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Possible use of new materials for high pressure line pipe

construction:
The experience of SNAM RETE GAS and EUROPIPE on
X 100 grade steel
L.Barsanti, SNAM RETE GAS SpA
H.G. Hillenbrand, EUROPIPE GmbH

EUROPIPE. The world trusts us.

Proceedings of IPC:
The International Pipeline Conference
September , 2002, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

POSSIBLE USE OF NEW MATERIALS


FOR HIGH PRESSURE LINEPIPE CONSTRUCTION:
THE EXPERIENCE OF SNAM RETE GAS AND EUROPIPE ON X100 GRADE STEEL
L. Barsanti
SNAM RETE GAS SpA
Viale De Gasperi 2, San Donato Milanese 20097,
Milano, Italy

ABSTRACT
The increasing needs of natural gas, foreseen for the
next years, makes more and more important the type of
transportation chosen, both from strategic and economic
point of view. The most important gas markets will be
Northern America, Europe, Asia and Russia but the
demand shall be fulfilled also by emerging producers as
Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Eastern Siberia that at the
moment are developing their resources in order to be
competitive on Gas market.
In this way producers and customers will be placed
at greater and greater distances implying realization of
complex gas transportation pipeline network, when use
of LNG tankers is impossible or uneconomic.
On the base of these considerations Eni group
sponsored in 1997 a feasibility study on X100 steel, given
that, comparing different design approaches, it has been
observed that consistent savings could be obtained by
means of using high grade steel and high pressure
linepipes. In this project, involving CSM and Corus
group for the laboratory and full-scale pipes testing,
played an important part also Europipe: the pipes
producer.
No technical breakthrough, but only improvements
in the existing expertise were involved in the X100
production; consequently, the production window is very
narrow.
However optimized steelmaking practices and
processes enabled the material to reach the desired
properties: strength, toughness and weldability.
This paper is intended to present the general results
arising from this project, in terms of steel properties
(chemical composition, mechanical properties), ductile
and brittle fracture resistance (results of full scale burst
tests, West Jefferson tests) and field weldability, but
above all the know-how stored till now on high grade

Copyright 2002 by ASME

H.G. Hillenbrand
EUROPIPE GmbH
Formerstrasse 49, 40878 Ratingen,
Germany

steel and its possible use from a Gas company and a Pipe
maker point of view.
INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO
The energetic scenario has been changing quickly
in these last years. International studies foresaw an
increasing demand of natural gas till doubling in 2030.
This statement is based on several issues:
The availability of natural gas fields is greater than
that of verified oil fields.
The exploitation of these reserves is yet limited.
The need of substituting polluting fuels according
Kyoto agreement with the consequent increasing use
of natural gas for electric energy production with
combined cycles.
This increasing demand will be satisfied not only by
major producers (Russia, Norway, Northern America
etc.) but also by emerging countries like Kazakhstan,
Turkmenistan and Eastern Siberia, that at the moment are
developing their resources in order to be competitive on
Gas market.
Also for this reason, producers and customers will be
placed at greater and greater distances implying
construction of complex gas transportation pipeline
network, when use of LNG tankers is impossible or
uneconomic.
This makes high pressure natural gas
transportation via pipelines more and more interesting
for gas companies.
On the base of these considerations Eni group
sponsored in 1997 a feasibility study on X100 steel grade
because this high strength steel could give consistent
savings in terms of CAPEX comparing it to an X80 high
pressure solution. Also other gas companies tried to

compare transportation costs and qualities of


conventional pipeline steels in contrast to new grades like
X100.
Costs have been evaluated under several
hypothesis:
Unit steel cost has been estimated according
trend extrapolated from lower grades.
Costs of fittings and valves have been
considered as a constant portion of the total
steel cost.
Transportation costs have been evaluated as
dependent from the steel weight.
Laying costs have been analyzed completely:
trenching and field bending have been
considered constant for both solutions,
instead welding costs have been divided in
two parts, one constant and the other
proportional with the thickness; moreover it
has been taken care of the possible higher
costs of consumables and of the possible
greater difficulties for welders.
The other costs (coatings, cathodic protection) have been
considered equal for both solutions.
This
preliminary
economic
evaluation
highlighted that X100 steel high pressure pipes could
give investment costs savings of about 7% with respect
to X80 grades (See Fig.1 for costs options comparison).
Other studies claim cost savings of up to 30% when X70
and X100 is compared.
Given that in a complex pipeline network
operating at high pressure, capital expenditure is very
high, it is understandable how much attractive could be
high strength steel option.
A research program was conducted by Snam
Rete Gas (on behalf of Eni group) together with
Europipe and Centro Studi Materiali. This last actor also
assured partial contribution from ECSC.

