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Differential Topology by Guillemin & Pollack Solutions

Christopher Eur
May 15, 2014

In the winter of 2013-2014, I decided to write up complete solutions to the starred exercises in
Differential Topology by Guillemin and Pollack. There are also solutions or brief notes on nonstarred ones. Please email errata to ceur@college.harvard.edu.
Notation: A neighborhood is always assumed to be an open neighborhood. A graph of a function
f is denoted (f ).

Contents
1 Chapter 1: Manifolds and Smooth Maps
1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Derivatives and Tangents . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 The Inverse Function Theorem and Immersions
1.4 Submersions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Transversality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Homotopy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Sards Theorem and Morse Functions . . . . . .
1.8 Embedding Manifolds in Euclidean Space . . .

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14

2 Chapter 2. Transversality and Intersection


2.1 Manifolds with Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Transversality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 1: Manifolds and Smooth Maps

1.1

Definitions

Exercise 1 (1.1.2). If X RN , Z X, and f : X Rm is smooth / diffeomorphic, then f |Z is


also smooth / diffeomorphic.
Solution) It suffices to show the smooth part (then apply it to the inverse map to get diffeomorphism). Fix any z Z X. Since f : X Rm is smooth, there exists z U RN open (i.e.
X U a neighborhood of z X) and F : U Rm smooth such that F = f on X U . Now, U Z
is a neighborhood of z Z such that F = f |Z on Z U . 
Exercise 2 (1.1.3). Let X RN , Y RM , Z RL , and let f : X Y, g : Y Z. Then:
f and g are smooth / diffeomorphism g f : X Z is smooth / diffeomorphism.
Solution) It suffices to show the smooth part (diffeomorphism part follows easily). Note that
this is true when X, Y , Z are open subsets of RN , RM , RL (Chain Rule from calculus). Now fix
any x X, y := f (x). We have y V RM open with G : V RL smooth, and x U RN open
with F : U V smooth (if necessary by replacing U with U f 1 (V )), and F = f on X U , G = g
on Y V . Then G F : U RL is smooth, and G F = g f on X U since f (X U ) (Y V )
by construction. 
Exercise 3 (1.1.4). Show that any open ball Br (0) in Rk is diffeomorphic to Rk , and hence, if X
is a k-dimensional manifold then every point in X has a neighborhood diffeomorphic to Rk .
Solution) Consider the maps
rx
Br (0) Rk , x 7 p
2
r kxk2

and

ry
Rk Br (0), y 7 p
2
r + kyk2

They are mutual inverses, and by the previous exercise both are smooth (lots of composition of
smooth maps). Lastly, if x X and : U X is local parametrization at x, then take (for
small enough r > 0) Br (1 (x)) U so that |Br is also a local parametrization at x. With
diffeomorphism : Rk Br , we have a local parametrization |Br : Rk X at x. 
Exercise 4 (1.1.5). Every k-dimensional vector subspace V of RN is a manifold diffeomorphic to Rk ,
all linear maps on V are smooth, and if : Rk V is a linear isomorphism, then the corresponding
coordinate functions are linear functionals on V (called linear coordinates).
Solution) Lemma: every linear transformation L : Rn Rm is smooth ( dLx = L x Rn ),
and note that any linear map on V is smooth since it extends to a linear map on RN .
Now, by choosing a basis of V we have an isomorphism : V Rk , which we can extend to a
linear map e : RN Rk . So, is smooth, 1 : Rk V RN (linear) is also smooth, and thus V
is a manifold diffeomorphic to Rk .
Let := (x1 , . . . , xk ). Since xi = i , each xi is a linear functional on V (projections
i : RN R is linear). 
2

Exercise 5 (1.1.6, 7, 8). Smooth bijection need not be diffeomorphism. Union of two coordinate
axes in R2 is not a manifold; hyperboloid in R3 defined by x2 + y 2 z 2 = a, a > 0 is a manifold
(not when a = 0).

Solution) f : R R via f (x) = x3 is smooth and bijective but f 1 (x) = 3 x is not smooth at x =
0. When (0, 0) is removed from {x = 0} {y = 0} we get four disconnected components,but R {}
has two components, and Rn {} is connected for n 2. Lastly,if H is the hyperboloid, H + and
H can be parametrized by R2 Ba (0) R3 via(u, v) 7 (u, v, u2 + v 2 a),and for (x, y, 0)
H {z = 0}, it also has a local parametrization Ba (0) R3 via (u, v) 7 ( a + u2 v 2 , u, v)
(switch x, y if necessary). When a = 0, (0, 0, 0) has no neighborhood diffeomorphic to R2 (again use
connectivity argument).
Exercise 6 (1.1.12,13). Let S k Rk+1 sphere, and N = (0, . . . , 0, 1) the north pole. Then the
stereographic projection : S k {N } Rk is a diffeomorphism.
Solutions) Direct computation yields the maps explicitly:


