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IFFCO PHULPUR

AT A GLANCE

INTRODUCTION
IFFCO PHULPUR UNIT was conceived on DEC.
1980.
The unit is located at 34 km away from Allahabad, at
Phulpur Tehsil on Allahabad-Jaunpur Highway.
It was inaugurated by late Prime Minister Mrs.
INDIRA GANDHI. It is the biggest plant in the
world using NAPTHA as the feed stock. But now
RLNG (Re liquefied Nitrogen Gas) is used with
NAPTHA as well.

MAIN INPUTS OF THE PLANT


FUEL OIL

100 tones /day (supplied by IOC)

NAPTHA

1900 tones/day (supplied by IOC)

COAL

1000 tones/day (supplied by center coal


Field ltd.)
30 tones/day (pumped from bore
Well)

RAW WATER:

ELECTRIC POWER: 24 MW
AIR

From Atmosphere

CHEMICALS AND LUBRICANTS: Petrol oil

INSTALLED ANNUAL CAPACITY:


Urea

: 3.689 million MT

NPK/DAP: 2.191 million MT


Contributed about 20% to the total N and 24% to
the total P2O5 produced in the country.

IFFCO PHULPUR UNIT -1


AT A GLANCE
Foundation stone laid:
Total cost:
Zero date of production:
Date of commercial production:
Total Area:
Total production:

PLANT

CAPACITY

Ammonia Plant

1215 MTPD

Urea Plant

2115 MTPD

Power Boilers
Turbo Generator

3*125MT/HR
1*12.5MW

January 16, 1974


Rs.2050 million
May 26, 1976
March 28, 1981
1070 Acres
49500 MT Urea
/Year

CONSULTANTS
M/s PULLMAN
KELLOGG.
(American Company)
M/s SNAM PROGETTI
(Italian company)
M/s BHEL
M/s BHEL

IFFCO PHULPUR UNIT -2


AT A GLANCE
Plant:
Total cost:
Zero date of production:
Date of commercial production:
Total production:

PLANT

CAPACITY

Ammonia Plant

1*1500MTPD

Urea Plant

1*2586MTPD

Product Handling
Power Boilers
Turbo Generator

4000MTPD
1*200MT/HR
1*18MW

320 Acres
Rs.11900 million
April 20, 1995
Dec 22, 1997
5600 MT UREA
/Year

CONSULTANTS
M/s HAIDER TOPSOE
(American Company)
M/s P.D.I.L
(Italian company)
M/s BHEL
M/s BHEL

TOTAL AREA: 1070 ACRES

Plant

320 Acres

Township

480 Acres

Cordet

150 Acres

Ash Pond

120 Acres

FERTILIZER INDUSTRY
The fertilizer industry in India consists of three major
players:
The government owned public sector undertakings.
Cooperative society like IFFCO, KRIBCHO.
Units from private sectors.
There are 38 major producers producing NH 3 and NP/NPK
fertilizers in country at present. The fertilizer industry of
India had made constructive use of fertilizer provided by
the government of India to ensure that the country achieved
reasonable self efficiency in food grain production. The
fertilizer industry has organized itself fertilizer Association
(FAI) to coordinate with the Government of India to
achieve the macro economic objectives related to
agricultural sector and to provide other services.

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN FARMERS FERTILIZER COOPERATIVE LTD.
Popularly known as IFFCO is a well known fertilizer company,
registered on 3rd Nov. 1967. IFFCO is basically a fertilizer
company and its objective is to produce fertilizer and to dispatch it.
It is a cooperative society and today 36000 cooperative societies
are its member.
IFFCO alone contribute 18% of nitrogenous and 16.3% phosphoric
fertilizer produce in the country. IFFCO has shares of Central
Government, State Government and Indian Farmers. IFFCO has
awarded ISO 9002 for marketing fertilizer, strengthening
cooperatives and providing services to farmers and rural
community Quality management.
The IFFCO has four branches namely IFFCO PHULPUR, IFFCO
AONLA, IFFCO KALOL, IFFCO KANDLA. Besides these there
is a head office in New Delhi, which has command over all four
units. All the four units and head office are interconnected through
WAN and the individual units are interconnected through LAN.
In 1980
IFFCO has promoted KRIBHCO along with Government of
Andhra Pradesh promoted GFCL at cost of RS.108 cr. IFFCOs
contribution to GFCL is 8 cr. IFFCO along with SPIC and
Government of India participated in a joint venture product,
executed by INDUSTRIES CHEMIQUE DE SENEGAL (ICS) in
Senegal-West Africa, for production of phosphoric acid and solid
phosphoric fertilizer.

