Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 34

REFERENCES

Alila, S., Boufi, S., Belgacem, M. N., & Beneventi, D. (2005). Adsorption of a Cationic
Surfactant onto Cellulosic FibersI. Surface Charge Effects. Langmuir , 21(22),
81068113.

AlMaadeed, M. A., Labidi, S., Krupa, I., & Ouederni, M. (2015). Effect of waste wax
and chain structure on the mechanical and physical properties of polyethylene.
Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 8, 388399.

AlMaadeed, M. A., Ouederni, M., & Noorunnisa Khanam, P. (2013). Effect of chain
structure on the properties of Glass fibre/polyethylene composites. Materials &
Design, 47, 725730.

Arrakhiz, F. Z., El Achaby, M., Kakou, A. C., Vaudreuil, S., Benmoussa, K., Bouhfid,
R., Qaiss, A. (2012). Mechanical properties of high density polyethylene
reinforced with chemically modified coir fibers: Impact of chemical treatments.
Materials and Design, 37, 379383.

Asumani, O. M. L., Reid, R. G., & Paskaramoorthy, R. (2012). The effects of alkali
silane treatment on the tensile and flexural properties of short fibre non-woven
kenaf reinforced polypropylene composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science
and Manufacturing, 43, 14311440.

Ayrilmis, N., Jarusombuti, S., Fueangvivat, V., Bauchongkol, P., & White, R. H.
(2011). Coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composite panel for automotive
interior applications. Fibers and Polymers, 12(7), 919926.

Bahuleyan, B. K., Atieh, M. A., De, S. K., Khan, M. J., & Al-Harthi, M. A. (2012).
Easy one-pot method to control the morphology of polyethylene/carbon nanotube
65

nanocomposites using metallocene catalysts. Journal of Polymer Research,


19(2), 18.

Bajpai, P. K., & Singh, I. (2013). Drilling behavior of sisal fiber-reinforced


polypropylene composite laminates. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and
Composites,
32(20),
15691576.
Retrieved
from
http://jrp.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/0731684413492866

Bledzki, A. K., Faruk, O., & Mamun, A. A. (2008). Influence of compounding


processes and fibre length on the mechanical properties of abaca fibrepolypropylene composites. Polimery, 53(2), 120125.

Borah, J. S., & Chaki, T. K. (2011). Dynamic mechanical, thermal, physico-mechanical


and morphological properties of LLDPE/EMA blends. Journal of Polymer
Research, 18(4), 569578.

Cao, X. V., Ismail, H., Rashid, A. A., Takeichi, T., & Vo-Huu, T. (2012). Maleated
Natural Rubber as a Coupling Agent for Recycled High Density
Polyethylene/Natural Rubber/Kenaf Powder Biocomposites. Polymer-Plastics
Technology and Engineering, 51(9), 904910.
Chang, S., Ismail, H., & Ahsan, Q. (2012). Effect of Maleic Anhydride of Kenaf Dust
Filled Polycaprolactone/Thermoplastic Sago Starch Composites. BioResources,
7(2), 15941616.

Chun, K. S., Husseinsyah, S., & Osman, H. (2013). Modified Cocoa Pod Husk-Filled
Polypropylene Composites by Using Methacrylic Acid. BioResources, 8(3),
32603275.

Darie, R., Bercea, M., Kozlowski, M., & Spiridon, I. (2011). Evaluation of properties
of LDPE/oak wood composites exposed to artificial ageing. Cellulose Chemistry
66

and
Technology,
45(1-2),
127135.
Retrieved
http://www.cellulosechemtechnol.ro/pdf/CCT1-2(2011)/p.127-135.pdf

from

Datta, J., & Kopczynska, P. (2015). Effect of kenaf fibre modification on morphology
and mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane materials. Industrial
Crops and Products, 74, 566576.

Deleu, M., Gatard, S., Payen, E., Lins, L., Nott, K., Flore, C., Bouquillon, S. (2012).
d-xylose-based bolaamphiphiles: Synthesis and influence of the spacer nature on
their interfacial and membrane properties. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 15(1), 68
74.

Dittenber, D. B., & Gangarao, H. V. S. (2012). Critical review of recent publications on


use of natural composites in infrastructure. Composites Part A: Applied Science
and Manufacturing, 43(8), 14191429.

El-Sabbagh, A. (2014). Effect of coupling agent on natural fibre in natural fibre /


polypropylene composites on mechanical and thermal behaviour. Composites
Part B: Engineering, 57, 126135.

Faruk, O., Bledzki, A. K., Fink, H. P., & Sain, M. (2012). Biocomposites reinforced
with natural fibers: 2000-2010. Progress in Polymer Science, 37(11), 15521596.
Faruk, O., Bledzki, A. K., Fink, H.-P., & Sain, M. (2014). Progress Report on Natural
Fiber Reinforced Composites. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering,
299(1), 926.

