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Topología diferencial pollak

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30 просмотров16 страницTopología diferencial pollak

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

Christopher Eur

May 15, 2014

In the winter of 2013-2014, I decided to write up complete solutions to the starred exercises in

Differential Topology by Guillemin and Pollack. There are also solutions or brief notes on nonstarred ones. Please email errata to ceur@college.harvard.edu.

Notation: A neighborhood is always assumed to be an open neighborhood. A graph of a function

f is denoted (f ).

Contents

1 Chapter 1: Manifolds and Smooth Maps

1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Derivatives and Tangents . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 The Inverse Function Theorem and Immersions

1.4 Submersions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5 Transversality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6 Homotopy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7 Sards Theorem and Morse Functions . . . . . .

1.8 Embedding Manifolds in Euclidean Space . . .

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2

2

4

6

8

9

11

12

14

2.1 Manifolds with Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2 Transversality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.1

Definitions

also smooth / diffeomorphic.

Solution) It suffices to show the smooth part (then apply it to the inverse map to get diffeomorphism). Fix any z Z X. Since f : X Rm is smooth, there exists z U RN open (i.e.

X U a neighborhood of z X) and F : U Rm smooth such that F = f on X U . Now, U Z

is a neighborhood of z Z such that F = f |Z on Z U .

Exercise 2 (1.1.3). Let X RN , Y RM , Z RL , and let f : X Y, g : Y Z. Then:

f and g are smooth / diffeomorphism g f : X Z is smooth / diffeomorphism.

Solution) It suffices to show the smooth part (diffeomorphism part follows easily). Note that

this is true when X, Y , Z are open subsets of RN , RM , RL (Chain Rule from calculus). Now fix

any x X, y := f (x). We have y V RM open with G : V RL smooth, and x U RN open

with F : U V smooth (if necessary by replacing U with U f 1 (V )), and F = f on X U , G = g

on Y V . Then G F : U RL is smooth, and G F = g f on X U since f (X U ) (Y V )

by construction.

Exercise 3 (1.1.4). Show that any open ball Br (0) in Rk is diffeomorphic to Rk , and hence, if X

is a k-dimensional manifold then every point in X has a neighborhood diffeomorphic to Rk .

Solution) Consider the maps

rx

Br (0) Rk , x 7 p

2

r kxk2

and

ry

Rk Br (0), y 7 p

2

r + kyk2

They are mutual inverses, and by the previous exercise both are smooth (lots of composition of

smooth maps). Lastly, if x X and : U X is local parametrization at x, then take (for

small enough r > 0) Br (1 (x)) U so that |Br is also a local parametrization at x. With

diffeomorphism : Rk Br , we have a local parametrization |Br : Rk X at x.

Exercise 4 (1.1.5). Every k-dimensional vector subspace V of RN is a manifold diffeomorphic to Rk ,

all linear maps on V are smooth, and if : Rk V is a linear isomorphism, then the corresponding

coordinate functions are linear functionals on V (called linear coordinates).

Solution) Lemma: every linear transformation L : Rn Rm is smooth ( dLx = L x Rn ),

and note that any linear map on V is smooth since it extends to a linear map on RN .

Now, by choosing a basis of V we have an isomorphism : V Rk , which we can extend to a

linear map e : RN Rk . So, is smooth, 1 : Rk V RN (linear) is also smooth, and thus V

is a manifold diffeomorphic to Rk .

Let := (x1 , . . . , xk ). Since xi = i , each xi is a linear functional on V (projections

i : RN R is linear).

2

Exercise 5 (1.1.6, 7, 8). Smooth bijection need not be diffeomorphism. Union of two coordinate

axes in R2 is not a manifold; hyperboloid in R3 defined by x2 + y 2 z 2 = a, a > 0 is a manifold

(not when a = 0).

Solution) f : R R via f (x) = x3 is smooth and bijective but f 1 (x) = 3 x is not smooth at x =

0. When (0, 0) is removed from {x = 0} {y = 0} we get four disconnected components,but R {}

has two components, and Rn {} is connected for n 2. Lastly,if H is the hyperboloid, H + and

H can be parametrized by R2 Ba (0) R3 via(u, v) 7 (u, v, u2 + v 2 a),and for (x, y, 0)

H {z = 0}, it also has a local parametrization Ba (0) R3 via (u, v) 7 ( a + u2 v 2 , u, v)

(switch x, y if necessary). When a = 0, (0, 0, 0) has no neighborhood diffeomorphic to R2 (again use

connectivity argument).

Exercise 6 (1.1.12,13). Let S k Rk+1 sphere, and N = (0, . . . , 0, 1) the north pole. Then the

stereographic projection : S k {N } Rk is a diffeomorphism.

Solutions) Direct computation yields the maps explicitly:

u1

uk

: (u1 , . . . , uk+1 ) 7

,...,

1 uk+1

1 uk+1

x21 + x2k 1

2x1

2xk

1

: (x1 , . . . , xk ) 7

,..., 2

,

x21 + x2k + 1

x1 + x2k + 1 x21 + x2k + 1

and that , 1 are smooth follows from [1.1.3] and that they are mutual inverses is checked by

direct computation. (This also shows that S k is a k-dimensional manifold).