u1
uk
: (u1 , . . . , uk+1 ) 7
,...,
1 uk+1
1 uk+1


x21 + x2k 1
2x1
2xk
1
: (x1 , . . . , xk ) 7
,..., 2
,
x21 + x2k + 1
x1 + x2k + 1 x21 + x2k + 1
and that , 1 are smooth follows from [1.1.3] and that they are mutual inverses is checked by
direct computation. (This also shows that S k is a k-dimensional manifold). 
Exercise 7 (1.1.14,15). If f : X X 0 , g : Y Y 0 smooth, then the product map f g : X Y
X 0 Y 0 defined by (x, y) 7 (f (x), g(y)) is smooth. Hence, if f, g are diffeomorphisms, f g is also
a diffeomorphism. Lastly, projection map X Y X is smooth.
Solution) Note that for A, A0 X and B, B 0 Y , (AB)(A0 B 0 ) = (AA0 )(BB 0 ) X Y
(NOT true for unions). Also, it is easy to check that f g is smooth when X, Y are open subsets
( f g = (f1 , . . . , fN 0 , g1 , . . . , gM 0 )), so taking neighborhoods U , V of X, Y with F, G smooth,
F G = f g on (X U ) (Y V ).
If f, g are diffeomorphisms, f 1 g 1 is smooth inverse of f g. Finally, X Y X is smooth
since RN RM RN is smooth (in fact the Jacobian looks like [IN | 0]). 
Exercise 8 (1.1.16,17). Let f : X Y be smooth, and define fe : X (f ) by x 7 (x, f (x)).
Then fe is a diffeomorphism (hence if X a manifold so is (f )).
Solution) Lemma: the diagonal map : X X X, x 7 (x, x) is a diffeomorphism (
: RN RN RN has Jacobian [IN | IN ]t so it is smooth; the inverse map is same as projection
so it is smooth). Now, using the lemma and the previous exercise, fe = (Id f ) is smooth. The
inverse map is same as the projection map, so it is smooth, so fe is a diffeomorphism. 

Exercise 9 (1.1.18). Let 0 < a < b. The function f : R R defined by


 1/x2
e
x>0
f (x) =
0
x0
is smooth. g(x) := fR(x a)f (b x) is a smooth map, and is positive on (a, b) and zero elsewhere.
x
gdx
Moreover, h(x) := R
is also smooth with the property that h(x) = 0 for x a, h(x) = 1
gdx
for x b, and 0 < h(x) < 1 for x (a, b) (h is also non-decreasing). Lastly, construct a smooth
function H : Rk R that is 1 on B a , 0 on Rk Bb , and (0, 1) otherwise.
2

Solution) f is smooth: for x > 0 the ith derivative of f is of the form (rational polynomial)e1/x
hence limx0 f (i) (x) = 0, i = 0, 1, . . .. Addition/multiplication by a constant and (x, y) 7 xy are
smooth maps, so g is smooth with desired property. Lastly, h is smooth with desired property by
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Now note that Rk R, x 7 kxk is smooth, so x 7 1 h(kxk)
is the desired function H. 

1.2

Derivatives and Tangents

Note: When the context is clear, X, Y are assumed to be manifolds (of dimension Rk , Rl residing
in RN , RM ).
Exercise 10 (1.2.1,2). Let X Y be a submanifold, and j : X , Y be the inclusion map. Then
e is a open subset of a
x X, djx : Tx (X) , Tx (Y ) is injectivein fact it is an inclusion. If U
e
e
manifold X, Tx (U ) = Tx (X) for x U .
Solution) Lemma: if X is a manifold, x X, and : U X is a local parametrization with
(0) = x, then (d0 )1 = d(1 )x ( Exercise [1.2.4]). Now, let x X, : U X, : V Y be
local parametrizations (U Rk , V Rl open, (0) = x = (0)). Note that 1 j = 1 ,
and so we have djx = d0 d( 1 )0 (d0 )1 = d0 d( 1 )y d0 (d0 )1 = Id ( first
equality by definition, second by chain rule, third by lemma). 
Exercise 11 (1.2.3+). Let V RN be a vector subspace. Then x V , Tx (V ) = V . Moreover,
if L : V RM is a linear map, then for x V , dLx = L.
Solution) By choosing basis we have linear isomorphism : Rk V , and = du for (u) V ,
hence Tx (V ) = V . The remaining statement follows from [Exercise 17]; extend L to a linear map
on the whole RN , then apply [Exercise 17] and Tx (V ) = V . 
Exercise 12 (1.2.4). Let f : X Y is a (local) diffeomorphism and x X, y := f (x), then the

linear map dfx : Tx (X) Ty (Y ) is an isomorphism. In fact, (dfx )1 = d(f 1 )x .


Solution) Let f 1 be the smooth (local) inverse map. Obviously, d Id = Id, so from the chain
rule we have Id = d(f f 1 )y = dfx d(f 1 )y , and likewise, d(f 1 )y dfx = Id. 

Exercise 13 (1.2.8). What is the tangent space to the hyperboloid defined by x2 + y 2 z 2 = a at

( a, 0, 0) (a > 0)?
Solution) As in [1.1.8], we have
parametrization : Ba (0) R3 given by (u, v) 7
a local
u(a + u2 v 2 )1/2 v(a + u2 v 2 )1/2

