an Analytical Model of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer for Slug Flow in a Single Circular Horizontal Micro-Channel

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an Analytical Model of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer for Slug Flow in a Single Circular Horizontal Micro-Channel

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IMECE2012

November 9-15, 2012, Houston, Texas, USA

IMECE2012-87468

IN A SINGLE CIRCULAR HORIZONTAL MICRO-CHANNEL

Amen M. Younes

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

am_youn@encs.concordia.ca

ABSTRACT

Slug flow is one of the most common flow patterns that

occur during flow boiling in horizontal micro-channels. In the

present work, an analytical model of flow boiling heat transfer

is developed for slug flow in a single circular horizontal microchannel under a uniform heat flux. The heat transfer is affected

mainly by the liquid film thickness confined between the vapor

slug and the channel wall. For more physical and reliable flow

boiling heat transfer model, the liquid film thickness variation

and pressure gradient effects on the flow boiling heat transfer

coefficient are considered. The influence of vapor quality on

heat transfer coefficient, vapor velocity and liquid film velocity

is studied. The model is constructed based on the conservation

equations of the separated two phase flow. The interphase

surface is assumed to be smooth and the flow is a laminar flow.

The obtained model applied for flow boiling of R-134a

refrigerant in the slug flow at a narrow vapor quality

range (0.0 < < 0.1). The heat transfer coefficient showed a

high increase close to the low vapor quality while decreases

gradually after the peak. Furthermore, the vapor velocity

increases linearly by increasing the vapor quality while, the

liquid film velocity decreases.

NOMENCLATURE

Boiling number.

Capillary number.

Confinement number.

diameter, .

bubble frequency, .

friction factor.

mass flux, 2 . .

saturated liquid enthalpy.

saturated vapor enthalpy.

heat transfer coefficient, 2 . .

length, .

Ibrahim Hassan

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

ibrahimh@alcor.concordia.ca

mass flow rate, .

Prandtl number.

inner channel perimeter, .

interfacial surface perimeter.

pressure.

heat flux, 2 .

Reynolds number.

ui interfacial velocity, .

u vapor velocity, .

u liquid film velocity, .

u liquid slug velocity, .

vapor quality.

Weber number.

Greek symbols

area void fraction.

mass flow rate per unit length, /. .

liquid film thickness, .

dynamic viscosity, . /2 .

density, 3 .

surface tension, /.

shear stress, 2 .

Subscripts

bubble.

critical.

convective boiling dominant.

hydraulic.

inlet.

liquid slug.

LO liquid only.

nucleate boiling dominant.

o

initial.

outlet.

saturated.

two phase.

wall.

INTRODUCTION

Flow boiling in micro-channels is an essential option for

cooling high heat flux micro-devices. Developing thermal

design guidelines for flow boiling in micro-channels is needed.

Flow boiling in micro-channels is distinguished by its unique

flow patterns. The latter are categorized into three main

common flow patterns which are bubbly flow, slug flow, and

annular flow. Slug flow usually occurs at low and intermediate

vapor quality range. This flow pattern plays a significant role in

heat transfer enhancement in two-phase flow in microchannels.

Slug flow is characterized by a travelling train consists of

various elongated bubbles separated by liquid slugs. The

elongated bubble is surrounded by a thin liquid film confined

by the channel surface. By browsing the literature, one can see

many experimental and few analytical studies for flow boiling

in micro-channels have been performed in the last three

decades. Four major design parameters were conducted in most

of the previous studies, flow boiling heat transfer coefficient,

frictional pressure drop, critical heat flux and flow pattern map.

Moriyama and Inoue [1] investigated experimentally

adiabatic flow pattern, pressure drop and heat transfer for twophase boiling flow of R-113 in very narrow passages with size

of 35 110 m and proposed a phenomenological model of

boiling in micro-channels. According to their experimental

results, a sharp rising in heat transfer coefficient was observed

in the single-phase region at low quality range [0-0.1], while

there was not a significant change in heat transfer coefficient in

the two-phase region in terms of vapor quality. Additionally, the

order of two-phase heat transfer coefficient was 2 to 20 times

higher than that of the liquid single-phase flow. This range

narrows by decreasing channel size. Meanwhile, they revealed

that the heat transfer coefficient decreases by increasing

Capillary number at low range of values and increases

at high range of Ca values.