In the last 7 years, Europipe developed three


different approaches with respect to the selection of
chemical composition.
Approach A, which involves a relatively high
carbon content, has the disadvantage that the crack arrest
toughness requirements to prevent long-running cracks,
may not be fulfilled. Moreover, this approach is also
detrimental, e.g. to field weldability. Results of that
approach are as follows:
Approach A
Heat
I

Mn

Mo

Ni

yield to
yield strength tensile strength
tensile ratio
Rt0.5 *
Rm *
R t0.5 / R m *
739 MPa

792 MPa

Cu

Ti

CEIIW PC M

Elongation
A5 *

CVN
(20C)

DWTTtransition
temperature

18.4%

235

- 15 C

0.93

Approach B, which was used in combination


with fast cooling rates in the plate mill down to a very
low cooling-stop temperature, results in the formation of
uncontrolled
fractions
of
martensite
in
the
microstructure, which have a detrimental effect on
toughness properties of base metal and leads additionally
to the softening in the heat affected zone. This effect
cannot be adequately compensated for extremely low
carbon
contents,
without
adversely
affecting
productivity.
Approach B
Heat
II

Heat
II

pipe size
OD X WT

Mn

Si

Mo

Ni

30" x 15.9 mm 0.07 1.89 0.28 0.15 0.16

Cu
-

Nb

755 MPa

820 MPa

0.92

17.1 %

Ti

CEIIW PC M

0.05 0.015 0.004 0.43 0.19

yield to
yield strength tensile strength
Elongation
tensile ratio
Rt0.5 *
Rm *
A5 *
R t0.5 / R m *

* transverse tensile tests by round bar specimens

pyright 2002 by ASME

Nb

* transverse tensile tests by round bar specimens

MATERIALS
To cope with market requirements for enhancing
strength Europipe put its effort to the development of
grade X100. No technological breakthroughs, such as TM
rolling and accelerated cooling which increased the
strength and toughness respectively, but only
improvements in the existing technology were involved
in the production of grade X100 plate. As a result, the
production window is quite narrow. Heat treatment of
plate or pipe is obviously not advisable.

Si

30" x 19.1 mm 0.08 1.95 0.26 0.26 0.23 0.22 0.05 0.018 0.003 0.49 0.22

Heat
I

pipe size
OD X WT

CVN
(20C)

DWTTtransition
temperature

240

- 25 C

equivalent and the high strength level, the toughness of


the longitudinal weld seam and the HAZ is limited.
Experience gained meanwhile indicates that
Approach C is the best choice. This approach enables the
desired property profile to be achieved through an
optimized two-stage rolling process in conjunction with a
reduced carbon content, a relatively high carbon
equivalent and optimized cooling conditions. The special
potential of the existing rolling and cooling facilities
contributes significantly to the success of this approach.
Approach C, which involves a low carbon
content, ensures excellent toughness as well as fully
satisfactory field weldability, despite the relatively high
carbon equivalent of the chemical composition. The
chemical composition should therefore be considered
acceptable for the purpose of current standardization.
Europipe already produced hundreds of tons of
grade X100 according Approach C. The latest trials were
covering the wall thickness range between 12.7 and 25.4
mm. It was demonstrated that the same steel composition
could be used and only slight changes in the rolling
conditions are necessary.
(See Fig.2 for approaches comparison)
Approach C
Heat

pipe size
OD X WT

Mn

Si

Mo

Ni

Cu

Nb

Ti

CEIIW PCM

III

56" x 19.1 mm 0.07 1.90 0.30 0.17 0.33 0.20 0.05 0.018 0.005 0.46 0.20

IV

36" x 16.0 mm 0.06 1.90 0.35 0.28 0.25

0.05 0.018 0.004 0.46 0.19

36"x12.7 - 25 mm 0.06 1.93 0.32 0.30 0.24

0.05 0.018 0.005 0.46 0.19

Heat
III
IV
V

yield to
yield strength tensile strength
Elongation CVN
tensile ratio
Rt0.5 *
Rm *
A5 *
(20C)
Rt0.5 / Rm *
737 MPa