Exercise 7 (1.1.14,15). If f : X X 0 , g : Y Y 0 smooth, then the product map f g : X Y

X 0 Y 0 defined by (x, y) 7 (f (x), g(y)) is smooth. Hence, if f, g are diffeomorphisms, f g is also

a diffeomorphism. Lastly, projection map X Y X is smooth.

Solution) Note that for A, A0 X and B, B 0 Y , (AB)(A0 B 0 ) = (AA0 )(BB 0 ) X Y

(NOT true for unions). Also, it is easy to check that f g is smooth when X, Y are open subsets

( f g = (f1 , . . . , fN 0 , g1 , . . . , gM 0 )), so taking neighborhoods U , V of X, Y with F, G smooth,

F G = f g on (X U ) (Y V ).

If f, g are diffeomorphisms, f 1 g 1 is smooth inverse of f g. Finally, X Y X is smooth

since RN RM RN is smooth (in fact the Jacobian looks like [IN | 0]).

Exercise 8 (1.1.16,17). Let f : X Y be smooth, and define fe : X (f ) by x 7 (x, f (x)).

Then fe is a diffeomorphism (hence if X a manifold so is (f )).

Solution) Lemma: the diagonal map : X X X, x 7 (x, x) is a diffeomorphism (

: RN RN RN has Jacobian [IN | IN ]t so it is smooth; the inverse map is same as projection

so it is smooth). Now, using the lemma and the previous exercise, fe = (Id f ) is smooth. The

inverse map is same as the projection map, so it is smooth, so fe is a diffeomorphism.

1/x2

e

x>0

f (x) =

0

x0

is smooth. g(x) := fR(x a)f (b x) is a smooth map, and is positive on (a, b) and zero elsewhere.

x

gdx

Moreover, h(x) := R

is also smooth with the property that h(x) = 0 for x a, h(x) = 1

gdx

for x b, and 0 < h(x) < 1 for x (a, b) (h is also non-decreasing). Lastly, construct a smooth

function H : Rk R that is 1 on B a , 0 on Rk Bb , and (0, 1) otherwise.

2

Solution) f is smooth: for x > 0 the ith derivative of f is of the form (rational polynomial)e1/x

hence limx0 f (i) (x) = 0, i = 0, 1, . . .. Addition/multiplication by a constant and (x, y) 7 xy are

smooth maps, so g is smooth with desired property. Lastly, h is smooth with desired property by

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Now note that Rk R, x 7 kxk is smooth, so x 7 1 h(kxk)

is the desired function H.

1.2

Note: When the context is clear, X, Y are assumed to be manifolds (of dimension Rk , Rl residing

in RN , RM ).

Exercise 10 (1.2.1,2). Let X Y be a submanifold, and j : X , Y be the inclusion map. Then

e is a open subset of a

x X, djx : Tx (X) , Tx (Y ) is injectivein fact it is an inclusion. If U

e

e

manifold X, Tx (U ) = Tx (X) for x U .

Solution) Lemma: if X is a manifold, x X, and : U X is a local parametrization with

(0) = x, then (d0 )1 = d(1 )x ( Exercise [1.2.4]). Now, let x X, : U X, : V Y be

local parametrizations (U Rk , V Rl open, (0) = x = (0)). Note that 1 j = 1 ,

and so we have djx = d0 d( 1 )0 (d0 )1 = d0 d( 1 )y d0 (d0 )1 = Id ( first

equality by definition, second by chain rule, third by lemma).

Exercise 11 (1.2.3+). Let V RN be a vector subspace. Then x V , Tx (V ) = V . Moreover,

if L : V RM is a linear map, then for x V , dLx = L.

Solution) By choosing basis we have linear isomorphism : Rk V , and = du for (u) V ,

hence Tx (V ) = V . The remaining statement follows from [Exercise 17]; extend L to a linear map

on the whole RN , then apply [Exercise 17] and Tx (V ) = V .

Exercise 12 (1.2.4). Let f : X Y is a (local) diffeomorphism and x X, y := f (x), then the

Solution) Let f 1 be the smooth (local) inverse map. Obviously, d Id = Id, so from the chain

rule we have Id = d(f f 1 )y = dfx d(f 1 )y , and likewise, d(f 1 )y dfx = Id.

( a, 0, 0) (a > 0)?

Solution) As in [1.1.8], we have

parametrization : Ba (0) R3 given by (u, v) 7

a local

u(a + u2 v 2 )1/2 v(a + u2 v 2 )1/2

2

2

. And so [d(a,0,0) ] =

( a + u v , u, v), and [d] =

1

0

0

1

0 0

1 0, and thus the tangent space is the y, x-plane, as expected.

0 1

Exercise 14 (1.2.9). Let X, Y manifolds, : X Y X be the projection map, and for y Y let

f y : X X Y be a smooth injection defined by x (x, y). Then

1. T(x,y) (X Y ) = Tx (X) Ty (Y )

2. d(x,y) : Tx (X) Ty (Y ) Tx (X) is also a projection (v, w) 7 v.