Moreover, they developed analytical models for the twophase multiplier of frictional pressure drop lv and two-phase

heat transfer coefficient prediction for low quality region; slug

flow; and high quality region; film flow. In slug flow model,

they neglected the interaction between elongated bubble and

liquid slug, but considered the drag force effect. Thus, the

model underestimated the experimental data that were used in

comparison. Regard to the liquid-film region, the heat transfer

model was developed based on the liquid-film evaporation and

considering the significance of surface tension effect. The

average liquid film velocity, interfacial velocity, interfacial

shear stress, two-phase multiplier and two-phase pressure drop

were derived and presented in terms of ( ) ratio for the film

flow and elongated bubble regions. Their predicted values and

the experimental data were in a good agreement.

Jacobi and Thome [2] proposed a heat transfer model for

the evaporation of the elongated bubble in slug flow regime in

micro channels. The thin-film evaporation was considered as a

dominant heat transfer mechanism. The model predicts the

local heat transfer coefficient for the elongated bubble/liquid

slug pair in a circular micro channel and it is dependent of two

analytically; the initial liquid film thickness and the

nucleation critical radius . The thin liquid film was assumed

to be a uniform in the slug pair. The authors used the

conduction-limited model of Plesset and Zwick [3] to estimate

the time required for creating two bubble/slug pairs which is

used for bubble frequency prediction. In addition, the model

was developed by applying the void fraction equation, mass

and energy conservation equations on the bubble/liquid slug

pair. The authors neglected the heat transfer to the laminar

liquid slug compare to the elongated bubble. Thus, their model

considered only the significance of the elongated bubble zone

for heat transfer process. Furthermore, the model was

confronted to experimental data obtained by Bao et al [4] for R11, with initial liquid film thickness o = 12.5 m and

Teff = 28 K within an average relative error less than 10 %.

Meanwhile, the authors correlated other experimental data

points for R-12 performed by Tran et al. [5] and the model

predicted their data with an average deviation less than 13% for

Teff = 23 K and o = 20 m. In general, their model was able

to predict the effects of psat ,q , G and x on the heat transfer

coefficient in the elongated bubble zone with a reasonable

agreement depending on the estimated values of Teff , and o .

Qu and Mudawar [6] Part I investigated experimentally

the measurement and prediction of saturated flow boiling heat

transfer coefficient in rectangular cross-sectional microchannels applied for a water-cooled heat sink consists of 12

micro-channels. The cross section size was 231 713 m. A

decrease in heat transfer coefficient when the vapor quality

increases was observed in a low vapor quality range.

Furthermore, a sudden transition to annular flow mode was

observed also close to the low vapor quality range. Six

correlations originally developed for macro-cannels and five

others developed for mini-micro channels were used by the

authors for confronting their experimental data. Most of

correlations used in comparison were developed based on

domination of nucleate boiling except the one proposed by Lee

and Lee [7] which was developed based on the principle of

forced convective boiling domination. Besides, the tested fluids

were different as well. Thus, neither the macro-channel

correlation nor the mini-micro channel correlation captured the

measured heat transfer coefficient trend which showed a

decreasing in flow boiling heat transfer coefficient when vapor

quality increases. This was attributed due to the influence of

entrained droplets deposition occurs in annular flow mode.

Above all, the authors revealed that forced convective boiling is

the dominant heat transfer mechanism for annular flow boiling

in micro-channels.

Following their work in Part I, Qu and Mudawar [8] Part

II, developed an analytical flow boiling heat transfer model for

annular flow in micro-channels. The onset of annular flow in

horizontal tubes was estimated to be in a very low vapor quality

range of [0.006 0.0064] based on a correlation developed

by Taitel and Duckler [9] that was dependent of Martinelli

parameter. In the meantime, the model was established based

on applying conservation equations of the mass and momentum

for two domains, the liquid film and the vapor core including

the entrained droplets. Both domains were assumed to be

laminar and obtained equations were developed and solved

numerically based on a tentative initial value of liquid film

thickness. The principle of heat transfers conduction through

the thin liquid film was adopted for predicting heat transfer

coefficient. Above all, the model was confronted to all saturated

flow boiling experimental data obtained by the authors in part I

for water-cooled system and the data was captured with 40 %

error and MAE of 13.3 %.