800 MPa

752 MPa

816 MPa

767-799 MPa 796-836 MPa

0.92

DWTTtransition
temperature

18 %

200 J

- 20 C

0.92

18 %

~0.94

15-18 %

270 J
- 50 C
200~-60 - -10C**
270 J

* transverse tensile tests by round bar specimens


** -60C for WT 12.7mm -10C for WT 25mm

All production results have shown that the


strength properties can be easily reached when using
round bar specimens. Yield/Tensile ratios are still high
and elongation values lower than for grade X70.. Charpy
toughness was measured in excess of 200 J but it seems
to be impossible to guarantee values in excess of 300 J
for a big project. Due to the relatively high carbon

pyright 2002 by ASME

BRITTLE AND DUCTILE BEHAVIOUR


One of the paramount issues in terms of safety is
the assessment of the Battelle criteria regarding ductile
and brittle behaviour of high strength steel:
The fitness of 85% shear area Battelle criterion,
based on the DWT Test, to define the ductile to
brittle transition temperature.
The existing predictive formulae for arresting ductile
propagation fracture behavior.
In order to do that laboratory DWT Tests have been
compared with four full scale West Jefferson tests, for
the first point, and two full-scale burst tests have been
carried out at the CSM Perdasdefogu shooting Test
Station in Sardinia.
Brittle Fracture
In these last years the Battelle approach for brittle
fracture assessment has been confirmed on large
diameter pipes built in steel grades from API X65 to X80.
In order to verify these results for the prediction
of full scale behaviour in X100 steel pipes, the ductile to
brittle transition curves have been measured and the
results compared with those obtained by four West
Jefferson (WJ) tests carried out on two 56x19.1mm and
two 36x16mm samples; the test temperatures have been
chosen in order to have both full ductile and transition
behaviour.
The ductile/brittle transition curves have been
measured interpolating data from both Charpy V and full
thickness DWTT specimen with a pressed notch in
accordance with the API RP 5L3 Recommendations.
The WJ tests were carried out by CSM at a
pressure equivalent to about 72% of the SMYS. The tests
were performed using water as a pressurising medium,
with a small percentage of air (about 5 %) to assure
enough energy to propagate the fracture.
In Figs. 3-4 the transition curves obtained by
DWT tests and Charpy V tests are compared with the WJ
tests results. It can be noted the Battelle criterion is
completely fulfilled and the DWT Test allows the
determination of the pipe transition temperature in a

conservative way, even if the full-scale results show a


little spread.

East side :The crack propagated through the initiation


pipe and arrested at the end of the third pipe ( 260 J
of Charpy V energy) in correspondence of the girth
weld.

Ductile fracture propagation


In order to assess the existing predictive
formulae for arresting ductile propagation fracture
behavior of API X100 pipeline, two full-scale burst tests
have been carried out at the CSM Perdasdefogu shooting
Test Station in Sardinia.
Seven pipes have been used for each full-scale
burst test: one initiation pipe, six test pipes and two
reservoirs to avoid the reflection of the pressure waves
and their interaction with fracture propagation.
In Figs. 5-6 the two tests lay-out, Charpy V shelf
energy at room temperature and predictive Battelle
formulae fracture behaviour, in terms of arrest (A) and
propagation (P) event of a running crack, are shown.
The main full-scale burst tests conditions were:

Nominal diameter
Nominal thickness
Pressurizing medium
Test pressure
Usage Factor

1 test
56
19.1 mm
air
126 bar
68%

2 test
36
16 mm
air
181 bar
75%

In order to collect every data necessary for analysis


was installed instrumentation fit for purpose: timing
wires, internal pressure transducers and thermocouples.
The paths followed by the two fractures are shown
also in figures 5 and 6.
1 test
After the initiation, obtained by means of an
explosive shaped charge, the fracture propagated
on the upper pipe generatrix at a very high speed
in both test line sides.
West side : The crack, after the initiation,
propagated in the first pipe, but in correspondence
of the girth weld with the adjacent pipe it split in
two causing the severance of the test line and the
ejection of the pipe itself. So no information about
West test side were available.