INDIAN FARMERS FERTILIZER


COOPERATIVE LTD.
Phulpur Unit, Allahabad (Allahabad)
UNIT PROFILE:
During mid - 60s the cooperative sector in India was
responsible for distribution of 70% of fertilizers consumed in the
country. This sector had inadequate infrastructure to distribute
fertilizer but had no production facilities of its own and hence
dependent on public/private sectors for supplies. To overcome this
lacuna and to bridge the demand supply gap in the country, a new
cooperative society was conceived to specifically cater to the
requirements of farmers of the country through their own
cooperative societies created this new institution to safeguard their
interests. The number of cooperative societies associated with
IFFCO has risen from 57 in 1967 to more than 36,000 now. IFFCO
commissioned the ammonia urea complex at KALOL and the
NPK/DAP plant at KANDLA both in the state of Gujarat in 1975.
Another Ammonia Urea complex was set up at Phulpur in the
state of Uttar Pradesh in 1981. The Ammonia-Urea unit at Aonla
was commissioned in 1988. The annual installed capacity of all the
plants was 1.62 million tones of Urea and NPK/DAP equivalent to
309 thousand tons of phosphates. In 1993 IFFCO had drawn up a
major expansion programmed of all the four plants under overall
aegis of IFFCO VISION 2000. the expansion projects at Aonla ,
Kalol and Phulpur have been completed on schedule. The latest
feather in the cap of IFFCO was completion of Kandla Phase II on
5th August 1999, which has heralded realization of all the
objectives set forth under IFFCO VISION 2000. As per the

radition of IFFCO the project was completed more than two


months ahead of schedule. As a result of these expansion projects
IFFCOs annual capacity has been increased to 3.69 million tones
of Urea and NPK/DAO equivalent to 825 thousand tones of
phosphates.
The distribution of IFFCOs fertilizer is undertaken through over
36,000 cooperative societies. The entire activities of Distribution,
sales and promotion are coordinated by Marketing Central Office
(MKCO) at New Delhi assisted by the Marketing offices in the
field. In addition, essential agro-inputs are made available to the
farmers through a chain of 166 Farmers Service Centre (FSC).
IFFCO obsessively nurtures its relations with farmers and
undertakes a large number of agricultural extension activities for
their benefit every year. At IFFCO, the thirst forever improving the
services to the farmers and member cooperatives is insatiable,
commitment to quality is insurmountable and harnessing of mother
Earths bounty to drive hunger away from India in an ecologically
sustainable manner is the prime mission. IFFCO today is a leading
player in Indias fertilizer industry and is making substantial
contributions to the efforts of the Indian Government to increase
food grain production in the country.
Situated near Allahabad, IFFCO Phulpur complex has two
production units- Phulpur Unit-I and Phulpur Unit-II and is the
worlds largest complex based on Naptha as feed stock.
Phulpur Unit-I comprising of one 900 Te/Day Ammonia Plant and
a 1500 Te/ Day Urea plant along with associated offsite facilities
like steam generation plant, Power Generation plant, DM water
plant, Inert gas plant, etc was commissioned way back in 1981.
Due to increasing demand-supply gap of Urea in the country,
Government of India has given approval for expansion project at

Phulpur site since basic infrastructure facilities were available at


Phulpur.
Phulpur Unit-II was commissioned in December 1997 and consists
of 1350 MTPD Ammonia plant and 2200 MTPD Urea plant along
with associated off sites facilities based on latest state of art
technologies.
Energy consumption Ammonia and Urea manufacturing is highly
energy intensive and it contributes more than 80% of the total cost
of production in a big way. Apart from cost of production reduction
in energy saves the valuable fast depleting natural resources such
as Naptha and Coal. Therefore, the energy conservation is a major
corporate objective at IFFCO and it is continuous process at its
units.
IFFCO Phulpur complex has become one of the lowest energy
consuming units amongst Naptha based fertilizer plants in India. It
has substantially reduced its energy consumption during three
years as shown in the following table.

PLANT

Year-2005

Year-2006

Year-2007

Ammonia-I
Urea-I
Ammonia-II
Urea-II
Urea(I+II)

9.648
7.689
8.094
6.111
6.70

9.621
7.636
7.989
6.001
6.64

9.466
7.489
7.944
6.024
6.59

Note: All figures are in Mkcal/MT.

THE OTHER BRANCHES OF IFFCO

IFFCO

KALOL UNIT:

This is IFFCOs first unit situated in Gujarat, commissioned in


1975and expanded in 1997. The total investment is Rs. 1497
crores. The main product of this unit is Ammonia and Urea.
Capacity of Ammonia (NH3) = 1100MT/Day and the
technology involved is Pullman Kelloggs, USA.
Capacity of Urea (NH2CONH2) = 1650MT/Day and the
technology involved is semi carbon.
Raw material used is natural gas.
Total capacity = 5.54 Million MT/Day.