Kandlikar and Balasubramanian [10] reviewed a heat

transfer correlation developed by Kandlikar [11,12] for flow

boiling in conventional size channels and they extended the

correlation to be applicable for laminar and transition flow

boiling in mini and micro-channels with a good verification of

the correlation validity. The extended correlation was presented

as follows,

, = 0.6683 0.2 (1 )0.8

+ 1058.0 0.7 (1 )0.8

(1)

, = 1.136 0.9 (1 )0.8

+ 667.2 0.7 (1 )0.8

(2)

Where hTP,NBD and hTP,CBD refer to the two phase heat

transfer coefficients for the nucleate boiling dominant and

convective boiling dominant respectively. The fluid surface

parameter is represented by FFl . They revealed that the larger of

the two values hTP,NBD and hTP,CBD is the total heat transfer

coefficient hTP for the boiling in mini-channels (200m d <

3000m) while for the micro-channels (1m d < 100m)

where ReLO 100 as it was classified by the authors, the total

heat transfer coefficient hTP = hTP,NBD considering the nucleate

boiling is the dominant heat transfer mechanism. The

correlation was confronted to the experimental data of Yen et

al. [13] with an average deviation of 17.3 %. It was observed

that the heat transfer coefficient trend versus vapor quality for

low ReLO showed decreasing in heat transfer coefficient by

increasing the vapor quality in the high quality range.

Meanwhile, the single phase heat transfer coefficient for liquid,

, can be calculated as presented in Kandlikar [11].

One of the common models of flow boiling heat transfer in

micro-channels is the three-zone model developed by Thome et

al. [14]. The three zones are classified as the vapor slug, the

elongated bubble, and the liquid slug. The thin liquid film

trapped between the elongated bubble and the channel wall was

modeled as well. Besides, they presented the model as an

equation predicts the time-average local heat transfer

coefficient of flow boiling in this regime; slug flow regime. The

heat transfer coefficient of each zone was analyzed and the

time-averaged heat transfer coefficient for one period of pair

generation was calculated based on the time that was

predicted using the model of Plesset and Zwick [3] for bubble

growth radius.

2

= 1 = [ ] (12 )

(3)

Where , is a parameter represents the liquid thermal

diffusivity. Further, the authors developed a correlation for

Moriyama and Inoue [15] using R-113 database and it was

presented as follows.

0.84

1

o

= C (3

)

Up d

d

(4)

factor. The model includes three empirical parameters ,

and which were optimized in extended work by Dupont et

al. [16] where it captured 70 % of 1591 experimental database

points within 30%.

It is of interest to note that the bubble frequency has an

essential effect on heat transfer coefficient in intermittent flow

regime. Ribatski et al. [17] studied the combined effect of

elongated bubble frequency and flow pattern on the heat

transfer coefficient for flow boiling in micro-scale passages.

They performed their study based on two main previous

studies. The first is the three-zone model for the micro-scale

channels in elongated bubble/slug flow regime published by

Thome et al. [14]. Second, they utilized the flow pattern map

for convective evaporation inside the micro-channels proposed

by Revellin [18] to separate experimental database of the

Acetone for elongated bubble flow regime and compared it

with that obtained by the three-zone model using the new

proposed values of the empirical parameters suggested before.

The new proposed values are = 0.40, = 0.1 , =

4653, = 1.70 and = 0.5. For the chosen experimental

database, it was found that, the three-zone model with the new

proposed empirical parameters, captured 90% of the flow

boiling database of the acetone within 30 %. However, the

reason of increase or decrease some of the proposed empirical

parameters is still unclear.

Later, Consolini and Thome [19] proposed an analytical

one dimensional heat transfer model for coalescing bubbles

flow in micro-channels subjected to a uniform heat flux. They

considered the effects of bubble coalescing dynamics and the

liquid slug mass fraction placed to liquid film during the

coalescence. The interfacial shear stress was considered as a

dominant parameter controlling the thin film movement.

However, the pressure drop effect on liquid film thickness was

not taken into account. The basic developed equation describes

transient film thickness variation in terms of flow direction was

as,

(, ) =

(5)

2

Furthermore, two main relations that describe the liquid

film thickness at the tail and the bubble nose were developed.

