in
PD disease [21]. Oxy free radicals are removed
by superoxide dismutase in healthy organisms,
but during degeneration, the lowered activity of
SOD is caused by inhibition of the enzyme by
excess H2O2. This excess H2O2, besides inhibiting
SOD, can cause degradation of heme rings of
hemoglobin and releasing iron which is capable
of free radical production via Fenton reaction [23].
Catalase (CAT) is a heme enzyme which
removes hydrogen peroxide. CAT has been
suggested to provide important pathway for H2O2
decomposition into H 2O and O2. Superoxide
radicals generate hydrogen peroxide as
metabolites, which in the presence of transition
metals like iron, leads to the generation of the
highly toxic hydroxyl ions, known to induce lipid
peroxidation. As such, an effective antioxidant
agent should be capable of augmenting
intracellular concentrations of not only SOD, but
also Catalase in finally reducing lipid
peroxidation.
Bacopa monnieri (BM) is a well-known
memory booster herbal plant and contains
Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids and Saponins;
however, saponins are considered to be the
principal active constituents of the plant. The
saponins consist of numerous subtypes
designated as bacosides, bacopasides and
bacopasaponins. Bacosides, the major
components of Bacopa monnieri extract are
known to improve memory by modulating
acetylcholinesterase activity. BM have
antioxidant properties due to sulfhydryl and
polyphenol components which scavenges
reactive oxygen species [9, 24]. Here, we used BM
extract for its neuroprotective effect. The result
of the present study demonstrates the beneficial
effect of Bacopa monnieri extract in MPTP model
of Parkinsons disease. MPTP administered
mice, when treated with BME (group D) reversed
back to near normal condition indicating that BME
have
capacity
for
preventing
the
neurodegeneration in PD. Similar results were
shown by various other study [24, 25]. Studies have
shown that treatment with BM extract increased
the antioxidant enzyme activity such as
superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione
peroxidase and levels of GSH and also inhibited
the content of lipid peroxidation in the frontal
5

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cortex, striatum, and hippocampus [26, 27]. BM


extract has shown neuroprotective effect against
aluminium-induced oxidative stress in the
hippocampus of rat brain [28]. Abnormalities in
the cellular regulation and expression of
antioxidant enzymes could have a role in the
mechanisms of all the central nervous
neurodegeneration. Our conclusions were in line
to previous study of BM in neuroprotection. BME
showed neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic
neurons which could be as a result of its
promising antioxidant capacity.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors thank authorities of King Georges
Medical University, Lucknow for facilities
provided. The financial assistance from Uttar
Pradesh, Council of Science and Technology
(UPCST), Lucknow, is greatly acknowledged.
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THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA : AN OVERVIEW


* B. R. PANDEY1,2, PANKAJ VERMA3 ,RAJU SAW 4 , NIDHI SHARMA4 AASHISH TIWARI4,
Sky Institute, Kurshi Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2 International Institute of Herbal Medicine ( IIHM ),
Lucknow, U.P. India,3Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, U. P. ,
India, 4Research Scholar, Sai Nath University, Ranchi, India
1

*Address for Correspondence: Dr. B.R. Pandey , Director (Research), Sky Institute, Shivam Palace ll,
Near Sports College, Opp. Petrol Pump, Mishrpur, Kurshi Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Email : drbrpandey@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Azadirachta indica ( Neem) belonging to Meliaceae family is a very important medicinal plant
traditionally used to treat different diseases in Ayurveda, Unani and Homeopathic Medicine and
attracted worldwide prominence in recent years due to its wide range of therapeutic properties
and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. All parts of the ever green Neem tree- leaves,
flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been traditionally used for the treatment of various
diseases including inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. More
than 250 biologically active compounds with diverse complex chemical structures and
pharmacological properties have been isolated from different parts of Neem. The
pharmacological properties exhibited by these compounds include immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral,
antioxidant, antimutagenic , anticarcinogenic etc. The present review summarizing the wide
range of therapeutic properties of Neem and its compounds may be useful for the development
of therapeutically important drugs based on the ever green wonder tree Neem as ecofriendly sustainable approach for providing better healthcare to ailing humanity.
Keywords: Azadirachta indica, Phytochemical compounds, Pharmacological properties
INTRODUCTION
A large number of medicinal plants and
herbs have been used for thousands of centuries
by many cultures to treat varieties of diseases
and found to play vital role in health care of ailing
humanity. Herbal treatment is very popular
because it is easily available, cheap and less
toxic. Further the recent resurgence of interest
in plant derived drugs has focused the attention
of scientists and clinicians to develop safe and
long acting herbal products beneficial to disease
conditions as the drugs available in modern
system of medicine produce side effects and the
patients get immunologically deficient on long
term use of these allopathic medicines.
Azadirachta indica (neem) belonging to
Meliaceae family is very important medicinal plant
which is traditionally used to treat different
diseases. Azadirachta indica commonly known
as Neem has found a significant place in Indian
System of Medicine due to its potential efficacy
8

in treatment of varieties of diseases including


chronic disorders. Neem is grown in India,
Pakistan, Africa and China. Its temperament is
cold and dry. All parts of tree have medicinal
properties [1]. It is still used as traditional medicine,
for dental hygiene, for timber and most important
for insect control [2]. Neem has two closely related
species: A. indica A. Juss and M. azedarac, the
former is popularly known as Indian neem
(margosa tree) or Indian lilac, and the other as
the Persian lilac. Almost all parts of the neem
tree have been used as traditional Ayurvedic,
unani and sidhha medicine in India [3] [4] [5] [6]. Neem
oil, bark and leaf extracts have been
therapeutically used as folk medicine to control
leprosy, intestinal disorders, helminthiasis,
respiratory disorders, constipation, blood purifier
and also as a general health tonic [7] [8] [9]. It is
also used for the treatment of rheumatism,
chronic syphilitic sores and indolent ulcer. Neem
oil isolated from its fruits and seeds [10] [11] [12] is
used to control various skin infections.
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Traditionally, neem is also widely used in Indian


Ayurvedic medicine system for the treatment of
incurable diabetes. [5] [13] [14] Bark ,leaf, root, flower
and fruit together cure blood morbidity, biliary
afflictions, itching, skin ulcers, burning sensations
and pthysis. Now a days, the formulation of
neem oil has been effective to controlling
mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under
natural field conditions. This could be used as
an alternative medicine for malaria control. [6] [8]
[15]
.
Neem has become important in global
context today because it offers answer to the
major concerns facing mankind. Neem
(Azadirachta indica) is considered harmless to
humans, animals, birds, beneficial insects and
earthworms, and has been approved by the US
Environmental Protection Agency for use on
Food crops [16]. More than 250 compounds have
been isolated from different parts of neem and
several reviews have also been published on the
chemistry and structural diversity of these
compounds [17] [18] [19]. The compounds have been
divided into two major classes: isoprenoids (like
diterpenoids and triterpenoids containing
protomeliacins, limonoids, azadirone and its
derivatives, gedunin and its derivatives, vilasinin
type of compounds and C- secomeliacins such
as nimbin, salanin and azadirachtin ) and nonisoprenoids, which are proteins (amino acids)
and carbohydrates (polysaccharides),
sulphurous compounds, polyphenolics such as
flavonoids and their glycosides, dihydrochalcone,
coumarin and tannins, aliphatic compounds, etc.
Various biological activities including antiinflammatory, antiarthritic,
antipyretic,
hypoglycaemic, antigastric ulcer, spermicidal,
antifungal, antibacterial, diuretic, antimalarial,
antitumour, immuno- modulatory etc. have been
associated with neem compounds [20] [21] [22].
Nimbidin, a major crude bitter principle extracted
from the oil of seed kernels of A. indica
demonstrated several biological activities. From
this crude principle some tetranortriterpenes,
including nimbin, nimbinin, nimbidinin, nimbolide
and nimbidic acid have been isolated.
In view of beneficial actions of Azadirachta
Indica and its compounds in treatment of various
chronic diseases for which our modern system
of medicine have no permanent cure, attempts
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have been made to review pharmacological


properties of this important tree and its
compounds which may be useful towards
development of therapeutically useful drugs
based on the wonderful tree Neem as ecofriendly approach for providing better healthcare
to ailing humanity.
BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEEM

[23]

Two species of Neem (1) Azadirachta


indica: Found in Native to Indian subcontinent
(2) Azadirachta excelsa: Found in Indonesia
and Philippines have been reported.
Kingdom:

Plantae

Division:

Magnoliophyta

Order:

Sapindales

Family:

Meliaceae

Genus:

Azadirachta

Species:

A.indica

Phytochemical Compounds of Neem


The chemical constituent of the Neem plant
is a blend of 3 to 4 actively related compounds,
with over 20 lesser ones. Presently over 250
compounds have been identified. The
compounds have been divided into two major
classes: isoprenoids (like diterpenoids and
triterpenoids containing protomeliacins,
limonoids, azadirone and its derivatives, gedunin
and its derivatives, vilasinin type of compounds
and C- secomeliacins such as nimbin, salanin
and azadirachtin ) and non-isoprenoids, which
are proteins (amino acids) and carbohydrates
(polysaccharides), sulphurous compounds,
polyphenolics such as flavonoids and their
glycosides, dihydrochalcone, coumarin and
tannins, aliphatic compounds, etc. The important
classes include triterpenoids and limonoids:
saladucin, valassin, meliacin, Nimbin Nimbicin,
geducin, Azadirachtin etc [24] [25] [26]. The highest
concentrations of the active ingredients are found
in the seed and oil, however the active
ingredients are also found in lesser amounts in
the bark and the leaves. The pharmacological
activities of some of important compounds areNimbin: anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, antihistamine, anti-fungal
Nimbidin : anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, anti9

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pyretic, hypoglycemic, antigastric ulcer, antifungal, spermicidal ,antibacterial, diuretic,


analgesic, anti-arrhythmic
Ninbidol: anti-tubercular, anti-protozoan, antipyretic
Gedunin: vasodilator, anti-malarial, anti-fungal
Sodium nimbinate: diuretic, spermicide, antiarthritic
Quercetin: anti-protozoal
Salannin: insect repellent
Azadirachtin: insect repellent, anti-feedant, antihormonal
Traditional Uses of Neem in Ayurveda
Traditionally Neem is used in Ayurveda for
a number of conditions. It is one of the main
ingredients in every blood purification formula
used in Ayurveda and it appears in most diabetic
formulas as well. It is also used for arthritis,
rheumatism, the removal of external and internal
parasites, including malaria and fevers and as
an insect repellent. One of the most famous uses
for Neem is to prevent tooth decay and gum
disease. Neem twigs and leaves have been used
for thousands of years by millions of people in
India to brush their teeth and cleanse their gums
to promote oral hygiene. Today hundreds of
scientific clinical studies confirm the wisdom of
Indias people and her Ancient Ayurvedic medical
texts.
Pharmacological Activities of Azadirachta
Indica
Animal and in vitro studies
Anti-infectious activity :
Neem leaf extracts have been shown to
possess broad antimicrobial activity.[27] [ 28] [ 29] [ 30]
[31]

Antifungal
against
Trichophyton,
Epidermophyton,
Microsporium,
Trichosporum, Geotricum, Candida

Antiviral against vaccinia virus, measles


virus, group- B Coxsackie viruses, human
papilloma viruses, herpes virus type 1 and
type 2

Antibacterial against Mycobacterium


tuberculosis streptomycin-resistant strains,
10

Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, S.


aureus, S.coagulase, Streptococus
mutans,Streptococus faecalis

Antimalarial against Plasmodium falciparum

Anthelmintic against Toxocara canis and


Toxoplasma

Wound healing activity:


Neem has been found to be safe and
effective pro-healer for burns. Tolerability study
in seven patients with 2nd degree burns revealed
initial stinging sensation on application of neem
which disappeared on further continuation. No
other adverse effects were reported. The burns
epithelial zed by four weeks [32].
Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity:
Nimbidin (a bitter compound), gallic acid,
epicatechin, catechin, and polysaccharides
isolated from neem possess significant dosedependent anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic
activity in different animal models (carrageenininduced acute paw edema in rats and formalininduced arthritis) [28]. Neem extract was over times
more effective at reducing inflammation than
hydrocortisone [33].
Mosquitoes repellent and protector against
vector-borne diseases:
The repellent action of neem (A. indica)
cream (5% neem oil in vanishing cream) has
been reported to afford more than 90% protection
against both malaria vector (Anopheles gambiae)
and culicine mosquitoes in the field [34]. Kerosene
lamps containing neem oil reduce the biting and
indoor resting density of mosquitoes, with better
protection against Anopheles than Culex [35].
Immunomodulatory activity:
Neem leaf aqueous extracts or powder,
when taken orally, have been shown to enhance
both the cell-mediated and humoral immune
responses via different mechanisms. It produced
an increase in leukocytes, lymphocyte,
erythrocyte counts and synthesis of antibodies
[36] [37] [38]
. Ovalbumin immunized mice treated with
neem leaf extract (100mg/kg) had higher IgM,
IgG and anti-ovalbumin antibody compared with
control. There was also enhancement of
macrophage migration inhibition [39].
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Anti-allergic activity:
Neem has been found to inhibit allergic
reactions when taken orally or applied externally,
due to its antihistaminic effect [40]. Thus, it may
be useful in skin allergies, allergic bronchial
asthma.
Hepatoprotective activity:
Neem leaf aqueous extract has been found
to exhibit hepatoprotective effect against
paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats [41].
Contraceptive effect in both male and female
animals:
Contraceptive effect of neem oil and leaf
extract has been demonstrated in male and
female rats [42] [43]. The studies have revealed that
the total number of normal follicles was
significantly reduced in rats orally treated with
4.6ml/kg neem seed oil for 18 days [44]. In another
study, polar and non-polar fractions of neem seed
extract were administered by oral route (3 mg
and 6 mg/kg body weight/day) to cyclic female
albino rats and there was a significant reduction
in the number of normal single layered follicles,
follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular
development, and the total number of normal
follicles has been observed [43].
Anti-cancer activity:
Different extracts of neem leaf have been
shown to produce chemopreventive effects
against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induced skin and forestomach tumorigenesis in
animals [45] [46]. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
are omnipresent pollutants and represent a risk
factor for human carcinogenesis.
Hypolipidemic effect :
Alcoholic extract of neem leaves has been
found to reduce serum cholesterol level by about
30% [47].
Hypoglycemic effect :
Neem extract has been found to exhibit
hypoglycemic effect without altering serum
cortisol concentration (as punarnava and tulsi
did), thus its effect is not mediated through a
cortisol inhibition[48]. A possible mechanism of
antyhyperglycemic effect is represented by the
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blockage of inhibitory action of serotonin on


insulin secretion mediated by glucose [47]. The
hypoglycemic effect of neem has been found to
be lower than that of bimbi (Coccinia indica),
Madagascar periwinkle (Vinca rosea) and
bibhitaki (Terminalia belerica), but higher than
that of bilva (Aegle marmelos), ginger (Zingiber
officinale) and tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) [49].
Anti-atherogenic activity:
The polyphenolic extracts of neem has been
found to inhibit the transcriptional expression of
several genes having direct involvement in
atherogenic process in normal human
mononuclear cells culture: the genes coding for
LDLR, LKR alpha, PPARs (alpha, gamma), CD36 and c-myc [50].
Antinociceptive effect :
Neem leaves have been reported to relieve
pain by opioidergic as well as non-opiodergic
mechanisms [51] [52].
Hypotensive effect :
Neem leaf extracts have been shown to
cause significant decrease of blood pressure.
This hypotensive effect may be explained
through several mechanisms: vasodilatation
produced by nimbidin which acts as an
antihistaminic agent, possesses diuretic activity
[53] [14] [54]
.
Anti-arrhythmic activity:
Neem leaves extract has been shown to
exhibit anti-arrhythmic and bradicardic activity [55].
Anti-ulcer activity:
Oral doses of neem leaf extracts have been
found to protect against peptic ulcers, duodenal
ulcers and to enhance the healing process of
gastric lesions [56]. Anti-ulcer activity has several
mechanisms: reduction of hydrochloric acid
secretion and peptic activity of gastric fluids, antiinflammatory activity, antibacterial activity
(possible anti-Helicobacter pylori), involvement
of H+ K+ ATPase inhibition and scavenging of
hydroxyl radical [57].
Toxicity at high doses:
Aqueous suspension of green or dried neem
leaves given to goats and guinea pigs, at doses
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P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971

of 50 or 200 mg/kg for 8 weeks, has been shown


to produce decrease in body weight, weakness,
inappetence, decrease in heart pulse and
respiratory rates, increase in plasma levels of
hepatic transaminases. Histopathologically, there
were signs of hemorrhage, congestion and
degeneration in the liver, kidney, lung, brain and
seminiferous tubules. No hematological changes
were observed, although there was a tendency
towards lowered erythrocyte counts, packed cell
volume and hemoglobin concentration [58].
Human clinical studies
Anti-psoriasis activity:

ingested (it become incorporated into enamel as


fluoroapatite) [63] [64] [65].
Hypoglycemic effect:
Drinking of cup of mild neem leaf twice daily
has been found to reduce significantly the need
for insulin [66].
Reducer of eosinophil count:
Oral administration of 100 mg nimbidin three
times daily for 10 consecutive days to tropical
eosinophilia patients has been shown to cause
25% reduction in total eosinophil count with a
marked symptomatic relief [67].

A double blind clinical drug trial (n=50)


showed that patients with uncomplicated
psoriasis taking an oral drug made up of aqueous
extract of neem leaves in addition to conventional
coal tar had shown a quicker and better response
in comparison to placebo group [59]. In another
study, neem leaf extract (300mg daily) taken
orally supplemented with application of
antipsoriatic coal tar ointment over lesions
resulted in reduction of erythema, desquamation
and infiltration of psoriatic lesions [60].

Local spermicidal effect:

Anti-scabie activity:

Safety, warnings:

Neem and turmeric were used as a paste


for the treatment of scabies in 814 people. In 97%
of cases cure was obtained within 3 to 15 days
of treatment. No toxic or adverse reaction was
observed [61].

Since leaves are extensively used by people


in India as reliever of sickness and eaten by
animal as forage, it is obvious that their toxicity,
especially when taken orally, is very low. One
should not take it for larger doses (more than 2
capsules per day) for extended periods of time.
Precautions should be taken concerning the use
of neem oil: pregnant women or those trying to
conceive should never take it orally or apply it
intra-vaginally, since neem oil possess
contraceptive properties and abortifacient
activities [69].

Hypolipidemic effect:
In a clinical trial carried out in a group of
malarial patients severely infected with
P.falciparum, the lipid level, especially
cholesterol, was found to be lower during neem
extract therapy when compared to non-malaria
patients [62].
Protection against periodontal disorders:
The leaves of neem has been found to
produce protection against human plaque, root
caries and oral surfaces 176 pathogens like
Actinomyces naeslundii, A. vicosus, Rothia
dentocariosa, Corynebacterium matruchotti,
Peptococus, Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, and
Candida. Neem also contains fluoride which elicit
anticariogenic effect when applied locally or
12

Minimum
effective
spermicidal
concentrations for tender and old neem leaf
extracts were 2.91 +/- 0.669 mg/million sperm
and 2.75 +/- 0.754 mg/million sperm, respectively.
No change was observed in morphology of head,
mid-piece and tail and no viable sperm seen. The
extract produced a linear decrease in percentage
motility of sperm, becoming zero at a 3 mg dose
within 20s [68].

DISSCUSSION
Human beings are prone to attack of
diseases throughout the world, because of
increasing population and environmental
degradation more and more diseases are coming
into existence. In the present global scenario,
rapid industrialization, changes in life style,
environmental degradation and excessive use
of pesticides, herbicides and other toxic
chemicals in production of food materials are
threatening the life of human beings and posing
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health hazards resulting into causation of


dreadful diseases and chronic disorders like
cardiovascular diseases, liver diseases, kidney
diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative
disorders, AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis ,
osteoarthritis,, respiratory diseases etc. for which
our modern systems of medicine have no
permanent cure. Further, the continuous use of
potent drugs is associated with gradual decay of
the bodies resistance mechanism and this, as
well as, the harmful side effects of these
medicines have led to proscription of many
standard remedies in recent years. This has been
realized both in affluent west as well as in the
poor east and there is now a growing tendency
towards the use of herbal remedies. Medicinal
herbs can provide eco-friendly sustainable
strategy for health care of ailing humanity as
these herbs have been found to modulate the
immune system of the body thereby making the
body more capable to fight against complex
diseases . Indias century old heritage of
traditional medical systems using natural
products have been utilized for addressing
preventive as well as curative aspects of health
care in the country. Preparations of plants or parts
of them have been widely used in popular
medicine since ancient times and till today the
use of phytomedicines is widespread in most of
the worlds population. Medicinal plants / herbs
are used for thousands of centuries by many
cultures for their medicinal values. Herbal
treatment is very popular because it is easily
available, cheap and less toxic. Indian herbs
used since millennia in Ayurveda yet need
scientific validation and proof for their organic
nature and high quality control with correct
identification of the herbs etc. Their therapeutic
efficiency has not been established as yet. The
use of herbals as alternative and complementary
medicine is becoming more and more important
because of their safety in comparison to modern
drugs in which people are losing faith due to
their common toxic and adverse reactions. Neem
(Azadirachta indica) is the most useful traditional
medicinal plant in India which is widely distributed
in our subcontinent during all seasons. For
thousands of years the beneficial properties of
A. indica have been recognized in the Indian
traditional medicine. The ever green Neem tree
with medicinal uses of its all parts - leaves,
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flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark for the


treatment of various diseases including
inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases ,
dental disorders etc. and having a vast array of
biologically active compounds with diverse
complex chemical structures
and
pharmacological activities has attracted
worldwide prominence in recent years due to its
wide range of therapeutic properties and has
become a cynosure of modern medicine.
Different medical uses of parts of Neem are
shown in Table- 1. This review focuses mainly
on the biological activities of some of the neem
compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of
the neem extracts, clinical studies and medicinal
applications of neem along with their safety
evaluation. Some of the important compounds
found in Neem such as Nimbin, Nimbidin,
Ninbidol, Gedunin, Sodium nimbinate, Quercetin,
Salannin, Azadirachtin have been demonstrated
potential therapeutic properties like antiinflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-histamine, antifungal, hypoglycemic, antigastric ulcer, antifungal, spermicidal ,antibacterial, diuretic,
analgesic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-tubercular, antiprotozoan, vasodilator, anti-malarial, spermicide,
anti-arthritic, anti-protozoal, insect repellent, antifeedant, anti-hormonal which provide great scope
for development of drugs of choice for the
prevention and treatment of chronic disorders [28].
Based on studies conducted on animal models
and clinical studies on human subjects, the
pharmacological actions of Neem have been
presented in Figure 1 [70].

13

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P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971
1942; 11: 278279.
9.

Pillai N. R., Seshadri D. S., Santhakumari G. Antigastric ulcer activity of nimbidin. Indian J. Med.Res.
1978; 68: 169175.

10. Chopra R. N., Chopra I. C, Handa K. L., Kapur L. D.


(eds)-Indigenous Drugs of India,U.N. Dhur and
Sons, Kolkata, 1958,pp. 51595
11. Kraus W. In The Neem Tree: Source of Unique
Natural Productsfor Integrated Pest Management,
Medicine, Industry and OtherPurposes (ed.
Schmutterer, H.), 1995, pp 3588.
12. Sharma V. N., Saksena K. P. Sodium nimbidinate in
vitro study of its spermicidal action. Indian J. Med.
Res., 1959, 13, 1038.
13. Mitra C. R., Garg H. S., Pandey G. N. Identification
of nibidic acid and nibidinin from azadirachta indica.
Phytochemistry. 1971; 10: 857864.

Figure1: Pharmacological actions of Neem

Thus, Neem tree can be considered as a


unique source of natural products for
development of medicines against various
diseases. Extensive scientific investigations
followed by clinical studies may prove more
useful to explore the therapeutic efficacy of neem
tree and its biologically active compounds to
combat diseases. Investigations on bioactivity ,
standardization and toxicity of these compounds
may help in understanding the biochemical
mechanism of action.
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leaf
extract,Contraception. 2003; 68(3):225-229.
69. Conrick J.: Neem- the ultimate herb, Lotus Press,
Pilgrims Publishing, Varanasi, India, 2001.
70. Singh N, Gilca M. Herbal Medicine Science
embraces tradition- a new insight into the ancient
Ayurveda. Edn 1, Lambert Academic Publishing
(Germany), 2010.pp. 168.