Feng, Q., Li, J., Cheng, H., Chen, F., & Xie, Y. (2014). Synthesis and Characterization
of Porous Hydrogel Based on Lignin and Polyacrylamide. BioResources, 9(3),
43694381.

67

Fuqua, M. A., Huo, S., & Ulven, C. A. (2012). Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites.
Polymer Reviews, 52(3-4), 259320.

Gadioli, R., Morais, J. A., Waldman, W. R., & De Paoli, M. A. (2014). The role of
lignin in polypropylene composites with semi-bleached cellulose fibers:
Mechanical properties and its activity as antioxidant. Polymer Degradation and
Stability, 108, 2334.

Gong, X., Liu, J., Baskaran, S., Voise, R. D., & Young, J. S. (2000). Surfactant-assisted
processing of carbon nanotube/polymer composites. Chemistry of Materials,
12(4), 10491052.
Goriparthi, B. K., Suman, K. N. S., & Mohan Rao, N. (2012). Effect of fiber surface
treatments on mechanical and abrasive wear performance of polylactide/jute
composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 43(10),
18001808.

Gutirrez, M. C., De Paoli, M. A., & Felisberti, M. I. (2012). Biocomposites based on


cellulose acetate and short curau fibers: Effect of plasticizers and chemical
treatments of the fibers. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing,
43(8), 13381346.

Hill, G., & Holman, J. (2014). Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. In Chemistry in Context (6th
ed., p. 427). Oxford University Press.

Ho, M., Wang, H., Lee, J.-H., Ho, C., Lau, K., Leng, J., & Hui, D. (2012). Critical
factors on manufacturing processes of natural fibre composites. Composites Part
B: Engineering, 43(8), 35493562.

68

Hsu, C. T., & Hu, C. C. (2013). Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous spinel
NiCo2O 4 using surfactant-assembled dispersion for asymmetric supercapacitors.
Journal of Power Sources, 242, 662671.

Hu, Y., Lang, A. W., Li, X., & Nutt, S. R. (2014). Hygrothermal aging effects on
fatigue of glass fi ber / polydicyclopentadiene composites. Polymer Degradation
and Stability, 110, 464472.

Huang, F.-Y. (2012). Thermal Properties and Thermal Degradation of Cellulose TriStearate (CTs). Polymers, 4(2), 10121024.

Huang, R. Y. M., Moon, G. Y., & Pal, R. (2001). Chitosan / anionic surfactant complex
membranes for the pervaporation separation of methanol / MTBE and
characterization of the polymer / surfactant system. Journal of Membrane
Science, 184, 115.

Islam, M. N., & Islam, M. S. (2011). Mechanical Properties of Chemically Treated


Sawdust-Reinforced Recycled Polyethylene Composites. Industrial &
Engineering Chemistry Research, 50(19), 1112411129.

Ismail, H., Abdullah, a. H., & Bakar, a. A. (2010). The Effects of a Silane-Based
Coupling Agent on the Properties of Kenaf Core-Reinforced High-Density
Polyethylene (HDPE)/Soya Powder Composites. Polymer-Plastics Technology
and Engineering, 49(11), 10951100.

Jin, H., Lu, Y., Ma, P.-P., Wu, S.-S., & Shen, J. (2014). Structure and properties of
irradiated HDPE high-density polyethylene/calcium carbonate composites.
Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 111.

69

Kabir, M. M., Wang, H., Lau, K. T., & Cardona, F. (2012a). Chemical treatments on
plant-based natural fibre reinforced polymer composites: An overview.
Composites Part B: Engineering, 43(7), 28832892.
Kabir, M. M., Wang, H., Lau, K. T., Cardona, F., & Aravinthan, T. (2012b). Mechanical
properties of chemically-treated hemp fibre reinforced sandwich composites.
Composites Part B: Engineering, 43(2), 159169.

Kadam, P. G., Vaidya, P., & Mhaske, S. T. (2014). Synthesis and Characterization of
Polyesteramide Hot Melt Adhesive from Low Purity Dimer Acid ,
Ethylenediamine , and Ethanolamine. Journals of Polymers, 2014, 18.

Khalil, H. P. S. A., Aprilia, N. a S., Bhat, a. H., Jawaid, M., Paridah, M. T., & Rudi, D.
(2013). A Jatropha biomass as renewable materials for biocomposites and its
applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 22, 667685.

Khasraghi, S. S., & Rezaei, M. (2013). Preparation and characterization of


UHMWPE/HDPE/MWCNT melt-blended nanocomposites. Journal of
Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 28(3), 305326.

Kolesov, I., & Mileva, D. (2014). Mechanical behavior and optical transparency of
polyamide 6 of different morphology formed by variation of the pathway of
crystallization, 581593.

Ku, H., Wang, H., Pattarachaiyakoop, N., & Trada, M. (2011). A review on the tensile
properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. Composites Part B:
Engineering, 42(4), 856873.