The model is mainly dependent of vapor quality boundaries

prediction for coalescence bubble mode ( ) which

was evaluated using a diabatic flow pattern map developed by

Ong and Thome [20]. Additionally, the conditions where the

liquid film thickness is stable or unstable at the tail and the

bubble nose were analyzed based on the value of the nondimensional mass flux parameter . The diabatic flow pattern

boundaries for R134a were estimated as,

= 0.763( )0.39

0.39

(6)

= 0.00014 ( (134) )

(7)

Where , is the coalescence vapor quality and , is the

annular vapor quality. The obtained model still includes some

parameters that are estimated based on empirical correlations

such as the maximum bubble frequency , and the liquid

slug fraction placed to the liquid film . The model was

confronted to 980 database points for the coalescence bubble

regime for different refrigerants and fluids. The best results

obtained by the model were for R134a data points, where 93 %

of the database points were captured with 30% error band.

The obtained trend for the average heat transfer coefficient in

this mode showed a decrease in heat transfer coefficient in the

neighborhood close to coalescence vapor quality and then

increases when the vapor quality increases. It is of importance

to mention to the presented expression of the bubble nose

location with respect to time that was recommended by the

authors for future researches particularly for varying heat flux

applications.

It is known that the elongated bubble zone in slug flow

regime represents the major characteristic of this regime.

Further, investigation the bubble velocity and its length

variation is a crucial aspect in modeling this flow pattern. The

elongated vapor bubble length effects on its relative velocity for

the flow boiling of R134a in two horizontal micro-channels

with sizes of 509 m and 790 m, in a low vapor quality range

of 0.02 to 0.19 were investigated experimentally by Agostini et

al. [21]. In addition, they proposed a theoretical model

describes the relation between the relative velocity of elongated

bubble and its length. They observed that the relative bubble

velocity ( ) increases by increasing the bubble length

until a certain bubble length where there is no a significant

change in the bubble velocity. The bubble relative velocity

increases when the channel size increases. The proposed

theoretical model was stated as follow:

2

1 (

)

.

=

(8)

1 + ( )

2

Where

= 4 . .

(9)

Co is the confinement number and C is an empirical factor

optimized as C = 0.58 for R134a.The authors confronted the

model to 484 data points obtained experimentally for R-134a

and it captured 90 % of the data within 20 % and

MAE of 8.9 %. The model can be useful for predicting bubble

frequency and transitional vapor quality range of the pattern

flow map for flow boiling in micro-channels.

Additional experimental investigation on the elongated

bubble hydrodynamic characteristics was performed by

Revellin et al. [22] where they collected 440 experimental data

and studied the relation between the elongated bubble velocity

and its length for R134-a flowing in a micro-tube with size of

= 509 for a wide range of operating conditions. In

addition they consider the effects of vapor quality, the inlet sub-

on the elongated bubble velocity. They confronted their

experimental data to the model proposed by Agostini et al. [21]

where the model predicted 92 % of the data within =

14 %. They conclude that the elongated bubble velocity

increases with increasing the vapor quality and the bubble

length while decreases by increasing the saturation temperature.

Meanwhile, the micro-evaporator length did not show any

significant influence on the bubble velocity.

In this work, a flow boiling heat transfer model for a slug

flow regime in a circular micro-channel was developed based

on separated flow model. The obtained differential equations

were solved numerically for the refrigerant R-134a. The heat

transfer coefficient, mean liquid film velocity, and vapor core

velocity in terms of vapor quality were presented.

MODEL ANALYSIS

Heat transfer mechanisms for flow boiling in microchannels have been studied widely, as in Ref. Kandlikar [23]

and Thome and Consolini [24]. In general, there is an

agreement that the dominant heat transfer mechanism for slug

flow regime in micro-channels is the convective film

evaporation and the major heat transfer occurs in this zone

rather than the liquid slug zone. Thus, in this problem, the

elongated bubble zone is modeled using two-phase separated

flow model while the liquid slug zone is considered as a liquid

single phase. The following assumptions are the current and

previous assumptions that have been adopted for simplifying

the slug flow problem analysis:

1. The flow is a one dimensional steady fully developed flow

boiling and The model domain is discretized into two

zones. The elongated bubble zone and the liquid slug zone

as depicted in Fig. (1).