2
2

. And so [d(a,0,0) ] =
( a + u v , u, v), and [d] =
1
0
0
1

0 0
1 0, and thus the tangent space is the y, x-plane, as expected. 
0 1
Exercise 14 (1.2.9). Let X, Y manifolds, : X Y X be the projection map, and for y Y let
f y : X X Y be a smooth injection defined by x (x, y). Then
1. T(x,y) (X Y ) = Tx (X) Ty (Y )
2. d(x,y) : Tx (X) Ty (Y ) Tx (X) is also a projection (v, w) 7 v.
3. f y is diffeomorphism onto its image and d(f y )x : v 7 (v, 0).
Lastly, if f : X X 0 , g : Y Y 0 are smooth maps, then d(f g)(x,y) = dfx dgy .
Solution) Let (x, y) X Y and : U V X Y be local parametrization. Now (1.)
follows from the following lemma:
m1
m2
Lemma: Let U1 , U2 be open subset of Rn1 , Rn2 , and g1 g2 : U1
 U2 R R is smooth, then
[d(g1 )u1 ]
0
dg(u1 ,u2 ) = d(g1 )u1 d(g2 )u2 ( [dg(u1 ,u2 ) ] =
). For (2.),
0
[d(g2 )u2 ]

X Y
x

X
x

U V U
we note that the map h := 1 ( ) : U V U is also the projection map (u, v) 7 u.
So, d(x,y) = d0 dh(0,0) d( )1
0 is easily computed to be the projection, as desired. Now for
y
y
(3.), f is diffeomorphism since (f )1 is just projection, and we have the diagram
fy

X X y
x

X Y
x

U U 0 U V
Its easy to see that dh0 = Idk 0. So, d(f y )x (v) = ((d0 d0 ) dh0 d1
0 )(v) = (v, 0), as desired.
Finally, we show d(f g)(x,y) = dfx dgy . Let 1 : X Y X, 2 : X Y Y be
0
0
0
0
projections, and j1 : X 0 RN +M , j2 : Y 0 RN +M be smooth maps x0 7 (x0 , 0), y 0 7 (0, y 0 ).
Now, note that f g = j1 f 1 + j2 g 2 . So, using (1., 2., 3.) and chain rule, we have
d(f g)(x,y) (u, v) = (dfx (u), dgy (v)), as desired. 
5

Exercise 15 (1.2.10,11). Let f : X Y smooth map of manifolds and define fe : X X Y by


x (x, f (x)), then dfex (v) = (v, dfx (v)), and hence T(x,f (x)) ((f )) is the graph of dfx : Tx (X)
Tf (x) (Y ).
Solution) Lemma: if : X X X is the diagonal map, then dx (v) = (v, v) ( h : U
U U has dh0 = [Ik |Ik ]). Now, fe = (Id f ) , so the lemma and [Exercise 1.2.9] implies that
fex (v) = (v, dfx (v)), as desired. 
Exercise 16 (1.2.12). A curve on a manifold X is a smooth map c : I X, t 7 c(t), where
I R interval. The velocity vector of the curve c at time t0 , denoted dc
0 ), is defined
dt (t0 ) or c(t
as dct0 (1) Tx0 (X) where x0 = c(t0 ). Note that when X = Rk and c(t) = (c1 (t), . . . , ck (t)), then
dc
0
0
dt (t0 ) = (c1 (t0 ), . . . , ck (t0 )). Every vector in Tx (X) is the velocity vector of some curve in X, and
conversely.
Solution) First, it is obvious that tangent space at a point on an interval is R, so dct0 : R
Tx0 (X), and we thus we have the converse.
Now fix any x X and v Tx (X). Let : U X be local parametrization around x, (0) = x,
and WLOG U = R ( [Exercise 1.1.4]). By definition v = d0 (w) for some w = (w1 , . . . , wk ) Rk .
Now, define e
c : R Rk by t 7 (w1 t, . . . , wk t), and c := e
c. Now, dc0 = d0 e
c0 and so
dc0 (1) = d0 (w), as desired. 
Exercise 17 (made-up). Let f : X Y be smooth map of manifolds, x X, and let x U RN
open and F : U RM smooth such that F = f on X U . Then dfx = dFx |Tx (X) : Tx (X) Ty (Y ).
e X U and : Ve Y V local parametrizations (diffeoSolution) WLOG, we have : U
morphisms) such that the following commutes (with h := 1 f , (u) = x, (v) = f (x))
f

X U Y V
x
x

e
U

Ve

Now since f = F on X U , h = 1 F , and hence dhu = dv1 dFx du , and plugging


this into dfx = du dhu d1
u , we have dfx = IdRM dFx IdTx (X) , and hence dfx = dFx |Tx (X) as
desired. In fact, dFx is a linear extension of the linear map dfx . 

1.3

The Inverse Function Theorem and Immersions

Exercise 18 (1.3.2). Suppose Z X l-dimensional submanifold, z Z. Then there exists a local


coordinate system {x1 , . . . , xk } on a neighborhood U of z in X such that Z U is defined by the
equations xl+1 , . . . , xk = 0.

Solution) Since the inclusion map j : Z , X is an immersion, by Local Immersion Theorem,