3. f y is diffeomorphism onto its image and d(f y )x : v 7 (v, 0).

Lastly, if f : X X 0 , g : Y Y 0 are smooth maps, then d(f g)(x,y) = dfx dgy .

Solution) Let (x, y) X Y and : U V X Y be local parametrization. Now (1.)

follows from the following lemma:

m1

m2

Lemma: Let U1 , U2 be open subset of Rn1 , Rn2 , and g1 g2 : U1

U2 R R is smooth, then

[d(g1 )u1 ]

0

dg(u1 ,u2 ) = d(g1 )u1 d(g2 )u2 ( [dg(u1 ,u2 ) ] =

). For (2.),

0

[d(g2 )u2 ]

X Y

x

X

x

U V U

we note that the map h := 1 ( ) : U V U is also the projection map (u, v) 7 u.

So, d(x,y) = d0 dh(0,0) d( )1

0 is easily computed to be the projection, as desired. Now for

y

y

(3.), f is diffeomorphism since (f )1 is just projection, and we have the diagram

fy

X X y

x

X Y

x

U U 0 U V

Its easy to see that dh0 = Idk 0. So, d(f y )x (v) = ((d0 d0 ) dh0 d1

0 )(v) = (v, 0), as desired.

Finally, we show d(f g)(x,y) = dfx dgy . Let 1 : X Y X, 2 : X Y Y be

0

0

0

0

projections, and j1 : X 0 RN +M , j2 : Y 0 RN +M be smooth maps x0 7 (x0 , 0), y 0 7 (0, y 0 ).

Now, note that f g = j1 f 1 + j2 g 2 . So, using (1., 2., 3.) and chain rule, we have

d(f g)(x,y) (u, v) = (dfx (u), dgy (v)), as desired.

5

x (x, f (x)), then dfex (v) = (v, dfx (v)), and hence T(x,f (x)) ((f )) is the graph of dfx : Tx (X)

Tf (x) (Y ).

Solution) Lemma: if : X X X is the diagonal map, then dx (v) = (v, v) ( h : U

U U has dh0 = [Ik |Ik ]). Now, fe = (Id f ) , so the lemma and [Exercise 1.2.9] implies that

fex (v) = (v, dfx (v)), as desired.

Exercise 16 (1.2.12). A curve on a manifold X is a smooth map c : I X, t 7 c(t), where

I R interval. The velocity vector of the curve c at time t0 , denoted dc

0 ), is defined

dt (t0 ) or c(t

as dct0 (1) Tx0 (X) where x0 = c(t0 ). Note that when X = Rk and c(t) = (c1 (t), . . . , ck (t)), then

dc

0

0

dt (t0 ) = (c1 (t0 ), . . . , ck (t0 )). Every vector in Tx (X) is the velocity vector of some curve in X, and

conversely.

Solution) First, it is obvious that tangent space at a point on an interval is R, so dct0 : R

Tx0 (X), and we thus we have the converse.

Now fix any x X and v Tx (X). Let : U X be local parametrization around x, (0) = x,

and WLOG U = R ( [Exercise 1.1.4]). By definition v = d0 (w) for some w = (w1 , . . . , wk ) Rk .

Now, define e

c : R Rk by t 7 (w1 t, . . . , wk t), and c := e

c. Now, dc0 = d0 e

c0 and so

dc0 (1) = d0 (w), as desired.

Exercise 17 (made-up). Let f : X Y be smooth map of manifolds, x X, and let x U RN

open and F : U RM smooth such that F = f on X U . Then dfx = dFx |Tx (X) : Tx (X) Ty (Y ).

e X U and : Ve Y V local parametrizations (diffeoSolution) WLOG, we have : U

morphisms) such that the following commutes (with h := 1 f , (u) = x, (v) = f (x))

f

X U Y V

x

x

e

U

Ve

this into dfx = du dhu d1

u , we have dfx = IdRM dFx IdTx (X) , and hence dfx = dFx |Tx (X) as

desired. In fact, dFx is a linear extension of the linear map dfx .

1.3

coordinate system {x1 , . . . , xk } on a neighborhood U of z in X such that Z U is defined by the

equations xl+1 , . . . , xk = 0.

we have parametrizations around z such that:

Z

x

X

x

can. imm. e

V U

e = V V 0 . Now, let (U

e ) := U X and 1 = (x1 , . . . , xk ),

commutes, with (0) = z = (0) and U

then Z U = {v U | xl+1 (v) = 0, . . . , xk (v) = 0}, as desired.

Exercise 19 (1.3.3,4,5). If f : R R is a local diffeomorphism, then Im(f ) is an open interval and

f : R Im(f ) is a diffeomorphism. Such is not true for h : R2 R2 local diffeomorphism.

Solution) Lemma[1.3.5]: if f is injective local diffeomorphism, its image is open in Y , and it

is diffeomorphism onto its image ( open: local homeomorphisms are open maps, and bijective

local diffeomorphism admits smooth inverse) . R is connected thus so is Im(f ), hence Im(f ) is an

interval, and f local diffeomorphism implies that f is an open map and that f 0 (x) 6= 0 (and hence

f is injective).