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International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2014; 2(2) : 17-20,


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ORGANIC POLY HERBAL INTERVENTION IN DISEASE


MANAGEMENT: A COMPERATIVE STUDY
*

B. R. PANDEY1,2, RAJU SAW3 , PANKAJ VERMA4


Sky Institute, Kurshi Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2International Institute of Herbal Medicine,
U. P. ,Lucknow , India , 3Research Scholar, Sai Nath University, Ranchi, India,4Department of Oral &
Maxillofacial Surgery, King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, U. P , India
*Address for Correspondence: Dr. B.R. Pandey , Director (Research), Sky Institute, Shivam Palace ll,
Near Sports College, Opp. Petrol Pump, Mishrpur, Kurshi Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Email : drbrpandey@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Studies have been conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of two organic herbal
formulation Liver - kidney Care and Sugar Balance in treatment of liver disorders and diabetes
mellitus respectively. Liver- kidney Care is the combination of herbs namely Bhumyamalaki
(Phyllanthus niruri), Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa), Katuki (Picrorrhiza kurroa ) and Sugar
Balance is the combination of Bimbi (Coccinia indica), Bougainbelia (Bougainvillea spectabilis)
and Sadabahar (Vinca rosea). These organic herbal formulations provided beneficial effect to
clinically diagnosed patients of liver disorders and diabetes attending the clinic of International
Institute of Herbal Medicine ( IIHM ) ,Lucknow. These organic herbal formulations can be used
as alternative or complementary therapy in prevention and treatment of these two kinds of
diseases.
Keywords: Liver-kidney Care, Sugar Balance, liver disorders, diabetes mellitus
INTRODUCTION
Health for all is a dream and a goal which
humanity at large shares and strives for.
Unfortunately, it has now been proven without
doubt that modern pharmaceuticals are and will
remain out of reach for a large proportion of the
human population for the foreseeable future.
Slow chemical poisoning has become a
phenomenon of the present day, as a hazard from
medicinal plants, vegetables, fruits, food grains,
water and other aquatic and terrestrial sources
of fish and meat. The hazards to human health
by chemicals like organo- phosphorous
compounds, DDT, Gammaxene etc., have
become so great that a big question mark has
come up, as known and unknown diseases of
human beings are increasing day by day and the
life of man on the Mother Earth has become
stressed and miserable in spite of all modern
facilities. Man cannot escape from the ill effects
of these chemicals whether he takes vegetables,
cereals, meat or fish. All contain perceptible
amount of chemical poisons causing diverse
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diseases in man and animals like liver, kidney


and haemopoitic systems damage and
premature death, etc. for instance, fish caught in
coastal waters are known to be contaminated
with pesticides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and
heavy metals (Ornish, 1996). Organic farming is
the need of the time. Today, the toxic chemical
level of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides,
heavy metals and inorganic manures have
entered the Mother Earth (soil) to alarming
degree and there is no food product or any
medicinal herbs which can be labeled as free
from toxic chemicals. However, at that time
nobody bothered for the ill effects of these
chemicals. We can predict our future and assess
how badly we need organic farming for better
human health and survival. Now to save
ourselves from above hazards of chemicals and
xenobiotics, we have to go for organic farming.
As the system of ayurveda consists of using
medicinal herbs for long periods we cannot use
chemically grown poisonous herbs as nutrition/
medicine and therefore, we need organically
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grown ayurvedic herbs for their nutritional/


medicinal use. Considering the significance of
organic farming, the initiative has been taken to
practice standard organic method of cultivation
for a long-term benefit and sustained economic
development for the production of standard
herbal medicines.
In view of the above facts, few medicinal
plants have been generated by organic farming
method for the treatment of chronic diseases like
Cancer, Hepatitis B & C, Chronic Renal Failure
(CRF), Diabetes, Cardiovascular System (CVS)
etc. In our study in International Institute of Herbal
Medicine (IIHM), Lucknow, studies have been
conducted to evaluate the efficacy/response of
organic herbal medicines single or in formulations
form in many incurable diseases, in which
allopathic medicines were not responding, for the
past four decades provide ample proof of benefits
of these medicines for human health and
diseases. In these disorders, we have analyzed
and achieved unequivocal success on human
health by two organic herbal formulations- Liverkidney Care: combination of herbs namely
Bhumyamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri), Punarnava
(Boerhaavia diffusa), Katuki (Picrorrhiza kurroa)
and Sugar Balance : combination of Bimbi
(Coccinia indica), Bougainbelia (Bougainvillea
spectabilis) and Sadabahar (Vinca rosea). These
organic herbal formulations provided beneficial
effect to clinically diagnosed patients of liver
disorders and diabetes attending the clinic of
International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM),
Lucknow.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Organic herbal formulations used in the
present study were LIVER-KIDNEY CARE and
SUGAR BALANCE. These organic herbal
formulations have been developed at
International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM),
Lucknow, R&D wing of Organic India Ltd.,
Lucknow. The clinically diagnosed patients of
liver and kidney disorders and metabolic disease:
diabetes attending the clinic of International
Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Lucknow
were taken for therapeutic evaluation of above
mentioned organic herbal formulations.

18

1. Liver-Kidney Care
Liver-Kidney Care (LKC) an organic herbal
formulation containing 325mg powder in
vegetarian capsule consists of Phyllanthus niruri
(Bhumyamalaki),
Boerhaavia
diffusa
(Punarnava) and Picrorrhiza kurroa (Katuki).
Fourty Six (46) volunteer cases were randomly
selected for the present study. All cases were
chronic of 6 months to 4 years duration. 6 cases
of Hepatitis B and 40 cases of CRF were treated
with Liver kidney Care, 1-2 capsules twice daily
for three month with meals. The written informed
consent of each patient was taken. The
parameters studied in the cases of Hepatitis B
were haemoglobin, serum bilirubin, SGPT and
SGOT, while in cases of CRF these were
haemoglobin, serum creatinine, blood urea.
These biochemical parameters were taken to
assess the improvement in disease condition of
the patients.
2. Sugar Balance
Sugar Balance an organic herbal formulation
containing 250mg powder consists of the leaves
of Coccinia indica (Bimbi), which was the major
ingredient along with Bougainbelia (Bougainvillea
spectabilis) and Catharanthus roseus (Vinca
rosea) . One hundred ninety two (192) volunteer
cases were randomly selected for the present
study. All cases were chronic of more than one
year. The written informed consent of each
patient was taken. These patients were treated
with Sugar Balance ,1-2 capsules twice daily for
three month with meals and evaluation was done
at the end of each one month. Glucose level (
fasting and postprandial, pp) of each patient was
estimated as biochemical parameter to assess
the disease condition of the patients.
RESULTS
The treatment with Liver Kidney Care (LKC)
resulted in significant increase in hemoglobin,
significant decrease in serum bilirubin, SGPT and
SGOT in cases of Hepatitis B as shown in Fig. 1,
four cases out of six became negative in hepatitis
B. In cases of Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) there
was a significant increase in hemoglobin and
decrease in serum creatinine and blood urea as
shown in Fig. 2.

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Fig. 1
Effect of Liv-Kid Care in Cases* of Hepatitis B
(6 cases after 5 months treatment)
80

Mean Values

DISCUSSION

74

69.33

70

Pretreatment

60

Poast treatment

50
40

34.17

31.67

30
20

10.02 12.92
4 1.76

10
0

Hemoglobin

S erum
Bilirubin

SGPT

SGOT

Parameters

Fig. 2
70

Effect of Liv-Kid Care in Cases* of Chronic Renal Failure


(40 cases after 5 months treatment)
63.73

60

50

Mean Values

Pretreatment
Post treatment

40
28.99

30

20
1 0.4 1

12.89

10

5 .4 3
1.84

Hemoglobin

Serum Creatinin
Parameters

Blood Urea

The treatment with Sugar Balance formulation,


192 cases with mild diabetes mellitus improved
(p<0.05) markedly with the formulation alone in
comparison with placebo (starch filled capsules)
as shown in Fig. 3.

The results clearly indicate the beneficial


effect of organic herbal formulation Liver- Kidney
Care in the treatment of patients of liver disorders
as reflected in the biochemical parameters
attaining to normal levels. Similarly in the case
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of patients of Diabetes Mellitus, Sugar Balance


provided beneficial effect to patients as reflected
by glucose levels of the patients.

The results of the present study clearly


indicate the beneficial effect of the organic herbal
formulation Sugar Balance in the treatment of
mild cases of diabetes mellitus. The Sugar
Balance, Organic herbal formulation in the study
has clearly shown to improve glycemic control in
diabetic patients (p<0.05) and can be taken
safely alone in mild cases or as a complementary
therapy in complicated cases with low risk of
adverse effects. It has a synergistic effect with
anti-diabetic drugs like glibenclamide , metformin
and also insulin. Thus, it improves the diabetic
complication and helps in uncontrolled DM-2.
Thus the above clinical studies provided proof
to the efficacy of Organic Sugar Balance (OSB)
in mild cases as such and also in severe cases
with uncontrolled diabetes. OSB appears to
retard the absorption of dietary sugar. It
normalizes blood sugar levels and is useful in
non-insulin dependent diabetes. It can be used
as preventative in pre disposition to diabetes
mellitus. Also gives nutritional support to diabetic
patients. Thus it compliments diet, exercise and
allopathic therapy of diabetes mellitus.
The studies conducted to evaluate the
beneficial effect of Organic Herbal Formulation
Liver- Kidney- Care in patients of liver disorders
have provided ample evidence in treatment of
patients of liver disorders. This formulation has
ability to detoxify, purify and rejuvenate liver and
kidneys naturally and is a strong antiviral agent
for killer diseases like Hepatitis B, which are more
contagious than AIDS. In cases of CRF its action
was miraculous. With drug treatment of several
months, no adverse effect was observed, thus
these Organic Herbal Medicines are safe and
useful for long term use for human health.
Although beneficial effects of above organic
herbal formulations have been observed in
patients of liver disorders and metabolic
syndrome: diabetes mellitus, extensive scientific
studies on animal models using pharmacological
and biotechnological techniques followed by
clinical studies on large number of patients would
be of immense importance in understanding
the molecular basis of action of these organic
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herbal medicines in prevention and treatment of


above diseases.
REFERENCES
1.

Ornish DM. Dr. dean Ornishs program for reversing


heart disease, Ivy Books, New York, Published by
Ballantine Books, 1996.

2.

Mosihuzzaman M., Choudhary I.M. Protocols on


Safety,
Efficacy,
Standardization,
and
Documentation of Herbal Medicine. International
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2008; 80(10):
21952230.

3.

4.

5.

A study of Ayurvedic herbals as possible enhancers


of healthy ageing and longevity. In the proceeding
of 2nd International Conference on Healthy Ageing
and Longevity, Brisbane, Australia, 2005.
Role & Benefits of Organic Inputs for better farm
productivity. In the proceeding of conference on
Organic Farming, CII, Chandigarh, 2009.
Paull, John. The Uptake of Organic Agriculture: A
Decade of Worldwide Development. Journal of
Social and Development Sciences. 2011; 2 (3):111120.

6.

Singh N., Hoette Y., Miller R. Tulsi -The Mother


Medicine of Nature. Publisher: International Institute
of Herbal Medicine, Lucknow, 2002.

7.

Singh N, Gilca M. Herbal Medicine Science


embraces tradition- a new insight into the ancient
Ayurveda. Edn 1, Lambert Academic Publishing
(Germany), 2010.

8.

20

Bhargava K.P., Singh N. Anti-stress activity of


Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi). Indian Journal of
Medical Research.1981; 73: 443-451.

9.

The Organic farming Source Book May, 1999, The


Other India Press, Mapusa, Goa, India.

10. Pesticides in India Environmental and Health


Source Book, Amit Nair Nov.,2000 Toxics Link.
11. Chauhan C.K., Nanivadekar S.A., Billimoria F.R.
Effect of a Phyllanthus niruri on drug metabolism in
patients of cirrhosis and hepatic enzyme function in
experimental liver damage. Ind. J. Pharmacol. 1992;
24(2): 107-110.
12. Rajeshkumar N.V., Kuttan R. Phyllanthus amarus
extract administration increases the life span of rats
with hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Ethnophrmacol.
2000; 74: 181-187.
13. Singh, N. Misra, N., Singh, S.P. and Gupta, M.L.
An experimental evaluation of Anti- viral potential
of Picrorrhiza kurroa (Katuki) in guinea pigs. Bull.
Meth.Eth. Bot..Res. 1981.
14. Singh, N. Effect of Boerhavia diffusa (Punarnava)
in experimental acute pyelonephritis in albino rats.
Jour. Ind. Drugs. 1988; 26: 10-13.
15. Kamble SM., Jyotishi GS, Kamalakar and Vaidhya
SM. Efficacy of coccinia indica In diabetes mellitus.
J. Res. Ayur. Siddha. 1996; 17(1-2): 77-84.
16. Singh N, Singh SP, Vrat S, Misra N, Dixit KS and
Kohli RP. An evaluation of antidiabetic effect of
Coccinia indica in dogs. Ind. J. Med. Sci. 1985; 39(2):
27-30.
17. Shibib BA, Khan LA, Rahman R. Hypoglycemic
activity of coccinia indica and Momordica charantia
in diabetic rats: depression of hepatic gluconeogenic
enzymes glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1,6
bisphosphatase and elevation of liver and red cell
shunt
enzymes
glucose-6
phosphate
dehydrogenase. Biochem J. 1993; 292: 2267-70.

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International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2014; 2(2) : 21-25,


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INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF DISEASE VECTORS FOR


RICHER HARVEST OF QUALITY SEED POTATOES
IN THE NORTHERN PLAINS
S. S. MISRA
Division of Entomology & Nematology, Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla (H.P.) , India
Address for correspondence: Dr. S. S. Misra , Principal Scientist & Head (Retd.) Division of Entomology &
Nematology, Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla-171001 (H.P.)
222-C, Between 12th & 13th Lane, Sainik Nagar, Main Road
Near Telibagh, Lucknow - 226 029 (U.P.) , India
E- mail:s.smisra@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
This deals with the origin of Potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Gods gift to the mankind ; its
importance as support to people across diverse cultures during war and peace and also help in
reducing the calamities of famine ;important insect and mite pests damaging this ubiquitous
crop ; a brief history of potato research in India ; pre-requisites for locating areas suitable for
healthy seed production and healthy (virus free)seed production technologies for helping the
farming community of Northern plains so that they could grow their own seed potato crop and
successfully curtail the cost of production by saving the money up to 50% spent in the purchase
and transportation of seed potatoes from distant places.
Keywords :
Potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Vectors, Virus, Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer),
Aphis gossypii Glover ,PLRV ,PVY, Seed Plot Technique, Indo-Gangetic Plains Dormancy ,
Indigenous, Degeneration ,Systemic Insecticides , Pesticides , Haulm.
INTRODUCTION
The English word Potato comes from
Spanish patata which is a compound word of
Taino batata (sweet potato) and Peruvian papa
(potato). Another common name is pomme de
terre in French meaning ground fruit. In Persian,
it is called seeb -i- zameen meaning ground
apple. In Hindi, Nepali and other Indian
languages the potato is called alu or aloo, while
in Marathi and Gujrati, it is called bataka or
batata.
The potato originated in Peru-Bolivian
Region (South America) about 8,000 years ago,
has come a long way to become the most
favourite culinary item of the billions of peoples
of the world. It is believed that Spanish
conquistadors first encountered the potato when
they arrived in Peru in 1532 in search of gold.
Spanish explorer and conqueror, Gonzalo
Jiminez de Quesda (1495-1579) took the potato
to Spain in lieu of the gold (Source: Linda
Stradley, History of Potato, 2004). The Spanish
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conquerors took the potato from Peru to Europe


during the later half of 16th century. Soon the
British, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch and
Belgian colonialists carried the potato to Asia,
Africa and the South Pacific.
As regards its introduction in India, it is
believed that although the Portuguese traders
first took it to India during the late 16th to early
17th century but is was the English who took the
crop to the length and breadth of the country.
The first written mention of potato in India occurs
in Edwards Terrys account of a lavish banquet
hosted by Abdul Hassan Asaf Khan (elder brother
of Nur Jahan and father of Mumtaz Mahal) who
was the Governor of Punjab under the Mughal
Emperor Jahangir, in honor of the British
Ambassador Sir Thomas Roe in 1615 at Ajmer.
Now potato has come up as worlds third
most important food crop after wheat and rice
with 314 million tones fresh-weight produced in
2006 (FAO Stat.). It is being grown in more than
148 countries in a wide variety of soils and
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climates. It produces more nutritious food more


quickly on less land and in harsher climates than
most other crops. Besides, its adoptability to a
wide variety of farming systems is also
noteworthy. Its short, flexible cycle and high yields
within 100 days means it fits well within rice or
wheat in double cropping system and is suited
for intercropping with crops like sugarcane, maize
or soybeans. It is on the record that potato
supported the people across diverse cultures
during war and peace and also helped in
reducing the calamities of famine.
POTATO PRODUCTION AND ITS NUTRITIVE
VALUE
Potato crop duration in the plains is 90-100
days and a good crop can produce 30 t/ha.
About 20% of a potato tuber is dry matter
and rest is water. Even with 20%dry matter, potato
produces more dry matter per unit area time than
the staple cereals. The dry matter production in
potato is 47.6kg/ha/day, whereas in wheat and
rice, it is 18.1 and 12.4 kg/ha/day, respectively.
Similarly, potato produces 3 kg of edible protein
per ha per day as compared to 2.5 and 1.0 kg in
wheat and rice, respectively. The approximate
contents of major tuber constituents are shown
in following Table-1
Table 1.Major constituents of potato tuber

Constituents

Content (%)

Water

75-80

Carbohydrates

16-20

Crude protein

2.5-3.0

Fibre

0.6

Fat

0.6

Minerals

1.0

Potato is so nutritive that a man in


Scandinavia is reported to have lived healthy
for 300 days on potatoes with a bit of
margarine. We have our own man Mr.
Satyanarayan Aggarwal, who lives in village
Chandia of Madhya Pradesh. He is more than
90 years of age and has lived a healthy life by
eating only potatoes since 1950.

22

Gone are the days, when India was


struggling for food in the sixties and now the
problem is of plenty. India produced 25 million
MT potatoes from 1.25 million ha during 20042005 that made it the third largest produces in
the world after China (75 million MT) and Russia
Federation (37 million MT). There has been a
phenomenal increase in area, production and per
capita availability of potato in India in the last 50
years. As per projections for the year 2020, the
area under potato is expected to rise up to 2
million ha and the production is likely to touch 50
million MT. It is, therefore, essential that potato
consumption is increased to sustain this increase
in production and to ensure remunerative price
to the farmers.
INSECT AND MITE PESTS
This ubiquitous crop, being grown under a
wide range of climatic conditions prevailing from
sea shore to snow level in higher hills and round
the year in one part of our country or the other is
subject to depredation by several pests both in
the field and the storage which in accordance
with their food habit and habitat are grouped into
- (i) soil pests (cutworms, white grubs, wireworms,
termites, lunate fly, red ant, mole cricket,
nematodes and field rats), (ii) Foliage feeders
or defoliators(various types of leaf-eating
caterpillars, epilachna beetles, flea beetles, ash
grey weevil and blister beetles), (iii) sucking pests
or sap feeders (aphids, leaf hoppers, broad mite,
green bug, whiteflies, thrips and bulb mite) and
(iv) storage pests (potato tubermoth, mealy bugs
and tuber mite).
ROLE OF APHIDS AS VECTOR OF VIRAL
DISEASES IN POTATO CROP
Among the category of sap feeders, the
aphids popularly known as plant lice or green fly
are of paramount significance, especially on
crops being grown for seed purposes. Over 4,500
species of aphids have been reported world over.
Of these, about 700 species occur in India.
Further, out of 14 aphid species reported on
potato from India, green peach potato aphid,
Myzus persicae (Sulzer), native of Europe, is
most dangerous causing not only direct damage
to potato by sucking plant sap but also is
responsible for transmitting over 100 viral
diseases on crops, the chief among them on
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potato crop are potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and


potato virus Y (PVY). In India the losses in potato
yield due to PLRV and PVY are estimated to be
20-50% and 40-85%, respectively. These losses
may go still higher if infested tubers are further
used as seed for subsequent crop. Continuous
use of virus-infested seed potatoes for many
years leads to a stage where tuber yield becomes
uneconomical and such a seed stock is called
degenerated. Besides M. persicae, cotton
aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, have also been
reported as a weak vector of viral diseases in
potato crops. As a result of their direct feeding,
especially when their population is quite high,
the leaves of affected plants curl downward, turn
yellow, become wrinkled and ultimately die.
However, such situation is quite uncommon.
POTATO VARIETIES, ESTABLISHMENT OF
POTATO RESEARCH IN INDIA AND SEED
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR NORTH
INDIAN PLAINS
In the beginning, India was meeting its seed
requirement partly through import and partly by
its multiplication in the higher hills till 1939. Import
stopped in 1939 due to World War II. A potato
seed supply system from hills to plains was,
therefore, used to address potato seed supply.
This plan also proved unsatisfactory because:
(i) Non-availability of varieties adopted to both
long days of hills and short days of plains, (ii)
Dormancy of hill seed which was fit for planting
during spring and degenerated very fast due to
high pressure of aphid vectors of viral diseases
during spring and (iii) limitation of land in the hills.
A need, therefore, was felt to have
indigenous varieties and technologies suiting to
sub-tropics to have a viable potato industry in
India. Keeping these points in view, initiation of
Indigenous Variety Development Programme
started in 1935 with the establishment of Potato
Breeding Station at Shimla (Himachal Pradesh),
Seed Cerification Station at Kufri (district Shimla,
Himachal Pradesh) and Potato Multiplication
Station at Bhowali (Uttarakhand). Later on, these
stations were merged with Central Potato
Research Institute. As a result, Central Potato
Research Institute came in existence in 1949 at
Patna and later on Headquarters shifted to
Shimla in 1956 in order to facilitate hybridization
work and better management of seed health.
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By 2008, CPRI had released 45 indigenous


varieties (7short, 27 mid and remaining 11 late
duration varieties maturing, respectively, in 7090, 91-110 and 111-120 days). Of these, suitable
varieties for North Indian plains , particularly for
Uttar Pradesh include Kufri(K) Safed, K.Sindhuri,
K.Bahar, K.Lalima, K.Sutlej, K. Ashoka
,K.Pukhraj, K. Chipsona 1to 3, K.Anand, K. Arun,
Degeneration of seed stocks when grown
during spring in the plains was established to be
due to viruses mainly spread by aphid, Myzus
persicae (Sulzer). Its reproduction was observed
at its peak at temperatures between 200C and
25 0 C while lower and higher tempratrures
retarded its build-up. This aphid does not survive
when the temperature in Indian plains exceeds
380C from May onwards. Under such conditions,
it is believed that M. persicae migrates towards
mid and higher hills where mild temperatures and
suitable host plants are available. A detailed
survey of a number of locations in the plains
during 1956-60 for the population dynamics of
M. persicae during the crop of period was
undertaken to identify the locations ideally
suitable for raising seed crop potaoes in the
plains (Pushkarnath, 1967). It was found that the
vector (M. persicae) population in the North
Indian Plains (Indo-Gangetic Plains) remained
either absent or very low during OctoberDecember which was sufficiently long a period
to grow healthy seed crops in the plains. This
information formed the basis of seed production
in the plains through the technique called Seed
Plot System of Seed Production. Initially, it
comprised (i) planting of seed crops during
September end to mid-October, (ii) planting at
close spacing on not too rich a soil to ensure
large percentage of seed size tubers, (iii) two
inspections of the crop to remove off-types and
virus-infested diseased plants, (iv) restriction of
irrigation from mid-December onwards and (v)
Dehaulming the crop in the end of December or
before reaching M. persicae population to critical
level of 20 aphids/100 compound leaves.
Areas suitable for seed
limited to a few states in the
northern Indo-Gangetic plains
following requirements of
production:

production are
north-west and
which meet the
certified seed

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Availability of sufficiently long period of about


75-90 days virtually free from aphid vectors
and suitable for crop growth and tuberization,
this period is from September end to last week
of January,

Freedom of soil from soil pests/soil-borne


diseases like cyst nematodes, bacterial wilt,
powdery scab, wart, ring rot and any other
quarantined pests/diseases, and

Good productivity of the crop.

STEPS
FOR
TECHNOLOGY

SEED

Western Uttar Pradesh and 1st week of


November in Eastern Uttar Pradesh and
Bihar.

Initially use systemic granular insecticides


like Phorate 10 G or Carbofuran 3G @ 1.52.0 kg a. i. (active ingredient)/ha at planting
or in two equal split dosages i.e. half at
planting and remaining half at first earthling
against sucking pests and white grubs. White
grubs problem is quite serious in hilly regions
where potatoes are grown as rain-fed crop
during long days in summer-rainy season.
One-two sprayings with any systemic foliar
insecticides viz. oxydemeton-methyl,
dimethoate, thiometon, monocrotophos etc.
(0.03% concentration) may be given during
the later part of the crop if vectors are seen
in spite of granular insecticides application.
Alternatively, two sprayings with imidacloprid
(0.04 kg a i /ha/spray treatment), first after
30 days and second after 60 days of planting
have also been found quite effective against
aphids and other sucking pests/vectors,

Full earthling at planting and use of


herbicides for controlling weeds and
preventing the spread of contagious viruses,

Inspection of seed crop three times at 50, 65


and 80 days after planting during crop
season to remove the off-types and diseased
plants along with their tubers,

Protection of crops from late blight to prevent


seed-borne infection,

Protection of crop from vectors towards the


maturity of crop,

Withhold irrigations in the third week of


December i.e. 7-10 days before haulms
(foliage) killing in north-western plains and
first week of January in north-eastern plains,

Haulms killing with Grammaxone @ 2.5-3.0


litre/ ha or mechanically pulling them to kill.
Re-growth in cut plants coming after haulms
killing should also be checked periodically
and be removed .

Harvesting of crops 15-20 days after haulms


killing when the fields are in workable
condition and tuber skin is hardened.,

PRODUCTION

Because of the development of Seed Plot


Technique, the major centre of disease-free seed
production shifted from the hills to plains. The
seed produced in plains not only gave 30-40%
higher yields but was also free from many soil
and tuber-borne diseases and pests. As such,
the farmers could produce healthy seed potatoes
in plains and obtained higher yields by adopting
refined Seed Plot Technique developed at CPRI
(Garg, 2008). This includes:

Use of hot weather cultivation and adaption


of 2-3 years crop rotations to avoid build-up
of soil-borne pathogens,

Procurement of good quality healthy (virusfree) seed potatoes of right physiological


stage of variety recommended for the region
from governmental/semi-governmental/
cooperative agencies,

Isolation of minimum 25 meters of seed crop


from the ware potato crop. Aphids developing
on the primary hosts are free of potato
viruses. Infection may be acquired from weed
hosts or volunteer potatoes. Home gardens
in which non-certified seed potatoes are
grown can be important source of potato
viruses,

Use of pre-sprouted large sized healthy


tubers (40-80 g) with multiple sprouts to
ensure a large proportion of seed-sized tuber.
Pre-sprouting ensures quick and uniform
emergence of crop, early tuberization and
maturity,

Planting of seed crops by 15th October in


Punjab, by 25th in Haryana, Rajasthan,
24

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Curing of produce by keeping the heaps in


cool shady place for about 2-3 weeks,

Treatment of produce with commercial grade


3% boric acid to prevent surface-borne
diseases, and

Drying of treated seed potatoes in shade and


then filling in the bags, sealing, labeling and
cold-storing.

A flow chart of the seed plot technique is


presented in Fig. 1 (c.f. Garg, 2008)

potatoes. Once, the farmers start producing their


own crop of seed potatoes in Northern plains,
unnecessary dependence on outside seed will
be solved and almost 50% cast of cultivation i.e.
the money spent on the purchase and
transportation of seed potatoes from outside and
distant places will automatically be curtailed.
REFERENCES
1.

Bishop, G.W. and J.W. Guthrie (1964). Home


gardens as source of the green peach aphid and
virus diseases in Idaho. Amer. Potato J., 41: 28-34.