we have parametrizations around z such that:
Z
x

X
x

can. imm. e
V U

e = V V 0 . Now, let (U
e ) := U X and 1 = (x1 , . . . , xk ),
commutes, with (0) = z = (0) and U
then Z U = {v U | xl+1 (v) = 0, . . . , xk (v) = 0}, as desired. 
Exercise 19 (1.3.3,4,5). If f : R R is a local diffeomorphism, then Im(f ) is an open interval and
f : R Im(f ) is a diffeomorphism. Such is not true for h : R2 R2 local diffeomorphism.
Solution) Lemma[1.3.5]: if f is injective local diffeomorphism, its image is open in Y , and it
is diffeomorphism onto its image ( open: local homeomorphisms are open maps, and bijective
local diffeomorphism admits smooth inverse) . R is connected thus so is Im(f ), hence Im(f ) is an
interval, and f local diffeomorphism implies that f is an open map and that f 0 (x) 6= 0 (and hence
f is injective).
This is not true for R2 ; consider h = g arctan where g : R S 1 , t 7 (cos 2t, sin 2t) (h is
not injective). 
Exercise 20 (1.3.6). Let f : X Y, g : Y Y 0 be immersions, Z X submanifold. Then f g,
g f , and f |Z are immersions, and if dim X = dim Y , then f is in fact a local diffeomorphism.
Solution) f g is immersion by [Exercise 1.2.9] and g f immersion by chain rule. If j : Z , X
is inclusion map, f |Z = f j, so f |Z is immersion. If dim X = dim Y , f is local diffeomorphism by
Local Immersion Theorem. 
Exercise 21 (1.3.7). Define g : R S 1 , t 7 (cos 2t, sin 2t) (local diffeomorphism) and G :=
g g : R2 S 1 S 1 , and let L R2 a line with irrational slope. Then G|L is an injective local
diffeomorphism, but its image is not a submanifold of S 1 S 1 .
Solution) G : (s, t) 7 (cos 2s, sin 2s, cos 2t, sin 2t), and WLOG let L be defined by t =
s, R Q. If G(s1 , s1 ) = G(s2 , s2 ), then s1 s2 Z and (s1 s2 ) ZZ, which implies
that s1 = s2 since is irrational. Moreover, since {n}nN dense in R/Z, we have that Im(G|L ) is
dense in S 1 S 1 , so Im(G|L ) cannot be a submanifold. 
Exercise 22 (1.3.9). Let (x1 , . . . , xN ) be standard coordinate functions on RN , and X RN be a
k-dimensional manifold. Then any x X has a neighborhood on which the restrictions of some k
coordinate functions xi1 , . . . , xik form a local coordinate system.
Now for simplicity assume that x1 , . . . , xk form a local coordinate on a neighborhood V of x X.
Then gk+1 , . . . , gN : U Rk R smooth such that V = (g) where g = (gl+1 , . . . , gN ) : U
RN k , and thus every manifold is locally a graph of a smooth function.
7

Solution) Choose a basis v1 , . . . , vk RN of Tx (X), then the matrix [v1 vk ] has rank k, so
it has k linearly independent rows, say i1 , . . . , ik . Now, let : RN Rk be projection defined
by (x1 , . . . , xN ) 7 (xi1 , . . . , xik ), then dx |Tx (X) : Tx (X) Rk is an isomorphism by construction,
hence by IVT |X : X Rk is a local diffeomorphism. Now, assume i1 , . . . , ik = 1, . . . , k and let

e := |X .
e : X Rk is a diffeomorphism on x V X, and the smooth inverse
e1 : U V is
of form Id g, and hence the result as desired. 
Exercise 23 (1.3.10). Generalized IVT: Let f : X Y be smooth map that is injective on
a compact submanifold Z X, and suppose x Z, dfx : Tx (X) Tf (x) (Y ) is isomorphism.
Then f maps Z diffeomorphically on f (Z), and in fact, maps an open neighborhood of Z in X
diffeomorphically onto an open neighborhood of f (Z) in Y . IFT is when Z is a single point.
Solution) Since dfx is an isomorphism for all x Z, for each x Z there exists T
Ux on which
f |Ux is a diffeomorphism. {Ux } is a cover of X, hence we choose a finite subcover U = Ui Z (X
is compact). On U , f is a local diffeomorphism, so only need show that f is injective on some open
set V containing Z (then f is injective local diffeomorphism on V U , hence a diffeomorphism).
Suppose V does not exist; then taking consecutively smaller -neighborhoods Z  of Z, we obtain
a sequence {ai }, {bi } such that ai 6= bi but f (ai ) = f (bi ). Passing through subsequences, ai a and
bi b (both converge) since WLOG they all belong to some Z  for which Z  is compact. Moreover,
by construction the limit point is on Z and hence a = b = ze since f is injective on Z. However, this
implies that f cannot be a local diffeomorphism at ze. Contradiction. 

1.4

Submersions

Exercise 24 (1.4.1). If f : X Y is a submersion and U is open in X, then f (U ) is open in Y .


Solution) Fix any y f (U ); we need show V y open in Y such that V f (U ). Pick
x f 1 (y), then by local submersion theorem we have the following commutative diagram
X
x

Y
x

e
Ve U
Ve

e ) U and (U
e ) := V , and V is as desired. 
with (Ve U
Exercise 25 (1.4.2). Let X compact and Y connected, then every submersion f : X Y is
surjective; hence, there exist no submersions of compact manifolds into Euclidean spaces.
Solution) Clearly, Y = f (X) t (Y f (X)), so it suffices to show that Y f (X) is both open
and closed in Y . f (X) is compact in Y since X is compact, hence f (X) is closed in Y ; X is open
in X, of by previous problem f (X) is open in Y . Now, if f : X Rm is a submersion then f is
surjective, which is contradiction to Rm not being compact. 