2. The elongated bubble zone is considered as a two-phase

flow and a one dimension separated flow model is applied

for this zone.

3. The liquid slug moves by a liquid velocity named as us and

this zone is treated as a single-phase flow zone.

4. The bubble moves by a mean vapor velocity named as u

and is elongated enough, thus its tail and nose effects are

neglected.

5. The liquid film trapped between the elongated bubble and

the channel wall moves by a uniform velocity named as uf

and its thickness is varied due to influence of inertia force,

interfacial stress and pressure gradient.

6. The micro-channel is subjected to a uniform and constant

heat flux.

7. The liquid slug and liquid film are at saturated status. Thus,

the liquid and vapor enthalpies derived in energy balance

are the saturated enthalpies.

8.

The body force, virtual mass, and the interfacial waves are

neglected and the interphase surface is assumed to be

smooth.

= [ ]

(2) ,

chosen and the three conservation equations, mass, momentum

and energy equations, for each phase are derived in away

similar to that presented by Ghiasiaan [25]. The chosen control

volume for deriving the mass balance equations for the vapor

core and liquid film is depicted in Fig (2). The fraction of liquid

slug flow rate feeding the liquid film is taken into account and

the mass equations of the vapor core, Eq.(10), and liquid film,

Eq.(11), can be written as follows:

[ ] =

(10)

[(1 ) ] = + ( )

(11)

the liquid slug feeding the liquid film, and it can be estimated

as,

= (1 )( )

(12)

Considering the steady flow state and adding Eq. (10) to

Eq. (11), the mass balance equation for the whole mixture can

be given as in Eq. (13).

[ + (1 ) (2 )] = 0

(13)

liquid film and vapor core phases are shown in Fig.3. Two

forces were neglected here; the body and virtual mass forces.

The body force does not have a significant effect in micro-scale

size, so it was neglected. While the virtual mass force was

neglected for model simplifications. The momentum equations

for the elongated bubble and liquid film are written as shown in

Eqs. (14) & (15) respectively.

[] +

[ 2 ] =

(14)

2

[(1 )]

[(1 ) 2 (1 ) ( ) ] =

+

(15)

by adding Eq. (14) to Eq. (15) and presented as in Eq. (16).

[ 2 +2(1 ) (1 ) 2 ] =

(16)

= []

= [(1 ) ]

=0

for applying mass balance.

[]

[ ]

[ 2 ]

[(1 )]

[(1 ) 2 ]

[]

[ ]

[ ]

[( ) ] [ ]

[ ]

[ 2 ]

[(1 )]

( )

[(1 ) 2 ]

=0

the control volume.

the liquid film in the elongated bubble zone was neglected in

energy balance equation for simplification. Thus, the energy

balance equation for the whole mixture can be represented by

Eq. (17) as,

2

2

[ ( + ) + (1 ) ( + )] =

2

2

(17)

In the elongated bubble zone, four main parameters have

been chosen as main variable parameters in terms of heated

length. These parameters are bubble phasic velocity , liquid

film velocity , pressure variation in elongated bubble zone ,

and the area void fraction . The model was established based

on the above five equations: The continuity equation of the

vapor phase; Eq. (10), the momentum equation of the vapor

phase; Eq. (14), the whole mixture basic equations, continuity

equation Eq. (13), momentum Eq. (16), and energy equation

Eq. (17). The volumetric mass transfer rate at the interphase

was substituted by = ( ) in Eq. (14). Further, the

derivation of equations was extended and organized in four

main equations as follows,

+ 2(1 )

+ ( 2 + )

=0

(18)

2

2(1 )

+

equations (18),(19),(20) and (21);

are organized and

formulated in a mass matrix form. A MATLAB code was

developed for solving the set of equations using a MATLAB

function that implements explicit Runge-Kutta method. The

obtained results are affected by the initial conditioned estimated

based on the used correlation as will be explained in the

following section.

INITIAL VALUES AND CONSTITUTIVE PARAMETERS

The parameters, wall shear stress , the interfacial shear

stress , the interfacial velocity and the wall liquid friction

factor are needed to be calculated in order to solve the

required variable parameters , , , and . Thus, the

proper correlations available in the literature are used.