2.

Eastop, V.F. (1977). World-wide importance of


aphids as virus vectors. In: Aphids as Virus Vectors
(Harris, K.K and K. Maramorosch, eds.). Academic
Press, New York & London. pp. 3-47.

3.

Garg,I.D.(2008). Seed Plot Technique to meet the


challenge of seed Production in Indian subtropical
Plains pp 20-23. In : Souvenir Global Potato
Conference 2008 (Eds. Kumar, A.et al.) & printed at
Malhotra Publishing House, B-6, DSIDC Complex
Kirti Nagar, New Delhi-110015

4.

Lal, L and S.S.Misra (1979). Evaluation of foliar


systemic insecticides againt Myzus persicae
(Sulzer) on potato crop. J. Indian Potato Assoc., 6
(3): 167-179.

5.

Misra, S.S. and H.O. Agrawal (1987). Potao aphids:


a review of the species, their identification,
importance, control and pesticide residues in potato
in India. Trop. Pest Mange., 33 (1): 39-43.

6.

Misra, S.S and V.K. Chandla (1979). Take care of


potential vectors for raising disease-free seed
potaoes. IPA Newsletter, 1 (2): 5-6.

7.

Nagaich, B.B and H.O. Agrawal (1969). Researches


on potato viruses in India. Indian J. gric. Sci., 39:
286-296.

8.

Pushkarnath (1959). Producing healthy seed


potatoes in the plains: a new approach. Potato
J.,1:63-72.

9.

Pushkarnath (1967). Seed potato production in the


subtropical plains of India. Potato J., 44: 429-441.

Fig. 1 : Important components of seed plot


technique

The systemic insecticides applied for


managing the aphids - principal vectors of viral
diseases will simultaneously take care of other
vectors as well such as thrips, Thrips palmi
(transmitting Tospovirus), white flies belonging
to the genus Bemisia - vector of Gaminivirus and
the leaf hoppers, Alebroides nigroscutulatus Dist.
& Seriana equata Singh transmitting micoplasmal
diseases viz. purple top roll (PTR) and marginal
flavescence (MF), respectively. However, if need
arises 1-2 additional spraying with any foliar
systemic insecticide like oxydemeton-methyl
(0.03% concentration) be given for managing
these insect vectors.
CONCLUSIONS
The farming community will immensely be
benefitted by adopting the above suggested
economically effective, eco-friendly and
sustainable potato seed production technology
for managing the vectors effectively leading to
bumper production of healthy (disease-free) seed
www.ijsir.co.in

10. Pushkarnath and K.K. Nirula (1970). Aphid-waning


for production of seed potato in subtropical plains
of India. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 40: 1061-1070.
11. Rataul, H.S. and S.S. Misra (1979). Potato pests
and their control. Pesticides, 13 (7): 27-38 & 42.
12. Verma, K.D. and S.S. Misra (1975). Be on the watch
for green peach aphid. Indian Fmg., 25 (2): 7-8.

25

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SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION AND


BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF
RUTHENIUM(III) WITH SCHIFF BASES DERIVED FROM
SULPHA DRUGS
RACHNA AND V. K. SHARMA*
Department of Chemistry, University of Lucknow, Lucknow
*Address for correspondence : Dr. V. K. Sharma , Professor ,Department of Chemistry,
University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, UP, INDIA
Email: vksharma21@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
The reactions of ruthenium trichloride with Schiff bases derived from sulpha drugs in 1:2 molar
ratio leads to the formation of a new series of coordination compounds of type [Ru(L)2(H2O)Cl].
The Schiff bases used here are o-Vanillin sulphanilamide (oVSaH), o-Vanillin sulphamerazine
(oVSmrzH), salicylaldehyde sulphanilamide (SdSaH), salicylaldehyde sulphamerazine
(SdSmrzH), 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde sulphanilamide (2hNSaH), 2-hydroxy-1naphthaldehyde sulphamerazine (2hNSmrzH). The reactions of ruthenium(III) chloride with Schiff
base ligands have been investigated on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance,
magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral (infrared, electronic, 1H NMR) data. The
possible structures have been suggested for the resulting compounds. The Schiff bases used
in these studies are condensation products of sulpha drugs, viz. sulphanilamide and
sulphamerazine with o-vanillin, salicylaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde. The
disappearance of phenolic proton upon complexation indicates coordination by phenolic oxygen
(after deprotonation) and azomethine nitrogen, respectively. The magnetic and spectral studies
indicate octahedral geometry for the resulting complexes. The antifungal activity screening
against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani shows that complexes are more potent in
comparison with free ligands.
Keywords: Ruthenium trichloride, synthesis, spectral studies, sulpha drugs, biocidal
INTRODUCTION
Multidentate ligands are extensively used for
the preparation of metal complexes with
interesting properties. Among these ligands,
Schiff bases containing nitrogen and phenolic
oxygen donor atoms are of considerable interest
due to their potential application in catalysis,
medicine and material science.[1-4] Recent years
have witnessed discernible growth in interest in
Schiff bases and their metal complexes due to
their facile synthesis, wide application, [5-14]
diversity and structural variability. [15-21] Schiff
bases are an important class of ligands based
on their potential use as ligands at a metal centre,
their complexing ability containing different donor
atom are widely reported.[22-28] Sulphonamides
26

were the first drugs found to act selectively and


could be used systematically as preventive and
therapeutic agents against various diseases.[29]
Sulphur ligands are widespread among coordination compounds and are important
components of biological transition metal
complexes.[30,31] Metal components with sulphur
containing unsaturated ligands are also of a great
interest in inorganic and organometallic
chemistry, especially due to their potential with
novel electrical and magnetic properties. Schiff
bases continue to occupy an important position
as ligand in metal coordination chemistry,[32,33]
even almost a century since their discovery. The
study of various types of heteroaromatic
containing Schiff bases linked to metal
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complexes has received a great deal of attention


during past decades. [34,35] Chelating ligands
containing N and O donor atoms show broad
biological activity and are of special interest
because of variety of ways in which they are
bonded to metal ions . [36,37] Aromatic
hydroxyaldehydes form stable complexes and
the presence of a phenolic hydroxyl group at their
o-position impart an additional donor site in the
molecule making it bidentate. Such a molecule
coordinates with the metal ion through the
carbonyl oxygen and the deprotonated hydroxyl
group. The chelating properties of Schiff bases
derived from hydroxylaldehydes and ketones are
well established.[38-40]
It was, therefore, considered of interest to
synthesize ruthenium(III) derivatives of Schiff
bases derived by condensation of o-vanillin,
salicylaldehyde
and
2-hydroxy-1naphthaldehyde with sulphanilamide or
sulphamerazine. The structure of the ligands are
depicted below:
O

R'
C

R"

Abbreviation

oVSaH

OH
OCH3
OH

CH3

OCH3

oVSmrzH

OH

H
OH

SdSaH
CH3

Fine chemicals Ltd. (Mumbai, India) and were


used as received. The melting points were
determined by placing finally powdered sample
in a glass capillary and heating by using
Ambassador melting point apparatus. Infrared
spectra using KBr pellets were obtained using
PerkinElmer PC16F FTIR spectrometer in the
range 4000-350 cm -1 . The conductivity
measurements of 10-3 M solution in DMF at 250C
were carried out with a Beckman conductivity
bridge model RC-18A. Magnetic measurements
were performed by Gouys method using
Hg[Co(NCS)4] as a calibrant. The electronic
spectra were recorded on Perkin Elmer Lambda
in DMF. Proton NMR spectra of the complexes
were recorded in CDCl3 on a Bruker DRX 300
spectrometer at a sweep width of 900 Hz. The
elemental analysis (C, H, N and S) was carried
out with a Carlo-Erba 1108 elemental analyzer.
Ruthenium was estimated by standard
gravimetric procedures,[41] while the chloride was
estimated as silver chloride. The thermal
behavior of Ru(III) complexes have been
investigated using a Shimadzu TGA 50H
analyzer in the temperature range 25-8000C at a
heating rate of 100C min-1. Antifungal studies were
done following the method described earlier.[42]
The solutions of metal complexes with different
concentrations were mixed in DMF which were
then mixed with the medium. The linear growth
of the fungus was recorded by measuring the
diameter of the colony after 96 h and the
percentage inhibition was calculated as 100(CT)/ C, where C and T are the diameters of the
fungal colony in control and test plates,
respectively.

SdSmrzH

Synthesis of ligands

OH

H
OH

2hNSaH
CH3

2hNSmrzH

Fig: Structure of the ligands

EXPERIMENTAL
Chemicals and methods
All chemicals used in this work were of
analytical grade. RuCl33H2O, sulpha drugs, viz.
Sulphanilamide, sulphamerazine and carbon
disulphide were obtained from Merck, Aldrich, SD
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The ligands were synthesized in accordance


with an earlier reported method.[ 43] An ethanolic
solution of appropriate aldehyde (o-Vanillin/
salicylaldehyde/ 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde)
(0.02 mol) was added to ethanolic solution of
sulpha drug, viz. Sulphanilamide or
Sulphamerazine (0.02 mol) and the resulting
mixture was then refluxed on a water bath for 45 h. The colored solid mass separated out on
cooling, which was kept in a refrigerator for better
crystallization. It was then filtered, washed with
ethanol, ether and subsequently dried over
anhydrous calcium chloride in desiccators.
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Synthesis of complexes
(i) Synthesis of ruthenium(III) complex with
Schiff base derived from o-Vanillin and
sulphanilamide (oVSaH) in 1:2 ratio.
The complex was prepared by reacting 1:2
metal to ligand molar ratios. A magnetically
stirred, prepared ethanolic solution (30 ml) of
RuCl33H2O (1.30 g, 0.005 mol) was added to
(3.063 g, 0.01 mol) of hot ethanolic solution of oVanillin sulphanilamide (oVSaH). The resulting
mixture was then refluxed on a heating mantle
with constant stirring at 80oC for around 6-7 h.
The color of the solution changed from black to
dark brown. On cooling a dark brown solid
precipitated out which was suction filtered,
washed with ethanol and finally with diethyl ether
and dried over anhydrous calcium chloride
(ii) Synthesis of ruthenium(III) complex with
Schiff base derived from o-Vanillin and
sulphamerazine (oVSmrzH) in 1:2 ratio.
The complex was prepared by reacting 1:2
metal to ligand molar ratios. A magnetically
stirred, prepared ethanolic solution (30 ml) of
RuCl33H2O (1.30 g, 0.005 mol) was added to
(2.763 g, 0.01 mol) of hot ethanolic solution of oVanillin sulphamerazine (oVSmrzH). The
resulting mixture was then refluxed on a heating
mantle with constant stirring at 80oC for around
8-9 h. The color of the solution changed from
black to olive black. On cooling a crystalline dirty
brown solid precipitated out which was suction
filtered, washed with ethanol and finally with
diethyl ether and dried over anhydrous calcium
chloride.
(iii) Synthesis of ruthenium(III) complex with
Schiff base derived from Salicylaldehyde and
sulphanilamide (SdSaH) in 1:2 ratio.
The complex was prepared by reacting 1:2
metal to ligand molar ratios. A magnetically
stirred, prepared ethanolic solution (30 ml) of
RuCl33H2O (1.30 g, 0.005 mol) was added to
(2.763 g, 0.01 mol) of hot ethanolic solution of
Salicylaldehyde sulphanilamide (SdSaH). The
resulting mixture was then refluxed on a heating
mantle with constant stirring at 80oC for around
8-9 h. The color of the solution changed from
black to olive black. On cooling a crystalline dirty
brown solid precipitated out which was suction
28

filtered, washed with ethanol and finally with


diethyl ether and dried over anhydrous calcium
chloride.
(iv) Synthesis of ruthenium(III) complex with
Schiff base derived from Salicylaldehyde and
sulphamerazine (SdSmrzH) in 1:2 ratio.
The complex was prepared by reacting 1:2
metal to ligand molar ratios. A magnetically
stirred, freshly prepared ethanolic solution (30
ml) of RuCl33H2O (1.30 g, 0.005 mol) was added
to (3.684 g, 0.01 mol) of hot ethanolic solution of
Salicylaldehyde sulphamerazine (SdSmrzH).
The resulting mixture was then refluxed on a
heating mantle with constant stirring at 80oC for
around 8-9 h. The color of the solution changed
from black to brown. On cooling a crystalline
black solid precipitated out which was suction
filtered, washed with ethanol and finally with
diethyl ether and dried over anhydrous calcium
chloride.
(v) Synthesis of ruthenium(III) complex with
Schiff base derived from 2-hydroxy-1naphthaldehyde and sulphanilamide
(2hNSaH) in 1:2 ratio.
The complex was prepared by reacting 1:2
metal to ligand molar ratios. A magnetically
stirred, prepared ethanolic solution (30 ml) of
RuCl33H2O (1.30 g, 0.005 mol) was added to
(3.264 g, 0.01 mol) of hot ethanolic solution of 2hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde sulphanilamide
(2hNSaH). The resulting mixture was then
refluxed on a heating mantle with constant stirring
at 80 oC for around 9-10 h. The color of the
solution changed from mud black color to brown.
On cooling a tan brown solid precipitated out
which was suction filtered, washed with ethanol
and finally with diethyl ether and dried over
anhydrous calcium chloride.
(vi) Synthesis of ruthenium(III) complex with
Schiff base derived from 2-hydroxy-1naphthaldehyde and sulphamerazine
(2hNSmrzH) in 1:2 ratio.
The complex was prepared by reacting 1:2
metal to ligand molar ratios. A magnetically
stirred, prepared ethanolic solution (30 ml) of
RuCl33H2O (1.30 g, 0.005 mol) was added to
(3.855 g, 0.01 mol) of hot ethanolic solution of 2hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde sulphamerazine
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(2hNSmrzH), the resulting mixture was then


refluxed on a heating mantle with constant stirring
at 80 oC for around 9-10 h. The color of the
solution changed from black to dark brown. On
cooling a blackish brown solid precipitated out
which was suction filtered, washed with ethanol
and finally with diethyl ether and dried over
anhydrous calcium chloride. All the reactions are
summarized in their corresponding Table 1 and
analytical data are given in Table 2.
Table: 1 Reactions of ruthenium(III) chloride with
Schiff bases derived from sulphadrugs and various
aldehydes.

aromatic aldehydes and sulpha drugs


(sulphanilamide or sulphamerazine) in 1:1 molar
ratio in ethanol. The complexes of type
[Ru(L)2(H2O)Cl] are obtained according to the
following reaction.
RuCl33H2O

2LH

[Ru(L)2(H2O)Cl] + 2HCl

LH = oVSaH, oVSmzH, SdSaH, SdSmrzH, 2hNSaH,


2hNSmrzH

The analytical and physical data of the


ligands and the complexes are in agreement with
their molecular formulae. All the complexes are
found to be stable in air and non-hygroscopic
microcrystalline salts. Complexes exhibit good
solubility in DMF, DMSO, THF and poor solubility
in diethyl ether, acetone and water. Complexes
are sparingly soluble in methanol and ethanol.
All complexes were obtained in good yield and
are stable in phase. The very low conductance
values in DMF (10-3M) solution indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of the complexes.
MAGNETIC MOMENT

Table: 2 Analytical data of ruthenium(III) complexes


with Schiff bases derived from sulphadrugs and
various aldehydes.

The importance of eff to chemist lies in the


fact that for many compounds it can be
calculated theoretically from knowledge of the
structure and bonding. Magnetic susceptibility
measurements of the complexes were performed
at room temperature lie in the range 1.82- 1.96
B.M., which is expected to be lower than the
predicted value of 2.10 B. M. The spin-only
values were calculated using the equation Ru =
2[SRu(SRu + 1)]1/2 for complexes and are markedly
equal to/ or higher than spin-only value for one
unpaired electron for low spin t2g5
ruthenium(III) in an octahedral environment.
Therefore, these data indicate that ruthenium(III)
complexes are in low-spin states.[ 44,45]
ELECTRONIC SPECTRAL STUDIES

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Systematic study of reactions of
ruthenium(III) chloride with Schiff base ligand in
1:2 ratio synthesized in combination of hydroxyl
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The low spin ruthenium(III) is a d5 system with


ground state 2T2g and first excited doublet levels
in the order of increasing energy are 2A2g and
2
T1g, which is arises from t42geg1 configuration. In
most of UV-spectra of ruthenium(III) complexes
only charge transfer bands occur. These bands
are characteristic of an octahedral geometry.
Spectra of all ruthenium(III) complexes displayed
bands at 13550-14100 cm -1 (v 1) and 1734029

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18230 cm -1 (v 2 ) assigned to 2T 2g 4 T1g and


2
T2g 4T2g. The two lowest energy absorptions
corresponding to 2T2g 4T1g and 2T2g 4T2g were
frequently observed as shoulders to charge transfer bands. The bands in the region 23660-23860
cm-1 (v3) has been assigned to 2T2g 2A2g transition in ruthenium complexes.[46,47] The electronic
spectral data are summarized in Table 3.
Table: 3 Magnetic moment and electronic spectral
data of ruthenium(III) complexes with Schiff bases
derived from sulphadrugs and various
aldehydes.

the higher wave number region showing the


coordination of the ligand through the phenolic
oxygen after deprotonation.[51] However, the vNH
band remains approximately at the same
position, which clearly indicates the non
involvement of NH in complexation. This is further
substantiated by the appearance of v(C-O)
phenolic at lower frequencies (compared to 13551370 cm-1 in the ligands) in the range 1340-1350
cm-1, after complexation. The coordination of
azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen is
further supported by the appearance of bands at
480-500cm-1, 440-460 cm-1 and 355-380 cm-1 due
to v(Ru-N), v(Ru-O) and v(Ru-Cl), respectively in
all complexes.[ 52] A broad band in the region
3295-3400 cm -1 is arising from overlap of
stretching vibrations of coordinated water
molecule with v(N-H) of ligands observed in
almost all of the complexes.[53] Thus, the infrared
spectra reveal that Schiff base ligands are
uninegatively bidentate, coordinating through
phenolic O and azomethine N. The infrared
spectral bands are summarized in Table 4.
Table: 4 Infrared spectral band (cm-1) of the Schiff
bases derived from sulphadrugs and various
aldehydes and their ruthenium(III) complexes.

INFRARED SPECTRAL STUDIES


The infrared spectra of the complexes are
compared with those of the free ligand in order
to determine the coordination sites that may
involve in chelation. In the present investigation
, four possible donor sites (i) Phenolic oxygen
(ii) Azomethine nitrogen (iii) Sulphonamide
nitrogen (iv) Sulphonamide oxygen and (v) Ring
nitrogen have been indicated. All the ligands
display a strong and sharp band in the region
1615-1635 cm -1 which is due to v(C=N)
azomethine band. This band shifts to lower
frequency by 10-25 cm-1 in the spectra after
complexation, indicating the coordination of
azomethine nitrogen to metal ion.[ 48,49] In the
spectra, ligands exhibit two broad peaks in the
region 3040-3400 cm -1 due to the hydrogen
bonded OH and NH. [ 50] In the spectra of
complexes, the band due to OH gets shifted to
30

PROTON
MAGNETIC
SPECTRAL STUDIES

RESONANCE

A survey of literature revealed that the 1H


NMR spectroscopy has been proved useful in
establishing the nature and structure of Schiff
bases in solutions. The 1H NMR spectra of Schiff
bases were recorded in CDCl3 solution using
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tetramethylsilane (TMS) as internal standard. The


signals due to phenolic-OH protons of the ligands
appear at ca. 12.86-12.94 ppm. The signals at
ca. 8.09-8.64 ppm appear due to azomethine
protons (-CH=N). The ligands show a complex
multiplet in the region ca. 6.84-7.86 ppm for
the aromatic protons. In addition, signals appear
in the ligands due to various groups e.g. at ca.
10.22-10.52 ppm due to NH protons and at ca.
3.46 due to protons of methoxy group. The 1H
NMR spectra of the Schiff bases and the chemical
shifts of various types of protons are summarized
in Table 5.
Table: 5 Proton magnetic resonance spectral data
( , ppm) of the Schiff bases derived from
sulphadrugs and various aldehydes.

weights. Therefore, above fragmentation pattern


complemented the exact composition of the
various compounds and described the
stoichiometry in which complexes have been
formed.
THERMAL STUDIES
The presence of one water molecule and
chloride ion in the coordination sphere of the
complexes suggested from infrared spectra is
confirmed by TG and DTG data. Ruthenium(III)
complexes lose their weight and become stable
in the temperature range 150-260 0 C
corresponding to one water molecule and from
280-3300C a mass loss is attributed to the loss
of chloride ion. The organic moiety such as ligand
decomposed further with the increasing
temperature. Although decomposed fragments
of the ligand could not be approximated owing
to continuous weight loss, the complete
decomposition of the ligand occurred at ~6300C
in all the complexes. The final decomposition
favors a mixed residue of Ru2O3-RuO2 at 6806950C. Thus, the decomposition pattern obtained
from TG curve confirms the proposed formulation
of the complexes.
BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

FAB MASS SPECTRAL STUDIES


Fast atom bombardment (FAB) is an
ionization technique used in mass spectrometry
. [54-56 ]Mass spectroscopy mainly applied in
analyses of biomolecules has been increasingly
used as a powerful structure characterization
technique in the coordination chemistry. The
mass spectra of the ligands and complexes are
compared. Their fragmentation revealed the
exact composition of the compounds formed.
Mass spectra of the ligands namely oVSaH,
oVSmrzH, SdSaH, SdSmrzH, 2hNSaH and
2hNSmrzH show molecular peak at m/z = 306,
398, 276, 368, 326 and 418, which correspond
to their molecular weights. The molecular ion
peaks for ruthenium(III) complexes are observed
at m/z = 768, 952, 708, 892, 808 and 988 , they
are in good agreement with their molecular
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All the ligands and their corresponding


ruthenium(III) complexes were screened in vitro
for their antifungal activity against two fungal
cultures Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani
by agar plate technique. The results of antifungal
screening are presented in Table 6. The results
show that the complexes exhibit antifungal
properties and it is important to note that their
activity is enhanced in comparison to the free
ligands.[57] These results may be rationalized on
the basis that chelation reduces the polarity of
the metal ion mainly because of the partial
sharing of its positive charge with the donor
groups and possibly the -electron delocalization
within the whole chelate ring system thus formed
during coordination.[58] This process of chelation
increases the lipophilic nature of the complex,
which in turn favors its permeation through the
lipoid layer of the membrane. This increase in
lipophilicity enhances the biological utilization
ratio and activity of testing compound. It may be
suggested that these complexes deactivate
various cellular enzymes, which play a vital role
31

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P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971
O

in various metabolic pathways of these


microorganisms.

CH

Table: 6 Antifungal activities of Schiff bases and


their complexes.
Compounds

56.5
24.8

68.2
36.5

89.5
45.2

54.8
26.0

72.0
36.4

88.9
44.8

oVSmrzH

23.9

33.4

42.0

22.8

34.5

48.6

SdSaH

21.8

32.5

40.2

23.2

31.6

49.5

SdSmrzH

21.6

33.6

42.9

21.5

33.6

43.4

2hNSaH

21.2

21.2

40.8

20.8

32.0

48.8

2hNSmrzH

22.0

34.8

44.0

24.4

36.8

42.5

[Ru(oVSa)2(H 2O)Cl]

38.2

56.0

72.4

36.6

58.2

72.9

[Ru(oVSmrz)2(H 2O)Cl]

37.8

58.4

74.6

36.4

59.2

72.4

[Ru(SdSa)2(H 2O)Cl]

35.6

56.6

70.8

35.8

56.8

72.2

[Ru(SdSmrz)2(H 2O)Cl]

38.2

58.9

73.5

38.6

59.6

75.8

[Ru(2hNSa)2(H2O)Cl]

36.4

56.6

71.8

36.4

57.8

72.6

[Ru(2hNSmrz)2(H2O)Cl]

35.8

58.5

74.2

38.0

58.8

73.6

Therefore, on the basis of above spectral


studies the following octahedral structures may
be proposed for the complexes.

O
CH

NHR"

O
Ru

OCH3

O
S

H2O

C
H

CH

S
O

O
O
R"HN

C
H

Where,

CH3

R = H;

H; N
Fig: Proposed structure of metal complexes

CONCLUSIONS
The monobasic bidentate Schiff base
ligands were found to be coordinated with
ruthenium(III) through phenolic oxygen and
azomethine nitrogen and gave complexes of the
type [Ru(L)2(H2O)Cl]. The characteristics of the
compounds have been studied by various
physiochemical data. A tentative octahedral
structure have been proposed for the complexes,
where the ruthenium atom surrounded by
different atoms showing six coordination
numbers.

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O

R"HN

Ru

The authors are thankful to Head,


Department of Chemistry, University of Lucknow,
Lucknow , Uttar Pradesh, India for providing
laboratory facilities and to University Grants
Commission, New Delhi, India for financial
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Cl
O

R"HN

NHR"

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCH3
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Average inhibition % after 96h


Aspergillus niger
Fusarium solani
100 ppm 500 ppm 1000 ppm 100 ppm 500 ppm 1000 ppm

Ridomil
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NEED OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN INSTITUTION


EDUCATION
1

*
AMOD TIWARI1, SUMAN SHARMA2, O.M. AWASTHI3
Bhabha Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh , India,2 Research Scholar, Sai Nath University, Ranchi, India,3
Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology & Management , Luknow, Uttar Pradesh , India

* Address for Correspondence : Dr. Amod Tiwari, Professor - Ditector ,Bhabha Institute of Technology,
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
E mail ID : amodtiwari@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The high-speed development of ICT together with the appearance and dominance of the Internet
has economic, social and cultural implications. Daniel Bell referred to a post-industrial change
in 1973 and argued that technological innovations will lead to social transformations [1]. The
implications are both at the macro- and the micro-level. The aims concerning the contents have
changed, besides the traditional educational schemes and the usage of open educational
environments have evolved which make methodological transformations a necessity [2]. The
aim of our research was to investigate the role of ICT within the population of college instructors
and to identify the pedagogical implications that the integration of ICT into teaching and learning
processes results in.
Keywords: ICT, higher education, the ICT usage of instructors
INTRODUCTION

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

We conducted a pilot session in private and


government colleges in 2002-2010 focusing on
the ICT usage of our students (n=615).We
applied the method where students themselves
filled in the questionnaires regarding the
characteristic features of using computers and
the internet, their attitudes towards the usage
of the internet and the role that the internet
plays in their studies. Our conclusions based
on the research and relevant to the current
examinations are as follows:

The research was descriptive based on the


data collected in a survey among the three
faculties of Kecskemt College (n=96). We
focused on the ICT usage at the faculties, the
attitudes towards new technologies, staffs
methodology (whether they have used ICT in their
teaching practice) and their future aims. Having
surveyed the relevant special literature we
realised that teachers had not been examined
in this field. However, in public education
studies have been made regarding both
teachers and students (Csk, 2001; Trk,
2001; Tt, 2001; Pedaggusok a digitlis,
informcis tudsszerzs szksgessgrl s
j mdjrl, 2002; Tt, 2007). Moreover, we
found data of Hungarian relevance in
international research too (Are Students Ready
for a Technology-Rich World? 2005). We
compiled a questionnaire to be filled
independently and gave them to the full time
academic staff working at the three faculties.
About of the staff (94 teachers) honoured
us by returning the filled questionnaires.