Kulkarni, R. V., Baraskar, V. V., Setty, C. M., & Sa, B. (2011). Interpenetrating polymer
network matrices of sodium alginate and carrageenan for controlled drug delivery
application. Fibers and Polymers, 12(3), 352358.
70

Li, J., Zhao, M., & Zheng, L. (2012). Salt-induced wormlike micelles formed by Nalkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide in aqueous solution. Colloids and
Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 396, 1621.

Li, Y. (2014). Characterization of acetylated eucalyptus wood fibers and its effect on
the interface of eucalyptus wood/polypropylene composites. International
Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 50, 96101.

Lithner, D., Larsson, A., & Dave, G. (2011). Environmental and health hazard ranking
and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition. The Science
of the Total Environment, 409(18), 33093324.

Liu, Q., Zhou, X., Fan, X., Zhu, C., Yao, X., & Liu, Z. (2012). Mechanical and Thermal
Properties of Epoxy Resin Nanocomposites Reinforced with Graphene Oxide.
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 51(3), 251256.

Ma, T. Y., Cao, J. L., Shao, G. S., Zhang, X. J., & Yuan, Z. Y. (2009). Hierarchically
structured squama-like cerium-doped titania: Synthesis, photoactivity, and
catalytic CO oxidation. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 113(38), 1665816667.

Mannion, A. M. (2006). Carbon and Its Domestication. Springer Science & Bussiness
Media.
Retrieved
from
https://books.google.com.my/books?id=WedL9wvMQEC
Mbarek, T. B., Robert, L., Sammouda, H., Charrier, B., Orteu, J.-J., & Hugot, F. (2013).
Effect of acetylation and additive on the tensile properties of wood fiber-highdensity polyethylene composite. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites,
32(21), 16461655.

71

Me, R. C., Ibrahim, R., & Tahir, P. M. (2012). Natural Based Biocomposite Material for
Prosthetic Socket Fabrication. ALAM CIPTA, 5(1), 2734.

Mohammadi, M., Yousefi, A. A., & Ehsani, M. (2012). Thermorheological analysis of


blend of high-and low-density polyethylenes. Journal of Polymer Research,
19(2), 2429.

Mohanty, S., Verma, S., & Nayak, S. (2006). Dynamic mechanical and thermal
properties of MAPE treated jute/HDPE composites. Composites Science and
Technology, 66(3-4), 538547.

Mondragn, M., Arroyo, K., & Romero-Garca, J. (2008). Biocomposites of


thermoplastic starch with surfactant. Carbohydrate Polymers, 74(2), 201208.

Mousa, A., Heinrich, G., Wagenknecht, U., Kretzschmar, B., & Landwehr, M. A. Der.
(2012). The Application of Di-isocyante Modified Agro-polymer as Filler For
XNBR/PA-12 Thermoplastic Elastomer Composites. Journal of Macromolecular
Science, Part A, 49(5), 385396.

Nagarajan, V., Zhang, K., Misra, M., & Mohanty, A. K. (2015). Overcoming the
Fundamental Challenges in Improving the Impact Strength and Crystallinity of
PLA Biocomposites: Influence of Nucleating Agent and Mold Temperature. ACS
Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7(21), 1120311214.

Nostro, A., Scaffaro, R., DArrigo, M., Botta, L., Filocamo, A., Marino, A., &
Bisignano, G. (2012). Study on carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde polymeric films:
Mechanical properties, release kinetics and antibacterial and antibiofilm
activities. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 96(4), 10291038.

72

Osman, H., Ismail, H., & Mariatti, M. (2012). Polypropylene/Natural Rubber


Composites Filled with Recycled Newpaper: Effect of Chemical Treatment using
Maleic Anhydride-Grafted Polypropylene and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane.
Polymer Composites, 33, 609618.

Othman, N., Ismail, H., & Mariatti, M. (2006). Effect of compatibilisers on mechanical
and thermal properties of bentonite filled polypropylene composites. Polymer
Degradation and Stability, 91(8), 17611774.

Ouajai, S., & Shanks, R. a. (2005). Composition, structure and thermal degradation of
hemp cellulose after chemical treatments. Polymer Degradation and Stability,
89(2), 327335.

Pang,

A., & Ismail, H. (2013). Effects of kenaf loading and 3aminopropyltriethoxysilane coupling agent on the properties of
polypropylene/waste tire dust/kenaf composites. Journal of Thermoplastic
Composite Materials, 27(12), 16071619.

Petchwattana, N., Covavisaruch, S., & Chanakul, S. (2012). Mechanical properties,


thermal degradation and natural weathering of high density polyethylene/rice hull
composites compatibilized with maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene. Journal
of Polymer Research, 19(7), 19.

Rajini, N., Jappes, J. W., Jeyaraj, P., Rajakarunakaran, S., & Bennet, C. (2013). Effect
of Montmorillonite Nanoclay on Temperature Dependence Mechanical Properties
of Naturally Woven Coconut Sheath/Polyester Composite. Journal of Reinforced
Plastics and Composites, 32(11), 811822.