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2 test
In this case two propagations and two clear arrests
were observed.
West side: the crack, after initiation, propagated with
a maximum speed of about 310 m/s and arrested
eventually in the last pipe (297 J of Charpy V energy)
after about 1.5 2 meters.
East side: the crack, after the initiation, propagated
with a maximum speed of about 300 m/s and entered in
the following pipe (259 J of Charpy V energy) where it
arrested after about 5 meters.
On the base of these results, especially for the
second burst test, where we had two valid arrests, it can
be said a toughness level of about 260 J is sufficient to
arrest a long ductile propagating fracture in the tests
conditions chosen.
To tell the truth, on the west side, it arrested in a pipe
characterised by 297 J, but considering that in the
previous pipe (252 J ) we had a lower DWTT energy and
that fracture arrested at the very beginning of the last
pipe, we can subscribe previous statement.
This result is in agreement with previous tests
performed on high grade/high hoop stress pipelines.
Therefore in order to use the conventional Battelle Two
Curves Approach, based on CharpyV values, several
correction factors according the tests should be used: 1.5
for the first test and 1.7 for the second one (see Fig. 7).
FIELD WELDABILITY
One of the most important issue in gas transportation
industry is not only development of the steel but also
appropriate welding procedures.
So in the present paper will be presented results obtained
by means of laboratory and full scale concerning three
main items:
Review on commercial availability of consumables
with suitable chemical composition and mechanical
properties in terms of tensile strength and hardness
to fulfil overmatching criterion ;
Definition of minimum welding requirements with
reference to pre-heating temperatures in order to

avoid cold cracking problems. Execution of test girth


welds both with manual (SMAW) and mechanised
(GMAW) welding methods in order to collect as
much information as possible about every technical
problems arising from full scale welding of high
grade steel.
In order to define suitable preheating temperatures
laboratory tests have been performed: Implant and
Tekken type.
Implant tests, cause of the more severe costraint
conditions, gave temperatures too high in order to be
applied in field instead Tekken tests gave more
interesting results as can be observed in the following
table.
ROOT ELECTRODE

IMPLANT

TEKKEN

200C
100C
Basic el. E10018
200C
Cellulosic el. E9010 250C
150C
Cellulosic el. E6010 n. d.
Table 1: Minimum Preheating Temperatures established
from laboratory tests
Once chosen pre-heating temperatures two field welding
trials have been performed on two pipes (56"x19mm and
36"x16mm) investigating on both most spread
techniques: GMAW (PASSO system) and SMAW.
In the tables 2-3 can be observed the welding procedures
followed for each geometry.
Both techniques gave good results even if GMAW
resulted less problematic because of its lower impact on
welders skill and training, in Fig.8-9 the appearance of
welds can be observed for each technique.

Research developed by Snam Rete Gas, Europipe


and CSM showed it was possible also from the point of
view of safety: main results obtained are the following.
The pipe material shows a full ductile fracture
behavior down to -20C.
The validity of the Battelle criterion, in order to
evaluate the full scale pipe ductile to brittle transition
temperature, has been assessed.
The toughness characteristics of the API X100 steel
grade line pipes, in terms of Charpy V energy,
proved enough to warrant the arrest of a long
running shear in the test conditions chosen.
As regard the correction factor to be used with the
Battelle two curves approaches for the API X100
grade steel pipes tested in these burst tests, two
different correction factors must be used (1.5, 1.7).
For the weldability issue it is surely possible
welding X100 pipes with both manual and mechanised
technique. Best results have been obtained with the
mixed procedure which allowed to decrease cold
cracking susceptibility without any meaningful softening
of the joint. However the most important item is the
welders skill.
On the other hand GMAW gave good results
without any problems and this seems very promising
considering the type of application suitable for X100
pipes.
After results of this research and those that will
arise from Demopipe project (demonstrative project on
behalf of EPRG about X100 steel line pipes) the
following step could be creating specification and
codification of the steel.