Exercise 26 (1.4.5,6). Example: Let f : R3 R, (x, y, z) 7 x2 + y 2 z 2 , a, b both positive or


negative. Then 0 is the only critical value of f , and f 1 (a), f 1 (b) are diffeomorphic.
More generally, let p be any homogeneous polynomial in k variables, then p1 (a) (a =
6 0) is a
k 1-dimensional submanifold of Rk , and a > 0 ones are all diffeomorphic, as are a < 0 ones.
k
X

p
= m p. The lemma
xi
i=1
implies that 0 is the only critical value of p. Diffeomorphisms are made by scaling (note how m
being odd or even makes a small difference). 
Solution) Lemma: p(x1 , . . . , xk ) homogeneous of order m, then

xi

Exercise 27 (1.4.7). Suppose y is a regular value of f : X Y , X compact, and dim X = dim Y .


Then f 1 (y) = {x1 , . . . xn } (finite), and there exists U y open in Y such that f 1 (U ) = V1 t tVn
where Vi is open neighborhood of xi and f |Vi : Vi U is a diffeomorphism (i = 1, . . . , n).
Solution) Note that y regular and dim X = dim Y implies that f is local diffeomorphism at
any x f 1 (y). If f 1 (y) is not finite, it contains a limit point ( X compact), say x0 f 1 (y),
but f cannot be local diffeomorphism at x0 (not injective). Now since f is local diffeomorphism at
x1 , . . . , xn , we can construct desired U and Vi s by taking finite intersections. 
Exercise 28 (1.4.10,11). Tangent space to O(n) at identity I is the space of skew symmetric matrices. The group SL(n) is a (sub)manifold of M (n) and is moreover a Lie group, and the tangent
space to SL(n) at at the identity I is {H M (n) : Tr(H) = 0}
Solution) Recall O(n) = f 1 (I) where f : M (n) S(n), A 7 AAt . So, TI (O(n)) = ker dfI ,
and since dfI : M (n) S(n), H 7 IH t + HI t = H t + H, TI (O(n)) = {H M (n) : H = H t }, as
desired. SL(n) = det1 (1) where det : M (n) R, H 7 det H, and 1 is a regular value of det by
[Exercise 1.4.6]. Moreover, matrix multiplication and inversion is a smooth map (Cramers rule), so
SL(n) is a Lie group. Finally, we compute d detI : M (n) R:
P
O(t2 ) + ni=0 (tH)ii + 1 1
det(I + tH) det(I)
lim
= lim
= Tr(H)
t0
t0
t
t
and hence the desired result about tangent space to SL(n) at I. 
Exercise 29 (1.4.13). (skip: this is linear algebra)

1.5

Transversality

Note: When the context is clear given x on X a manifold, we will not distinguish X as a whole
manifold and the open neighborhood of x in X since the tangent space at x turns out same (will
write X for both).
Exercise 30 (1.5.1,2). Examples of transversal & non-transversal intersection of linear spaces:
a. the xy plane and the z-axis in R3 : transversal
b. the xy plane and the plane spanned by {(3, 2, 0), (0, 4, 1)} in R3 : transversal
9

c. the plane spanned by {(1, 0, 0), (2, 1, 0)} and the y axis in R3 : not transversal
d. Rk {0} and {0} Rl in Rn : transversal if n k + l.
e. V {0} and the diagonal in V V : transversal
f. symmetric and skew symmetric matrices in M (n): transveral
Solution) All of the above are easy to check with the following lemma:
means V + W = Rn ( [Exercise 1.2.3]).
Lemma: if V and W are linear subspace of Rn , then V tW
Exercise 31 (1.5.4). Let X and Z be transversal submanifolds of Y , then for y X Z,
Ty (X Z) = Ty (X) Ty (Z)
Solution) We have V Y open such that X V = g 1 (0), Z V = h1 (0), for g = (g1 , . . . , gk ) :
V Rk , h = (h1 , . . . , hl ) : V Rl . Then (X Z) V = f 1 (0) where f = (g h) : V Rk+l
(N.B. 0 is regular value for f by transversality). Moreover, dfy : Ty (Y ) Rk+l , v 7 (dgy (v), dhy (v))
( [Exercise 1.2.9,10]). And since ker dfy = ker dgy ker dhy , we have Ty (X Z) = ker dfy =
ker dgy ker dhy = Ty (X) Ty (Z), as desired. 

Exercise 32 (1.5.5). Let f : X Y , Z Y submanifold, f tZ,


and W := f 1 (Z). Then Tx (W )
is the preimage of Tf (x) (Z) under dfx : Tx (X) Tf (x) (Y ), i.e. Tx (f 1 (Z)) = dfx1 (Tf (x) (Z))
Solution) As in the proof, we have open neighborhoods U, V in X, Y around x, f (x) such that
f

U V Rl and Z V = g 1 (0), f 1 (Z) U = (g f )1 (0). Now, noting Tf (x) (Z) = ker dgf (x) , we
have Tx (Z) = ker d(g f )x = ker(dgf (x) dfx ) = {v Tx (X) : dfx (v) ker dgf (x) } = dfx1 (Tf (x) (Z)),
as desired. (This implies [Exercise 1.5.4] f = i : X , Y and dix is just inclusion). 
f
g
.
Exercise 33 (1.5.7). X Y Z smooth maps of manifolds, W Z submanifold such that g tW
1 (W ) if and only if (g f )tW
.
Then f tg

, dgy (Ty (Y ))+


Solution) Fix any x (gf )1 (W ), and y := f (x), z := g(y). Note that since g tW
Tz (W ) = Ty (Z).
1 (W ) (g f )tW
: we need show Im(dgy dfx ) + Tz (W ) = Tz (Z). Let w
f tg
e Tz (Z) be

1 (W ),
given. g tW implies u Ty (Y ), v Tz (W ) such that dgy (u) + v = w.
e Moreover, f tg
1
1
so Ty (Y ) = Im(dfx ) + Ty (g (W )) = Im(dfx ) + dgy (Tz (W )) ( [Exercise 1.5.5]), hence there
exists u
e Tx (X) and v 0 dgy1 (Tz (W )) such that dfx (e
u) + v 0 = u. Finally, we see that then
0
(dgy dfx )(e
u) + dgy (v ) + v = w,
e as desired.