This is not true for R2 ; consider h = g arctan where g : R S 1 , t 7 (cos 2t, sin 2t) (h is

not injective).

Exercise 20 (1.3.6). Let f : X Y, g : Y Y 0 be immersions, Z X submanifold. Then f g,

g f , and f |Z are immersions, and if dim X = dim Y , then f is in fact a local diffeomorphism.

Solution) f g is immersion by [Exercise 1.2.9] and g f immersion by chain rule. If j : Z , X

is inclusion map, f |Z = f j, so f |Z is immersion. If dim X = dim Y , f is local diffeomorphism by

Local Immersion Theorem.

Exercise 21 (1.3.7). Define g : R S 1 , t 7 (cos 2t, sin 2t) (local diffeomorphism) and G :=

g g : R2 S 1 S 1 , and let L R2 a line with irrational slope. Then G|L is an injective local

diffeomorphism, but its image is not a submanifold of S 1 S 1 .

Solution) G : (s, t) 7 (cos 2s, sin 2s, cos 2t, sin 2t), and WLOG let L be defined by t =

s, R Q. If G(s1 , s1 ) = G(s2 , s2 ), then s1 s2 Z and (s1 s2 ) ZZ, which implies

that s1 = s2 since is irrational. Moreover, since {n}nN dense in R/Z, we have that Im(G|L ) is

dense in S 1 S 1 , so Im(G|L ) cannot be a submanifold.

Exercise 22 (1.3.9). Let (x1 , . . . , xN ) be standard coordinate functions on RN , and X RN be a

k-dimensional manifold. Then any x X has a neighborhood on which the restrictions of some k

coordinate functions xi1 , . . . , xik form a local coordinate system.

Now for simplicity assume that x1 , . . . , xk form a local coordinate on a neighborhood V of x X.

Then gk+1 , . . . , gN : U Rk R smooth such that V = (g) where g = (gl+1 , . . . , gN ) : U

RN k , and thus every manifold is locally a graph of a smooth function.

7

Solution) Choose a basis v1 , . . . , vk RN of Tx (X), then the matrix [v1 vk ] has rank k, so

it has k linearly independent rows, say i1 , . . . , ik . Now, let : RN Rk be projection defined

by (x1 , . . . , xN ) 7 (xi1 , . . . , xik ), then dx |Tx (X) : Tx (X) Rk is an isomorphism by construction,

hence by IVT |X : X Rk is a local diffeomorphism. Now, assume i1 , . . . , ik = 1, . . . , k and let

e := |X .

e : X Rk is a diffeomorphism on x V X, and the smooth inverse

e1 : U V is

of form Id g, and hence the result as desired.

Exercise 23 (1.3.10). Generalized IVT: Let f : X Y be smooth map that is injective on

a compact submanifold Z X, and suppose x Z, dfx : Tx (X) Tf (x) (Y ) is isomorphism.

Then f maps Z diffeomorphically on f (Z), and in fact, maps an open neighborhood of Z in X

diffeomorphically onto an open neighborhood of f (Z) in Y . IFT is when Z is a single point.

Solution) Since dfx is an isomorphism for all x Z, for each x Z there exists T

Ux on which

f |Ux is a diffeomorphism. {Ux } is a cover of X, hence we choose a finite subcover U = Ui Z (X

is compact). On U , f is a local diffeomorphism, so only need show that f is injective on some open

set V containing Z (then f is injective local diffeomorphism on V U , hence a diffeomorphism).

Suppose V does not exist; then taking consecutively smaller -neighborhoods Z of Z, we obtain

a sequence {ai }, {bi } such that ai 6= bi but f (ai ) = f (bi ). Passing through subsequences, ai a and

bi b (both converge) since WLOG they all belong to some Z for which Z is compact. Moreover,

by construction the limit point is on Z and hence a = b = ze since f is injective on Z. However, this

implies that f cannot be a local diffeomorphism at ze. Contradiction.

1.4

Submersions

Solution) Fix any y f (U ); we need show V y open in Y such that V f (U ). Pick

x f 1 (y), then by local submersion theorem we have the following commutative diagram

X

x

Y

x

e

Ve U

Ve

e ) U and (U

e ) := V , and V is as desired.

with (Ve U

Exercise 25 (1.4.2). Let X compact and Y connected, then every submersion f : X Y is

surjective; hence, there exist no submersions of compact manifolds into Euclidean spaces.

Solution) Clearly, Y = f (X) t (Y f (X)), so it suffices to show that Y f (X) is both open

and closed in Y . f (X) is compact in Y since X is compact, hence f (X) is closed in Y ; X is open

in X, of by previous problem f (X) is open in Y . Now, if f : X Rm is a submersion then f is

surjective, which is contradiction to Rm not being compact.

negative. Then 0 is the only critical value of f , and f 1 (a), f 1 (b) are diffeomorphic.