Furthermore, the most sensitive initial parameter affects the

obtained results is the initial liquid film thickness. Beginning

with the interfacial parameters, the interfacial velocity is

estimated to be

= (12)( + )

(22)

While the interfacial shear stress can be calculated using the

following relation,

1

2

= ( )

(23)

2

The interfacial friction factor is predicted by employing the

correlation proposed by Wallis [26].

= (1 + 300 )

(24)

channels and the initial liquid film thickness is estimated using

a modified Taylors law presented in Aussilous and Quere [27].

( ) = (1.34 23 (1 + 1.34 2.523 ))

(25)

It is of importance to mention that Capillary number here is

calculated as = ( ) based on the superficial vapor

velocity . The initial vapor and liquid film phasic velocities

are calculated as the following,

= ( )

(26)

= [(1 ) (1 )]

(27)

Regards to the void fraction o , it should be noted that void

fraction estimation for two-phase flow in micro-channels is still

a challenge. Further, most of void fraction databases available

flow pattern. However, if the bubble nose and tail effects are

neglected as a simplification, the initial void fraction for the

elongated bubble zone can be calculated as follow,

= ( 2)2 2

(28)

The wall shear stress w is represented in terms of liquid

film velocity as given in Eq. (29).

1

= 2

(29)

2

Where , is the liquid film friction factor and is determined

in terms of liquid film Reynolds number for laminar flow

= (64 )

(30)

The hydraulic diameter used in Reynolds number can be

defined in terms of void fraction as given in Eq. (31).

= (1 )

(31)

Considering the void fraction definition given in Eq. (26)

and the liquid film Reynolds number in terms of annulus

hydraulic diameter that is given in Eq. (31), the wall shear

stress for laminar flow in the elongated bubble zone can be

presented in terms of void fraction as follows,

34

=

(32)

(1 )

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The above set of differential equations Eqs. (18), (19), (20),

and (21) are solved; numerically using a MATLAB code; for

the saturated refrigerant R-134a flows in a circular microchannel with size of D = 540 m and operating conditions

similar to that adopted by Bertsch et al. [28] for Tsat = 30

and psat = 550 kPa, G = 84 kgm2 . s , q" = 52 kWm2 ; An

average bubble length of = 30 is considered. The

obtained results are depicted and discussed as follows.

The flow boiling heat transfer coefficient is predicted by

this model for extended range of vapor quality as is shown in

Fig. 4. It can be noted that the heat transfer coefficient increases

by increasing the vapor quality in the low vapor quality region

reaching the peak at = 0.1 and then decreases gradually.

Current Model

= (19)

2

2 ( )

+ ( )

=

(20)

3

3

( + 2 )

+ (1 ) ( + 2 )

2

2

2

+ [ ( + ) ( + )]

=

(21)

2

2

+( 2 2 + 2 )

10000

9000

8000

7000

6000

5000

4000

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Vapor quality

a at =

in slug flow regime

for average bubble length =

. Comparison of the

current model with Kandlikar and Balasubramanian [10]

and Bertsch et al. [28].

Vapor velocity

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Vapor quality

0.4

0.5

liquid film velocities for flow boiling of R134-a, at =

. ,

= .

in slug flow regime for

average bubble length =

.

compared with that obtained by Revellin et al. [22] as shown in

Fig. 6. The original experimental data points were obtained for

R134-a flowing with a high mass flux = 1000 /2 . in a

micro-tube with size of 509 subjected to maximum heat

flux equal to = 81.3 /2 and saturated pressure =

770 in the low vapor quality range (0.0 < < 0.1).

The model accurately predicted bubble velocity trend.

However, it overestimated the experimental data with =

56.7%. This can be attributed to two main parameters, the

estimated fraction of mass feeds the liquid film predicted by

Eq. (12) and the initial liquid film thickness which assumed for

these operating conditions to be = 35 .

Current model

6

vapor velocity, [m/s]

developed by Kandlikar and Balasubramanian [10] and the data

base points obtained by Bertsch et al. [28] for low Reynolds

number where the nucleate boiling is dominant. It is of

importance to remind that the heat transfer coefficient is mainly

dependent of the estimated initial value of the liquid film

thickness, which is assumed to be = 18 here. The

predicted heat transfer coefficient has a trend similar to that

obtained by Bertsch et al [28], particularly at low vapor quality

range (0.0 0.1). In other words, the model predicted

well the experimental data obtained by Bertsch et al [28] within

= 8.03 % in the vapor quality range (0.0 < < 0.5).

