Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6




Khairussaadah Binti Misnan (A137116)


You are given a task by the mayor of your hometown (Muar) to evaluate and give suggestion on how
to plan the town in accordance with Local Agenda 21.
Humanity stands at defining moment in history. We are confronting with inter-nation inequalities,
worsening poverty, hunger, health problems and illiteracy, and constant deterioration of ecosystem
where our lives depended on. However, attention and care taken in integration of the environment and
development could protect the basic needs, increase the quality of lives for everyone, protects and
provide a better and safer ecosystem, for a brighter future.- Introduction of Agenda 21
Agenda 21 is a global action plan for sustainable development for the 21st century. It was announced
during the declaration of Earth Summit held at Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 1992 and attended by 178
countries including Malaysia. The plan contains 40 chapters explaining necessary actions need to be
taken for a sustainable development.
Sustainable development is a process that aims to meet the needs of the present generation without
harming the rights of future generation to meet their needs. It covers not only about particular
environmental issues but also about economic progress which meets all our needs without leaving the
future generations with fewer resources than we enjoy. A sustainable development often demands
changes in lifestyle as if we were to continue living by using up non-renewable resources, or continue
to pollute and waste, the quality of life will surely find it way down.
This report aims to provide suggestions on how a town can be planned according to the guideline
introduced in the Agenda 21.

3.1. Section 1: Social and Economic Dimensions

Promoting sustainable development through trade

An open, equitable, secure, and non-discriminatory trading system that is consistent with the
goals of sustainable development will bring benefit to all trading partners. Moreover, a trading
policy that integrated with environmental policies would have positive impact and therefore make
an important contribution towards sustainable development of the city.

This goal can be achieved by creating a domestic environment supportive of an optimal balance
between production for the domestic and export market. By focusing on local productions and
sustainable utilization of natural resources available, export dependency can be reduced and thus
a more sustainable trading activity can be of practice to the city.

Combating poverty
Main objective is to enable all people in the city to achieve sustainable livelihood. Steps to
achieve the main goal can be further classified into three steps of action. First and foremost is to
identify the group of resident that is classified as, poor or in need. Next, these resident should be
provided with the basics of living including access to clean water, sanitation and education. As a
final action in ensuring this group to live a sound life, an employment program should be
provided to ensure that the potential lies within this group of resident make contribution to the
citys development and at the same time benefit themselves.

Changing consumption patterns

This area of matter aims to promote patterns of consumption and production that reduce
environment al stress and develop a better understanding of the role of consumption. In
achieving this aim, the authority can introduce rules and regulation that encourage resident to
practice a better consumption of resources. Such regulation can be of providing the best possible
recycling facilities or even imposing charges to homes that exceed sustainable energy usage limit.
Apart from introduction of rules and regulation, an educational approach should also be taken to
ensure peoples understanding of the concept of sustainable consumption and how important is
their role in achieving this highly beneficial goal.

Protecting and promoting human health

Apart from providing health facilities to accommodate the citys need, the authority can avoid to
bare the charges of health services by tackling the problem from the very beginning. This can be
achieved by controlling the food consumption of the city. A policy that allow only healthy and
beneficial food to be sold in stores around the city can be introduced to ensure the health of the
citys resident.

3.2. Section 2: Conservation and Management of Resources for Development

Combating deforestation
Although considered as one of the biggest city in the state, there are still plenty of unexplored
forest area within the citys vicinity. Owning such area is considered as a form of luxury in this
era of globalization and development. Apart from that, protecting the forest will also ensure

problems such as flash flood and increase in environments temperature to be avoided. Hence, an
extreme measure in combating deforestation should be included in the planning of this city. Such
measure can include declaration of certain area as a protected forest or tightly limit and monitor
activities of forest exploration for the purpose of resources extraction. What most important is
implementation of a principle to really balance development and land use in order to provide best
services to the people without killing the forest.

Managing fragile ecosystem: promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development

Aside from focusing on the development in the city, attention should also be given to the rural
area which represent almost 60% of the total area. As of today, agricultural activities are only
monitored in term of production and selling price of the crops. Plantation management was solely
depended on the farmer and poor management of land can cause problem in the future. Hence, a
standard layout of a plantation can be introduced which contain systematic irrigation, drainage
and waste disposal. In order to protect the chemical constitution of the land, a control in usage of
fertilizer may be introduced as well.

Protection of the quality and supplies of freshwater resources

Water is the most important form of necessity to ensure a sound and sustainable life. Currently
blessed with reliable quality and supply of freshwater, the authority needs to implement actions in
maintaining the current situation. This can include regular checks on the water quality and
monitoring of the river activities.

Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage related issues

The disposal of solid waste has been following the same traditional way which consist of
recycling and disposal of general waste. An approach of waste separation can be included in the
plan to promote more environmentally sound management of solid waste. As a regulatory body, a
systematic approach that starts at homes can be induced by providing standardized bin that allow
easy separation of waste. These bin can then makes it easier for the wastes to be transported to its
final disposal site according to their designated groups. This approach can allow waste product to
be benefited to the maximum level (for the purpose of recycling or composting).

3.3. Section 3: Strengthening the Role of Major Groups

Agenda 21 states that Education is critical for promoting sustainable development and improving
the capacity of the people to address environment and development issues. This in other words
means that the success of Agenda 21 relies heavily on education and public awareness as well as
training programs. To ensure contribution of each and every resident from every level in every

aspect of development including sharing of ideas and specialty, a proper and registered
association for each groups can be introduced. This will ensure proper passage of information or
complaints in both directions i.e authority to the people and vice versa. These groups of people


Children and youth

Non-governmental organizations

Business and industry

3.4. Section 4: Means of Implementation

Financial resources and mechanisms

In general, the financing for the implementation of Agenda 21 should come from the regional or
state development funds as well as our own public and private sectors. Nonetheless, an
opportunity of financial resource coming prom private funding or local funds can also be
considered. Another form of funding is through loans from development banks. And better yet,
local authority can gather potential investor that is related to the framework of the citys
development. For instance, in agricultural technology.

Promoting education, public awareness and training

Education, raising of public awareness and training are linked to virtually all areas in Agenda 21.
Programs that can be included are:

Reorienting education towards sustainable development: As a small city in comparison to the

national education scheme, an introduction of environmental classes which focus on
promoting sustainable development and improving the peoples capacity to address
environmental issues can be implemented by stages. As a start, authority can introduce small
classes at regional level targeting local youths. The plan can then propagate to the national

Increasing public awareness: There is still considerable lack of awareness of the interrelated
nature of all human activities and environment due to inaccurate or insufficient information.
Aside from stimulation of educational establishment regarding the matter, authority should
establish ways of employing modern communication technologies for effective public
outreach. Use of all media including newspaper, boards, and activities to educate and address
environmental issues to the people should be taken into consideration. In achieving these, a

regulatory body or an association designated specifically to handle the matter should be


Promote training: Training is one of the most important tools to develop human resources and
facilitate the transition to a more sustainable living. It should have a job-specific focus, aimed
to fill the gaps in knowledge and skill that would help individuals find employment and be
involved in environmental and development work. Introduction of new program in this field
may not be necessary. Instead, the presently available program could be improved by
injecting values in promoting awareness of environment and development issues as a two
way learning process.