More generally, let p be any homogeneous polynomial in k variables, then p1 (a) (a =

6 0) is a

k 1-dimensional submanifold of Rk , and a > 0 ones are all diffeomorphic, as are a < 0 ones.

k

X

p

= m p. The lemma

xi

i=1

implies that 0 is the only critical value of p. Diffeomorphisms are made by scaling (note how m

being odd or even makes a small difference).

Solution) Lemma: p(x1 , . . . , xk ) homogeneous of order m, then

xi

Then f 1 (y) = {x1 , . . . xn } (finite), and there exists U y open in Y such that f 1 (U ) = V1 t tVn

where Vi is open neighborhood of xi and f |Vi : Vi U is a diffeomorphism (i = 1, . . . , n).

Solution) Note that y regular and dim X = dim Y implies that f is local diffeomorphism at

any x f 1 (y). If f 1 (y) is not finite, it contains a limit point ( X compact), say x0 f 1 (y),

but f cannot be local diffeomorphism at x0 (not injective). Now since f is local diffeomorphism at

x1 , . . . , xn , we can construct desired U and Vi s by taking finite intersections.

Exercise 28 (1.4.10,11). Tangent space to O(n) at identity I is the space of skew symmetric matrices. The group SL(n) is a (sub)manifold of M (n) and is moreover a Lie group, and the tangent

space to SL(n) at at the identity I is {H M (n) : Tr(H) = 0}

Solution) Recall O(n) = f 1 (I) where f : M (n) S(n), A 7 AAt . So, TI (O(n)) = ker dfI ,

and since dfI : M (n) S(n), H 7 IH t + HI t = H t + H, TI (O(n)) = {H M (n) : H = H t }, as

desired. SL(n) = det1 (1) where det : M (n) R, H 7 det H, and 1 is a regular value of det by

[Exercise 1.4.6]. Moreover, matrix multiplication and inversion is a smooth map (Cramers rule), so

SL(n) is a Lie group. Finally, we compute d detI : M (n) R:

P

O(t2 ) + ni=0 (tH)ii + 1 1

det(I + tH) det(I)

lim

= lim

= Tr(H)

t0

t0

t

t

and hence the desired result about tangent space to SL(n) at I.

Exercise 29 (1.4.13). (skip: this is linear algebra)

1.5

Transversality

Note: When the context is clear given x on X a manifold, we will not distinguish X as a whole

manifold and the open neighborhood of x in X since the tangent space at x turns out same (will

write X for both).

Exercise 30 (1.5.1,2). Examples of transversal & non-transversal intersection of linear spaces:

a. the xy plane and the z-axis in R3 : transversal

b. the xy plane and the plane spanned by {(3, 2, 0), (0, 4, 1)} in R3 : transversal

9

c. the plane spanned by {(1, 0, 0), (2, 1, 0)} and the y axis in R3 : not transversal

d. Rk {0} and {0} Rl in Rn : transversal if n k + l.

e. V {0} and the diagonal in V V : transversal

f. symmetric and skew symmetric matrices in M (n): transveral

Solution) All of the above are easy to check with the following lemma:

means V + W = Rn ( [Exercise 1.2.3]).

Lemma: if V and W are linear subspace of Rn , then V tW

Exercise 31 (1.5.4). Let X and Z be transversal submanifolds of Y , then for y X Z,

Ty (X Z) = Ty (X) Ty (Z)

Solution) We have V Y open such that X V = g 1 (0), Z V = h1 (0), for g = (g1 , . . . , gk ) :

V Rk , h = (h1 , . . . , hl ) : V Rl . Then (X Z) V = f 1 (0) where f = (g h) : V Rk+l

(N.B. 0 is regular value for f by transversality). Moreover, dfy : Ty (Y ) Rk+l , v 7 (dgy (v), dhy (v))

( [Exercise 1.2.9,10]). And since ker dfy = ker dgy ker dhy , we have Ty (X Z) = ker dfy =

ker dgy ker dhy = Ty (X) Ty (Z), as desired.

and W := f 1 (Z). Then Tx (W )

is the preimage of Tf (x) (Z) under dfx : Tx (X) Tf (x) (Y ), i.e. Tx (f 1 (Z)) = dfx1 (Tf (x) (Z))

Solution) As in the proof, we have open neighborhoods U, V in X, Y around x, f (x) such that

f

U V Rl and Z V = g 1 (0), f 1 (Z) U = (g f )1 (0). Now, noting Tf (x) (Z) = ker dgf (x) , we

have Tx (Z) = ker d(g f )x = ker(dgf (x) dfx ) = {v Tx (X) : dfx (v) ker dgf (x) } = dfx1 (Tf (x) (Z)),

as desired. (This implies [Exercise 1.5.4] f = i : X , Y and dix is just inclusion).

f

g

.

Exercise 33 (1.5.7). X Y Z smooth maps of manifolds, W Z submanifold such that g tW

1 (W ) if and only if (g f )tW

.

Then f tg

Solution) Fix any x (gf )1 (W ), and y := f (x), z := g(y). Note that since g tW

Tz (W ) = Ty (Z).