Among college students computer and


internet usage for personal purposes plays a
significant role. Routine and skill level
knowledge of new equipment are necessary
for confident and multi-purpose application.The
cultural and the financial background of the
given institution plays an important role in
usage. We have found that the majority of
students find the role of ICT in their studies highly
important. However, we decided to collect data
about the user-habits of our instructors and
compare the data gained from the two
populations.
34

The questionnaire serving for research


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contained the following topics:


-

Computer and internet usage

Attitudes related to ICT usage at school

Methods applied in education/teaching

ICT usage in teaching proceses

Opinions regarding the future usage of


educational equipment

Personal data

Hypotheses
The usage of ICT necessitates pedagogicalmethodological changes in higher education.
Among academic staff the usage of ICT for
private purposes is typical.Using ICT for
pedagogical purposes is typical of a well-defined
(domain-specific) community of instructors. All
the college instructors use ICT.
Computer and internet usage
In the first group of questions we asked
about teachers accessibility to computers and
the internet, the time they spend with them and
their habits of internet usage. Among the
surveyed staff 95% have their own computer and
97% uses the internet regularly. Most of them
use the internet both at college and at home, only
35% does not have accessibility to the internet
at home. During the week they spend about 13
hours at the college and 8 hours at home using
the computer on the average (Fig. 1). However,
it is important to mention, there is a great relative
deviation in both cases (at the college: 77%, at
home 89%).

Fig. 1(a,b) : Average computer using during the


week at home and at the college

The diagram in Fig. 2 shows how often and


for what purpose instructors use the internet.
Similarly to national data (Magyar Informcis
Trsadalom ves Jelents, 2006), our local
research results also reflect that e-mailing,
searching for information, surfing the net and
reading news are the most frequent applications.
79.8% of instructors send e-mails, 68.1% looks
for some kind of information and just 1-1 person
does never use these functions. If we examine
what the internet is used the least for, we can
see that 76.6% never plays games and 66%
never downloads music or video.

Fig. 2 : what and how often do you use the


internet for?

The next question was about the frequency


of searching for entertainment, news, scientific
and directly educational information (Fig. 3). It is
worth mentioning that 51.1% uses the internet
for reading news on a daily basis regularly. On a
weekly basis search for scientific and educational
information are the most frequent areas, 55.3%
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and 52.1% respectively.

Regarding the methods and equipment


applied in education we can state that the
teachers explanation or lectures are the most
frequent forms, followed by teacher s
presentation and independent student work (Fig.
4). The project method has never been used by
55.3% of the asked persons, neither the
cooperative learning method by 45.7% or pair
work by 43%. In the sample the classicaltraditional methods are more common than the
interactive or the new generational ones.
ICT usage in teaching proceses

Fig. 3 : Frequency of searching for entertainment,


news, scientific and directly educational
information.

ATTITUDES RELATED TO ICT USAGE AT


SCHOOL
The second group of questions concerned
the attitudes related to ICT usage. As regards
the questionnaire we did not intend to get
information in general about the attitudes
connected to the usage of ICT tools but we
wished to investigate the attitudes based on
personal experience gained in the teaching
process. Due to restrictions on length, we can
only make a short remark instead of a detailed
analysis: all the questions we asked regarding
the application of IT equipment, the answers
reflected positive attitude. Methods applied in
education/teaching methodological aspect- we
differentiated 3 groups of teachers: classicaltraditional (teacher explanation and presentation,
independent student work); interactive (group
work, pair work, student presentation, debate);
methods of the new generation (group
presentation, cooperative learning, project work).

In the case of preparing for the class the


usage of the more traditional resources is typical.
The most frequent resources used for preparation
are teachers own notes (94.7%). Course books
and notes prepared by others (91.5%), special
magazines (87.2%), special books or manuals
(84%) were also mentioned. Materials
downloaded from the internet and used for
teaching are characteristic for 72.3%, while
55.3% never or hardly ever uses digital teaching
material available through the internet, DVD or
CD. We also inquired about the materials
collected from the internet for teaching purposes.
They included different texts, definitions, rules,
pictures, figures, diagrams, maps, exercises,
tests, video materials, sounding materials;
internet based collaborative tools and software.
Among them the most typical ones are texts,
pictures, figures and diagrams. Simulations, tests
video materials were not frequently searched on
the internet and in only few cases were internet
based collaborative tools mentioned. During our
research we paid special attention to survey how
typical the usage of ICT is in education. We asked
staff about the equipment they use during
practical lessons and seminars in order to make
them more illustartive. Fig. 5 shows that besides
the traditional black board, course book/ notes,
pictures, figures and diagrams used for
illustration, PowerPoint presentations play an
important role similarly to the materials that more
than half of teachers (57.5%) download from the
internet daily or weekly. It is worth observing that
computer games, the interactive board,
collaborative programs or computerised
simulation very rarely occur among the tools used
by teachers.

Fig. 4 : Methods applied in education/teaching


36

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P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971

difference between the answers given by men


and women.
CONCLUSION

Fig. 5 : How often do you use these tools during


seminars /practical lessons?

According to our super position the tools that


a teachers uses during the lessons can be
exemplary for students (Fig. 6). However, it is
also important whether the teacher gives
students tasks/exercises requiring ICT use for
solving them. Among the tasks given to students
the most frequent are very similar to those often
used by teachers themselves i.e. searching for
information, emailing and making presentations.
The least typical tasks are games, online chatting
or using a forum.

After data analysis we have found that it is


typical for all instructors to use ICT for private
purposes, for pre-class preparations but only
informatics-instructors integrate ICT in their daily
teaching practice. The majority of instructors rely
on traditional methodology and most of them are
not informed about innovative practices. The
results of the research do not support the
hypothesis according to which the usage of ICT
tools would induce pedagogical and
methodological changes in higher education. In
the present sample the so-called teaching from
the book methodology dominates. The
multimedia tools appear, however, they are
employed with traditional methods, and their role
is not more than supporting the repertoire that
has been used so far. We are referring here to
the usage of PowerPoint which is used more
frequently but only as for visualizing notes and
handouts when lecturing. Thus, it is utilized as a
modernized version of the overhead projector.
On the basis of the survey we can state that new
professional challenges and educational goals
are evident through the immense impact of ICT
and the need for new pedagogical paradigms and
open educational environment is already an
existing demand.
REFERENCES

Fig. 6 : did you give students tasks/exercises


requiring the listed ICT use during the previous
term?

OPINIONS REGARDING THE FUTURE


USAGE OF EDUCATIONAL EQUIPMENT
The last group of questions comprised the
opinion of teachers about the role ICT will play in
the future. In this respect the majority believes
that ICT will gain growing importance, especially
in searching for information, computerised
modelling, educational materials, making
presentations and computerised testing while
traditional tools, like printed course books, notes
work books will not lose their importance either.
Having analysed the data collected for our
research, we can state that there is no significant
www.ijsir.co.in

[1] D. Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, New


York: Harper Colophon Books, 1974,
[2] G. Siemens, Connectivism: Learning Theory or
Pastime of the Self-Amused? 2006, http://
www.elearnspace.org/Articles/
Connectivism_response.doc
[3] Are Students Ready for a Technology-Rich World?
What pisa studies tell us. OECD 2005 http://
www.oecd.org/dataoecd/28/4/35995145.pdf
[4] M. Csk, Informatika Internet pedaggusok,
Iskolakultra, 1, 56-74. 2001.
[5] P. Fehr Pter, Milyenek az Internet-korszak
pedaggusai? Iskola Informatika Innovci.
Tanulmnyktet, OKI, Budapest 139-148. 2003.
[6] A. Krpti Andrea, A tudsalap trsadalom
pedaggija s a szmtgppel segtett tanuls.
Informcis Trsadalom, 2, 34-51. 2003.
[7] A. Krpti, Az informatika hatsa az iskola
szervezetre, kommunikcis s oktatsi-nevelsi
37

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P-ISSN 2347-2189, E- ISSN 2347-4971
kultrjra. j Pedaggiai Szemle, 8, 2003.
[8] B. Komenczi, Az informcis trsadalom iskoljnak
jellemzi.
http://www.oki.hu/
cikk.php?kod=informatika-KomencziInformacios.html 2001.
[9] Magyar Informcis Trsadalom ves Jelents 2006
http://www.ittk.hu/web/kiadvanyok.html
[10] II. orszgos kutats intzmnyvezetk s
szaktanrok krben. Felvteli Informcis
Szolglat 2004 http://www.fisz.hu/files/2006fisz.hu/
oldalso_menuk/kutatas/iszk2005.pdf
[11] Pedaggusok a digitlis, informcis tudsszerzs
szksgessgrl s j mdjrl. A Magyar Gallup

38

Intzet 2002-es, orszgos reprezentatv vizsglata


http://ip.gallup.hu/kutat/isk030201.pdf
[12] Tt va (2001): Szmtgpek az iskolban. Kutats
Kzben, 229. 62.
[13] http://www.hier.iif.hu/kutatas_kozben.php
[14] . Tt, A szmtgp mint a tanrok kommunikcis
eszkze. j Pedaggiai Szemle, 8-9, 123-136. 2001.
http://www.oki.hu/oldal-php?tipus=cikk&kod=egyebtot-szamitogep
[15] . Tt, Informatika az iskolban. Iskolakultra, 1.
31-40. 2007.
[16] B. Trk, A dikok szmtgp-hasznlati szoksai
Internetezs s elektronikus levelezs. j
Pedaggiai Szemle, 7, 105-122. 2201.

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International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2014; 2(2) : 39-44,


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IMPACT OF FDI IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR


*MANISH KUMAR AWASTHI 1 , JYOTI AGARWAL 1, S. C. PANDEY2
1
Research Scholar, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan , India,
2
Department of Commerce, Kalicharan Post Graduate College, Lucknow, U.P., India

*Address for correspondence: Manish Kumar Awasthi, Research Scholar, Bhagwant University,
Ajmer, Rajasthan, India, Email ID: manu77107@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Foreign direct investment in Indian retail business at this stage is a burning issue.Retailing is
one of the worlds largest private industries and Indian retail industry is one of the rising sectors
with huge growth potential. According to the Investment Commission of India, the retail sector
is expected to grow almost three times its current levels to $660 billion by 2015. Liberalizations
in FDI have caused a massive restructuring in retail industry. The benefit of FDI in retail industry
superimposes its cost factors. It enables a countrys product or service to enter into the global
market. With around 12 million retail outlets pan India and an estimated size of around $450
billion, the retail sector perhaps remains one of the key contributors to Indias GDP. Thus as a
matter of fact FDI should not just be allowed but significantly encouraged too. In this context,
the study tries to find out the influence of FDI and its need and significance in the retail sector
and tries to focus some possible impact of FDI in agricultural marketing.
Keywords: FDI, Liberalization, Retailing, Agricultural Marketing.
INTRODUCTION
FDI has been shown to play an important
role in promoting economic growth, raising a
countrys technological level, and creating new
employment in developing countries. It has also
been shown that FDI works as a means of
integrating developing countries into the global
market place and increasing the capital available
for investment, thus leading to increased
economic growth needed to reduce poverty and
raise living standards. According to the World
Bank Development Report, in 2000 over 1.1
billion people were subsisting on less than US$1
a day and around 2.1 billion people on less than
US$2 a day of whom between two thirds to threequarters live in rural areas. Thus, if the war on
poverty is to be won, developing countries need
to place more emphasis on the agricultural sector,
where incidence of poverty is highest. Agriculture
is the main stay of the Indian economy as it forms
the backbone of rural India which inhabitants
more than 70% of total Indian population. Indian
economy has been heavily geared towards the
service sector that contributes 56% of our GDP.
www.ijsir.co.in

The service sectors contribution to the increase


in GDP over the last 5 years has been 63.9%.
Having a high contribution from services is an
attribute that is characteristic of developed
economies. In China, manufacturing accounts
for a significant share of GDP, whereas in India,
manufacturing contributes a mere 23.1% of the
GDP. India to grow at an 8 to 10% economic
growth rate our agricultural sector has to expand.
For that to happen there is a need for reforms in
our agricultural sector in the way which calls for
agricultural produce to be procured, stored and
marketed, for huge investments in the supply and
distribution chain and the most importantly, for
ushering in competition in the supply and
distribution chain where the farmer decides whom
to sell and at what price. The government can
always decide the ceiling price. Also, India should
openup its retail sector to foreign capital and
competition. Foreign retailers would bring with
them the best practices and investments in the
supply and distribution chain and at the same
time open up linkages to the global markets for
Indian agricultural and dairy products. Modern
retailers procure in bulk and sell at low prices.
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They thrive on reducing the inefficiencies in the


supply chain bringing down the cost substantially
for the consumers and getting a better deal for
the farmer.
Indian economy has been on a growth
trajectory over the last two decades along with
the fast changing demographics, life style and
surge in domestic consumption and
consumerism. The retail industry in India is
growing at fast pace and is expected to grow in
manifolds in near future. In the post- globalization
era, FDI in retail business is steadily growing in
various countries, India being not the exception.
However organized retailing in the Indian
agricultural sector is still in the stages of findings
its feet.The government is opening the idea of
permitting FDI in the Indian retail sector with the
changes in economic policy. In the densely
populated country like India it has boosted the
investment climate and has significant
implications on its economic conditions.
Important aspects of the agrarian sector and rural
sector in India that have a positive impact on FDI
Inflows to Agricultural Machinery are:
1. 100% foreign direct investment (FDI) allowed
through the automatic route covering
horticulture, floriculture, development of
seeds,animal husbandry, pisciculture, aqua
culture, cultivation of vegetables, mushroom
and services related to agriculture and
sectors associated with it.
2. The target set for generating Farm credit for
2007-08 is Rs. 225,000 crores.
3. A pilot program for delivering subsidy directly
to farmers to be introduced.
4. Loan facilitation through Agricultural
Insurance Institutions and NABARD has also
been extended.
5. Corpus of Rural Infrastructure Development
Fund to be raised.
6. 66,800 habitations with population over 1000
is to be connected with all weather roads.
7. Construction of 1,46,000 Km of new rural
roads have been sanctioned.
8. Investment to the tune of Rs. 1,74,000 crores
envisaged under Bharat Nirman.
40

This paper attempts to find out possible


impacts of such FDI in agricultural retail
marketing.
OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE
The aim of the study is to analyze the
strategic issues concerning the influx of foreign
direct investment in the Indian agricultural sector.
This study reviews the emerging opportunities
for agribusiness enterprises with ongoing market
developments. Its main objectives are to know
the agricultural conditions of India and find out
its problems and prospects.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Descriptive research methodology is carried
out in this paper. It is mainly based on the
secondary data collected from various sources.
We have also used some primary data which is
collected by telephonic talk and interviews of the
farmers, entrepreneurs. Reliance has been
placed on books, journals, newspapers and
online databases and on the views of writers in
the discipline of Competition law.
PRESENT SCENARIO IN AGRICULTURAL
SECTOR (MARKETING)
In India, Agricultural sector is highly
unorganized and fragmented. The conditions of
Indian farmers and their profit potentials both are
substantially declining, because of lack of rural
credit facility to small and marginal farmers,
continuous increase in the cost of inputs and crop
price, and lower quality of seeds etc. If the
production is good then there is a glut and prices
fall, and if there is crop a failure then farmers
hardly get any compensation in the form of higher
prices. Profitability of farmers here is gradually
decreasing, which even inclined them to move
and settle down in urban area, where life
sustenance is even more difficult. The study is
based on micro level survey covering 5 villages
of BKT area which lies in the outskirts of Luck
now, Uttar Pradesh, India covering 400 farmers
in 2010-11.
LIMITATIONS OF THE PRESENT SETUP
(A) Infrastructure
There has been a lack of investment in the
logistics of the retail chain, leading to an
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inefficient market mechanism in the economy.


Though India is the second largest producer of
fruits and vegetables (about 180 million MT/
annum), it has avery limited integrated cold-chain
infrastructure, with only 5386 stand-alone cold
storages having a total capacity of 23.6 million
MT, where around 80% of this is used only for
potatoes The chain is highly fragmented and
hence, perishable horticultural commodities find
it difficult to link to distant markets, including
overseas markets, round the year. Storage
infrastructure is necessary for carrying over the
agricultural produce from production periods to
the rest of the year to provide uninterrupted
supply and to prevent distress sales. Lack of
adequate storage facility, transport facility,
information technology etc. causes heavy losses
to farmers in terms of wastage as well as in
lowering the selling prices. Though FDI is
permitted in cold-chain to the extent of 100%,
through the automatic route, in the absence of
FDI in retailing, FDI flow to agricultural retailing
is almost nonexistent.
(B) Dominance of intermediaries in the value
chain
Intermediaries often flout market norms and
their pricing even lacks transparency. Wholesale
regulated markets, governed by State APMC
Acts, have developed a monopolistic and nontransparent character. Indian farmers realize only
1/3rd of the total price paid by the final consumer,
as against 2/3rd by farmers in nations with a
higher share of organized retail. This clearly
shows how the Indian farmer is been exploited
by this long chain of intermediaries, which also
is one of the main reason of their present
situation.

EMPERICAL FINDINGS
Agricultural retail market in India is in a very
disadvantageous position suffering from lack of
avenues to reach out to the vast domestic as well
as world market. This has largely been due to
the inability of this sector to access latest
technology and improve its marketing interface.
Development of organized retailing market either
induced by indigenous capital or by foreign
capital is very crucial where small and marginal
farmers can supply their product directly to these
big retailers (Indian or foreign). Due to lack of
adequate infrastructure facilities and lack of
proper storage facility farmers are forced to sell
their products at very low price which sometimes
cannot even cover their cost of production. Over
production or glut both becomes the cause of
farmers distress. The survey data presents that
28 % of paddy production is sold at zero profit
margin and for 45% of paddy production profit
margin varies from 5 to 10 percent. Only it is the
rest 26% of total production where profit margin
is above10%. But the maximum profit margin is
15%. The main cause is the lack of storage
facility, failure of the Government mechanism to
reach the farmers with minimum support price
and virtual non-existence of organized marketing
infrastructure.
TABLE- I
:
SCENARIO

AGRICULTURAL MARKETING

Profit margin Paddy Wheat Potato

oilseeds vegetables

0 -5%

28

14

40

44

82

5- 10%

46

42

52

41

14

10- 15 %

26

08

05

33

06

Data Source: Survey

( C ) Improper Public Distribution System


(PDS)

FDI IN RETAIL SECTOR (MARKETING) IN


INDIA

There is a big question mark on the efficacy


of the public procurement and PDS set-up and
the bill on food subsidies which is continuously
rising. In spite of such heavy subsidies, overall
food based inflation has been a matter of great
concern and a serious thought. The absence of
a farm-to-fork retail supply system is absent,
which is one of the main reasons of increase in
prices of food items.

Over the last two decades, Indian economy


has witnessed a significant rise of FDI flows as
well as a remarkable increase in the growth rate
with favorable consequences on employment,
infrastructure development and business climate.
Fast growing Indian economy accompanied by
growing domestic consumer markets has raised
the growth of retail sector at a faster rate mostly
in unorganized sector.

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TABLE- 2 :
RETAIL

Retail sector

PERCENTAGE OF ORGANIZED

US

Thailand

China

India

Organized

85

40

20

03

Unorganized

15

60

80

97

Source: P.Shivakumar and S Senthilkumar, 2011

Organized retail has huge potentiality which


is still at nascent stage, compared to other
developing economies .Though the share of retail
sector in total FDI flows is very low (0.02%), it
has enormous growth potential in India
particularly in agricultural sector considering the
limitations of the present setup regarding
infrastructure ,communication network in rural
economy, efficient supply chain, modern
technology etc.
With liberalization in1990s organized retail
sector has grown many folds when many Indian
players like Shoppers Stop, Pantaloon Retail
India Ltd, Spencer Retail ventured into the
organized retail market. With the opening up of
foreign direct investment in single brand retail
and cash- and - carry formats Indian retail market
has got a new momentum. With liberalization in
foreign trade policy in 1991, the Indian
Government allowed 100% foreign investment
in wholesale cash-and- carry and single branded
retailing but, it prohibited foreign investment in
retail. In 1997 restrictions were again imposed
on retail sector but in 2006 these restrictions were
lifted and opened in single brand retailing and in
cash-and carry formats. Indian retail industry
becomes an attractive FDI destination for many
global players and cash and carry format
becomes the entry route for global retailing
giants. Wal-mart has forged an alliance with
Bharti for a cash-and- carry business and Bharti
is concentrating on front-end- retail. Tesco enters
in Indian retail market through an alliance with
Trent (Tata Group). Many foreign brands enter
Indian retail sector either through Joint ventures
with leading Indian retailers ( like Louis Vuitton,
Marks and Spencer PLc, Armani) or through
exclusive franchisees to set up shops in India
(like McDonalds, KFC, Dominos). With the entry
of foreign direct investment, the Indian organized
retail market has become more competitive in
terms of implementing newer business models
42

on the operational format and pricing and


reinventing and improving the supply chain.
The argument often given against FDI in
retail is that it will severely affect mom and pop
shops; they wont be able to survive the
competition. But we already have homegrown
modern retailers like Big Bazaar, Nilgiris etc. who
are thriving along with the traditional kirana
stores. So, in any case, we have modern retailers
in the market. The Indian retail market is very
different from the Western retail market. In India
consumers like to make purchases frequently
and in small quantities. Instead of travelling to
the large retail stores far from their own place of
residence, people still prefer the convenience of
the traditional neighborhood kirana store. More
over the kirana stores can buy from the cash and
carry stores and reduce their cost of
procurement. Agriculture still accounts for 60%
of Indias labor force and an improvement in the
agriculture sector would directly benefit them.
Allowing 100 % FDI in retail would lead to an
agricultural and a dairy revolution in the country.
The present policy with regard to FDI in
agriculture and plantation is as follows:
i)

FDI up to 100% is permitted under the


automatic route in the under mentioned
activities viz., floriculture, horticulture,
development of seeds, animal husbandry,
pisciculture, aquaculture and cultivation of
vegetables and mushrooms, under controlled
conditions and services related to agro and
allied sectors.

ii) FDI up to 100% with prior government


approval is permitted in tea plantation subject
to the conditions of divestment of 26% equity
of the company in favour of an Indian partner
/ Indian public within a period of five years;
and prior approval of the state government
concerned in case of any future land use
change.
iii) Besides the above two, FDI is not allowed in
any other agricultural sector / activity.
iv) The government has announced 100 per
cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the
agriculture sector including seeds, plantation,
horticulture and cultivation of vegetables.
According to the circular by the Department
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of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP)


animal husbandry, pisciculture, aquaculture
under controlled conditions and services
related to agro and allied sectors have also
been provided with 100 per cent FDI along
with the tea sector.

economy in a manner likely to promote the


welfare of all sections of society, particularly
farmers and consumers. It will bring about
improvements in farmer income and agricultural
growth and assist in lowering consumer price
inflation.

The new rules have been implemented from


April 1, 2011. DIPP has imposed certain
conditions for companies dealing with growth of
transgenic seeds and vegetables. While dealing
with genetically modified seeds or planting
material the company is expected to comply with
safety requirements in accordance with laws
enacted under the Environment (Protection) Act
on the genetically modified organisms; any import
of genetically modified materials, if required, shall
be subject to the conditions laid down vide
notification issued under Foreign Trade
(Development and Regulation)Act,1992.

Apart from this, by allowing FDI in retail


trade, India will significantly flourish in terms of
quality standards and consumer expectations,
since the inflow of FDI in retail sector is bound to
pull up the quality standards and cost
competitiveness of Indian farmers. It, therefore,
seems that FDI in agricultural retailing has the
potential of sustaining agricultural growth. It is to
be noted that the Indian Council of Research in
International Economic Relations (ICRIER), a
premier economic think tank of the country, which
was appointed to look into the impact of BIG
capital in the retail sector, has projected the worth
of Indian retail sector to reach $496 billion by
2011-12 and ICRIER has also come to conclusion
that investment of big money (large corporate
and FDI) in the retail sector will not going to harm
the interests of small and traditional retailers,
keeping future market into consideration.