Roy, A., Chakraborty, S., Kundu, S. P., Basak, R. K., Basu Majumder, S., & Adhikari,
B. (2012). Improvement in mechanical properties of jute fibres through mild
alkali treatment as demonstrated by utilisation of the Weibull distribution model.
Bioresource Technology, 107, 222228.

73

Saba, N., Paridah, M. T., & Jawaid, M. (2015). Mechanical properties of kenaf fibre
reinforced polymer composite: A review. Construction and Building Materials,
76, 8796.

Salleh, F. M., Hassan, A., Yahya, R., Lafia-Araga, R. a., Azzahari, A. D., & Nazir, M.
N. Z. M. (2014). Improvement in the mechanical performance and interfacial
behavior of kenaf fiber reinforced high density polyethylene composites by the
addition of maleic anhydride grafted high density polyethylene. Journal of
Polymer Research, 21(5), 111.

Samyn, P., & Schoukens, G. (2014). Morphologies and Thermal Variability of


Patterned Polymer Films with Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride). Polymers,
6(3), 820845.

Sanches, E. A., Carolino, A. D. S., Santos, A. L., Fernandes, E. G. R., Trichs, D. M., &
Mascarenhas, Y. P. (2015). The Use of Le Bail Method to Analyze the
Semicrystalline Pattern of a Nanocomposite Based on Polyaniline EmeraldineSalt Form and? -Al 2 O 3. Advance in Materials Science and Engineering, 2015,
18.

Santiagoo, R., Ismail, H., & Hussin, K. (2012). Effects of Acetic Anhydride on the
Properties of Polypropylene(PP)/Recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene(NBRr)/Rice
Husk Powder(RHP) Composites. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering,
51(15), 15051512.

Sareena, C., Ramesan, M. T., & Purushothaman, E. (2012). Utilization of peanut shell
powder as a novel filler in natural rubber. Journal of Applied Polymer Science,
125(3), 23222334.

74

Sarkhel, G., Banerjee, A., & Bhattacharya, P. (2006). Rheological and Mechanical
Properties of LDPE/HDPE Blends. Polymer-Plastics Technology and
Engineering, 45(6), 713718.

Saw,

S. K. (2015). Static and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Coir


Fiber/Montmorillonite Nanoclay-Filled Novolac/Epoxy Hybrid Nanocomposites.
In M. K. Thakur, Vijay Kumar, Thakur (Ed.), Eco-friendly Polymer
Nanocomposites (1st ed., Vol. 75, pp. 137154). Springer India.

Sawpan, M. a., Pickering, K. L., & Fernyhough, A. (2011). Effect of various chemical
treatments on the fibre structure and tensile properties of industrial hemp fibres.
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 42(8), 888895.

Sewda, K., & Maiti, S. N. (2013). Dynamic mechanical properties of high density
polyethylene and teak wood flour composites. Polymer Bulletin, 70(10), 2657
2674.

Shah, D. U. (2013). Developing plant fibre composites for structural applications by


optimising composite parameters: A critical review. Journal of Materials Science,
48(18), 60836107.

Shalwan, A., & Yousif, B. F. (2013). In State of Art: Mechanical and tribological
behaviour of polymeric composites based on natural fibres. Materials & Design,
48, 1424.

Shamsuri, A. A., Azid, M. K. A., Ariff, A. H. M., & Sudari, A. K. (2014a). Influence of
Surface Treatment on Tensile Properties of Low-Density Polyethylene/Cellulose
Woven Biocomposites: A Preliminary Study. Polymers, 6(9), 23452356.

75

Shamsuri, A. A., Daik, R., & Products, F. (2013). Utilization of an Ionic Liquid/Urea
Mixture as a Physical Coupling Agent for Agarose/Talc Composite Films.
Materials, 682698.

Shamsuri, A. A., Daik, R., Zainudin, E. S., & Md. Tahir, P. (2014b). Compatibilization
of HDPE/agar biocomposites with eutectic-based ionic liquid containing
surfactant. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 33(5), 440453.

Shamsuri, A. A., Sudari, A. K., Zainudin, E. S., & Ghazali, M. (2015). Effect of
alkaline treatment on physico-mechanical properties of black rice husk ash filled
polypropylene biocomposites. Materials Testing, 57, 370376.

Shibulal, G. S., & Naskar, K. (2011). RFL coated aramid short fiber reinforced
thermoplastic elastomer: Mechanical, rheological and morphological
characteristics. Journal of Polymer Research, 18(6), 22952306.

Siddika, S., Mansura, F., Hasan, M., & Hassan, A. (2014). Effect of reinforcement and
chemical treatment of fiber on The Properties of jute-coir fiber reinforced hybrid
polypropylene composites. Fibers and Polymers, 15(5), 10231028.

Siqueira, G., Bras, J., & Dufresne, A. (2010). Cellulosic bionanocomposites: A review
of preparation, properties and applications. Polymers, 2(4), 728765.