1 (W ) (g f )tW

: we need show Im(dgy dfx ) + Tz (W ) = Tz (Z). Let w

f tg

e Tz (Z) be

1 (W ),

given. g tW implies u Ty (Y ), v Tz (W ) such that dgy (u) + v = w.

e Moreover, f tg

1

1

so Ty (Y ) = Im(dfx ) + Ty (g (W )) = Im(dfx ) + dgy (Tz (W )) ( [Exercise 1.5.5]), hence there

exists u

e Tx (X) and v 0 dgy1 (Tz (W )) such that dfx (e

u) + v 0 = u. Finally, we see that then

0

(dgy dfx )(e

u) + dgy (v ) + v = w,

e as desired.

(g f )tW

f tg

e

y

Ty (Y ). Note the existence of u Tx (X) such that (dgy dfx )(u) + w = dgy (w),

e and moreover,

.

dgy (dfx (u) w)

e Tz (W ) is guaranteed by (g f )tW

Exercise 34 (1.5.9). Let V be a vector space, the diagonal of V V , A : V V linear map,

if and only if 1 is not an eigenvalue of A.

and W = (A). Then W t

is equivalent to W + =

Solution) Since and W are both vector subspaces of V V , W t

V V . Fix an arbitrary (u, v) V V , then if we can always find (v1 , v1 ) , (v2 , Av2 ) W such

that v1 + v2 = u, v2 + Av2 = v if and only if (A I) is invertible.

10

Exercise 35 (1.5.10). Let f : X X be a smooth map with fixed point x (i.e. f (x) = x). If 1 is

not an eigenvalue of dfx : Tx (X) Tx (X), then x is called a Lefschetz fixed point of f, and f is

Lefschetz map if all its fixed points are Lefschetz. If X is compact and f is Lefschetz, then f has

only finitely many fixed points.

Solution) Let X be the diagonal of X X, respectively. We wish to show that X (f ) is

). If it is so, then X (f ) X X is a submanifold

of dimension 0, since dim X = dim (f ) = dim X ([Exercise 1.1.16,17]). Now, X X is compact

so its 0-dimensional submanifold is finite (if not then it has a limit point, which does not admit a

neighborhood diffeomorphic to a point).

). Fix any x X (f ), and let V be the diagonal of Tx (X) Tx (X).

Then by [Exercise 1.5.9] we have T(x,x) (X ) + T(x,x) ((f )) = V + (dfx ) = Tx (X) Tx (X) =

Tx (X X) (first equality by [Exercise 1.2.10,10]).

1.6

Fe(x, t) = f0 (x) t [0, 1/4] and Fe(x, t) = f1 (x) t [3/4, 1]. Hence, homotopy is an equivalence

relation.

Solution) By [Exercise 1.1.18], there exists a function h : R R such that h(x) = 0 on x 1/4

and h(x) = 1 on x 3/4. Now, if F is the homotopy between f0 , f1 , set Fe = F (Id h).

Now we show equivalence relation. Let F, G be homotopies for f g, g h. Then define

H : X [0, 7/4] Y by

(

Fe(x, t)

t [0, 1]

H(x, t) =

e t 3/4) t [3/4, 7/4]

G(x,

e := H(x, 4 t) is the desired homotopy for f h.

Then H is smooth, and H

7

Exercise 37 (1.6.3). Every connected manifold X is arcwise connected, i.e. x0 , x1 X, f :

I X smooth with f (0) = x0 , f (1) = x1 .

Solution) We first note that arcwise connectedness (x0 x1 ) is a equivalence condition since

x0 x1 f0 f1 where f0 : {} X, 7 x0 , f1 : {} X, 7 x1 , and homotopy is a

equivalence relation. By going through the local parametrizations, it is easy to show that arcwise

connected components are clopen in X, and hence if X is connected it is arcwise connected.

Exercise 38 (1.6.7). The antipodal map : S k S k , x x is homotopic to the identity if k is

odd.

2

2

Solution) Note

that for any fixed R, the map L : R R given by multiplying the matrix

cos sin

preserves the norm: i.e. k(x, y)k2 = kL(x, y)k2 . So, for S 2k1 R2k , the map

sin cos

L := Lt Lt : R2k I R2k is the smooth homotopy.

k times

11

Solution) Let f0 : X Y be diffeomorphism, X, Y compact, ft homotopy of f0 . We need

produce > 0 such that ft is diffeomorphism for all t < . WLOG, we assume that X is connected,

and also Y connected. (X is compact, so it has finitely many connected components, so we can find

for each and take the minimum).

Local diffeomorphism and embedding is stable, so > 0 such thatt < , ft is a local diffeomorphism and an embedding. Fix any t < . We are done if ft (X) = Y , but ft (X) is open in Y

since ft is local diffeomorphism, and it is closed since it is image of compact set in Y also compact.

Hence, Y connected implies ft (X) = Y .

Exercise 40 (1.6.9). Let : R R be a function with (s) = 1 if |s| < 1, (s) = 0 if |s| > 2,

and define ft : R R by ft (x) = x(tx). This is a counterexample to all the parts of the stability

theorem when X is not compact.