CONCLUSIONS
On the base of last previsions, gas quantities to
be transported will increase significantly making more
and more attractive natural gas transportation by means
of long distance high pressure pipelines.
X100 steel could be a material suitable for this
type of construction: it could combines high pressure and
reduced thickness of the pipe in order to minimize
CAPEX. But it will be necessary to reassess and redefine
some of the material requirements

pyright 2002 by ASME

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was performed also with the help
of Esab and Bohler for the consumables supplying and
with the collaboration of Bonatti and Sicim for pipe
welding.

REFERENCES

G. Demofonti, G. Junker, V. Pistone Transition


Temperature Determination for Thick-Wall line Pipe ,
11th EPRG/PRCI Biennial Joint Technical Meeting on
Pipeline Research, Arlington, 1997, paper 5.

H.G. Hillenbrand et al. Development of linepipe in grade


up to X100, 11th EPRG/PRCI Biennial Joint Technical
Meeting on Pipeline Research, Arlington, 1997, paper 6.

H.-G. Hillenbrand et al. High Strength Line Pipe for


Project Cost Reduction, World pipelines, Vol.2 No.1,
2002

L. Barsanti, H.G. Hillenbrand Production and Field


Weldability Evaluation of X100 Line Pipe PRCI-EPRG
Meeting, New Orleans Louisiana USA, 2001.

G. Mannucci, G. Demofonti, L. Barsanti, H.G. Hillenbrand,


D. Harris FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF API X100 GAS
PIPELINE STEELS PRCI-EPRG Meeting, New Orleans
Louisiana USA, 2001.

API RP5 L3, Third edition February 1996,


Recommendation Practice for Conducting Drop Weigth
Tear Tests on Line Pipe.

G. Mannucci, G. Demofonti, L. Barsanti, C.M. Spinelli, H.G.


Hillenbrand, Fracture behaviour and defect evaluation
of large diameter, HSLA steels, very high pressure
linepipes IPC, Calgary Alberta Canada, 2000.

Maxey, W. Fracture Initiation, Propagation and arrest


Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas
association. 5th Symposium on Line Pipe Research.
Houston, 1974.

Demofonti, G., Pistone, P, Re, G., Vogt, G., Jones, D.G.


EPRG Recommendation for Crack Arrest Toughness for
High Strength Line Pipe Steels. 3R International 34,
1995.

J.F. Kiefner, W.A. Maxey, R.J. Eiber, A.R. Duffy Failure


stress levels of flaws in pressurised cylinders ASTM STP
536 (1973).

Mannucci, G., Demofonti, G., Galli, M.R., Spinelli, C.


Structural Integrity of API 5L X70-X80 Steel Grade
Pipeline for High Pressure Long Distance Transmission
Gas Lines 12th EPRG/PRCI Biennial Joint Technical
Meeting on Pipeline Research. Groningen, 1999, paper 13.

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APPENDIX
3000

2500

Costs [USD/m]

2000

Common costs

1500

Welding
Laying

1000

Materials

500

API 5L X80

API 5L X100

Fig.1:

Comparison between costs associated to X80 and X100 options for the same project construction.

Fig.2:

Comparison between A, B, C approaches in order to obtain X100 steel target.

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100

90

10

80

20
30
DWTT

60

40
Charpy V

50

50

WJ Results
40

60

30

70

20

80

Battelle Criterium

10
0
-160

Shear Area (%)

Brittle fracture (%)

70

90
100
-140

-120

-100

-80

-60

-40

-20

20

40

Temperature (C)

Fig.3:

Comparison between WJ and DWTT results on pipe 56x 19mm


0

100

10

90
DWTT

20

80
Charpy V
Brittle fracture (%)

WJ Results
60

40

50

50

40

60

30

70

20

80

Battelle Criterium

90

10
0
-160

100
-140

-120

-100

-80

-60

-40

-20

20

40

Temperature (C)