Skalkova, P., Cizova, A., Moskova, D. J., & Janigova, I. (2012). Ldpe /
Glucuronoxylan Blends: Preparation and Study of Thermal and Mechanical
Properties. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 46(1-2), 6977.

Sudhakara, P., Jagadeesh, D., Wang, Y., Venkata Prasad, C., Devi, a. P. K.,
Balakrishnan, G., Song, J. I. (2013). Fabrication of Borassus fruit
76

lignocellulose fiber/PP composites and comparison with jute, sisal and coir
fibers. Carbohydrate Polymers, 98(1), 10021010.

Tajvidi, M., & Takemura, a. (2010). Thermal Degradation of Natural Fiber-reinforced


Polypropylene Composites. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials,
23(3), 281298.

Tajvidi, M., & Takemura, A. (2009). Effect of Fiber Content and Type, Compatibilizer
and Heating Rate on Thermogravimetric Properties of Natural Fiber High
Density Polyethylene Composites. Polymer Composites, 30, 12261233.

Thakur, V. K., & Thakur, M. K. (2014). Processing and characterization of natural


cellulose fibers/thermoset polymer composites. Carbohydrate Polymers, 109,
102117.

Thakur, V. K., Thakur, M. K., & Gupta, R. K. (2014). Review: Raw Natural Fiber
Based Polymer Composites. International Journal of Polymer Analysis and
Characterization, 19(3), 256271.

Tisserat, B., Reifschneider, L., Joshee, N., & Finkenstadt, V. L. (2013). Evaluation of
Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites. Journal of Thermoplastic
Composite Materials, 120.

Touhtouh, S., Becquart, F., Pillon, C., & Taha, M. (2011). Effect of Compatibilization
on poly-3-caprolactone grafting onto poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol). Polymers,
3(4), 17341749.

77

Tran, L. Q. N., Fuentes, C. a., Dupont-Gillain, C., Van Vuure, a. W., & Verpoest, I.
(2013). Understanding the interfacial compatibility and adhesion of natural coir
fibre thermoplastic composites. Composites Science and Technology, 80, 2330.

Vieira, M. G. A., da Silva, M. A., dos Santos, L. O., & Beppu, M. M. (2011). Naturalbased plasticizers and biopolymer films: A review. European Polymer Journal,
47(3), 254263.

Wang, Y., & Yang, J. F. (2010). Physical properties and biodegradation of acrylic acid
grafted poly(3-caprolactone)/chitosan blends. Journal of Polymer Research,
17(2), 221232.
Wanjale, S. D., & Jog, J. P. (2011). Polyolefin-Based Natural Fiber Composites. In S.
Kalia, B. S. Kaith, & I. Kaur (Eds.), Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano-Polymer
Composites (1st ed., pp. 377398). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Xie, Y., Hill, C. a S., Xiao, Z., Militz, H., & Mai, C. (2010). Silane coupling agents
used for natural fiber/polymer composites: A review. Composites Part A: Applied
Science and Manufacturing, 41(7), 806819.

Xin, F., & Li, L. (2012). The role of silane coupling agent in carbon
nanotube/polypropylene composites. Journal of Composite Materials, 46(26),
32673275.
Xiong, Z., Yang, Y., Feng, J., Zhang, X., Zhang, C., Tang, Z., & Zhu, J. (2013).
Preparation and characterization of poly ( lactic acid )/ starch composites
toughened with epoxidized soybean oil. Carbohydrate Polymers, 92(1), 810816.

Yousif, B. F., & Ku, H. (2012). Suitability of using coir fiber/polymeric composite for
the design of liquid storage tanks. Materials and Design, 36, 847853.

78

Zhang, R., Huang, H., Yang, W., Xiao, X., & Hu, Y. (2012). Preparation and
characterization of bio-nanocomposites based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4hydroxybutyrate) and CoAl layered double hydroxide using melt intercalation.
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 43(4), 547552.

79

APPENDICES
Appendix A - Calculation for Weight of Surfactants
80

40w
100 w

For weight of HTAB and SS surfactants,

i) w = 4 wt.%,

ii) w = 8 wt.%,

iv) w = 16 wt.%

iii) w = 12 wt.%,
x

40(12)
100 (12)