Solution) We simply need verify. f0 (x) = x(0) = x, hence f0 is a diffeomorphism and any

submanifold of R is transversal to identity. Now, for any t > 0, note that |tx| > 2 for all |x| > 2/|t|,

so ft cannot be local diffeomorphism/immersion/submersion/embedding/diffeomorphism. And for

|x| > 2/|t|, ft (x) = 0, so clearly, {0} is not transversal to ft .

Exercise 41 (1.6.10). A deformation of a submanifold Z Y is a smooth homotopy it : Z Y

where i0 is the inclusion map and each it is an embedding (and thus, Zt = it (Z) is a smoothly

varying submanifold of Y with Z0 = Z). If Z is compact, then any homotopy it of its inclusion map

is a deformation for small t.

Solution) Since Z is compact, embedding is stable class.

1.7

Exercise 42 (1.7.5). Exhibit a smooth map f : R R whose set of critical values is dense.

Solution) From [Exercise 1.1.18], there is a function g : R R such that g(x) = 1 if |x| 1/4

and g(x) = 0 if |x| 1/2. Now, write

P Q = {q1 , q2 , . . .}, and then for i N, define gi : R R by

gi (x) = qi g(x i). Now define f := i gi , then all the rationals are critical values for f and dense

in R.

Remark: Measure zero implies empty interior, but the converse is false.

Exercise 43 (1.7.6). The sphere S k is simply connected if k > 1.

Solution) Since dim S 1 < dim S k (k > 1), p S k is a regular value iff p

/ f (S 1 ). That is, Sards

1

k

1

Theorem implies that f (S ) is measure zero in S , hence p

/ f (S ). Now under S k {p} ' Rk ,

and with Rk being contractible, f (S 1 ) is homotopic to a constant map.

Exercise 44 (1.7.8). Analyze the critical behavior at the origin in the following functions:

a. f (x, y) = x2 + 4y 3

b. f (x, y) = x2 2xy + y 2

12

c. f (x, y) = x2 + y 4

d. f (x, y) = x2 + 11xy + y 2 /2 + x6

e. f (x, y) = 10xy + y 2 + 75y 3

Solution) In the order of nondegenerate?/isolated?/local min or max?(non strict)?, we have:

a. N/N/N, b. N/N/Y(min), c. N/Y/Y(min), d. Y/Y/N, e. Y/Y/N

Exercise 45 (1.7.11,12). If a Rn is a non degenerate critical point of f : Rn R, there exists a

local coordinate system (x1 , . . . , xn ) around a such that

f = f (a) +

n

X

i x2i ,

i = 1

i=1

Solution) Note that Hessian matrix is always real symmetric and hence diagonalizable by orthogonal matrix P . Let H be Hessian matrix of f at a, and P be the orthogonal matrix that

diagonalizes H. Morse Lemma gives us local coordinates x~00 := (x001 , . . . , x00n ) : Rn Rn around a

t

such that f = f (a) + x~00 H x~00 . Then x~0 := (x01 , . . . , x0n ) := P t x~00 is a new local coordinates around a

t

t

such that f = f (a) + x~00 P P t HP P t x~00 = f (a) + x~0 (P t HP )x~0 . So,

f = f (a) +

n

X

i x02

i ,

i s are eigenvalues of H

i=1

g x~0 be the new local coordinates around a. Then

f = f (a) +

n

X

p

p

|1 |y1 , . . . , |n |yn ), and ~x := (x1 , . . . , xn ) :=

i x2i ,

i = 1

i=1

as desired, and since (x1 , . . . , xn )(a) = 0 the second derivative test immediately follows.

Exercise 46 (1.7.14). Check that the height function (x1 , . . . , xk ) 7 xk on the sphere S k1 is a

Morse function with two critical points, the poles (one max, one min).

Solution) Let f : S k1 R be the restriction of the projection : Rk R, (x1 , . . . , xk ) 7 xk .

Then for x S k1 , dfx : Tx (S k1 ) R is the restriction of dx = . Thus, x S k1 is a critical

value iff Tx (S k1 ) = Rk1 {0}. Since, S k1 = g 1 (1) where g : x kxk2 , Ta (S k1 ) = ker(x 7

2at x), Ta (S k1 ) = Rk1 {0} exactly

p when a = (0, . . . , 0, 1) := N or (0, . . . , 0, 1) := S. Now,

: Rk1 B1 (0) R, x 7 x 1 kxk2 are local parametrizations of N, S. And calculating

H(f + )0 , we have I (hence max), and for the case we have I.

Exercise 47 (1.7.16). Let U Rk open, f : U R smooth, and H(x) be the Hessian of f for

x U . Then f is Morse if and only if

k

X

f 2

2

det(H) +

> 0 on U

xi

i=1

13

follows immediately from definition of Morse.

Pk

i=1

f

xi

2

= 0. The rest is

Exercise 48 (1.7.17,18). (Stability of Morse Functions) Suppose ft is a homotopic family of functions on Rk . Show that if f0 is Morse in some neighborhood f a compact set K, then so is every ft

for t sufficiently small. And thus, Morse function is stable class.