1 (W ): we need show Im(dfx ) + dg 1 (Tz (W )) = Ty (Y ). Again, fix a w


(g f )tW
f tg
e
y
Ty (Y ). Note the existence of u Tx (X) such that (dgy dfx )(u) + w = dgy (w),
e and moreover,
. 
dgy (dfx (u) w)
e Tz (W ) is guaranteed by (g f )tW
Exercise 34 (1.5.9). Let V be a vector space, the diagonal of V V , A : V V linear map,
if and only if 1 is not an eigenvalue of A.
and W = (A). Then W t
is equivalent to W + =
Solution) Since and W are both vector subspaces of V V , W t
V V . Fix an arbitrary (u, v) V V , then if we can always find (v1 , v1 ) , (v2 , Av2 ) W such
that v1 + v2 = u, v2 + Av2 = v if and only if (A I) is invertible. 
10

Exercise 35 (1.5.10). Let f : X X be a smooth map with fixed point x (i.e. f (x) = x). If 1 is
not an eigenvalue of dfx : Tx (X) Tx (X), then x is called a Lefschetz fixed point of f, and f is
Lefschetz map if all its fixed points are Lefschetz. If X is compact and f is Lefschetz, then f has
only finitely many fixed points.
Solution) Let X be the diagonal of X X, respectively. We wish to show that X (f ) is

finite. Claim: it suffices to show X t(f


). If it is so, then X (f ) X X is a submanifold
of dimension 0, since dim X = dim (f ) = dim X ([Exercise 1.1.16,17]). Now, X X is compact
so its 0-dimensional submanifold is finite (if not then it has a limit point, which does not admit a
neighborhood diffeomorphic to a point).

Now we show X t(f


). Fix any x X (f ), and let V be the diagonal of Tx (X) Tx (X).
Then by [Exercise 1.5.9] we have T(x,x) (X ) + T(x,x) ((f )) = V + (dfx ) = Tx (X) Tx (X) =
Tx (X X) (first equality by [Exercise 1.2.10,10]). 

1.6

Homotopy and Stability

Exercise 36 (1.6.1,2). Suppose f0 f1 (homotopic), then Fe : X I Y homotopy such that


Fe(x, t) = f0 (x) t [0, 1/4] and Fe(x, t) = f1 (x) t [3/4, 1]. Hence, homotopy is an equivalence
relation.
Solution) By [Exercise 1.1.18], there exists a function h : R R such that h(x) = 0 on x 1/4
and h(x) = 1 on x 3/4. Now, if F is the homotopy between f0 , f1 , set Fe = F (Id h).
Now we show equivalence relation. Let F, G be homotopies for f g, g h. Then define
H : X [0, 7/4] Y by
(
Fe(x, t)
t [0, 1]
H(x, t) =
e t 3/4) t [3/4, 7/4]
G(x,
e := H(x, 4 t) is the desired homotopy for f h. 
Then H is smooth, and H
7
Exercise 37 (1.6.3). Every connected manifold X is arcwise connected, i.e. x0 , x1 X, f :
I X smooth with f (0) = x0 , f (1) = x1 .
Solution) We first note that arcwise connectedness (x0 x1 ) is a equivalence condition since
x0 x1 f0 f1 where f0 : {} X, 7 x0 , f1 : {} X, 7 x1 , and homotopy is a
equivalence relation. By going through the local parametrizations, it is easy to show that arcwise
connected components are clopen in X, and hence if X is connected it is arcwise connected. 
Exercise 38 (1.6.7). The antipodal map : S k S k , x x is homotopic to the identity if k is
odd.
2
2
Solution) Note
 that for any fixed R, the map L : R R given by multiplying the matrix
cos sin
preserves the norm: i.e. k(x, y)k2 = kL(x, y)k2 . So, for S 2k1 R2k , the map
sin cos
L := Lt Lt : R2k I R2k is the smooth homotopy. 

k times

11

Exercise 39 (1.6.8). Diffeomorphisms of compact manifolds constitute a stable class.


Solution) Let f0 : X Y be diffeomorphism, X, Y compact, ft homotopy of f0 . We need
produce  > 0 such that ft is diffeomorphism for all t < . WLOG, we assume that X is connected,
and also Y connected. (X is compact, so it has finitely many connected components, so we can find
 for each and take the minimum).
Local diffeomorphism and embedding is stable, so  > 0 such thatt < , ft is a local diffeomorphism and an embedding. Fix any t < . We are done if ft (X) = Y , but ft (X) is open in Y
since ft is local diffeomorphism, and it is closed since it is image of compact set in Y also compact.
Hence, Y connected implies ft (X) = Y . 
Exercise 40 (1.6.9). Let : R R be a function with (s) = 1 if |s| < 1, (s) = 0 if |s| > 2,
and define ft : R R by ft (x) = x(tx). This is a counterexample to all the parts of the stability
theorem when X is not compact.
Solution) We simply need verify. f0 (x) = x(0) = x, hence f0 is a diffeomorphism and any
submanifold of R is transversal to identity. Now, for any t > 0, note that |tx| > 2 for all |x| > 2/|t|,
so ft cannot be local diffeomorphism/immersion/submersion/embedding/diffeomorphism. And for
|x| > 2/|t|, ft (x) = 0, so clearly, {0} is not transversal to ft . 
Exercise 41 (1.6.10). A deformation of a submanifold Z Y is a smooth homotopy it : Z Y
where i0 is the inclusion map and each it is an embedding (and thus, Zt = it (Z) is a smoothly
varying submanifold of Y with Z0 = Z). If Z is compact, then any homotopy it of its inclusion map
is a deformation for small t.
Solution) Since Z is compact, embedding is stable class. 