5.45

v) w = 20 wt.%,
x

40(20)
100 (20)
10

For weight of SM surfactant,

i) w = 1 wt.%,

iv) w = 4 wt.%

ii) w = 2 wt.%,
x

iii) w = 3 wt.%,

40(3)
100 (3)
1.24

v) w = 5 wt.%,
x

= 81

40(5)
100 (5)
2.11

Appendix B Sample of PE/Cell/SM5

82

Appendix C Data of Stabilization Torque and Temperature


Stabilization Torque (Nm)
Biocomposites with addition of HTAB
83

0 wt.%

4 wt.%

8 wt.%

12 wt.%

16 wt.%

20 wt.%

Processing 1

18.485

14.015

13.255

Processing 2

19.805

13.935

13.105

12.285

13.36

17.975

13.495

15.225

17.775

Processing 3

18.855

15.97

13.585

13.785

15.31

16.145

Processing 4

17.085

13.91

14.25

13.83

17.395

19.41

Average

18.5575

14.4575

13.54875

13.34875

15.3225

17.82625

Biocomposites with addition of SS


0 wt.%

4 wt.%

8 wt.%

12 wt.%

16 wt.%

20 wt.%

Processing 1

18.485

14.605

15.455

17.24

19.185

20.415

Processing 2

19.805

15.055

15.675

17.26

19.37

20.525

Processing 3

18.855

15.85

16.235

17.495

19.405

20.6

Processing 4

17.085

15.975

15.685

17.455

19.22

20.54

Average

18.5575

15.37125

15.7625

17.3625

19.295

20.52

Biocomposites with addition of SM


0 wt.%

1 wt.%

2 wt.%

3 wt.%

4 wt.%

5 wt.%

Processing 1

18.485

18.1

17.29

15.79

14.95

10.385

Processing 2

19.805

18.965

16.48

15.835

14.755

11.095

Processing 3

18.855

16.775

17.695

16.305

14.645

11.28

Processing 4

17.085

17.305

18.135

15.98

14.305

10.945

Average

18.5575

17.78625

17.4

15.9775

14.66375

10.92625

8 wt.%

12 wt.%

16 wt.%

20 wt.%

Stabilization Temperature (C)


Biocomposites with addition of HTAB
0 wt.%

4 wt.%

84

Processing 1

168.7

167.3

158.5

158.4

159.9

160.7

Processing 2

167.6

164.2

159.5

159.2

161.2

164.7

Processing 3

168.3

159.7

159.1

158.4

159

163.7

Processing 4

169.6

159.7

159.1

159

160.2

163.9

Average

168.55

162.725

159.05

158.75

160.075

163.25

Biocomposites with addition of SS


0 wt.%

4 wt.%

8 wt.%

12 wt.%

16 wt.%

20 wt.%

Processing 1

168.7

162.2

161.5

165

168.4

170.7

Processing 2

167.6

162.4

162.6

164.7

168.2

170.8

Processing 3

168.3

162.5

163.2

164.6

168.3

170.8

Processing 4

169.6

162.3

163

164.6

168.5

171.2

Average

168.55

162.35

162.575

164.725

168.35

170.875

Biocomposites with addition of SM


0 wt.%

1 wt.%

2 wt.%

3 wt.%

4 wt.%

5 wt.%

Processing 1

168.7

166.5

164.4

163.1

161.8

157.4

Processing 2

167.6

166.7

164.7

162.6

161.3

158.1

Processing 3

168.3

165.3

165.8

163.1

161.2

158.3

Processing 4

169.6

168

165.5

163.1

161.1

158.3

Average

168.55

166.625

165.1

162.975

161.35

158.025

Appendix D Data of Tensile and Impact Test

Formula of Average

85

Formula of Standard Deviation

= mean of properties
= standard deviation
i)

xi = value of the properties


N = number of samples

Control sample ( 0 wt.% of surfactant)

Tensile strength
(Mpa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

2.814

207.07

1.575

3.7

2.401

213.696

1.058

3.64

2.54

197.012

1.48

3.61

2.69

264.372

1.254

3.54

2.604

279.213

1.42

3.53

2.739

227.928

1.253

3.51

2.6

218.31

1.383

3.48

2.635

224.212

1.546

3.77

2.555

254.143

1.867

3.76

10
Averag
e

2.516

255.552

1.362

3.74

2.609

234.151

1.42

3.628

0.118

27.328

0.22

0.11

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

0.925

3.85

Sample

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, HTAB


ii) 4 wt.% of HTAB

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

2.571

229.805

(MPa)