Fig.4:

Comparison between WJ and DWTT results on pipe 36x 16mm

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Shear Area (%)

30

70

X100, 56"x19.1mm Burst Test Layout


WEST

EAST

Severance

Reservoir

Reservoir
Initiation pipe

Pipe number
Tensile and
toughness
properties

YS (MPa)
TS (MPa)
Y/T ratio
CharpyV (Joule)

846020
707
766
0.92
271

846038
719
766
0.94
245

846129
780
832
0.94
200

846113
773
858
0.90
151

846058
755
829
0.91
170

846157
663
762
0.87
263

846061
722
778
0.93
284

Fracture
Path

Arrest predicted CharpyV toughness values with P=126 bar (hoop stress=469 MPa)
Battelle simpl. formula

188 J

"A" = predicted arrest

Battelle Two Curve appr.

176 J

"P" = predicted propagation

Fig.5:

X100, 56x19.1mm burst test layout and results

X100, 36"x16mm Burst Test Layout


EAST

WEST

Reservoir

Reservoir
Initiation pipe

Pipe number
Tensile and
toughness
properties

YS (MPa)
TS (MPa)
Y/T ratio
CharpyV (Joule)

99447
724
780
0.93
297

99458
750
819
0.92
252

99460
711
797
0.89
202

99461
709
802
0.88
165

99456
761
844
0.90
259

99457
740
811
0.91
253

99446
766
826
0.93
274

Fracture
Path

Arrest predicted CharpyV toughness values with P=181 bar (hoop stress=517 MPa)
Battelle simpl. formula

186 J

"A" = predicted arrest

Battelle Two Curve appr.

154 J

"P" = predicted propagation

Fig.6:

X100, 36x16mm burst test layout and results

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Actual CharpyV energy Vs. Predicted by Battelle Two Curve Approach


[CSM Database 10 tests: grade=API X80, OD=42-56"; thick=16-26mm, P=80-161bar,
Hoop stress=336-440MPa, air and natural gas (not rich)]

350

Database Arrest

Actual CharpyV energy (J)

1:1.7

1:1.5

Database Propagation

300

1:1.43

X100 56"x19.1mm Arrest

250

X100 56"x19.1mm Propagation

1:1

X100 36"X16mm Arrest

200

X100 36"x16mm Propagation

150
100
50
0
0

50

100

150

200

Predicted CharpyV energy by Battelle Two Curve Approach (J)

Fig.7:

Actual vs. Predicted CharpyV energy (Battelle Two Curve Approach) for high-grade steel linepipes (CSM
database)

Fig.8:

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Appearance of a weld (test n.3 SMAW 36x16mm, mixed weld joint, vertical up welding)

10

Fig.9:

Appearance of a weld (test n.10 GMAW 36x16mm, wire A 5.28 ER 100 S-G)

Snam specifications

Sal 1: SMAW Line


welding

Sal
2:
SMAW
Joining
welding
(es: tie in)
Sal
1:
GMAW
(PASSO type)

Table 2:

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Test
N.

Root pass
(AWS)

Hot pass
(AWS)

Filler
(AWS)

E6010

E9010

E10018-G

E8018-G

E10018-G

E10018-G

E6010

E10018

E10018

E7016

E10018

E10018-G

E6010

E10018-G

E10018-G

E6010

E9010

E10018-G

ER 100 S-G

ER 90 S-G

ER 100 S-G

Types of welding procedures, wires and electrodes used for 56x19mm pipe.

11

S n a m specification

Sal 1: SMAW (line


welding)

Sal
2:
SMAW
(linking w e l d i n g )

Sal
1:
GMAW
( P A S S O type)

Table 3:

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Test
N.

Root pass
(AWS)

Second
pass
(AWS)

Filling
(AWS)

E6010

E11018-G

E11018-G

E8018-G

E10018-G

E10018-G

E6010

E10018

E10018

E6010

E10018-G

E10018-G

E6010

E10018-G

E10018-G

E7016

E10018

E10018-G

ER 90 S-G

10

ER 100 S-G

Types of welding procedures, wires and electrodes used for 36x16mm pipe.

12