Solution) Let U Rk be open containing K such that f0 : U R is Morse. Now, denote the

P ft 2

Hessian of ft at x by Hft |x , and define h : Rk I R by (x, t) 7 det(Hft |x )2 + ki=1 x

.

i

Clearly, h is smooth, and by [Exercise 1.7.16], we know that h > 0 on U {0}, hence on K {0}.

Since K {0} is compact, h 2 for some > 0. By continuity of h, there exists an open set

U 0 K {0} such that h > on U 0 . By Tube Lemma, > 0 such that h > on K [0, ]. Using

continuity of h again, for any fixed t [0, ] there exists open V K such that h > 0 on V {t},

as desired.

Now let X be a compact manifold, f0 : X R Morse, and ft homotopic family of functions.

Suppose for any x SX, there exists Ux , neighborhood of x, and x > 0 such that ft is Morse on Ux

for t [0, x ]; then x Ux form an open over of X, so choosing a finite sub cover Ux1 Uxn ,

we have that ft is Morse on X for any t [0, min(x1 , . . . , xn )]. Existence of Ux and x is given by

[Exercise 1.7.17]: for : Vx X local parametrization around x with (0) = x, set Ux = (Br (0))

where Br (0) Vx .

1.8

Exercise 49 (1.5.2). Let g : X R be smooth, everywhere-positive. Then the map f : T (X)

T (X) given by (x, v) 7 (x, g(x)v) is smooth.

Solution) If m : R RN RN is scalar multiplication, : RN RN RN diagonal map, then

f is just restriction of (Id m) (Id g Id) ( Id).

Exercise 50 (1.5.3,4). T (X Y ) is diffeomorphic to T (X) T (Y ). T (S 1 ) is diffeomorphic to

S 1 R.

Solution) First statement is immediate from T(x,y) (X Y ) = Tx (X) Ty (Y ). The map (x, v) 7

(x, kvk) is a diffeomorphism of T (S k ) and S 1 R.

Exercise 51 (1.5.6). A vector field ~v on a manifold X in RN is a smooth map ~v : X RN such

that ~v (x) Tx (X). Equivalently, a vector field ~v on X is a cross section of T (X)i.e. a smooth

map ~v : X T (X) such that p ~v is identity on X. Lastly, x X is zero of a vector field ~v if

~v (x) = 0.

Solution) (Just definitions)

14

nonvanishing vector field ~v , then its antipodal map is homotopic to the identity.

Solution) If k is odd, then the map (x1 , . . . , xk+1 ) 7 (x2 , x1 , x4 , x3 , . . . , xk+1 , xk ) is a (linear)

smooth map, i.e. a nonvanishing vector field on S k . Now, let ~v is a nonvanishing vector field on

S k , and WLOG k~v (x)k = 1, x S k (define new vector field by x 7 ~v (x)/k~v (x)k), and thus

~v : S k S k smooth and x~v (x). Now, H : S k I S k defined by (x, t) 7 x cos t + ~v (x) sin t is

a homotopy between the identity and antipodal map.

15

2.1

submanifold with boundary, and define g := f |Z . Then for x Z, dgx : Tx (Z) Tf (x) (Y ) is equal

to dfx |Tx (Z) .

Solution) The proof reads exactly like [Exercise 17].

Exercise 54 (2.1.2). Let f : X Y be a diffeomorphism of manifolds with boundary. Then f

maps X diffeomorphically onto Y .

f

Id

that f (x) Y if and only if x X.

Exercise 55 (2.1.3). S := [0, 1] [0, 1] is a not a manifold with boundary.

Solution) Suppose S is a manifold with boundary, then s = (0, 0) S has a neighborhood

U I 2 diffeomorphic to V H k . Let f : U V be the diffeomorphism, and shrinking if U

open

open

e R2 . Then dFs is an

if necessary, let F : U

open

isomorphism.

Now, note that U maps to H k , so if F = (F1 , F2 ) then F2 (x, 0) = 0 = F2 (0, y) for any

F2

2

(x, 0), (0, y) U . Thus, F

x (s) = 0 an y (s) = 0. But this implies that dFs (e1 ), dFs (e2 ) R {0}

and thus not linearly dependent.

Exercise 56 (2.1.4). The solid hyperboloid defined by x2 + y 2 z 2 a is a manifold with boundary.

Solution) Define : R3 R by (x, y, z) 7 a (x2 + y 2 z 2 ). Since a > 0, it is easily checked

that 0 is regular value of . Hence, 1 ([0, )) is a manifold with boundary.

Exercise 57 (2.1.7). Let X be a manifold with boundary, x X, : U X local parametrization

with (0) = x (so d0 : Rk Tx (X) is isomorphism). We define the upper half space Hx (X) in

Tx (X) by Hx (X) := d0 (H k ). Hx (X) is independent of the choice of parametrization.

Solution)

Exercise 58 (2.1.8).

Solution)

2.2

Transversality

16