86

2.527

235.797

0.879

3.72

2.662

248.589

0.872

3.66

2.457

229.305

0.865

3.63

2.809

242.905

0.833

3.61

2.937

275.839

0.839

3.59

2.787

241.246

0.734

3.55

2.564

228.432

0.825

3.41

2.874

276.721

0.85

3.29

10
Averag
e

2.799

277.442

0.858

3.11

2.699

248.608

0.848

3.542

0.164

20.405

0.049

0.217

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

3.48

243.783

0.933

3.65

3.279

262.964

0.925

3.64

3.218

280.561

0.858

3.56

3.386

318.488

0.817

3.54

2.754

277.783

0.775

3.5

2.652

246.549

0.75

3.5

3.086

272.837

0.749

3.49

2.738

253.833

0.744

3.44

3.037

274.034

0.717

3.41

10
Averag
e

3.444

285.499

0.717

3.31

3.107

271.633

0.798

3.504

0.306

21.881

0.081

0.103

Standard Deviation

iii) 8 wt.% of HTAB

Sample

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

iv) 12 wt.% of HTAB

87

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

3.456

347.479

0.833

3.29

3.679

291.934

0.775

3.23

3.653

265.035

0.892

3.23

2.904

242.327

0.755

3.21

2.81

267.606

0.683

3.21

3.187

290.078

0.757

3.12

2.96

290.178

0.783

3.05

3.397

335.826

0.741

3.02

3.456

347.479

0.833

2.99

10
Averag
e

3.228

256.766

0.671

2.98

3.273

293.471

0.772

3.133

0.307

38.142

0.068

0.115

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

2.9

272.564

0.535

2.877

292.548

0.55

2.95

3.098

291.482

0.483

2.94

2.88

302.644

0.508

2.87

3.082

280.532

0.533

2.86

2.799

257.854

0.642

2.85

2.73

288.994

0.525

2.84

3.058

288.228

0.571

2.76

2.627

251.029

0.574

2.65

10
Averag
e

3.035

307

0.716

2.65

2.909

283.288

0.564

2.837

0.16

18.126

0.069

0.119

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

v) 16 wt.% of HTAB

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

vi) 20 wt.% of HTAB

88

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

2.812

277.600

0.619

2.520

2.892

301.658

0.512

2.460

2.870

270.325

0.533

2.380

2.640

369.499

0.475

2.310

2.730

210.923

0.533

2.220

2.885

248.409

0.450

2.160

2.753

315.661

0.367

2.100

2.742

226.665

0.610

2.090

2.938

335.452

0.408

2.040

10
Averag
e

2.653

218.984

0.609

2.010

2.792

277.518

0.512

2.229

0.104

52.916

0.087

0.180

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

2.375

180.748

0.983

3.730

2.367

192.394

0.797

3.700

2.425

219.528

0.892

3.670

2.591

229.587

0.900

3.600

2.482

196.538

0.869

3.200

2.641

246.924

0.882

3.190

2.293

228.674

0.839

3.140

2.260

194.323

1.017

3.130

2.012

177.714

1.000

3.010

10
Averag
e

2.210

214.234

0.908

2.990

2.365

208.066

0.909

3.336

0.186

23.099

0.071

0.301

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

Sodium Stearate, SS
vii) 4 wt.% of SS

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

viii) 8 wt.% of SS
89

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

2.418

197.515

0.800

3.430

2.310

205.276

0.783

3.280

2.455

209.974

0.900

3.180

2.519

200.905

0.842

3.090

2.271

194.594

1.093

3.000

2.172

220.897

0.900

2.980

2.251

193.733

0.783

2.940

2.246

200.960

0.733

2.940

2.287

202.333

0.832

2.930

10
Averag
e

2.521

210.643

0.793

2.920

2.345

203.683

0.846

3.069

0.124

8.323

0.101

0.175

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

2.570

194.093

0.508

3.390

2.472

177.066

0.975

2.910

2.320

214.918

0.540

2.900

2.268

194.070

0.733

2.860

2.121

183.586

0.637

2.750

2.570

194.093

0.508

2.720

2.161

201.088

0.567

2.720

2.113

183.218

0.675

2.680

2.153

203.241

0.741

2.670

10
Averag
e

2.403

217.798

0.683

2.620

2.315

196.317

0.657

2.822

0.181

13.322

0.142

0.223

Standard Deviation

ix)

(MPa)

12 wt.% of SS

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

90

x)

16 wt.% of SS

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

2.361

185.517

0.617

3.110

2.550

225.746

0.492

2.940

2.340

186.297

0.651

2.930

2.654

200.741

0.608

2.910

2.211

187.065

0.584

2.830

2.182

186.953

0.585

2.680

2.449

185.845

0.655

2.530

2.468

207.239

0.517

2.500

1.946

196.579

0.578

2.390

10
Averag
e

1.780

181.512

0.550

2.360

2.294

194.349

0.584

2.718

0.271

13.685

0.053

0.262

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

1.860

215.373

0.434

2.950

2.062

214.646

0.467

2.770

1.961

208.662

0.417

2.750

2.083

206.236

0.542

2.710

1.861

204.660

0.492

2.690

2.243

201.489

0.450

2.510

1.982

191.785

0.500

2.380

2.216

186.631

0.667

2.340

2.459

175.973

0.576

2.260

10
Averag
e

1.388

137.093

0.408

2.250

2.012

194.255

0.495

2.561

0.287

23.663

0.081

0.245

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

xi)20 wt.% of SS

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

91

Sorbitan Monostearate, SM
xii) 1 wt.% of SM

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

1.996

227.310

1.719

4.290

3.199

240.145

1.718

4.280

2.208

264.016

1.368

4.260

2.281

201.687

1.659

4.240

2.114

192.814

1.650

4.180

2.876

245.887

1.809

4.170

2.953

208.165

1.631

4.150

2.482

196.234

1.600

4.110

2.945

180.225

1.597

4.100

10
Averag
e

2.545

184.722

1.492

3.990

2.560

214.120

1.624

4.177

0.413

28.533

0.124

0.095

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus (MPa)