1.7

Sards Theorem and Morse Functions

Exercise 42 (1.7.5). Exhibit a smooth map f : R R whose set of critical values is dense.
Solution) From [Exercise 1.1.18], there is a function g : R R such that g(x) = 1 if |x| 1/4
and g(x) = 0 if |x| 1/2. Now, write
P Q = {q1 , q2 , . . .}, and then for i N, define gi : R R by
gi (x) = qi g(x i). Now define f := i gi , then all the rationals are critical values for f and dense
in R.
Remark: Measure zero implies empty interior, but the converse is false. 
Exercise 43 (1.7.6). The sphere S k is simply connected if k > 1.
Solution) Since dim S 1 < dim S k (k > 1), p S k is a regular value iff p
/ f (S 1 ). That is, Sards
1
k
1
Theorem implies that f (S ) is measure zero in S , hence p
/ f (S ). Now under S k {p} ' Rk ,
and with Rk being contractible, f (S 1 ) is homotopic to a constant map. 
Exercise 44 (1.7.8). Analyze the critical behavior at the origin in the following functions:
a. f (x, y) = x2 + 4y 3
b. f (x, y) = x2 2xy + y 2
12

c. f (x, y) = x2 + y 4
d. f (x, y) = x2 + 11xy + y 2 /2 + x6
e. f (x, y) = 10xy + y 2 + 75y 3
Solution) In the order of nondegenerate?/isolated?/local min or max?(non strict)?, we have:
a. N/N/N, b. N/N/Y(min), c. N/Y/Y(min), d. Y/Y/N, e. Y/Y/N 
Exercise 45 (1.7.11,12). If a Rn is a non degenerate critical point of f : Rn R, there exists a
local coordinate system (x1 , . . . , xn ) around a such that
f = f (a) +

n
X

i x2i ,

i = 1

i=1

And hence derive the usual second derivative test.


Solution) Note that Hessian matrix is always real symmetric and hence diagonalizable by orthogonal matrix P . Let H be Hessian matrix of f at a, and P be the orthogonal matrix that
diagonalizes H. Morse Lemma gives us local coordinates x~00 := (x001 , . . . , x00n ) : Rn Rn around a
t
such that f = f (a) + x~00 H x~00 . Then x~0 := (x01 , . . . , x0n ) := P t x~00 is a new local coordinates around a
t
t
such that f = f (a) + x~00 P P t HP P t x~00 = f (a) + x~0 (P t HP )x~0 . So,
f = f (a) +

n
X

i x02
i ,

i s are eigenvalues of H

i=1

Finally, let : Rn Rn be defined by (y1 , . . . , yn ) 7 (


g x~0 be the new local coordinates around a. Then
f = f (a) +

n
X

p
p
|1 |y1 , . . . , |n |yn ), and ~x := (x1 , . . . , xn ) :=

i x2i ,

i = 1

i=1

as desired, and since (x1 , . . . , xn )(a) = 0 the second derivative test immediately follows. 
Exercise 46 (1.7.14). Check that the height function (x1 , . . . , xk ) 7 xk on the sphere S k1 is a
Morse function with two critical points, the poles (one max, one min).
Solution) Let f : S k1 R be the restriction of the projection : Rk R, (x1 , . . . , xk ) 7 xk .
Then for x S k1 , dfx : Tx (S k1 ) R is the restriction of dx = . Thus, x S k1 is a critical
value iff Tx (S k1 ) = Rk1 {0}. Since, S k1 = g 1 (1) where g : x kxk2 , Ta (S k1 ) = ker(x 7
2at x), Ta (S k1 ) = Rk1 {0} exactly
p when a = (0, . . . , 0, 1) := N or (0, . . . , 0, 1) := S. Now,
: Rk1 B1 (0) R, x 7 x 1 kxk2 are local parametrizations of N, S. And calculating
H(f + )0 , we have I (hence max), and for the case we have I.
Exercise 47 (1.7.16). Let U Rk open, f : U R smooth, and H(x) be the Hessian of f for
x U . Then f is Morse if and only if

k 
X
f 2
2
det(H) +
> 0 on U
xi
i=1

13

Solution) x U is a critical point of f iff f = 0, and hence iff


follows immediately from definition of Morse. 