CONCLUSION
Capital investment either by indigenous or
foreign capital seems to be a very powerful
catalyst to spur the investment climate in
agricultural retailing, taking into consideration the
current scenario of inefficient supply chain, lack
of proper storage facilities and presence of multilevel intermediaries between farmers and direct
consumers. Huge investment in marketing
infrastructure is required to protect the
agricultural sector which is not forthcoming from
the Government sector. FDI- driven modern
retailing being a direct interface between farmers
and retailers trigger a series of reactions which
in the long run can improve supply chain and
transport sector of the rural agronomy of all the
agricultural states in India.
The policy of allowing 100% FDI in single
brand retail can benefit both the foreign retailer
and the Indian partner foreign players get local
market knowledge, while Indian companies can
access global best management practices,
designs and technological knowhow. By partially
opening this sector, the government can reduce
the pressure from its trading partners in bilateral
and multilateral negotiations and can
demonstrate Indias intentions in liberalizing this
sector in a phased manner. Permitting foreign
investment in agricultural retailing is likely to
ensure adequate flow of capital into rural
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In light of the above, it can be safely


concluded that allowing healthy FDI in the retail
sector will not only lead to a substantial surge in
the countrys GDP and overall economic
development, but will also help in integrating the
Indian agricultural retail market with that of the
global retail market in addition to providing higher
profit margin to Indian farmers which the
unorganized sector has undoubtedly failed to
provide. Industrial organizations such as CII,
FICCI, US-India Business Council (USIBC), the
American Chamber of Commerce in India, the
Retail Association of India (RAI) and Shopping
Centers Association of India (a 44 member
association of Indian multi-brand retailers and
shopping malls) favors a phased approach
towards liberalizing FDI in multi-brand retailing,
and most of them agree with considering a cap
of 49-51 per cent to start with.
FDI in agricultural retailing must be dealt
cautiously as it has a direct impact on a large
chunk of population. Left alone foreign capital
will seek ways through which it can only multiply
itself, and unthinking application of capital for
profit, given our peculiar socio-economic
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conditions, may spell doom and deepen the gap


between the rich and the poor. Thus the
proliferation of foreign capital into agricultural
retailing needs to be anchored in such a way that
it results in a win-win situation for India. This can
be done by integrating into the rules and
regulations for FDI retailing by deliberately putting
certain inbuilt safety valves. To ensure that the
foreign investors make a genuine contribution to
the development of infrastructure and logistics,
it can be stipulated that a percentage of FDI
should be spent towards building up of back end
infrastructure, logistics or agro processing units.
Reconstituting the poverty stricken and
stagnating rural sphere into a forward moving and
prosperous rural sphere can be one of the
justifications for introducing FDI in agricultural
retailing but the government should put in place
an exclusive regulatory framework. It will ensure
that the retailing giants do not resort to predatory
pricing or acquire monopolistic tendencies. Thus,
as a matter of fact FDI in the buzzing Indian retail
sector should not just be freely allowed but per
contra should be significantly encouraged.
Allowing FDI in multi brand retail can bring about
supply chain improvement, investment in

44

technology, manpower and skill development,


tourism development, greater sourcing from
India, up gradation in agriculture, efficient small
and medium scale industries, growth in market
size and benefits to government through greater
GDP, tax income and employment generation.
REFERENCES
1

EOgeny, Omari,Organized Retailing in Global


Competitive, Journal of Strategic Marketing, 6(1)
65,1998

K Khatri, The future prospects of Retail


Industry,European Journal of Marketing,41(11)2007

D. Gupta, Whither the Indian Village,Economic and


PoliticalWeakly,February2005.

S Choudhury, Farm fatalities, The Statesman,


February 6,2012

Govt of West Bengal, West Bengal Human


Development Report, 2004

P Shivakumar and S Senthilkumar, Growing


Prospective of RetailIndustry in and around India,
Advances in Management, Vol 4(2),2011.

Economic Reforms, Foreign Direct Investment and


its
Economic
Effects
in
India
by
ChandanaChakraborty Peter NunnenkampMarch
2006.

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ACHIEVING SERVICE QUALITY


THROUGH ITS VALUABLE DIMENSIONS
TANGIBILITY:
AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE INDIAN AIRLINES
*RENUKA SINGH
CSA University of Agriculture &Technology, Kanpur, U.P., India.
*Address for correspondence: Dr . Renuka Singh, Former Lecturer,
CSA University of Agriculture &Technology,
Kanpur, U.P., India.
Email ID : drrenuka11@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the extent to which service
quality is delivered within the Indian Airlines services and customer's perceptions of service
quality. This paper investigates how closely customer's expectations and perceptions match.
RATER Dimensions and SERVQUAL scale are used to measure service quality in Indian Airlines. The paper also investigates on a parallel SERVQUAL survey of Indian Airlines employees
to examine how well they understand their customers' expectations and how well its internal
processes support the delivery of top quality services.It is found that there was a direct relationship between service quality and customer's satisfaction in the Indian Airlines. Employees appear to have a good understanding of what these expectations actually are. This research adds
to the body of knowledge related to the Indian Airlines management. It will also be of interest to
strategic and operational to the managers of airlines and to academics investigating the reliability and value of service quality assessment tools. It addresses key relationship between service
dimensions and service quality within the Indian Airlines.
Keywords: Service Quality, Customer's Satisfaction, Service Quality Dimensions, GAP Analysis, Customer Relationship Management SERVQUAL etc.
INTRODUCTION
The service industry plays an increasingly
important role in the economy of many countries.
In today's global competitive environment delivering quality service is considered as an essential strategy for success and survival
(Parasuraman et al., 1985; Reichheld and Sasser,
1990; Zeithaml et al., 1990). Even the public sector organizations have come under increasing
pressure to deliver quality services (Randall and
Senior, 1994) and improve efficiencies (Robinson,
2003). Customer needs and expectations are
changing when it comes to governmental services
and their quality requirements. However, service
quality practices in public sector organizations is
slow and is further exacerbated by difficulties in
measuring outcomes, greater scrutiny from the
public and press, a lack of freedom to act in an
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arbitrary fashion and a requirement for decisions


to be based in law (Teicher et al., 2002).
THE SERVQUAL MODEL
The SERVQUAL model proposes that customers evaluate the quality of a service on five
distinct dimensions: reliability, responsiveness,
assurance, empathy, and tangibles. The
SERVQUAL instrument consists of 22 statements
for assessing consumer perceptions and expectations regarding the quality of a service. Perceived service quality results from comparisons
by consumers of expectations with their perceptions of service delivered by the service providers (Zeithaml et al., 1990). It can be argued that
the factor underpinning the delivering of good perceived service quality is actually meeting the expectations of the customers. Thus, excellent ser45

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vice quality is exceeding the customers' expectations. Zeithaml and Bitner (2000) suggested that
customer expectations are beliefs about a service that serve as standards against which service performance is judged. Parasuraman et al.
(1988) suggested that customer expectations are
what the customers think a service should offer
rather than what might be on offer. Zeithaml et al.
(1990) identified four factors that influence customers' expectations: word-of-mouth communications; personal needs; past experience; and
external communications. A gap is created when
the perceptions of the delivered service is not as
per the expectations of the customer. This gap
is addressed by identifying and implementing
strategies that affect perceptions, or expectations,
or both (Parasuraman et al., 1985; Zeithaml et
al., 1990). Parasuraman et al .(1988) stated that
SERVQUAL had been designed to be "applicable
across a broad spectrum of services" and the
format could be adapted to fit specific needs and
that it would be most valuable when used to track
service quality trends periodically. They proposed
that the SERVQUAL model could be extended to
measure gaps in quality and could therefore be
used as a diagnostic tool to enable management
to identify service quality shortfalls. The gap score
is calculated by the perception statements being
deducted from the expectation statements. If any
gap scores turn out to be positive then this implies that expectations are actually being exceeded. This allows service managers to review
whether they need to re-deploy resources to areas of underperformance (Wisniewski, 2001).
The SERVQUAL instrument ascertains the level
of service quality based on the five key dimensions and also identifies where gaps in service
exist and to what extent.
Table - a : Definition of the SERVQUAL Gaps
Gap 1 (the positioning gap)

Gap 2 (the specification gap)

Managers perceptions of consumers expectations and the


relative importance consumers attach to the quality
dimensions
The difference between what management believes the
consumer wants and what the consumers expect the
business to provide

Gap 3 (the delivery gap)

The difference between the service provided by the


employee of the business and the specifications set by
management

Gap 4 (the communication gap)

The promises communicated by the business to the


consumer do not match the consumers expectations of
those external promises

Gap 5 (the perception gap)

46

The difference between the consumers internal perception


and expectation of the services

Table - a: presents the five SERVQUAL gaps as


defined by (Zeithaml et al., 1990).

An essential aspect of managing service


quality is the identification of client expectations
and then designing the service system to focus
on these requirements. The airline business must
aim at fulfilling the individual customer needs or
even reaching beyond these. The airline companies have realized that they have to listen to consumers to survive in a competitive market ( Booth
M ;2000) and airline companies also have become aware of the importance of having happy
customers ( Riddleberger EJ ; IBM Global Business Services;2009 ). The pre-requisite of the
customer satisfaction is understanding and knowing what they want.
The aviation sector has become the most
important segment in the economic development
of a nation. It plays a vital role in moving people
or products from one place to another, especially
when the distances involved are far. In a highly
competitive environment the provision of high
quality services to passengers is the core competitive advantage for an airline's profitability and
sustained growth. In the past decade, as the air
transportation market has become even more
challenging, many airlines have turned to focus
on airline service quality to increase service satisfaction. Service quality conditions influence an
industry's competitive advantage by retaining
customer patronage, and with this gain market
share. Delivering high-quality service to passengers is essential for airlines survival, so airlines
need to understand what passengers expect from
their services. Understanding exactly what customers expect is the most crucial step in defining
and delivering high-quality service. Service quality
is one of the best models for evaluating
customer's expectations and perceptions. The
performance of a company leads to passenger's
satisfaction with a product or service. According
to Heskett et al. (1994), profit and growth are
simulated by customer loyalty and loyalty in its
turn is driven by customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction depends on the value customers receive from the service.
The purpose of this study is to identify the
dimensions of service quality and aims at investigating how these dimensions contribute to
customer's satisfaction in Indian Airlines. This
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research work discusses a process approach to


service quality in the airline Industry, taking a
customer's point of view. The process describes
steps from ticket purchase to the completion of
the journey, analyzing each step from service
quality perspective and assigning attributes that
help to measure customer's satisfaction in Indian Airlines. The results from this research may
be useful for airline industry, airline managers to
improve their service quality and customers' satisfaction, finally the growth of the airline industry.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
Excellent passenger satisfaction is one of the
greatest assets for airline industry in today's competitive environment. The research related to
service quality and customer satisfaction in the
airline industry has been growing in interest because the delivery of high service quality is essential for airlines survival and competitiveness.
A number of studies have conducted in service
quality related theories and methods in the airline industry. Although examining the effect of individual dimensions of service attributes has potentially great utility for airline managers, the effects of individual dimensions of airline service
quality has not been fully investigated in previous airline service studies. Keeping in view all
these aspects this study is conducted. The main
aim of the study is to analyze service quality and
customer satisfaction of domestic airlines with
special reference to Indian Airlines. In addition,
the findings would enhance the airliners to improve their service quality, customer relationship
management ( CRM ) and finally customer satisfaction.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Customers consider five dimensions in their
assessment of service quality - Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance , Empathy , Tangibles.
Of the five dimensions, Reliability is considered
to be the most important one. It refers to the company delivering on its promises. The other four
dimensions relate to the process of service delivery or how the service was delivered.
Service is intangible, performed by people ,
providing satisfaction to customers. Services are
essentially performance. Services have unique
characteristics i.e. intangibility, inseparability,
heterogeneity, perish ability and ownership. Qualwww.ijsir.co.in

ity of a service , as perceived by the customer is


the result of a comparison between the expectations of the consumer and his real - life experiences. A service quality can be described as the
delivering of excellent or superior service relative to customer expectations. According to
Parasuraman , Zeithaml and Berry(PZB), Perceived Service Quality = Perceived Service - Expected Service .
Most important factor for the rising importance of service quality is that it is proving to be a
winning competitive strategy. The ultimate aim of
an excellent service quality system is to satisfy
the customer's need and go beyond to delight
the customers. A good or excellent service quality would result in customer satisfaction or customer delight. Increased customer satisfaction in
turn leads to higher level of customer retention
and also positive word of mouth.
In an era of increased competition, the importance of achieving high levels of customer satisfaction has gained the attention of researchers
and practitioners alike. This is especially the case
in the service sector, where many companies are
focusing upon service quality improvement issues
in order to drive high levels of customer satisfaction.
Number of common factors have been identified as critical drivers of customer satisfaction.
The service profit chain ( Heskett et al. ,1994) is
one of the most widely supported theories of customer satisfaction .In brief, it proposes a positive
linear relationship between staff satisfaction, service quality and customer satisfaction leading, ultimately, to profitability. Parasuraman et al. (1985)
also recognized the significance of staff satisfaction and service quality as drivers of customer
satisfaction in developing their SERVQUAL measurement tool .
Airlines need to have valid and reliable measures for a better understanding of the variables
likely to impact the perception of service quality
being offered by them. They need to measure
not only customer perceptions but also expectations of airline passengers. If significant variations
are found in the perceptions of airline passengers' vis--vis service quality on the different
flights, changes in the marketing mix need to be
implemented to improve the perception of qual47

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ity. But, in general, passenger hardships have


increased after Sept 11 attacks ( Gkritza, Niemeier
& Mannering 2006).Much of the research in services marketing centers on understanding services and service quality from customer's point
of view (Brown et al. 2006).Maintaining quality
are the main concerns of business today. Providing quality is not a concern of manufacturing companies alone. The delivery of high-quality service
becomes a marketing requirement among air
carriers as a result of competitive pressure
(Ostrowski et al., 1993).
Gap Analysis
" The difference between expectations minus perceptions (D=E-P): a negative difference
indicates on the average that perceived reality
exceeds expectations that should produce satisfied customers. On the other hand, a positive difference indicates that on the average. Perception of service delivery failed to meet the expected
level of service quality indirectly producing dissatisfied customers" (Parasuraman et al.) .
The pre-requisite of the customer satisfaction is understanding and knowing what they
want. This imperative gave birth to the concept
"CRM (Customer Relationship Management)".
This concept is about customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction, after a step leads to the concept of customer loyalty. According to Oliver
(1997), a behavioral perspective on the consumer loyalty is the highest level of satisfaction.
According to Kramer (1999, the more the customer satisfaction is, the lower the transaction
costs are and the higher the fidelity is.
Understanding importance and sources of
customer satisfaction is important for any company in any industry to grow and remain profitable, but in airline industry customers are carriers' only assets (Carlzon, 1987). Hence understanding and managing satisfaction through service quality is essential and requires greater attention from carriers nowadays, in struggling and
challenging environment. According to
Parasumaran et al. (1991), continuously providing consistent, reliable and fair services is a key
to achieve customer loyalty. Airlines should also
know their competitors and consider the market
competition campaign. CRM is an essential component of the corporate strategy of airline com48

panies to differentiate themselves from competitors in the eyes of customers ( Boland et al 2002).
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The Indian Airline is suffering from very intense competitions on its national market. The
airline is not only enduring from low market share
on most routes, on which other airlines are also
having flight operations but also losing the market share on some others. The pre-requisite of
the customer satisfaction is understanding and
knowing what they want. In such a scenario, service quality is a significant driver of passenger
satisfaction, loyalty and choice of airlines. Thus
scientific investigation into service quality and
customer satisfaction is need of the hour . The
main objective of the study is to analyze service
quality and customer satisfaction of domestic airlines with special reference to Indian Airlines.
Specific objectives of the study are as follows :
(1) To examine in detail the services being offered in domestic airlines with special reference to Indian Airlines
(2) How can the passenger's satisfaction within
Indian Airlines be described?
(3) To investigate, how much satisfied Indian
Airlines passengers are with its services?
(4) To evaluate how can Indian Airlines managers improve and promote satisfaction level
among the passengers?
In order to evaluate the customer satisfaction and service quality in domestic airlines industry with special reference to Indian Airlines ,
the following hypotheses have been made .
(1) Service quality leads to customer satisfaction
(2) Service quality creates brand loyalty
(3) Empathy is one of the important dimensions
in service quality
(4) Reliability has a direct positive effect on service quality
(5) Tangiblity has an importance in service quality
METHODOLOGY
The SERVQUAL instrument was adopted to
measure the service qualities of the Indian Airlines as it demonstrated the "gap" between the
customer's expectations and the perceptions .The
structured questionnaire used in this study comwww.ijsir.co.in

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prised of two parts: Part A contains questions


about personal profiles of the respondents including gender, educational level and age. Part B includes expectations (E) and perceptions (P) of
respondents according to five dimensions and
these were tangibles, reliability, responsiveness,
assurance and empathy. The items in the questionnaire were measured on a five-point Likert
scale ranging from 'highly satisfied/ highly agree'.
The respondents were asked to rate their expectations and perceptions of the various items for
the Indian Airline's services.

EDUCATION
INTERMEDIATE

27

09%

GRADUATE

132

44%

POST GRADUATE

111

37%

PhD.

03%

Dr/ Engg/ Other Professionals

21

07%

Reason to Fly-

300

Business

108

36%

Jobs

111

37%

The questionnaires were self-completed by


the customers, with assistance available if required. Random sample method was used and
300 samples were selected for study. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to measure respondents' expectation and perception scores.
Average score analysis was used to evaluate
various service quality dimensions. . Service quality and customer's satisfaction were analyzed
on the basis of Mean Difference, which is presented in Table-1 & 2

Education

42

14%

Others

39

13%

Frequent Flyer

231

77%

More than one Years

111

37%

More than three years.

90

30%

Less than one year

69

23%

SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER'S SATISFACTION ANALYSIS:

On- Line

258

86%

Other.

42

14%

TABLE NO- 1:

Total No of
Respondents
N=300

MALE

192

64%

FEMALE

108

36%

MARRIED

207

69%

UNMARRIED

93

31%

21-30

72

24%

31-40

87

29%

41-50

93

31%

51-60

48

16%

URBAN

273

91%

RURAL

27

09%

MARITAL
STATUS

AGE

BACKGROUND

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Common way to purchase ticket

DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

Demographic Profile of Respondents


In demographic profile of respondents , it is
GENDER

Since How Long Flying-

found that there was total 64% male and 36%


female respondents who replied the research
questions regarding service quality and customer
satisfaction in Indian Airlines, in which 69% respondents were married and 31% respondents
were unmarried. Regarding age group analysis
of respondents there were 24% respondents
belonging to age group of 21- 30 years, 29%
respondents were of age group between 31- 40
years, 31% respondents were of age group 4150 years and 16% respondents belonged to
age group 51 to 60 years . Regarding background
of respondents there were 91% Urban respondents who were using Indian Airlines flights , while
remaining 09% respondents belonged to rural
background .Regarding education level of respondents , it is found that 09% respondents
were having education up to Intermediate, 44%
Graduate, 37% Post -Graduate, 03% having
PhD, while 07% were doctor, engineer & other
professionals. It is found that the main reason to
use airline's flights by the respondents was jobs/
service related works(37%), followed by business related trips (36%), and 14% for educational
49

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purpose. Majority of the respondents (86%) said


that they perform the selection and purchase of
air tickets by themselves, via on- line bookings.
Out of 300 respondents there were 77% respondents were frequent flyers of Indian Airline's. The
study shows that 37% respondents were using
airline services more than one year, 30% were
using airline services more than three years,
while 23% respondents were using airlines services less than one year. Majority of respondents
(86%) prefer online booking of tickets.
TABLE NO-2: GAP ANALYSIS FOR TANGIBILITY
WITH MEAN DIFFERENCE

Expected services & Perceived services

SERVICE QUALITY Total YES f f % Mean Yes f f % Mean Gap(D)=


DIMENSIONS:
No
(Expected
service
Perceived
service).
RESPONSIVENES,
ASSURANCE,
TANGIBILITY ,
EMPATHY,

D =E-P

Gap(D)=
(Expected
service
Perceived
service).
D = E-P

(~ Mean) ( ~ f %)

RELIABILITY i.e.
(RATER MODEL) &
ATTRIBUTES
TANGIBILITY:
1. Visually attractive 300 270 90% 0.90 219 81% 0.81 D= 0.09 D= 09%
aircraft
2. Convienient flight 300 276 92% 0.92 273 99% 0.99 D= -0.07 D= 07%
schedules & enough
frequencies.
3. State-of-the-art
technology.

300 273 91% 0.91 229 83% 0.83 D=0.08 D=~ 08%

4. Ease, accuracy and 300 252 84% 0.84 191 75% 0.75 D= 0.09 D=~ 09%
speed of check-in.
50

It is found that there is positive gap for


service quality dimension of tangibility- visually
attractive aircraft: D = 0.09, " A positive difference
indicates that on the average, perception of service delivery failed to meet the expected level of
service quality indirectly producing dissatisfied
customers." So it indicates that customers are
dissatisfied with services quality attribute of
visually attractive and appealing appearance of
aircraft of the Indian Airlines . So there is need
to improve this service quality attribute for more
customer satisfaction, because customer satisfaction depends on service quality and tangibility
plays a key role in marketing strategy. In 4P's of
marketing Tangibility has very important role to
attract customers.
The study reveals that there is negative
gap D = - 0.07, convenient flight schedules
&enough frequencies. "The difference between
expectations minus perceptions (D=E-P). A
negative difference indicates on the average that
perceived reality exceeds expectations, means
that produce satisfied customers.
It is found that there is positive GAP (D=
0.08 ), which indicates customers dissatisfaction regarding state of the art technology of the
Indian Airlines. So improvement is needed for this
service quality attribute.
The study reveals that there is positive gap
D = 0.09 for services quality attribute of ease,
accuracy and speed of check-in services , "a
positive difference indicates that on the average,
perception of service delivery failed to meet the
expected level of service quality indirectly producing dissatisfied customers. So it indicates
that passengers are dissatisfied with services
quality attribute of ease, accuracy and speed of
check-in services of the Indian Airlines. So there
is need to improve this service quality for more
customer satisfaction.
When considered in totality, the results of this
study suggests that majority of passengers are
dissatisfied with service quality dimension tangibility of the Indian Airlines. To combat the growing competition due to globalization it is suggested that there should be no dissatisfaction
among passengers of Indian Airlines regarding
tangibility etc. Unsatisfied passengers expect airline to have state of the art technology, convewww.ijsir.co.in

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nient flight schedules , visually appealing physical facilities , less waiting time for baggage arrival , better baggage handling mechanism , attractive aircrafts etc.
Most important factor for the rising importance of service quality and customer satisfaction, is that it is proving to be a winning competitive strategy. The ultimate aim of an excellent
service quality system is to satisfy the customer's
need and go beyond to delight the customers. A
good or excellent service quality would result in
customer satisfaction or customer delight. Increased customer satisfaction in turn leads to
higher level of customer retention and also positive word of mouth.. In India service sector is the
largest contributor to GDP , ahead of agriculture
as well as industry sector. So Airline Industry has
a major role in GDP growth of the country .Results of this study imply that airline marketing
managers should develop various strategies to
guarantee providing quality services to their
passengers because airline services have positive influences on airline image and passengers'
satisfaction.. Failure to provide quality services
to customers may damage the formation of airline image and cause negative impact on
customer's satisfaction and the also on growth
of airlines services in domestic market.
This study was therefore able to highlight
how important it is for an aviation sector , be it a
domestic airlines, to conduct a survey and consider the opinions of its customers and its employees in identifying areas for service quality
improvements. It is therefore very important for
them to know how customers evaluate service
quality and what they can do to measure and
improve service quality. Therefore, to exceed
customer expectations, it is necessary for aviation sector to continually improve the quality of
service provided to its customers.
LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
There were limitations in this study that need
to be acknowledged. Firstly, the study was limited to domestic aviation sector the Indian Airlines , therefore the reliability of the results restricts the extent to which the findings can be
generalized across the Indian Airlines services.
Secondly, this study looked at the perceptions of
customers, thereby excluding the views of manwww.ijsir.co.in

agement. Given the financial and resource constraints under which the Indian Airline operates,
it can be argued that it is crucial to measure management perceptions of organizational service
quality practices so that they can also understand
customer expectations. Such information will then
assist management in identifying cost-effective
ways of closing service quality gaps and of prioritizing which gaps to focus on, a critical decision given the scarcity of resources. Thirdly,
Parasuraman et al. (1991) original argument that
SERVQUAL's five dimensions are transportable
to other service sectors remains to be verified in
the other Airlines/ Aviation sectors. This study
provides researchers with useful guidelines for
future research.
REFERENCES
1-

Boland Declan,Doug Morrison & Sean O'Neill (


2002), "The future of Airline CRM''.

2-

Booth M (2000) Integrated Marketing Communications. MediaCat Publications, Istanbul , Compiled by:
Iron , F. and Kirdar , F., " Customer Relationship Management : CRM , Review of Social , Economic & Business Studies 7/8 : 293-308. Carlzon ,Jan (1987) ,
Moment of Truth, Ballinger Publications Company:
Cambridge, Massachusets, USA.

3-

Gkritza, K., Niemeier, D. & Mannering, F. (2006). Airport security screening and changing passenger satisfaction: An exploratory assessment. Journal of Air
Transport Management 12, 213-219

4-

Heskett, J.L., Jones, T.O., Loveman, G.W., Sasser,


W.E. Jr and Schlesinger, L.A. (1994), "Putting the
service-profit chain to work", Harvard Business Review, March/April, pp. 164-74.

5-

IBM Institute for business value, The future of airline


CRM.page 1- 19.

6-

Kramer MR (1999) Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Emerging Perspectives, Enduring Questions.
Annu Rev Psychol. 50: 569-598.48

7-

Oliver RL (1997) Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. McGraw-Hill, New York: 3345.

8-

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L.


(1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its
implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49, 41-50.

9-

Parasuraman, A., Berry, L.L., and Zeithaml V.A.


(1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 4(1), 12-37.

10- Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., and Berry, L. L.


(1991). Refinement and reassessment of the

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SERVQUAL scale. Journal of Retailing, 67(4), 42050.

13- Robinson, Leigh (2003) "Committed to quality: the


use of quality schemes in UK public leisure
services,"Managing Service Quality, vol. 13(3), p.
247-55

11- Riddleberger EJ (2009) Leading a Sustainable Enterprise. IBM Global Business Services 1-16 New
York. Randall, L. & Senior, M. (1994) "A model for
achieving quality in hospital hotel services,"
InternationalJournal of Contemporary Hospital Management, vol. 6, p. 68-74

14 Ostrowski, P. L., O?Brien, T. V., and Gordon, G. L.


(1993). "Service quality and customer loyalty in the
commercial airline industry", Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 32, pp. 16-28.