This can be due to the fact that the model was developed

basically for the low and intermediate vapor quality range.

Meanwhile by applying Kandlikar and Balasubramanian

correlation [10] the Mean Average Error was, = 21.16 %

and showed that the heat transfer coefficient decreases fast by

increasing the vapor quality.

Fig. 5 shows the influence of vapor quality on both the

vapor mean velocity and liquid film mean velocity obtained by

the current model. It is seen that the mean vapor velocity

increases by increasing the vapor quality, while the liquid film

velocity decreases. Furthermore, the magnitude value of vapor

velocity is higher than that of the liquid film. This can be

attributed to the significant wall shear effects at low mass flux.

5

4

3

2

1

0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

Vapor quality

0.08

0.1

obtained by the current model and that one revealed by

Revellin et al. [22] for flow boiling of R134-a, at =

. ,

= .

for average bubble

length =

and initial liquid film thickness =

.

CONCLUSIONS

An analytical heat transfer model of flow boiling for slug

flow in micro-channels subjected to uniform heat flux was

developed. The influence of vapor quality on heat transfer

coefficient, vapor velocity and liquid film velocity was

addressed. The following conclusions can be drawn.

1. The heat transfer coefficient for low Reynolds number

conditions increases by increasing the vapor quality in the

low vapor quality region reaching the peak at = 0.1 and

then decreases gradually.

2. The model predicted well the experimental heat transfer

data obtained by Bertsch et al [28] at low mass flux

= 84 /2 . within = 8.03 % in the vapor

quality range (0.0 < < 0.5) employing the estimated

initial liquid film thickness = 18 .

3. The vapor velocity increases linearly by increasing the

vapor quality while the liquid film velocity decreases. The

model overestimated the vapor velocity obtained by

Revellin et al. [22] at high mass flux = 1000 /2 .

within = 56.7 % in the vapor quality range (0.0 <

< 0.1) employing the estimated initial liquid film

thickness = 35 .

4. By neglecting the average fraction mass flow feeds the

liquid film which is estimated by Eq. (12), the model may

be applicable for annular flow regime.

5. The model is needed to be developed by considering the

bubble frequency, bubble and liquid slug lengths variation

in the main model equations for more realistic and reliable

results.

REFERENCES

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Kandlikar, S. G, 1990, A general correlation for saturated

two-phase flow boiling heat transfer inside horizontal and

vertical tubes, J. of Heat Transfer, Vol.112, pp. 219-228.

Kandlikar, S. G., 1991, A model for predicting the twophase flow boiling heat transfer coefficient in augmented

tube and compact heat exchanger geometries, J. of Heat

Transfer, Vol. 113, pp. 966972.

Yen, T., Kasagi, N., and Suzuki, Y., 2003, Forced

convective boiling heat transfer in microtubes at low mass

and heat fluxes, Int. J. of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 29, pp.

17711792.

Thome, J. R., Dupont, V., and Jacobi, A. M., 2004, Heat

transfer model for evaporation in micro channels-Part I:

presentation of the model, Int. J. of Heat and Mass

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film formed by a growing bubble in a narrow gap between

two horizontal plates, J. of Heat Transfer, Vol. 118,

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[16] Dupont, V., Thome, J. R., and Jacobi, A. M., 2004, Heat

transfer model for evaporation in microchannels-Part II:

comparison with the database, Int. J. of Heat and Mass

Transfer, Vol.47, pp.33873401.

[17] Ribatski, G., Zhang, W., Consolini, L., Xu, J. and Thome,

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[18] Revellin, R., 2005, Experimental two-phase fluid flow in

microchannels, Ph.D. Thesis, cole polytechnique

fdrale de Lausanne EPFL, Switzerland.

[19] Consolini, L., and Thome, J.R., 2010, A heat transfer

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[20] Ong, C.L., and Thome, J.R., 2009, Flow boiling heat

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[23] Kandlikar, S. G., 2004, Heat transfer mechanisms during

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