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

2.848

249.264

1.276

4.530

2.504

185.571

1.755

4.500

2.035

282.945

1.725

4.410

2.517

236.595

2.133

4.360

2.454

161.754

1.683

4.250

1.977

148.126

1.675

4.230

2.044

181.296

1.508

4.120

3.137

247.044

1.490

4.070

2.288

195.455

2.006

4.120

10

2.045

194.201

1.442

3.900

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

xiii)2 wt.% of SM

92

Averag
e

2.385

208.225

1.669

4.249

0.387

43.396

0.259

0.202

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus
(MPa)

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

2.366

167.515

2.089

4.600

2.350

162.961

2.108

4.490

2.715

229.491

1.675

4.440

2.825

234.253

1.592

4.420

1.689

269.222

1.575

4.400

2.253

141.029

2.251

4.400

2.160

166.676

1.392

4.380

2.535

265.145

1.383

4.370

2.146

188.788

1.350

4.350

10
Averag
e

2.090

200.554

1.281

4.330

2.313

202.563

1.670

4.418

0.329

44.912

0.355

0.079

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus (MPa)

Sample

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

1.828

211.289

1.608

4.680

1.956

192.958

1.602

4.670

2.197

175.927

2.183

4.590

1.663

192.179

1.533

4.580

2.102

225.719

1.533

4.550

1.960

187.410

1.505

4.530

1.807

176.996

1.433

4.500

2.616

221.143

1.967

4.490

Standard Deviation

xiv)3 wt.% of SM

Standard Deviation

xv)4 wt.% of SM

93

2.107

182.748

2.023

4.480

10
Averag
e

2.306

194.193

1.842

4.450

2.054

196.056

1.723

4.552

0.276

17.606

0.260

0.078

Sample

Tensile strength
(MPa)

Modulus

Tensile Extension
(mm/mm)

Impact Strength
(kJ/m2)

1.914

204.887

1.327

4.400

1.865

192.176

1.650

4.390

1.809

162.035

1.867

4.360

1.963

181.457

1.557

4.310

1.817

156.880

1.891

4.280

1.914

161.541

1.836

4.270

2.276

217.088

1.742

4.260

1.778

185.131

1.683

4.240

2.122

182.918

1.666

4.200

10
Averag
e

2.149

224.316

1.660

4.200

1.961

186.843

1.688

4.291

0.167

23.271

0.166

0.073

Standard Deviation

xvi)5 wt.% of SM

Standard Deviation

(MPa)

94

BIODATA OF STUDENT
AHMAD KHUZAIRI BIN SUDARI was born on 18 th of January 1990 in Johor Bahru.
He received the B.Eng.Tech degree in Polymer from University Kuala Lumpur
Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology (UniKL MICET), in
year 2013. Currently, he is a lecturer in School of Mechanical Engineering at
Technology Park Malaysia College, Kuala Lumpur. He had enrolled as a M.Sc. in
Biocomposites Technology student in Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products
(INTROP) since September 2013, and also working part time as a research assistant
under supervision of Assoc. Prof. Dr. Edi Syams Zainudin and Dr Ahmad Adlie bin
Shamsuri. His current research interest includes Polymer Science and Technology, and
Composite Technology.

95

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

Sudari, A. K., Shamsuri, A. A., Zainudin, E. S., & Tahir, P. M. (2015). Exploration on
compatibilizing effect of non-ionic, anionic and cationic surfactants on
mechanical, morphological and chemical properties of high density
polyethylene/low density polyethylene/cellulose biocomposites. Journal of
Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 130. doi: 10.1177/ 0892705715614064

96

UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA


STATUS CONFIRMATION FOR THESIS / PROJECT REPORT
AND COPYRIGHT
ACADEMIC SESSION : ________________
TITLE OF THESIS / PROJECT REPORT :
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
NAME OF STUDENT :
__________________________________________________
I acknowledge that the copyright and other intellectual property in the
thesis/project report belonged to Universiti Putra Malaysia and I agree to allow
this thesis/project report to be placed at the library under the following terms:
1. This thesis/project report is the property of Universiti Putra Malaysia.
2. The library of Universiti Putra Malaysia has the right to make copies for
educational purposes only.

97

3. The library of Universiti Putra Malaysia is allowed to make copies of this


thesis for academic exchange.
I declare that this thesis is classified as:
*Please tick ( )
CONFIDENTIAL

(Contain confidential information under Official


Secret Act 1972).

RESTRICTED

(Contains restricted information as specified


by the organization/institution where research
was done).

OPEN ACCESS

I agree that my thesis/project report to be


published as hard copy or online open access.

This thesis is submitted for:


PATENT

Embargo from _____________ until


____________
(date)
(date)
Approved by:

________________________
(Signature of Student)
New IC No/ Passport No.:

____________________
(Signature of Chairman
of Supervisory Committee)
Name:

Date :
Date :
[Note : If the thesis is CONFIDENTIAL or RESTRICTED, please attach with
the letter from the organization/institution with period and reasons for
confidentially or restricted. ]

98