12-.Reichheld, F.F. & Sasser, W.E. (1990) "Zero defections: quality comes to services," Harvard
Business,Review, Sept.-Oct., p. 105-111

15 Wisniewski, Mik (2001) "Using SERVQUAL to assess customer satisfaction with public sector services,"
16 www.google.com

52

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STUDY OF WORKPLACE STRESS, STRESSORS &


IMPORTANCE OF STRESS MANAGEMENT
TECHNIQUES IN AVIATION SECTOR OF INDIA
*RENUKA SINGH
CSA University of Agriculture &Technology, Kanpur, U.P., India.
*Address for correspondence : Dr . Renuka Singh, Former Lecturer,
CSA University of Agriculture &Technology, Kanpur, U.P., India.
Email ID : drrenuka11@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Employees frequently experience enough stress to hurt their job performance and increase
their risk of mental and physical health problems. Negligence towards the stress of employees
at workplace would lose the organization a lot in term of efficiency, productivity, medical bills,
compensation etc. The events produce distress-the degree of physiological, psychological and
behavioural deviation from healthy functioning. Many organizations want to reduce and prevent
the employee stress because they observe that it is a major drain on corporate productivity.
Nobody is free from stress and it is not harmful always. In small quantities, stress is good; it
can motivate us and help us to become more productive, but too much stress or a strong
response to stress can be harmful. Stress in the workplace has emerged as a major issue for
businesses and has reached alarming proportions. Organizations must develop stress prevention
as well as stress reduction techniques. This research focuses on practices adopted by
organizations to prevent, minimize and to overcome the stress. The paper also discusses the
risk management at workplace, prevention of stress and tips to stress management.
Keywords: Stress, Stressors, Work Place Stress , Reduction and prevention of stress,
Stress Management & its techniques.
INTRODUCTION
Stress is increasing due to globalization and
economic crisis, which affects all professions and
as well as families and societies, almost all
countries of the world. As a result, it becomes
an essential issue in all work places. In 1989
formally identified the concept of increasing
occupational stress, when the Commonwealth
Commission for the Safety, Rehabilitation and
Compensation of Commonwealth Employees
initiated several research projects. These
organizations realized that the percentage
increase in claims for work related psychological
injury has been greater than any other injury. Job
stress can be defined as the harmful physical
and emotional responses that occur when the
requirements of the job do not match the
capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker,
which lead to poor health and even injury .Workrelated stress has aroused growing interest
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across Europe in recent years due to use of new


information and communications technologies,
growing diversity in the workplace and an
increased mental workload . In Europe,
occupational stress is considered as a riskassessable disease (Clarke and Cooper 2000).
Stress is our bodys physical and emotional
reaction that frightens, irritate, confuse,
endanger, or excite us and place demands on
the body. Stress can be caused by events that
are pleasing as well as events that create crisis
in our lives. But stress is a normal part of daily
life and the effects of stress are not always
negative. In small quantities, stress is good; it
can motivate us and help us to become more
productive, but too much stress or a strong
response to stress can be harmful. Stress can
arise from any situation or thought that makes
one feel frustrated, angry, or anxious. Everyone
sees situations differently and has different
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coping skills, so, no two persons will respond


exactly the same way to a particular situation.
Situations that are considered stress provoking
are known as stressors. Many professionals
suggest that there is a difference between what
we perceive as positive stress and distress as
negative stress. But we often use the term stress
to describe negative situations. (www.google.com).
In the pursuit for organizational excellence,
sometimes managers, officers and workers need
to work under highly stressful circumstances, as
a result they have been found to be experiencing
high stress in the organizations. (Jestin and
Gampel 2002). There are many challenges in
the work environments, such as, competition,
continuous technological development, lack of
space, lack of time, more uncontrollable factors,
conflicting demands from organizational
stakeholders (Hall and Savery 1986), increased
use of participatory management and
computerization (Murray and Forbes 1986),
greater uncertainty and others have resulted in
higher occupational stress. Many organizations
want to reduce the employee stress because they
observe that it is a major drain on corporate
productivity. Employee assistance programs,
stress management seminars, exercise
programs, smoking cessation, nutrition programs
and other health-related activities have helped
thousands of hundreds of employees to manage
their stress levels. They should help employees
develop coping skills and positive lifestyles and
they should focus on the Occupational Stress
and Risk of it among the employees. The effect
of excessive stress and strain on brain chemistry
due to occupation is experienced as mood,
usually as depression, anxiety or anger. If these
changes in brain chemistry and mood persist,
immune system deficiencies will worsen and
finally more serious illnesses will occur. Stress
management programs teach workers about the
nature and sources of stress, the effects of stress
on health, and personal skills to reduce stress.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Workplace stress risks have been
increasing for many years, but at the end of the
last decade it increases alarming due to global
financial crisis and globalization. By the end of
the 1990s in many countries there has been a
combination of increasing and stabilizing job
54

demands, together with decreasing job


sovereignty which would have resulted in an
increasingly stressful situation within countries.
High and increasing quantitative demands,
combined with low or decreasing control over
work pace, increase stress-related outcomes.
Some countries showed an increase in stressrelated health problems at work, but it was also
observed that workers who developed health
problems had left the labour market on longterm absence, or were receiving disability
pensions (Houtman 2007). Stresses at work are
well known factors for low motivation and morale
decrease in performance, high turnover and sickleave, accidents, low job satisfaction, low quality
products and services, poor internal
communication and conflicts etc. (Cooper 2000,
Murphy 1995).
MEANING OF STRESS
Stephen P Robbins (2006) defined stress
as : stress arises from an opportunity, demand,
constraint, threat or challenge, when the
outcomes of the event are important and
uncertain. Organisations do not have any formal
process for handling concerns or grievances
relating to stress. Employees frequently
experience enough stress to hurt their job
performance and increase their risk of mental and
physical health problems. Job stress can be
defined as the harmful physical and emotional
responses that occur when the requirements of
the job do not match the capabilities, resources,
or needs of the worker. Job stress can lead to
poor health and even injury. Stress can be
defined in general term as people feel pressures
in their own life. The stress due to work load can
be defined as reluctance to come to work and a
feeling of constant pressure associated with
general physiological, psychological and
behavioural stress symptoms. Hence stress is
the harmful physical and emotional responses
that occur when the requirements of the job do
not match the capabilities, resources, or needs
the worker and he/she expressed that job stress
can lead to poor health and even injury . Stress
is increasing due to globalization and economic
crisis, which affects all professions and as well
as families and societies, almost all countries of
the world .Stress is our bodys physical and
emotional reaction that frightens, irritate, confuse,
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endanger, or excite us and place demands on


the body. Stress can be caused by events that
are pleasing as well as events that create crisis
in our lives. But stress is a normal part of daily
life and the effects of stress are not always
negative. In small quantities, stress is good; it
can motivate us and help us to become more
productive, but too much stress or a strong
response to stress can be harmful.
The positive side of stress is known as
eustress, which refers to the healthy, positive,
constructive outcome of stressful events and the
stress response. Eustress is the stress
experience in moderation, enough to activate and
motivate people so that they can achieve goals,
change their environments and succeed in lifes
challenges. Employees frequently experience
enough stress to hurt their job performance and
increase their risk of mental and physical health
problems. So, the main focus is more on distress
than eustress. Stress can arise from any situation
or thought that makes one feel frustrated, angry,
or anxious. Everyone sees situations differently
and has different coping skills, so, no two persons
will respond exactly the same way to a particular
situation.
STRESSORS
Situations that are considered stress
provoking are known as stressors. Among the
many stressors mentioned by employees, these
are the most common:

The way employees are treated by their


bosses/supervisors or company

Lack of job security

Company policies

Co-workers who dont do their fair share

Unclear expectations

Poor communication

Not enough control over assignments

Inadequate pay or benefits

Urgent deadlines

Too much work

Long hours

Uncomfortable physical conditions

Relationship conflicts

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Co-workers making careless mistakes

Dealing with rude customers

Lack of cooperation

How the company treats co-workers ( Somaz,


Wenk Heidi & Tulgan, Bruce (2003).
WORKPLACE STRESS

Stress is defined as an imbalance between


demand and resources or as occurring when
pressure exceeds ones perceived ability to cope.
Moreover, it is a persons physiological response
to an internal or external stimulus that triggers
the fight-or-flight response. It is experienced by
an individual if some factors, called stressors,
stimulate the feeling of hopelessness, lack of
coping mechanism and pressure. It causes
individual to become disoriented and
imbalanced.
A man devotes nearly half of his waking
hours to his job. It is said, he both works to live
and lives to work. In India most of employees
confirm that most of their working days are
considerably or extremely stressful . Obviously
low job satisfaction reduced productivity and
increased occupational stresses. (Clarke and
Cooper 2004).
Workplace stress is a pattern of reactions
in workplace that occurs when employees are
presented with work demands which are not
matched to their knowledge, skills or abilities and
which challenge their ability to cope. It may create
physiological problems such as eating disorders,
irritability, headaches, hair loss, loss of sex drive,
serious physical illness, increased heartbeat and
blood pressure, palpitations and chest
discomfort, breathlessness and hyperventilating,
muscle ache, sleeping problems, dryness of
throat and mouth, sweaty palms, urinating
frequently, diarrhoea, indigestion, stomach
ulcers, etc. It may show behavioural problems
such as impulsive behaviour, eating more or less,
easily distracted, speech problems, sleeping too
much or too little, change in personality, irritable
or aggressive, grinding of teeth, increasing
smoking and use of drugs and alcohol, burnout,
nervous habits, increased errors, absenteeism,
lack of concentration, etc. It also displays
psychological symptoms such as physical
trauma, moodiness, anxiety, fear and tension,
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memory problems, depression, dissatisfactions,


seeing only the negative, panicky, poor judgment,
worries and catastrophic thoughts, sense of
loneliness or isolation, overestimation of danger,
etc. Causes of work stress have been linked to
the work itself, for example, increasing demands,
less freedom to control ones work and
insufficient capacity to cope with time pressures
etc. (Houtman 2007) .The effect of excessive
stress and strain on brain chemistry due to
occupation is experienced as mood, usually as
depression, anxiety or anger. If these changes
in brain chemistry and mood persist, immune
system deficiencies will worsen and finally more
serious illnesses will occur (Barbara et al. n. d.).
Occupational stress risks have been
increasing for many years, but at the end of the
last decade it increases alarming due to global
financial crisis and globalization. By the end of
the 1990s in many countries there has been a
combination of increasing and stabilizing job
demands, together with decreasing job
sovereignty which would have resulted in an
increasingly stressful situation within countries.
High and increasing quantitative demands,
combined with low or decreasing control over
work pace, increase stress-related outcomes.
Some countries showed an increase in stressrelated health problems at work, but it was also
observed that workers who developed health
problems had left the labour market on longterm absence, or were receiving disability
pensions (Houtman 2007). Stresses at work are
well known factors for low motivation and morale
decrease in performance, high turnover and sickleave, accidents, low job satisfaction, low quality
products and services, poor internal
communication and conflicts etc. (Cooper 2000,
Murphy 1995).
In order to develop an effective stress
management programme it is first necessary to
identify the factors that are central to a person
controlling his/her stress, and to identify the
intervention methods which effectively target
these factors. Lazarus and Folkmans
interpretation of stress focuses on the transaction
between people and their external environment
(known as the Transactional Model). The model
contends that stress may not be a stressor if the
person does not perceive the stressor as a threat
56

but rather as positive or even challenging. Also,


if the person possesses or can use adequate
coping skills, then stress may not actually be a
result or develop because of the stressor. The
model proposes that people can be taught to
manage their stress and cope with their stressors.
They may learn to change their perspective of
the stressor and provide them with the ability and
confidence to improve their lives and handle all
of types of stressors.(www.google.com).
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the present study is
to analyse the various factors responsible for
stress in an organization . It aims to suggest
certain stress management techniques to
minimize the stress level of employees.
1. To analyse the various factors responsible
for stress at workplace
2. To find out the stress tendencies amongst
the employees of the organization
3. To create
preventable

awareness that stress

is

5. To find out preventive measures for improving


work place stress
6. To suggest certain stress management
techniques to minimize the stress level of
employees
METHODOLOGY
The structured questionnaire was used in
this study and comprised of two parts: Part A
contains questions about personal profiles of the
respondents including gender, educational level
and age. Part B includes expectations (E) and
perceptions (P) of respondents (employees)
regarding their job, work place, environment ,
etc. The items in the questionnaire were
measured on a five-point Likert scale ranging
from highly satisfied/ highly agree. The
respondents were asked
about
their
expectations and perceptions of the various items
for their working conditions, job etc. in the
organizations.
The questionnaires were self-completed
by the employees, with assistance available if
required. Random sample method was used and
300 samples were selected from the aviation
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sector with special reference to the Indian


Airlines. Various statistical analysis were used
to measure respondents views regarding
workplace stress, factors responsible for it.
Average score analysis mean, median, etc. were
used to evaluate the various stress, stressors
etc .
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS

stress, stressors in the workplace. Guidance and


counselling, psychological support should be
provided to employees. To make them more
efficient in their life, either at workplace or their
own life there should be use of stress
management techniques to keep away stressors,
stress and its side effects.
Stress management & its techniques:

In demographic profile of respondents , it is


found that there was total 64% male and 36%
female respondents who replied the research
questions concerned with stress, workplace
stress, stressors etc, in which 69% respondents
were married and 31% respondents were
unmarried. Regarding age group analysis of
respondents there were 24% respondents
belonging to age group of 21- 30 years, 29%
respondents were of age group between 31- 40
years, 31% respondents were of age group 4150 years and 16% respondents belonged to
age group 51 to 60 years . Regarding education
level of respondents , it is found that 09%
respondents were having education up to
Intermediate, 44% Graduate, 37% Post
Graduate, 03% having PhD, while 07% were
doctor, engineer & other professionals. It is
found that majority of employees in aviation
sector feel stress in workplace. 41% employees
accepted that working environment is not good
. 39% employees accepted that sometimes
they sacrifice their important family functions to
continue their jobs. 57% respondents expressed
fear of job insecurity. 24% employees feel stress
due to their family related problems. It means
that such employees feel greater level of stress
as compared to other employees. 43%
employees accepted that they suffer from health
problems due to long working hours and night
duties. Majority of the employees ( 51% ) wanted
to find out solutions to reduce their stress .

Effective management of job stress can


only be achieved under two conditions. First, the
individual worker must be able to recognize
stressors and understand their consequences
and second, organizations must develop stress
prevention, as well as stress reduction
techniques. The emotional and physical
disorders that have been linked to stress include
depression, anxiety, heart attacks, stroke,
hypertension, immune system disturbances that
increase susceptibility to infections, a host of viral
linked disorders ranging from the common cold
to herpes to certain cancers, as well as
autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis
and multiple sclerosis (Stress and Stress
Management 2010). Hence we need to control
the stresses which are harmful to our mind and
body. Few steps of stress management are
as follows:
Many techniques cope with the stresses life
brings. Some of the following ways induce a lower
than usual stress level, temporarily, to
compensate the biological issues involved;
others face the stressor at a higher level of
abstraction.

Autogenic training

Social activity

Cognitive therapy

Conflict resolution

Cranial release technique

SUGGESTIONS

Getting a hobby

It is fond out that majority of employees


feel stress, face stressors at workplace , in their
life too. The aviation sector should take positive
steps to make their employees relax from stress
so that they can work with optimum efficiency
and effectiveness. Employees of the aviation
sectors should feel secured from not only fear
of job insecurity but also from other types of

Meditation

Mindfulness (psychology)

Deep breathing

Yoga Nidra

Nootropics

Reading novels

Prayer

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Relaxation techniques

Limitations of study :

Artistic expression

Fractional relaxation

Physical exercise

Progressive relaxation

Spas

Somatics training

Spending time in nature

Stress balls

Due to high costs, time crisis, unwillingness


to answer to questions by respondents etc. , it
was not possible to conduct study at large level.
The study was limited to the employees of
selected aviation sectors of the India, therefore
the findings of the study cannot be extended to
other areas. During collection of the data many
employees were unwilling to fill the questionnaire
due to fear of confidentiality, lack of time etc.

Natural medicine

Clinically validated alternative treatments

Time management

Mobile-based
Applications

Planning and decision making

Area of present study can be increased to


national level, as well as international level;
sample size can be increased; other
demographic details can be added in the future
research and various other statistical tests can
be used for comprehensive analysis and findings.

Listening to certain types of relaxing music[8]

REFERENCES

Spending quality time with pets

Scope for further studies :

Stress

Management

1.

Techniques of stress management will vary


according to the philosophical paradigm.
(Spence, JD; Barnett, PA; Linden, W; Ramsden,
V; Taenzer, P (1999).

Barbara, J.S.; Psych, C. and Shain, M. (n. d.), When


Workplace Stress Stifles Productivity, Drake
Business Review, 1(1): 27-29.

2.

Cartwright, S. and Cooper, C.L. (2002), ASSET: An


Organisational Stress Screening Tool, Robertson
Cooper Limited and Cubiks, London.

Stress prevention and resilience:

3.

Clarke, S.G. and Cooper, C.L. (2000), The Risk


Management of Occupational Stress, Health, Risk
& Society, 2(2): 173-187.

4.

Clarke, S. G. and Cooper, C. L. (2004), Managing


the Risk of Workplace Stress: Health and Safety
Hazards, London/New York: Routledge.

5.

Hall, K. and Savery, L.K. (1986), Tight Rein, More


Stress, Harvard Business Review, 23(10): 11621164.

6.

Houtman, I.L.D. (2007), Work-related Stress,


European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
and Working Conditions, Ireland.

7.

Jestin, W. and Gampel, A. (2002), The Big Valley,


Global Outlook, Toronto, McGraw Hill.

8.

Kompier, M. and Cooper, C. (1999), Preventing


Stress, Improving Productivity: European Case
Studies in the Workplace, London and New York,
Routledge

9.

Lazarus, R.S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress,


Appraisal and Coping. New York: Springer

Although
many techniques have
traditionally been developed to deal with the
consequences of stress. Considerable research
has also been conducted on the prevention of
stress, a subject closely related to psychological
resilience-building. A number of self-help
approaches to stress-prevention and resiliencebuilding have been developed, drawing mainly
on the theory and practice of cognitivebehavioural therapy. (Robertson, D (2012).Build
your Resilience. London: Hodder ISBN 9781444168716).
It is observed that nobody is free from stress,
everybody under the stress a little bit or more .
Eustress is not harmful but over stress i.e.
distress is always harmful and creates many
problems and diseases. Occupational stress has
become an essential factor in the worldwide due
to competition among the nations to face
economic crisis. Stressors and workplace stress
create difficulties in any organization, so stress
management is useful in all sectors.

58

10. Murray, T.J. and Forbes, D. (1986), Where Have All


the Middle Managers Gone? Duns Business Month,
31-34.
11. Robbins, SP., (2006), Organisational Behaviour,
Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd. Delhi, 11th Edition,569.

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12. Robertson,D(2012). BuildourResilience. London:
Hodder. ISBN9781444168716
13.

Somaz, Wenk Heidi & Tulgan, Bruce (2003).


Performance Under Pressure: Managing Stress in
the Workplace.Canada. HRD Press Inc.p 7-8. ISBN
0-87425-741-7

14. Spence, JD; Barnett, PA; Linden, W; Ramsden, V;


Taenzer, P (1999). Lifestyle modifications to
prevent and control hypertension. 7.
Recommendations on stress management.

www.ijsir.co.in

Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition


for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control,
Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health
Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.
Canadian Medical Association Journal160 (9Suppl):
S4650. PMC 1230339. PMID 10333853.
15. Stress and Stress Management (2010), Klinic
Community Health Centre, Canada.s
16. www.google.com

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TO CREATE A CUSTOMER OR SERVE THE SHAREHOLDER?


WHAT DRIVES THE CORPORATE BOARD ROOMS TO ACT
UPON?
* RAJESH KUMAR NIGAH
Faculty of Accountancy and Finance, Academy of Commerce, 297, Satyaniketan, Dhoulakuan, New Delhi 21, India
*Address for correspondence : Rajesh Kumar Nigah, Faculty of Accountancy and Finance,
Academy of Commerce, 297, Satyaniketan, Dhoulakuan, New Delhi 21, India
email: anupindiabeats@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT
Global corporate board rooms have been witnessing hot debates over the nerve centre of any
successful business model. An obvious distinction occurred between the customer-centric
vis--vis shareholder-centric perspectives on the merits of arguments so put-forth. Perhaps
those deliberations led to the existence of profit-centre and cost-centre philosophies to describe
the corporate culture in short. Nevertheless, academicians still try to be skewed on the pursuit
of shareholder value to that of valuing customer for a niggling corporate world, viz., management
and investors are obsessed with faster outcomes; dismally inclined towards long term investment
portfolios; and scant eyed on the accounting mishaps that grab headlines and the like censures.
On the contrary, the doctrine of shareholder value has supported the management and
shareholders as well as customers in the same spirit with no signs of betrayal. Under this
corporate fiasco the centre question remains - what companies have to do if they are to be
serious about creating value? This paper attempts to shed light on the vital insights of this
corporate dilemma and draw a set of guidelines to govern the concept of value creation that
goes hand-in-hand with companys sound business model as well as realizing the potential for
creating value and strike a happy balance between shareholders and customers perspective.
Keywords: Modern Capitalism, Value Creation, Professional Management, Real and
Expectations Market
FOLKLORE OF MODERN CAPITALISM
Capitalism of the post depression era saw
the first modern capitalistic era in 1932 where
professional management steered the corporate
world. The second era labeled as shareholder
value capitalism, began in 1976 with a
fundamental premise of every corporation to
maximize shareholders wealth. If firms pursue
this goal, the thinking goes, both shareholders
and society will benefit. The third era began
during 1990s with a new dimension and thought
to bring arpeggio between all the stakeholders,
labeled as customer-driven capitalism.
As Jack Welch commented that the idea of
maximizing shareholder value is the dumbest in
this world, where CEOs and his clout that are
blessed with huge incentives to focus most on
the market future-casting, and ironically expect
60

results out of real products and services. The


expectations market is the world in which
companys shares are traded between investors
in other words, the stock market. In this market,
investors assess the real market activities of a
company today and, on the basis of that
assessment anticipate the future course of
business performance. While the real market,
is the world in which industries operate to
produce output as pre-designed and services are
rendered, and revenues are earned, expenses
are paid, and profits are derived. The consensus
view of all investors and potential investors as to
expectations of future performance shapes the
stock price of the company.
Jensen and Meckling emphasized on
singular goal of a company as to maximize the
shareholders returns, and Druckers ideology
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being ignored grossly. It was being vehemently


barbed that the companies should give
executives a compelling reason to place
shareholder value maximization ahead of their
own nest-feathering. Perhaps the big-idea had a
mirror effect as the proponents of shareholder
value maximization and stock-based executive
compensation hoped that their theories would
force executives improve the real performance
of their companies and increase shareholder
value over time but proved fatal.

backseat as investors watched stock prices rise


at a double-digit clip. The climate changed
dramatically in the new millennium, however, as
accounting scandals and a steep stock market
decline triggered a rash of corporate collapses.
The ensuing erosion of public trust prompted a
swift regulatory response which requires
companies to institute elaborate internal controls
and makes corporate executives directly
accountable for the accuracy of financial
statements.

However reminiscent the concept of


shareholder value maximization may be, its a
walk-the-moon task for the management to make
it. This is so because the value is believed to be
a left-over part of the funds received by a
company viz., total revenues less all
manufacturing and admin expenses (salaries,
bonus, overheads, taxes and debts etc). It is
therefore believed that the value of their shares
becomes the discounted value of all future cash
flows minus those payments. In a way share
prices are subjected to unpredictable future flows
and could result into promising leads or end up
with heart-throbbing news. This means that
shareholder value has almost nothing to do with
the present. Indeed, present earnings tend to be
a small fraction of the value of common shares.

Ironically, some executives contend that they


have no choice but to adopt a short-term
orientation, given that the average holding period
for stocks in professionally managed funds has
dropped from about seven years in the 1960s to
less than one year today. Why consider the
interests of long-term shareholders when there
are none? This reasoning is deeply flawed. What
matters is not investor holding periods but rather
the markets valuation horizonthe number of
years of expected cash flows required to justify
the stock price. While investors may focus unduly
on near-term goals and hold shares for a
relatively short time, stock prices reflect the
markets long view. Studies suggest that it takes
more than ten years of value-creating cash flows
to justify the stock prices of most companies.
Managements responsibility, therefore, is to
deliver those flowsthat is, to pursue long-term
value maximization regardless of the mix of highand low-turnover shareholders. And no one could
reasonably argue that an absence of long-term
shareholders gives management the license to
maximize short-term performance and risk
endangering the companys future. The
competitive landscape, not the shareholder list,
should shape business strategies.

Indeed, shareholder primacy rose from


arcane academic theory in the 1970s to dominant
business practice today. Shareholder primacy is
a managerial choice not a legal requirement.
The business judgment doctrine ensures that,
contrary to popular belief, the managers of public
companies have no enforceable legal duty to
maximize shareholder value. Certainly they can
choose to maximize profits; but they can also
choose to pursue any other objective that is not
unlawful, including taking care of employees and
suppliers, pleasing customers, benefiting the
community and the broader society, and
preserving and protecting the corporate entity
itself.
To start with, relatively short vesting periods,
combined with a belief that short-term earnings
fuel stock prices, encouraged executives to
manage earnings, exercise their options early,
and cash out opportunistically. Of course, these
shortcomings were obscured during much of that
decade, and corporate governance took a
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VALUE CREATION- FIVE SENTINELS TO


SAFEGUARD
1. Do not advise shareholders on the potential
earnings nor dare to manage it.
It would be like scratching ones head with
fire if shareholders are constantly advised on
their potential earnings or take the onus to
manage them. In one of the surveys of 254
companies conducted during 2013, around 60%
companies were found guiding regularly on the
profit scenarios and another study stunningly
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revealed that companies used to take care of


managing the earnings beyond accounting
camouflage. Those who disagree with this logic
would probably fail to go a long way with the rest.
Perhaps there is another way of putting it as:

The accountants bottom line approximates


neither a companys value nor its change in
value over the reporting period.

Organizations compromise value when they


invest at rates below the cost of capital or
forgo investment in value-creating.

The practice of reporting rosy earnings via


value-destroying operating decisions or by
stretching permissible accounting to the limit
eventually catches up with companies. Those
that can no longer meet investor expectations
end up destroying a substantial portion, if not
all, of their market value.

situations. M&A announcements worldwide


exceeded $2 trillion in 2014, while Indian
companies signed deals worth $48 billion in the
year 2014. Management and other investment
advisors usually rely upon earnings per share
(EPS) to assess the crux of any deal. Sound
decisions about M&A deals are based on their
prospects for creating value, rather than their
immediate EPS impact. It would be ideal for
management to identify the time, place and
method to accomplish real performance gains by
estimating the present value of the resulting
incremental cash flows and then subtracting the
acquisition premium.