IFFCO KANDLA UNIT:

This unit is also situated in Gujarat, commissioned in 1975. the


commercial production started in 1981 and total investment is
Rs.2005.3 crores.
The main product of this unit is NPK (Nitrogen Phosphorus
Potassium) and DAP (Timonium Phosphate)
The NPK produced has two grades.
1. Grade 1- 10:26:26 and
2. Grade 2- 12:32:16
DAP produced has the ratio of 18:46:0
Total capacity= 16 MT/Annum

IFFCO AONLA UNIT:

This unit is situated in Bareilly (UP), commissioned in 1988 and


expanded also in 1988. This unit has two plants A1 and A2.
Investment of plant A1is Rs.651.6 crores and of plant A2 is
RS.954.7 crores.
The main product of this unit is also Ammonia (NH3) and Urea
(NH2CONH2).
Total capacity of Ammonia (NH3) = 3000MT/Day and the
technology involved is H.T.A.S, Denmark.
Total capacity of Urea (NH2CONH2) = 5172MT/Day and the
technology involved is Snamprogetti, Italy.

IFFCO PHULPUR UNIT


This unit is situated in Phulpur, about 30 KM from Allahabad
(UP) on the Allahabad- Gorakhpur Highway marg . This unit
has two plants P1 and P2, a well managed clean and beautiful
Township, a Cordett (Cooperative Rural Development Trust)
and an offsite plant.
The project of plant P1 started in 26 May 1976 and the
commercial project started in 28 March 1981.
The zero date of P2 was 20 April 1995 and the commercial
project started on 22 December 1997. Total area of the campus
is 1070 acre in which 320 acre is for plant area, 480 acre for
township, 150 acre for cordet, 120 Acre for Ash pond.
Total area of the campus
Plant Area
Township Area
Cordet Area
Ash pond Area

1070 Acre
320 Acre
480 Acre
150 Acre
120 Acre

The main product of the plant is Ammonia (NH3) and Urea


(NH2CONH2).
The total production of Ammonia (NH3) and Urea
(NH2CONH2) in P1 till 31 march2010 is 89.96 lac MT and
155.44 lac MT respectively. and in P2 are 36 lac MT and 62
lac MT resp.
IFFCO has been awarded ISO 9002 for marketing Fertilizer,
strengthening Co-operatives and providing services to farmers
and rural community quality management.

The capacity of Ammonia (NH3):


Phase (Plant) MT/Day
1.
2.

1215
1740

Consultant/Supplier
M/S Pullman Kellogg, USA
M/S H.T.A.S.Denmark

The capacity of Urea (NH2CONH2):

Phase (Plant)

MT/Day

1.
2.

1500
2200

Consultant/Supplier
M/S Snamprogetti, Italy
M/S Snamprogetti, Italy

ENVIROMENT POLICY
IFFCO Phulpur is conscious of its responsibility towards
maintaining a safe and clean environment, and is committed by Ensure ecological balance & production of pollution.
Comply with relevant laws, regulation and societys
requirement.
Minimize waste by recycling/reutilization and optimize
natural Resources consumption.
Promote green surrounding through planting of trees around
manufacturing & living trees.

QUALITY POLICY
IFFCO Phulpur is committed to achieve satisfaction of its cooperative societies, forming community and internal/external
customers by manufacturing and supplying specified quality Urea
through:
Development of human resources.
Co-operation and team spirit.
Improving
technology
for
enhancing/maintaining
productivity ad growth
Creating safe, healthy, working condition and ecofriendly
environment.

POWER PLANT
For the fulfillment of the Steam and power required by Ammonia
and Urea plant, where are four No. of boilers installed & supplied
by BHEL Hyderabad.
The specifications of the 4 boilers installed in P1 & P2 are as
follows:
Plant No. of Material Capacity
boiler required (T/hr)
P1
P2

3
1

Coal
Gas

125
200

Pressure Temp.
(Kg/Cm2) (0C)
108
115

465
515

Turbo
Generator
(MW)
12.5
18

Basically, the material required for producing steam are


Water, coal and Oxygen; the oxygen is extracted from atmospheric
air.
The water is sent to the boiler through feed pumps. The coal
is sent to the crusher through belt conveyers from Wagaon, from
Crusher it is sent to the Bunkers, from Bunkers to RCF where the
coal size is reduced to 20mm from the size of 500 mm by crusher.
After that the coal is pulverized in coal mills. Now, the pulverized
coal is sent to the Boilers where it burns with air and thus, the
required steam is generated.
The generated steam is used to run turbines and these
ultimately generate the desired Electricity. The electricity ensures
continuous supply to run the plant. Along with 0.5 MW power is
also drawn from UPPCL to run some of the plant services.