Pk

i=1

f
xi

2

= 0. The rest is

Exercise 48 (1.7.17,18). (Stability of Morse Functions) Suppose ft is a homotopic family of functions on Rk . Show that if f0 is Morse in some neighborhood f a compact set K, then so is every ft
for t sufficiently small. And thus, Morse function is stable class.
Solution) Let U Rk be open containing K such that f0 : U R is Morse. Now, denote the
P  ft 2
Hessian of ft at x by Hft |x , and define h : Rk I R by (x, t) 7 det(Hft |x )2 + ki=1 x
.
i
Clearly, h is smooth, and by [Exercise 1.7.16], we know that h > 0 on U {0}, hence on K {0}.
Since K {0} is compact, h 2 for some > 0. By continuity of h, there exists an open set
U 0 K {0} such that h > on U 0 . By Tube Lemma,  > 0 such that h > on K [0, ]. Using
continuity of h again, for any fixed t [0, ] there exists open V K such that h > 0 on V {t},
as desired.
Now let X be a compact manifold, f0 : X R Morse, and ft homotopic family of functions.
Suppose for any x SX, there exists Ux , neighborhood of x, and x > 0 such that ft is Morse on Ux
for t [0, x ]; then x Ux form an open over of X, so choosing a finite sub cover Ux1 Uxn ,
we have that ft is Morse on X for any t [0, min(x1 , . . . , xn )]. Existence of Ux and x is given by
[Exercise 1.7.17]: for : Vx X local parametrization around x with (0) = x, set Ux = (Br (0))
where Br (0) Vx . 

1.8

Embedding Manifolds in Euclidean Space

A few practice with tangent bundles:


Exercise 49 (1.5.2). Let g : X R be smooth, everywhere-positive. Then the map f : T (X)
T (X) given by (x, v) 7 (x, g(x)v) is smooth.
Solution) If m : R RN RN is scalar multiplication, : RN RN RN diagonal map, then
f is just restriction of (Id m) (Id g Id) ( Id). 
Exercise 50 (1.5.3,4). T (X Y ) is diffeomorphic to T (X) T (Y ). T (S 1 ) is diffeomorphic to
S 1 R.
Solution) First statement is immediate from T(x,y) (X Y ) = Tx (X) Ty (Y ). The map (x, v) 7
(x, kvk) is a diffeomorphism of T (S k ) and S 1 R. 
Exercise 51 (1.5.6). A vector field ~v on a manifold X in RN is a smooth map ~v : X RN such
that ~v (x) Tx (X). Equivalently, a vector field ~v on X is a cross section of T (X)i.e. a smooth
map ~v : X T (X) such that p ~v is identity on X. Lastly, x X is zero of a vector field ~v if
~v (x) = 0.
Solution) (Just definitions)

14

Exercise 52 (1.5.7,8). If k is odd, there exists a nonvanishing vector field ~v on S k . If S k has a


nonvanishing vector field ~v , then its antipodal map is homotopic to the identity.
Solution) If k is odd, then the map (x1 , . . . , xk+1 ) 7 (x2 , x1 , x4 , x3 , . . . , xk+1 , xk ) is a (linear)
smooth map, i.e. a nonvanishing vector field on S k . Now, let ~v is a nonvanishing vector field on
S k , and WLOG k~v (x)k = 1, x S k (define new vector field by x 7 ~v (x)/k~v (x)k), and thus
~v : S k S k smooth and x~v (x). Now, H : S k I S k defined by (x, t) 7 x cos t + ~v (x) sin t is
a homotopy between the identity and antipodal map. 

15

Chapter 2. Transversality and Intersection

2.1

Manifolds with Boundary

Exercise 53 (Made-up). Let f : X Y be a smooth map of manifolds with boundary, Z X a


submanifold with boundary, and define g := f |Z . Then for x Z, dgx : Tx (Z) Tf (x) (Y ) is equal
to dfx |Tx (Z) .
Solution) The proof reads exactly like [Exercise 17]. 
Exercise 54 (2.1.2). Let f : X Y be a diffeomorphism of manifolds with boundary. Then f
maps X diffeomorphically onto Y .
f

Id

Solution) A diffeomorphism X Y is locally equivalent to U U where U H k . So, it follows


that f (x) Y if and only if x X. 
Exercise 55 (2.1.3). S := [0, 1] [0, 1] is a not a manifold with boundary.
Solution) Suppose S is a manifold with boundary, then s = (0, 0) S has a neighborhood
U I 2 diffeomorphic to V H k . Let f : U V be the diffeomorphism, and shrinking if U
open

open

e R2 be the smooth extension of f where U U


e R2 . Then dFs is an
if necessary, let F : U
open

isomorphism.
Now, note that U maps to H k , so if F = (F1 , F2 ) then F2 (x, 0) = 0 = F2 (0, y) for any
F2
2
(x, 0), (0, y) U . Thus, F
x (s) = 0 an y (s) = 0. But this implies that dFs (e1 ), dFs (e2 ) R {0}
and thus not linearly dependent. 
Exercise 56 (2.1.4). The solid hyperboloid defined by x2 + y 2 z 2 a is a manifold with boundary.
Solution) Define : R3 R by (x, y, z) 7 a (x2 + y 2 z 2 ). Since a > 0, it is easily checked
that 0 is regular value of . Hence, 1 ([0, )) is a manifold with boundary. 
Exercise 57 (2.1.7). Let X be a manifold with boundary, x X, : U X local parametrization
with (0) = x (so d0 : Rk Tx (X) is isomorphism). We define the upper half space Hx (X) in
Tx (X) by Hx (X) := d0 (H k ). Hx (X) is independent of the choice of parametrization.
Solution)
Exercise 58 (2.1.8).
Solution)

2.2

Transversality

16