Indeed, most companies evaluate and


compare strategic decisions in terms of the
estimated impact on reported earnings when they
should be measuring against the expected
incremental value of future cash flows instead.
Expected value is the weighted average value
for a range of plausible scenarios.

CEOs and management have to carefully


evaluate the risk-return trade-offs so that efforts
prove effective while anticipating a synergistic
impact. The post-merger integration increases
the challenges of competition and thus forces the
corporate honchos to develop new synergies to
cope with. Usually companies will exhibit
confidence through good pay offs to their
shareholders and encourages them to retain
forecasted gains. In case of any uncertainty on
financial viability, shareholders will be offered
additional stocks as incentives. This reduces
potential losses for the acquiring companys
shareholders by diluting their ownership interest
in the post-merger company.

At the corporate level, financial advisors


need to ensure:

4. Maintain only assets with maximum


appreciation leaving all sentiments.

the operating units will have sufficient


potential to add value that can restrict
additional capital inflows

those units having limited potential should be


only targeted for restructuring or divestiture

an appropriate mix of investments will likely


to increase the overall value

Top Management have to judiciously assess


the buyers ability and interest to pay a premium
for its physical infrastructure, both visible as well
as invisible assets like patents, goodwill, plant
and machinery, furnishings etc detachable ones
before they bargain good. This analysis clearly
becomes a minefield for business that fares well
compared to its projections and or competitors
and could fetch good dividends while bidding.
While looking into the optimum shell-out during
competitive market conditions, management may
strategically apply twin techniques to increase
value by decreasing the capital employed thus:

2. Emphasize strategic decision making than


focusing onshore-cuts.

3. Focus on mergers and acquisitions that


mean long term gains.
It is a well known fact that most of the value
(actual and virtual) gets added through routine
operations and typically a merger or an
acquisition could turn into a major turnaround
strategy. Corporate usually resort to such
catastrophic decisions only with magnificent cash
flows and low debts, to boost up their competitive
62

by focusing on R and D, innovation, exploring


new markets, etc., high-end value enhancing
activities to enjoy a competitive advantage

by outsourcing manufacturing, packaging,


distribution, etc., routine activities that may
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be performed by others at low cost


Fit-in-the best examples are Apple
Computers whose iPod got designed at
Cupertino, California, and manufactured in
Taiwan, and hotel companies such as Hilton
Hospitality and Marriott International, which
manage hotels without owning them. Dell
Computers well-chronicled customized PCs and
Laptop business model, which minimizes sales
and distribution costs and inventory maintenance
costs etc., overheads are spared for.
5. Increase dividends while no special
strategies to gain value.
The top management with credentials of
handling value-focused strategies usually
distributes the excess through dividends to
shareholders when they are unable to find a
suitable investment option to bank on. This will
rejuvenate the spirits of shareholders by giving
good returns as well as safeguarding the
companys long term investment propositions by
slipping away from unexposed investments.
Often, companies resort to snoopy technique of
buy back arrangement of shares to lure the
market and enhance the value, while its a well
known fact that its a futile boondoggle for any
financial wizard to grasp the economic purpose.
The top management of a value-focused
company would buy-back shares when the
estimated investment options elsewhere will
indicate lesser returns over stock trading.
Company adhering to this guideline serves the
interests of the non-tendering shareholders, who
would gain at the expense of the tendering, if
such assessment does not go haywire. When a
companys shares are expensive and theres no
good long-term value addition to be had from
such investment, distributing dividends is the best
strategic option for the management.
EPILOGUE
However, following these guidelines ensure
streamline long-term prospects for a majority of
the companies, a few might still reel under the
uncertainty if investors remain hooked to short term earnings, as a dwindling stock price can
actually affect operating performance. The risk
goes overboard specially for companies such as
high-tech start-ups, which depend heavily on a
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healthy stock price to finance growth and send


positive signals to employees, customers, and
suppliers. When share prices are depressed,
selling new shares either prohibitively dilutes
current shareholders stakes or, in some cases,
makes the company unattractive to prospective
investors. As a consequence, management may
have to defer or scrap its value-creating growth
plans. Then, as investors become aware of the
situation, the stock price continues to slide,
possibly leading to a takeover at a fire-sale price
or to bankruptcy.
REFERENCES
1.

Jesse Eisinger, Challenging The Long-Held Belief


in Shareholder Value, New York Times (June 27,
2012); Joe Nocera, Down With Shareholder
Value, New York Times (August 10, 2012); Andrew
Ross Sorkin, Shareholder Democracy Can Mask
Abuses, New York Times (February 25, 2013).(

2.

Edward A. Rock, Adapting to the New ShareholderCentric Reality,University of Pennsylvania Law


Review (forthcoming 2013).(

3.

Lynn A. Stout, Toxic Side Effects of Shareholder


Primacy, University
Pennsylvania
Law
Review (forthcoming 2013).(

4.

The Economist, The Endangered Public Company,


(May 19, 2012), available at ww.economist.com/
node/21555562.(

5.

Steven Denning, Why Did IBM Survive?,


Forbes.com (July 10, 2011), available at http://
www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2011/07/10/
why-did-ibm-survive.(

6.

Stout, The Shareholder Value Myth: How Putting


Shareholders First Harms Investors, Corporations,
and the Public (2012).(

7.

Gerald F. Davis, Managed by the Markets: How


Finance Reshaped America 59-101 (2009)(

8.

Henry Hansmann and Mariana Pargendler, The


Evolution of Shareholder Voting Rights: Separation
of Ownership and Consumption (February 15,
2013),
available
at
http://ssrn.com/
abstract=2219865.(

9.

Milton Friedman, The Social Responsibility of


Business is to Increase Its Profits, New York Times
Magazine 32 (September 13, 1970).(

10. Michael C. Jensen and William H. Meckling, Theory


of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs, and
Ownership Structure, 3 Journal of Financial
Economics 305 (1976).(
11. Roger Martin, Fixing the Game: Bubbles, Crashes,
and What Capitalism Can Learn from the NFL 11
(2011).(

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12. Hayak, The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism
(1991).(
13. Rock, supra note 2 and Stout, supra note 3.(
14. Stout, supra note 6, at 37-44.(
15. Bebchuk, The Myth of the Shareholder Franchise,
93 Virginia Law Review 675 (2005).( Clay
Christensen and Michael Raynor , The Innovators
Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful
Growth, Harvard Business School Press (2003).
16. NIMING

64

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GREEN MARKETING AND FORMING OF


GREEN STRATEDGIES
1

MASOOD H. SIDDIQUI1, * JYOTISHREE PANDEY2


Jaipuria Institute of Management, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India ,2 Research Scholar, Sai Nath University Ranchi,
India

*Address for correspondence: Jyotishree Pandey, Research Scholar, Sai Nath University, Ranchi, India,
E mail ID : jyotishree.19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particular important in the modern
market. This concept has enabled for the re-marketing and packaging of existing products
which already adhere to such guidelines. Additionally, the development of green marketing has
opened the door of opportunity for companies to co-brand their products into separate line,
lauding the green-friendliness of some while ignoring that of others. Such marketing techniques
have been explained as a direct result of movement in the minds of the consumer market. As a
result of this, businesses have increased their rate of targeting consumers who are concerned
about the environment. These same consumers through their concern are interested in integrating
environmental issues into their purchasing decisions through their incorporation into the process
and content of the marketing strategy for whatever product may be required. This paper discusses
how businesses have increased their rate of targeting green consumers, those who are
concerned about the environment and allow it to affect their purchasing decisions. The paper
identifies the green strategies adopted by the companies.
Keywords: Green marketing ,eco-friendly, sustainable consumption, marketing strategies,
green companies
INTRODUCTION
Everythings gone green was a subtitle of
an article in the Marketing Magazine in2012
(Otoole, 2012). Green marketing has become
common worldwide as environmental issues are
globally noticed. Both consumers and companies
have started to pay more attention in thinking
the consequences of their actions to the
environment (Polonsky, 1994, 3). Green
marketing is the way firms can advertise their
products and at the same time inform the
consumers that they are working in an
environmental friendly way (Chen & Chang,
2012, 489). ..G reen marketing is quickly
becoming a global trend (Zhang & Zhang, 1999,
99) . Many firms have taken it as a part of their
strategy. This makes it important to define, which
role green marketing actually has in
companys strategy? Can green marketing bring
added value to the company and be profitable
activity? The question about the competitive
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consequences of green marketing still remains


unclear (Fraj, Martinez, Matute, 2013, 396). By
determining green marketings strategic role, it
is easier to understand its implications to the
company.
RESEARCH PROBLEMS, OBJECTIVES
AND LIMITATIONS
The main goal of this study is to find out,
what is the role of green marketing in companys
strategy, and how important this role is to the
company. Reasons that make firms start green
marketing are also discussed. Study also aims
to find out if green marketing brings added value
to the company and specify variety of these
values. One goal is to find out, if there are
similarities in the theories existing and the
empirical section of this study. This study is not
limited to any specific industry or country. It
considers green marketing as a global
phenomenon. It does not examine or question
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actions done behind marketing. Even if the study


is not limited to one industry or country, it does
emphasize on industry and B2B marketing.
Customer-perspective is not ignored, because
even if company works in B2B field, its end-users
often are consumers..
LITERATURE REVIEW
In order to clarify the short history of green
marketing studies, some relevant findings are
listed below in Table 1.
Table 1: Findings of Green Marketing
Literature
(Based on Sharma et al., 2010; Baker & Sinkula,
2005)
Year

Author

1987

Brundlant Report: Our


Common Future

1993

Ottman, J.

1995

Porter & van Linde

1995

Kuhre, L.

1995

Polonsky, M.

1995

Hart, S.

2000

Miles & Covin

2000

Bansal & Roth

2000

Mathur & Marthur

2001

Kassaye, W.

2002

Banerjee, S.

2005

Baker & Sinkula

2013

Fraj, Martinez & Matute

66

Findings
Brought issue of
sustainability into the
mainstream

More profits and market


Share
Encourage to innovations
and higher productivity
Reduction of trade barriers
Standardization
Fewer health and safety
impacts
Increased awareness and
interest
Improved community and
employee relations
Five reasons to GM:
achievement goals, moral
obligation, pressure from
government and competitors,
eco- effectiveness in respect
of waste disposal/ reductions
in material usage
NRBV (natural-resourcebased view of the company:
Three stages of proactive
environmental strategy:
pollution prevention, product
stewardship, sustainable
development
Impact to reputation and
overall performance
Three major motivations
for ecological initiatives:
competitiveness, legitimating,
environmental responsibility
Criticism: Not all green or
environmental marketing
activities motivate
investors
Size and scale of business
matters in undertaking
green marketing initiatives.
Internal and external
environmental orientation
Motivation to
environmental marketing
hard to establish
Managerial support effects
positively the firms
development of green
marketing strategy

RESEARCH

METHODOLOGY

The empirical part of the study is done by


using qualitative research. Qualitative research
means a group of different interpretative research
methods .Secondary data and theoretical
findings are the basis of the findings.
CONCEPT AND OBJECTIVES OF GREEN
MARKETING
In 1970s people started to realize
consequences the fast population growth and
high level of industrialism would have to the
environment. Problems like green house effect,
destruction of the ozonosphere, acid rain,
pollution of air and water, deforestation and
overuse of natural resources and growing
shortages of water were increased explosively
(Zhang & Zhang, 1999, 99-100; Kotler, 2006, 90).
People started to rethink their own behavior and
started to demand more environmental friendly
produced commodities. As a respond to that,
companies reformed their operations and
strategies and a trend called sustainable
development was born (Zhang & Zhang, 1999,
100).In 1990s, this trend of being green started
to pervade all over the world. This was a
consequence of peoples increased awareness
of the importance to protect the environment.
Green consumption increased considerably and
new concepts like green food and green factories
were born. Being green became a global trend
(Zhang & Zhang, 1999).After being spread over,
consumers increased interest towards the
environmental friendly products forced firms to
change their marketing strategies (Chen & Chang
2012, Kotler 2011). Concept of green marketing
was created in 1990 at the Earth Day in the
United States. After that, there was an explosion
in the number of firms, which seek to utilize this
consumers
increased
sensitivity
to
environmental issues (Kotler, 2011,
91).Nowadays companies around the world are
turning their attention towards environmental
sustainability. Paco et al. (2008) considered that
major drivers to this change have been peoples
concern of the environment and consumers
demands. Being green is also seen as a way to
differentiate from competitors and gain
competitive advantage. Green marketing is a
channel of advertising messages of companys
environmental considering actions (Chen &
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Chang, 2012, 489). Green marketing is a special


way of doing marketing. Traditional marketing
has its goal in satisfying the needs of individuals
and groups through creating, offering and
exchanging products and services with others
(Kotler, 2000, 8). Green marketing aims at
satisfying the unlimited needs of individuals and
industries with minimal detrimental impact on the
natural environment and at the same time
achieve organizations aspirations on selling
(Polonsky, 1994, 2). Wong (2007, 224) continues
from this that green marketing can be divided in
two business models: one is to produce
environmental friendly products and services and
the other is to develop activities that are related
to environmental protection. As Krn et.al
(2002) expressed it, it is about balancing between
objectives of sales and profits and the concern
for society and the environment. In practical,
green marketing includes a lot of activities
including inter alia product modification, changing
the production process, modified advertising and
change in packaging (Polonsky, 1994, 1). These
actions are done in order to reduce the
detrimental impact of products and their
consumption on the environment (Mishra &
Sharma 2012). Chamorro and Banegil (2005, 12)
argued that green marketing philosophy means
that environment should become one of the firms
values determining its organizational culture.
GREEN MARKETING STRATEGY
Taking green marketing to be a part of
companys strategy can be seen as a reflection
of organizations values. It focuses on whether
the managers consider environmental issues
when making plans (Baker & Sinkula). Krn et
al (2003, 853) gave reason that in the core of
the green marketing in a business strategy is a
strategic product and customer decisions, where
environmental issues are emphasized and
environmental strengths are used as a
competitive advantage. Green marketing is
closely related to Corporate Social Responsibility
(CSR). CSR is companys commitment to
participate to sustainable economic development
and to work with employees, their families, the
local community and society in general to
improve their quality of life (WBCSD, 2004). It
means that company voluntarily does more than
is required by law or other regulation, regarding
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environment, workers safety and health and


investments in the field in which they operate
(Hay et al, 2005, 108). Servaes and Tamayo
(2013, 1046) argued though, that there is no
general consensus of all activities included in
CSR. Green marketing can be seen as socially
responsible marketing, which relies on proper
legal, ethical and social behavior (Kotler, 2006,
707).
Kotler (2011, s. 133) argued that in green
marketing strategy all the main marketing
program elements; product, price, channels of
distribution and marketing communication, can
be designed and executed in a more
environmental friendly way (Figure 1). In the
figure the new aspects of marketing mix are
marked with green colour. In designing of the
product, needs to be considered which materials
are used in order to reduce carbon footprint of
the products and minimize the energy used in
production. In pricing it is needed to make a price
difference between the normal and the
environmental friendly product. Product with
environmental friendly label can have a higher
price than the ordinary one and that way product
is easier to separate from the ordinary ones.
Promotion and selling of the product needs to
be done more online in order to reduce waste of
paper and unnecessary traffic. It is important to
include communication of the companys
sustainability development into the firms
promotion. Production should be decentralized
in order to avoid long distance transports, which
lead to increased pollution (Kotler, 2011, 133).

Figure 1: Kotler (2011) Greening marketing mix


(Based on McCarthys 4P- model)
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Ginsgberg & Bloom (2004) have listed four


different strategies to integrate green marketing
to the current marketing plan. These are lean
green, defensive green, shaded green and
extreme green (Figure 2). Firm can select one of
these depending on its business model and
environment (Wong, 2007, 223).

each strategy (Table 2) . In Extreme green strategy, all aspects of marketing mix are
included, whereas in the Lean green -strategy
company only focuses to its products to be
environmental friendly produced. This matrix can
be used as a tool when integrating green
marketing into companies marketing plans (Chen
& Lin, 2011).
Table 2: Marketing Mix tools used in Green
Strategies (Chen & Lin, 2011)
Product

Price

Promotion

Place

Lean
Defensive
Shaded
Extreme

GREEN MARKETING STRATEGY IN B2B


COMPANIES
Figure2. Ginsgberg & Bloom. (2004) Green
MarketingStrategies.

In this green marketing matrix, there are two


questions regarding green marketing strategy,
which need to be answered. First, how
substantial is the green consumer segment for
the company? Second question is, can company
be differentiated on the green dimension?
Companies, which are not focused on publicizing
or marketing their green initiatives, but gain to
reduce costs and improve efficiencies through
pro-environmental activities, are categorized as
Lean Greens. Defensive Greens use green
marketing as a respond to the critics or to
competitors action. They realize that green
market segment is an important one and can
provide revenues. Shaded Greens see green
marketing as an opportunity to develop
innovative products and technologies, which
lead to competitive advantage. For the
Extreme Greens, environmental issues are fully
integrated to companys business and are a
major driving force in the company (Ginsgberg
& Bloom).This Ginsgberg & Blooms theory
(Figure 2) can be integrated in the primary
presented marketing mix (Figure 2). In table
below the differences among these four
strategies can be seen by considering how the
four elements of the marketing mix are used in
68

Business marketers act in the largest market


of all. Compared to business-to- consumer
markets, volume of transactions in the industrial
or in the business is significantly exceeded. A
single customer in B2B field can form a
considerably part of companys selling activity
(Hutt & Speh, 2013, 4). Sustainability requires
firms to expand their economic responsibilities
to social and environmental areas. They also
have to dedicate resources to interacting with
secondary stakeholders such as nongovernmental organizations and environmental
groups (Fraj, Martinez, Matute, 2013, 398-399).
In B2B marketing, building a successful
marketing strategy is highly dependent on the
industry. Often different industries enquire
completely different promotional, pricing and
distribution strategies. To penetrate these
markets effectively, the marketer must
understand the organizational buying process,
including complex buying motives. (Hutt & Speh,
2013, 28) . Sima (2013, 151) argued that B2B
marketing is 100% relationship marketing. In
developing green marketing strategy in B2Bcontext, it has become essential to build longterm-relationships. This is because these
relationships can contribute to firms operational
and environmental efficiency, instead of the
relationships based just on buyers demand for
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greener products and services (Fraj, Martinez,


Matute 2013, 397). Fraj, Martinez and Matute
(2013) have noticed the importance of the
managers support towards environmental
protection in developing green marketing strategy
in B2B organizations. Their individual values,
ideals, and knowledge of problems may affect
their decisions at work and determine
organizational orientation towards the
environment (Fryxell & Lo, 2003, 62). Managers
desire to integrate these values into
organizational culture (Fraj, Martinez and Matute,
2013, 398). Menon and Menon (1997) saw
managers concern with sustainability values as
the main motivator to environmental practices.
Fraj, Martinez and Matute (2013) came to the
hypothesis that managerial support for
environmental protection positively affects the
firms development of green marketing strategy
and environmental culture in the B2B context.
OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN MARKETING
Most discussed opportunities found in green
marketing literature are introduced. These are
green marketing as a competitive advantage and
green marketings impact to companys image
and reputation.
Competitive advantage
Because of the growing importance of
environmental and social issues in the marketing
environment, companies now consider these
issues more in their strategy development (Baker,
2008, 569) . It appears that all types of
consumers, both individual and industrial are
becoming more concerned and aware about the
natural environment. Many firms see this as an
opportunity to be explored (Polonsky, 1994, 3).
Baker (1999, 601) stated that companies have
realized that environmental responsiveness is
something that customers, investors and other
stakeholders take an interest in, and which can
provide opportunities for innovation and
competitive advantage. Based on this change,
Polonsky (1994, 3) assumed that firms that are
marketing goods with environmental
characteristics have a competitive advantage
over firms marketing non-environmentally
responsible alternatives. Zhang & Zhang (1999,
100) argued that companies need to implement
green marketing, or they will lose out in the
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intensive market competition. In 1990s, greening


the strategy was argued as a source of
competitive advantage by Porter & Van der Linde
(1995). They argued that making preferable
environmental solutions develop new, more
effective technologies (Porter & Van der Linde,
1995, 121). Likewise, Hart (1995) argued that
innovative environmental strategies lead to
unique capabilities. Later, Baker and Sinkula
(2005) viewed green marketing rather as a
resource that enables these unique capabilities.
These capabilities can lead to new innovations
that allow companies to use its range of inputs,
for example raw materials, more productively and
that way lower the total cost of the product. Firms
can also use its inputs more carefully in order to
reduce its pollution. Pollution can be seen as a
form of economic waste: opportunity costs of
pollution are wasted resources and wasted effort.
These are often buried throughout products
lifecycle (Porter & Van der Linde, 1995, 120-122).
These practices can also be proactive, when they
goal to eliminate environmental inefficiencies
before they are generated (Fraj, Martinez,
Matute, 2013, 399). Reduction of pollution and
efficient use of inputs lead to enhanced
productivity. This is both better to the
environment and makes company more
competitive (Porter&Van der Linde, 1995,120122).
Company Image and Reputation
Firms reputation consists of the perceptions,
which firms relevant stakeholders have about the
firm. These relevant stakeholders come both
inside and outside of the company and they all
impact on firms reputation (see Figure 3) (Miles
& Covin, 200, 300; Carroll, 1996). In the Figure
3, NGOs is meant non- governmental
organizations with a special interest towards the
firm. Superior reputation is argued to be a
strategic advantage in firms long-term ability to
create value (Porter, 2011). Many studies also
argue that reputation has a positive effect on the
market value of firms (Dierickx & Cool, 1989;
Weigelt and Camerer, 1988). Miles and Covin
(2000) found out in their study that there is a
strong support that being a good environmental
steward helps to create reputational
advantage. This leads to preferable marketing
and financial performance.
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Figure 3. Reputation Formed by Stakeholders.


(Based on Carroll, 1996)

Miles and Covin (2000) argued that firms


that produce superior quality products, use
truthful advertising, act in a socially and
environmentally responsible manner, and have
fulfilling their obligations to various stakeholder
groups through firms history, are creating
reputational advantage. According to many
researches, environmental performance is
suggested to be but social responsible and
rational, also to build firms reputational
advantage (Spicer, 1978; Hamilton, 1995).
Menon et al. (1999) stated that firm by satisfying
stakeholder demands for environmental friendly
products can avoid problems such as customer
switching and boycotts, which could lead to
negative publicity. This means that by building
good reputation to the firm, it simultaneously
prevents bad reputation (followed by negative
publicity).
PRESSURES TO GREEN MARKETING
Pressures that drive companies to practice
green marketing can be divided in governmental,
competitive and consumer- pressures.
Governmental Pressure
Countries governments try to protect
customers and society by placing restrictions to
the marketing and production. This protection has
significant green marketing implications.
Governments establish regulations designed to
70

control the amount of hazardous wastes


produced by firms. Production is controlled
through the issuing of various environmental
licenses, thus modifying organizational behavior.
In some cases governments try to encourage
final consumers to become more responsible. In
other cases governments tax individuals who act
environmentally irresponsible (Polonsky, 1994,
5). In addition to countries own restrictions, there
are several international pressures to the
environmental marketing too. European Union
has developed directives, which aim to improve
environmental quality, focusing for example on
toxics, chemicals and recycling. These directives
have a major impact on electronics industry, but
also have an influence on many other industries.
Any company making a product for the EU market
must comply these directives (Esty & Winston,
2008, 72-73) . Worlds Trade Organization
(WTO) has remarked sustainable development
and protection and preservation of the
environment to be fundamental goals of the
organization. While there is no specific
agreement dealing with the environment, under
WTO rules member countries can adopt traderelated measures aimed at protecting the
environment (WTO, 2013). These green
barriers are set against import including surtaxes
and green technological standards regarding
products. Governments can demand marks to
the green commodities to certify that they meet
the standards. Import of the sensitive products,
like residual pesticides and heavy metals, can
have special regulations. Under these
circumstances, green marketing can be seen as
a way to pass these regulations and gain access
to the international market (Zhang and Zhang,
1999, 100-101). One environmental regulation
undertaken by governments has been the
establishment of guidelines designed to control
green marketing claims and green wash. This is
discussed more in this study.
Competitive Pressure
McDaniel and Rylander (1993) identified
companies competitors as a potential reason for
the change in companies environmental
behavior. Competitors activities influence to
the companys strategy. If in the same industry
one company reports its compliance with
environmental and social standards and others
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do not, this company gains environmental


advantage. That pushes competitors to do the
same in order to keep its customers (Esty &
Winston, 2008, 84). Often when firm reacts to
the competitors activities, firms goal to do
the same measures as the other company,
but nothing more (McDaniel & Rylander, 1993).
Competitive pressure pushes firms to take an
approach to green marketing in order to avoid
negative consequences. This will not lead to
competitive advantage, because firm is always
one step behind of its competitors (McDaniel &
Rylander, 1993). Rather than formulating and
executing a consistent, customer-oriented
strategy, company decides its moves based
on its competitors moves. Company does
not move towards its own goals (Kotler, 2006,
366). Polonsky (1994) pointed out that there is
a risk that reacting to competitive pressures can
have costly consequences, if the leader company
has made a mistake which followers
subsequently repeat. This makes it important
not to follow competitors blindly, but keep a close
eye on them (Polonsky, 1994, 6; Esty & Winston,
2006, 84).
Consumer Pressure
As mentioned above, human wants are
unlimited, but resources of the world are limited.
Companies can minimize their share of waste
by utilizing these limited resources as efficiently
as possible and that way protect the
environment. The arousal of the environmental
protection consciousness among consumers in
various countries in the world gives rise to a
heated trend of green consumption. This upsurge
of green products demand has resulted to
following new behavior of companies: in addition
that they have to have higher level of
environmental protection consciousness, they
also have a greater task of satisfying consumers
new, higher demands through proper design,
production, sales and recycling (Zhang &
Zhang, 100).Marketers have before categorized
consumers choosing among brands on the basis
of functional (Marketing 1.0) and emotional
(Marketing 2.0) criteria. But today consumers
are using third criteria too, which is how the
company meets its social responsibilities
(Marketing 3.0.) (Kotler, 2011, 133). Research in
the last decade has shown that consumers are
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aware of the environments condition, especially


in the developed countries (Cherian & Jacob,
2012, 117). Also B2B companies may nowadays
receive pressure from their distributors and
customers to adopt more environmental friendly
practices, even if there may not be immediate
savings (Kotler, 2011, 134). In B2B-industry, one
customer can have a major purchasing power
and be really important to the company. These
large customers are now increasingly demanding
information on the products lifecycle. In many
industries, proof of environmental responsibility
has become a requirement for keeping
customers and getting major contracts. This
activity is technically called Greening the supply
chain. Buyers insist their suppliers to meet the
environmental standards. Nowadays, also
suppliers have been pressuring their customers,
so this pressure can be mutual (Esty & Winston,
2008, 84).
Social Responsibility
Environmental deterioration has become
global problem restricting economic
development. People are searching for better
development models with regard to the
relationship between economic development and
environmental protection. Sustainable
development strategy is nowadays accepted by
various countries in the world (Zhang & Zhang,
1999, 100). Firms have begun to realize that they
are part of a wider community and therefore
they must behave in an environmentally
responsible way. This means that firms must
achieve their environmental objectives as well
as their profit related objectives. Firms can either
use the fact that they are environmentally
responsible as a marketing tool, or they can
choose not to promote this fact. Environmental
issues are integrated into the firms corporate
culture (Mishra & Sharma, 2012).
CHALLENGES AND RISKS IN GREEN
MARKETING
Green wash means that companies are
misleading the consumers regarding companys
environmental practices or the products or
services environmental benefits (Parguel et al.
2011, 2). Companies turn in to green wash
because they try to make themselves to look
more environmental friendly and that way gain
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consumers trust by concealing faults and


allegations (Laufer 2003, 255). Green wash has
become more popular when companies are trying
that way to get ahead of their competitors (Chang
& Chen, 2012, p.490).Green wash is a serious
threat to the green marketing. Consumers usually
have faith in companys advertising and
messaging and these have a great influence in
purchasing decision. Consumers are
overwhelmed with messages of environmental
friendly products (Polonsky et al. 2010, 50) and
when not knowing the company better,
consumers image of the company is based on
these messages and advertisement. If these are
not reliable, it is very hard for the consumer to
make the crucial decision. When customers do
not know who or what to trust and they can lose
their faith towards the matter of green purchasing
and think that environmental claims are just
marketing gimmicks (Kotler, 2011, p.91). This
would damage the green marketing of the
numerous companies (Chang & Chen, 2012,
p.491).Issues regarding environment are often
scientific complex, e.g. global warming. This is
why it is challenging to communicate relevant
information to consumers in understandable form
(Polonsky et.al 2010, 50) .This is also the reason,
why marketers should be particularly attentive
concerning their green marketing, because
consumers are easy to mislead (Virtanen, 2010,
141). There are some regulations made, which
try to prevent the green wash. In the USA Federal
Trade Commission (FTC) first published in 1992
the Guidelines for the Use of Environmental
Marketing Claims (Green Guides), which has
been renewed couple of times, the latest in 2012.
This Guideline is merely administrative
interpretations and it does not have the force of
law (Feinstein, 2013, p.242-243). International
Chamber of Commerce (ICC) (2011) has
published a framework for responsible
environmental marketing communications. There
are rules for green claims that are determined
to be any type of claim where explicit or implicit
reference is made to the environmental or
ecological aspects relating to the production,
packaging, distribution, use/consumption or
disposal of products (ICC, 2011, 3). Marketers
have normal responsibility to be truthful
according environmental marketing. Eco-labels
make environmental marketing easier for
72

marketers and producers, and same time prove


that products truly are environmental friendly.
These eco-labels are granted by registration,
based on evaluation of the firms environmental
performance (Virtanen,2010, 141). In addition to
these regulations, there is consumer protections
law, which every country has its own. Despite of
these regulations and laws, there is lack of
standardization to authenticate these green
claims. There is a need for a standard quality
control board for labeling and licensing green
products (Mishra & Sharma , 2012).
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The study explores green marketing as a
phenomenon. Main objective of the study was to
determine, which role green marketing has in
companys strategy. This objective was
attempted to achieve with the help of three subquestions. Study also aims to find out, if green
marketing can bring added value to the company.
These questions were examined by scientific
articles and literature, issues, which are
discussed in the theoretical part of the study, are
also listed in the table. From this study a
conclusion can be drawn that green marketing
has a significant role in case-companies
strategies and it brings added value to the
companies. Type of the added value is depended
on the industry and company itself. Most
important benefits of the green marketing
according to this study are its positive effect to
the company image and differentiation from the
competitors. Both of these can bring added value
to the firm. Sales growth is also an important
benefit, but only for the one case-company.
Green marketings role is center in casecompanies strategy and both of them see that
its potential will be growing in the future. In the
further studies, it would be interesting to limit the
study in some specific industry. In this study, both
case-companies work in the industry, but their
field of business differs a lot. Green marketing
varies from company to company, but there may
be some similarities between equivalent
industries. In order to produce more reliable
results, this study should be expanded by
including companies into the empirical
research. It would also be interesting to
include customers perspective into the study,
for example, of some specific green marketing
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campaign. Then could be seen, how the green


marketing strategy can be built to be as efficient
as possible to match the customers demands.
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ECONOMY UPGRADATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL


DEGRADATION:
A CASE STUDY ON UTTRAKHAND DISASTER
1

SHRUTI AGGARWAL1, *NEERAJ JAIN1, 2


Department of Management , Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology & Science, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, 1,2
Research Scholar, Sai Nath University, Ranchi, India
*Address for correspondence : Neeraj Jain, Department of Management,
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology & Science, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India,
Email ID: neerajshumsher_786@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The present study gives the dreadful scenario of casualties occurred on June 13, 2013 in
Uttara Khand, India due to heavy rain fall leading to uncontrolled devastating floods and
landslides, where a large number of people comprising women, children and elderly lost their
lives. Besides, this dreadful disaster caused severe damage to human population, buildings,
roads, plants etc. Even, whole biodiversity and natural ecosystem comprising aquatic flora
and fauna have been completely destroyed in the region. This is an eye opener and a big
challenge before educationists, researchers, environmentalists, decision makers and policy
makers to think about sustainable growth of the society without damaging our environment and
future generations. Sustainable development ensures the well-being of individual by integrating
social development, economic development, environmental conservation and protection. It is
necessary for the sustainable development that the policies and technologies should be green
so that environmental ability meets present and future generation in equal manner. Efforts have
been made to suggest measures to prevent such devastating disaster.
Keywords: UttraKhand floods, environment, power projects, landslides, planned development
INTRODUCTION
The landmark report of the World
Commission on Environment and Development
entitled Our Common Future warned that unless
we change many of our lifestyle patterns, the
world will face unacceptable levels of
environmental damage and human suffering. The
Commission, echoing the urgent need for
tailoring the pace and the pattern of global
economic growth to the planets carrying
capacity, said that Humanity has the ability to
make development sustainable and to ensure
that it meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs. In June 2013, a multiday cloudburst centered on the north Indian state
of Uttrakhand caused devastating floods and
landslides in the countrys worst natural disaster
since the 2004 tsunami. Though some parts of
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Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar


Pradesh in India, some regions of Western Nepal
and some parts of Western Tibet also
experienced heavy rain fall , over 95% of the
casualties occurred in Uttrakhand. As of 16 July
2013, according to figures provided by the
Uttarakhand government, more than 5,700
people were presumed dead. This total included
934 local residents. Destruction of bridges and
roads left about 100,000 pilgrims and tourists
trapped in the valleys. Landslides, due to the
floods, damaged several houses and structures,
killing those who were trapped.
SOME EXPERTS VIEW
This is what the head of the Department of
Environmental Studies at Delhi University (DU)
New Delhi, India had to say about the
Uttarakhand floods when asked by the New
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Scientist, a magazine that ought to know a thing


or two about people who understand nature: The
current devastation and human misery is largely
man-made. The DU professor, Maharaj Pandit
added that rampant unauthorized and mindless
building activities on the river flood plains in the
Himalayas are the prime causes of the disaster.
The valleys of the Yamuna, the Ganga and the
Alaknanda witness heavy traffic of tourists. For
this, the government has to construct new roads
and widen the existing ones.
A report of an expert committee, constituted
by the Union Ministry of Water Resources to find
out the causes of the June calamity, has said
that a combination of many factors led to the flash
floods and the subsequent destruction. But the
cloud burst is certainly not the reason behind the
deluge, it says in its 64-page report submitted
recently to the Ministry.
The National Institute of Disaster
Management (NIDM), in one of its first reports
on the Uttarakhand floods, has blamed climatic
conditions combined with haphazard human
intervention in the hills for the disaster.
Surya Prakash, Associate Professor of
NIDM, travelled over a 1,000 kilometers in floodand landslide-hit areas of Uttarakhand between
June 22 and 24 to prepare the report. He says
that the abnormally high amount of rain (more
than 400 per cent) in the hill state was caused
by the fusion of Westerlys with the monsoonal
cloud system. Heavy precipitation swelled rivers,
both in the upstream as well as downstream
areas. Besides the rain water, a huge quantity of
water was probably released from melting of ice
and glaciers due to high temperatures during the
month of May and June. The water not only filled
up the lakes and rivers that overflowed but also
may have caused breaching of moraine dammed
lakes in the upper reaches of the valley,
particularly during the late evening on June 16
and on June 17, killing about several hundred
persons; thousands went missing and about
100,000 pilgrims were trapped. Prakash says that
the Alaknanda river and the Mandakini, both
tributaries of the Ganga, occupied their flood
ways and started flowing along the old courses
where habitations were built over time (when the
river had abandoned this course and shifted its
path to the east side). Thus, the rivers destroyed
76

the buildings and other infrastructure that came


in its way.
The loss of human life in some areas was
due to less reaction time, it is said. The loss of
property was due to heavy encroachment near
river banks for commercial purposes like hotels
and restaurants on routes leading to religious
places like Kedarnath and Badrinath.
In fact, it might serve us well to remember a
true son of the fast-eroding Uttarakhand soil who
martyred himself trying to communicate a
message to the state administration that, if
heeded, would have gone a long way in
minimizing (if not preventing) the scale of
destruction brought by the rains.
On 13 June, 2011, exactly two years before
this disaster (the spell of heavy rainfall that
triggered the floods began on 14 June, 2013), a
sadhu known as SWAMI NIGAMANAND passed
away at the Himalayan Institute of Medical
Sciences at Dehradun. He had been on an
indefinite fast to protest against the rampant
stone crushing and strip mining along the banks
of the Ganges in Uttarakhand. The first principle
of disaster management is preventionby taking
the necessary precautionary measures. But
Uttarakhand, captive to local interest groups, has
been doing the exact opposite: actively soliciting
disaster.
ROLE OF PEOPLE
The cabal of bureaucrats, businessmen,
technocrats and politicians that call the shots in
developmental policy and decision-making
when not corrupttake a perverse pride in a
managerial tunnel vision that believes only in
getting things done. They see environmental
issues purely as roadblocks on the path of
development, not as facts of nature that must be
dealt with on their own terms. They cannot see
that human beingseven CEOs, bankers and
shareholdersare an integral part of nature and
derive their sustenance from it.
Their narrow pragmatism that avoids
thinking of the final consequences of their choices
is nothing but a form of magical thinking that is
different only in degree from that of the other,
more populous, and unscrupulous, bunch that
simply does not have the time of day for such
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romantic nonsense as Mother Nature and


ecological balance, and thinks nothing of
deploying all their assetscerebral and
materialto circumvent the law and line their
pockets.
REASONS FOR SUCH HUGE DISASTER
After analyzing the views of various people,
committees and the facts, this is for sure that it is
not merely a happening due to natural causes
but the man-made reasons are more behind it.
The various reasons are listed as follows:
Roads destabilizing mountains
A new (mountain) range like the Himalaya
will remain steady if not tampered with much. But
the huge expansion of roads and transport is
bringing the mountains in Uttarakhand down,
says Prof. Pandit. Road, he says, is a major
destabilizing factor for a mountain and it is a new
phenomenon for the Himalaya.
Data with the Uttarakhand State Transport
Department confirms this. In 2005-06, 83,000 odd
vehicles were registered in the state. The figure
rose to nearly 180,000 in 2012-13. Out of this,
proportion of cars, jeeps and taxis, which are the
most preferred means of transport for tourists
landing in the state, increased the most. In 200506, 4,000 such vehicles were registered, which
jumped to 40,000 in 2012-13. It is an established
fact that there is a straight co-relation between
tourism increase and higher incidence of
landslides
Threat from dams
The Ganga in the upper reaches has been
an engineers playground. The Central Electricity
Authority and the Uttarakhand Power Department
have estimated the rivers hydroelectric potential
at some 9,000 MW and have planned 70 odd
projects on its tributaries. In building these
projects the key tributaries would be modified
through diversion to tunnels or reservoirs to such
an extent that 80 per cent of the Bhagirathi and
65 per cent of the Alaknanda could be affected.
As much as 90 per cent of the other smaller
tributaries could be affected the same way.
Landslides more frequent now
Our mountains were never so fragile. But
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these heavy machines plying everyday on the


kutcha roads have weakened it, and now we
suffer landslides more often, says Harish Rawat,
a B.Sc. student in Uttarakhands Bhatwari region
that suffered a major landslide in 2010.Rawat lost
his home to the landslide when a major part of
the main market and 28 shops were wiped out
by the landslide. About 25 other houses were
destroyed completely.
Another local resident, Ram Prasad Tomar,
a driver by profession in Uttarkashi town, says it
is road cutting that has made the mountains so
weak. He says the way mountains are cut to
make roads has rendered the mountains
unstable. Road contractors, who come from
outside, do not understand the mountains. Most
of the expressways that are being constructed
now are tangled in legal cases. After cutting of
mountains, landslides continue for up to four
years, and contractors go bankrupt clearing the
debris, he says.
Experts say promotion of the state as a
tourist destination is coming in way of sustainable
development.
Huge traffic of tourist
According to media reports, when the floods
struck, about 28 million tourists were visiting the
state, while the local population is close to half
that number. First of all, it is irresponsible to let
such a huge volume of human traffic into an
ecologically sensitive area, that too in the
monsoon season. But once the decision had
been taken to milk tourism to the maximum, you
would naturally need to build infrastructure to
cater to such tourist inflows. This requires
planning. And given the fragile nature of both the
climate and eco-systems of the Himalayan
region, it also requires a strict adherence to
building and environmental norms. The first
principle of disaster management is prevention
by taking the necessary precautionary measures.
But Uttarakhand, captive to local interest groups,
has been doing the exact opposite: actively
soliciting disaster.
Failure of adherence to building and
environmental norms
As recently as February 2013, the
Uttarakhand high court had passed an order
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asking the state government to demolish


structures that had come up within 200 meters
of the river banks. But the administration did not
act. When the floods came, many of those illegal
structures got demolished anyway.
Absence of radars
Under modernization of IMD, 55 Doppler
radars were approved by the government of India
way back in 2007-08. The IMD was to furnish an
estimated price which would then go to the
Ministry of Earth Sciences, which in turn sends it
to Planning Commission for approval. But in
these six years, the file is shuttling between three
departments, moving at a snail pace and net
result is zero.
Dr. Chandan Ghosh, the head of the Geo
Hazards, National institute of Disaster
Management said, Uttrakhand government has
placed request for Doppler radar which can
forecast cloudburst when attached to
supercomputer to the centre but the same
couldnt be installed due to bureaucratic hurdles.
It is a surprise that in the first phase of
installation of these radars Uttrakhand got the
miss. Seventeen radars were installed in various
locations but none in Uttrakhand. Isnt this utter
neglect on the part of the centre? Despite being
prone to frequent cloudbursts, flashfloods and
landslides Uttrakhand has virtually no system in
place for early warnings, weather forecasts or
even dissemination of rainfall and landslide
related data.
What should be done?
Indian mythology is replete with instances
of Akaash-vani( heaven speak) to warn both
kings gone astray and common people deviating
from the path of dharma. The most famous of
them is akash-vani predicting king Kansas
death at Krishnas hand. But heaven speak does
not just belong to the realm of mythology. What
happened in Uttrakhand in June is proof enough.
The heaven in form of nature spoke loud and
clear on June 15, 16 and 17. The message was
not just for the kings (state) but also the common
people. Mind and mend your ways, else.
If we wish to heed heaven speak, then the
state must:
78

n Need to introspect without bias or fear. If it


has gone wrong in understanding
Uttarakhands proper developmental needs,
then let it not hesitate in admitting so.

n We have to realize that the Himalayan hills


are young, restless and fragile. And
accordingly set its developmental priorities
and policies. These should be based as much
on local and traditional knowledge and
aspirations, as on the use of state of art
science and technology.

n The state is endowed with expert institutions


and experts. So we should not import ideas
and projects incompatible with local
conditions and ecology, merely in the name
of development or economic growth.

n Annual yatra or pilgrimage to Char Dham


and many other places of religious and
spiritual significance on the banks of the
Ganga and the Yamuna and its tributaries is
certainly the states signature activity. It
should be restored in a non-commercial
manner. It is agreed the world over that
places in hills cannot accommodate people
beyond their carrying capacity. So the yatras
shall have to be strictly regulated with
verifiable standards. Tariffs for lodging and
boarding should be set by competent and
efficient state agencies. Let a Yatra board
with membership from government as well
as non-government representatives,
including experts and the religious leaders,
be constituted by an Act of the state
legislature.

n Meteorological monitoring, weather advance


warning systems and post extreme-event
rescue and relief operations shall have to be
upgraded to levels befitting the fragility of the
states natural environment and ecology, so
that never again is the state machinery
caught likewise napping.

n The policy for water-based energy in the


region needs to be carefully balanced to take
these concerns into account. The policy
should lay down mandatory ecological flow
provisions (at least 50 per cent in lean
season); a distance criterion (5 km) and tough
enforcement measures and penalties for
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ensuring that construction of the project does


not harm the mountain stability or local water
systems. It must be noted that while rivers
cannot and must not be re-engineered, dams
can be re-engineered to optimize on available
water for energy generation

n Ecosystem-based

tourism
for
development to be used but with
safeguards and local benefits . High
mountain, adventure, biodiversity and nature
tourism are the most obvious routes to
economic development in the Himalayas. But
this tourism is greatly dependent on the
ecology of the region. If the environment
degrades, tourism will also be impacted. On
the other hand, tourism has impacts on the
environment, if not carefully managed. The
Uttarakhand flood teaches us that we must
learn to build sustainable models for pilgrimbased tourism in the fragile hills. There is a
problem of pollution, litter and solid waste
disposal in most high Himalayan tourist sites.

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CONCLUSION
June 2013, Uttarakhand is a wakeup call
not just for the rulers and people in the state, but
planners and decision makers all over the
country. Here are leanings and lessons for
various ministries in the Government of India, in
particular its expert agencies like IMD (India
Metrological Department), CWC (Central Water
Commission), EAC (Expert Appraisal Committee)
of Union Environment Ministry and NDMA
(National Disaster Management Authority) as well
as governments and authorities in all other hill
states. One lesson from the tragedy: If we do
not do environmentally sound development,
there will be no development at all
REFERENCES
1.

www.ndtv.com

2.

www.dailybhaskar.com

3.

www.businessstandard.com

4.

www.downtoearth.org

5.

Surya Prakash,Report of NIDM( National Institute


of disaster management) July 15, 2013

6.

India Today, June 27 2013

7.

A selection of reports and documents on hydro


power projects Maharaj Pandit, New scientist
magazine June 2013

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Materials and Methods
Shall start as a continuation to introduction on the same page. All important materials used
along with their source shall be mentioned. The main methods used shall be briefly described, citing
references. Trivial details may be avoided. New methods or substantially modified methods may be
described in sufficient detail. The statistical method and the level of significance chosen shall be
clearly stated. IJSIR prefers to publish work that has been subjected to an appropriate statistical test
at one level of significance.

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Results
All findings presented in tabular or graphical form shall be described in this section. The data
should be statistically analyzed and the level or significance stated. Data that is not statistically
significant need only to be mentioned in the text no illustration is necessary. All tables and figures
must have a title or caption and legend to make them self-explanatory. Results section shall start
after materials and methods section on the same page.
Discussion
This section should follow results, deal with the interpretation of result, convey how they help
increase current understanding of the problem and should be logical. Unsupported hypothesis should
be avoided. The Discussion should state the possibilities the results uncover that need to be further
explored. There is no need to include another title such as Conclusions at the end of Discussion.
Results and discussion of results can also be combined under one section, Results and Discussion.
Acknowledgements
Should be given after the text and not in the form of foot-notes.
References
Should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text (not
in alphabetic order). Identify references in text, tables and legends by Arabic numerals in superscript
in square brackets. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in
accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table
or figure.
Journal Articles
Singh N., Verma P., Pandey B.R., Gilca M. Role of Withania somnifera in Prevention and Treatment
of Cancer: An Overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research. 2011;
3(4): 274-279.
A Book
Singh N, Gilca M. Herbal Medicine Science embraces tradition a new insight into the ancient
Ayurveda. Edn 1, Lambert Academic Publishing (Germany), 2010, pp. 115-116.
A chapter in a Book
Nadkarni KM, Indian Materia Medica. Edn 3, Vol. I, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, 2000, pp. 242-246.
A Report
World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2004: changing history.
Geneva: WHO; 2004.
Conference Proceedings
Stock A, Signal Trasduction in Bacheria. In the Proceedings of the 2004 Markey Scholars
Conference. 2004, pp. 80-89.
A Thesis
Strunk, JL. The extraction of mercury from sediment and the geochemical partitioning of mercury
in sediments from Lake Superior, M.S. thesis, Michigan State Univ. East Lansing, Ml, 1991
Illustrations
Tables Should be typed on separate sheets of paper and should not preferably contain any
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molecular structures. Only MS word table format should be used for preparing tables. Tables should
show lines separating columns but not those separating rows except for the top row that shows
column captions. Tables should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and bear a brief title
in capital letters normal face. Tables should not be very large that they run more than one A4 sized
page.
Figures
Should be on separate pages but not inserted within the text. Figures should be numbered
consecutively in Arabic numerals and bear a brief title in lower case bold face letters below the figure.
Graphs and bar graphs should preferably be prepared using Microsoft Excel and submitted as Excel
graph pasted in MS Word.
Abbreviations, Units Etc
Authors should follow internationally agreed rules especially those adopted by the IUPAC-IUB
Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (CBN). The journal will essentially follow the rules defined
in the IUPAC Manual of symbols and terminology for physico-chemical quantities and units.
Short Communications
The journal publishes exciting findings, preliminary data or studies that did not yield enough
information to make a full paper as short communications. These have the same format requirements
as full papers but are only up to 10 pages in length in total. Short Communications should not have
subtitles such as Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion all these have to be
must into the running text. Short Communications preferably should have only 3-4 illustrations.
Review Articles
Should be about 15-30 pages long, contain up-to-date information, comprehensively cover
relevant literature and preferably be written by scientists who have in -depth knowledge on the topic.
All format requirements are same as those applicable to full papers. Review articles need not be
divided into section such as materials and methods and results and discussions, but should definitely
have an abstract and introduction if necessary.
Submission of Manuscript
All manuscripts (must be in English and in MS Word format) and should be submitted via our
online system or through e-mail editorijsir02@gmail.com, as an attachment for quick evaluation.
Manuscript Charges
There is no charge for the processing of papers but author(s) of each accepted paper is required
to pay a publication charge of Rs. 2,000 for Indian authors and US $ 125 for foreign authors before
the accepted paper is published.
Copyright and Permissions
Submission is a representation that the manuscript has not been published previously and is
not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Authors would be required to sign a form (to be
supplied by the Editor) transferring copyright before the manuscript can be published. By submitting
a manuscript to the editor or publisher you are deemed to have granted permission to publish the
manuscript.
Ethical Matters
Authors using experimental animals and human subjects in their investigation must seek approval
from the appropriate Ethical Committee. The method section must include a statement to prove that
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the investigation was approved and that informed consent was obtained.
Galley Proofs
Proofs will sent via e-mail as an Acrobat PDF (Portable Document Format) file. Acrobat Reader will
be required in order to read the PDF.
Manuscript Submission Process:
1.

First you should Read Author Instructions and

2.

Download Cover letter -fill the necessary fields and scan it and send to our email address
along with manuscript or Upload through Online Manuscript submission option.

3.

Submit your prepared manuscript through email or Online submission option.

4.

Download Copy Right Form and Sign it (by the corresponding/main author) and send
its scanned copy only to Email ID editorijsir02@gmail.com.
(Without this signed undertaking your paper would not get
displayed.)

Track Your Manuscript: New Option of our IJSIR web portal.


You can track the status of your manuscript through the online production process. Please provide
your Manuscript ID to know the status.

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COVER LETTER

Date
Place
From
(Name and Address of the corresponding author)

To,
Editor-in-Chief
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research (IJSIR)
Sir,
Ref:

Title
Type
Subject
Branch

In reference to the above title, I as a corresponding author submit the manuscript for
publication in International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research. I undertake that
animal study (if any) was taken after the prior approval of country/institutional ethical committee.
This manuscript has not been published or considered for publication by any other journal or
elsewhere. Kindly consider the manuscript for publication in your journal.
Thank you

Corresponding author name

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UNDERTAKING*
I _____________________________________________________________ (corresponding
author), working as __________________ (Designation), in __________________(Department/
Affiliation),

do

hereby

submit

the

manuscript

No.

_____

entitled:

______________________________________, authors _________, _____________,


_______________ (names of all authors) for publication in International Journal of Scientific
and Innovative Research.

I / We declare that this is an original research work and is not previously published or presented
elsewhere in any language and is also not in consideration in any other journal simultaneously.
I /we, all authors of the above manuscript are agree that the content of this manuscript will not
be copyrighted, submitted, or published elsewhere (including the internet), and is also not plagiarized
from any language.
I/We also solemnly affirm that not any brand name of drug/product/manufacturer was included
in this manuscript to avoid legal hindrance and I / We will responsible to face any dispute, pointed out
by anyone in future.

Name with designation/affiliation


of the corresponding author

Name of all author

Signature

Affiliation

1.____________________________________

________________

__________________

2.____________________________________

________________

__________________

3.____________________________________

________________

__________________

*This undertaking must be submitted along with submission of the manuscript in IJSIR.

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