Power plant of IFFCO is supplied steam by four boilers numbering


up to four from one; three boilers are mainly coal fired.
While the number four is mainly oil fired boiler all of three boilers
are vertical boilers, boilers with a water in tube arrangement boiler
number four is having capacity of 200 T/hr while other ones are
having capacity of 125 T/hr therefore total capacity of all the four
boilers is 575 T/hr there are two turbines generators which are the
heart of power plant they are bring TG-1 & TG-2.
TG-1 = 12.5 MW
TG-2 = 18

MW

Thus the total output obtained by power plant is 30.5 MW. These
two generators require two steam turbines, for their working.
Turbine 1 for 12.5 MW generator is of 25 stages while the turbine
for 18 MW generator is having 32 stages. The 32 stage turbine is
being shown in figure; both the turbines are impulse reaction
turbine the first stage of turbine is purely impulse and is called
Curtis wheel it is responsible for supplying power to the motor that
is the main power to produce torque is provided by this wheel it
leads to the initiation of motion of motor, the turbine has below
stages:

Curtis wheel, one wheel and first stage of turbine.


High pressure side has 16 stages that is 16 set of wheels.
Intermediate pressure stage has clever stages.
Low pressure side it has four stages and is last part of rotor.

Energy Consumption
Ammonia & Urea manufacturing is highly energy intensive and it
contributes more than 80% of the total cost of production Urea.
Therefore, a slight change in energy consumptions affects the cost
of production in a big way. Apart from cost of production reduction
in energy saves the valuable fast depleting natural resources such
as Naphtha & Coal. Therefore, the Energy conservation is a major
corporate objective at IFFCO and it is a continuous process at its
units. IFFCO-Phulpur complex has become one of the lowest
energy-consuming units amongst Naphtha based fertilizer plants in
India. It has substantially reduced its energy consumption during
last three years. The details are highlighted below:
Plant
Ammonia-1
Urea-1
Ammonia-2
Urea-2
Urea (1+2)

2001-02
9.648
7.689
8.094
6.111
6.70

Note: All figures are in Mkcal/MT

2002-03
9.621
7.636
7.989
6.001
6.64

2003-04
9.466
7.489
7.944
6.024
6.59

DESIGN AND OPERATING


SPECIFICATIONS TURBINE
TYPE:

Extraction cum condensing turbine.

Type:
Fluid hackled:
Suction/discharge pressure:
Capacity:
Fluid temperature:
Specific gravity of steam:
at inlet temperature:
Viscosity of steam:
Turbine speed:
Efficiency:
Exhaust pressure:

Steam turbine
carbonate solution
26.65/771 ata
691.3 M3/hr
116C
1.215
0.39 Cent. Stokes
3560 rpm.
84%
0.86 kg/sq.cm.

TURBO-GENERATOR
Rated speed:
Insulation CL:
Frequency:
Type :
PH:
Species:
Ser. No.:
Coolant:
Rated power:
P.F.:
K.V.A.:

3000 RPM
B
50HZ
Teri 800-188
3
5422
1344
Air
12.5,18 MW (TG-1,TG-2)
0.8
9020

STATOR:
Voltage:
Current:

11KV
820 Amp

ROTOR:
Voltage:
Current:

120V
370 Amp

EXCITER:
Voltage:
Current:

132V
150 Amp

OUTPUT:
Power:
Voltage:
Current:

10 MW/hr (T.G. 1)
13.5MW/hr (T.G. -2)
159V
590 Amp.

RADIAL FAN:
Type:
No. of fans:
Application:
Turbine rating:
Fan speed:
Motor/turbine speed:

NDV 16 BAB
2 (0ne fan driven by Motor and
another driven By turbine)
Forced draft fan
275 KW
1480 rpm
1480 rpm

NOTE: TG-1 has exciter with brushes while TG 2 has brush


less exciter, in TG 2 electronic rectifiers are used by which

D.C. supply is fed to field circuit of the generator and are


placed on shaft itself to overcome the problem of arcing and
brushes.

Energy Conservation Commitment,


Policy and Organizational Set up.
As energy contributes more than 80% of cost of production and
sharp rise in energy cost, energy conservation receives top priority
of IFFCO Phulpur.

Energy Management Policy:


On March 5, 2001 IFFCO Phulpur formulated its Energy
Management Policy, which states: IFFCO is committed to
manufacture and supply of quality urea with minimum possible
energy through: Adoption of latest development and technologies.
Better operation and maintenance practices. Minimize waste by
recycling / reutilization and optimize resource consumption,
creating awareness among each and every individual about energy
conservation, creating safe healthy working conditions and ecofriendly environment.

Energy Conservation Cell:


The energy consumption is monitored on daily basis. Phulpur unit
has constituted a task force, headed by Joint General Manager
Technical. The task force comprises of senior persons from various
departments, viz Production, Maintenance, Utilities, Technical
Services, Finance & accounts etc. It meets periodically to discuss
the various loss points either due to plant operating troubles or

owing to design limitations or development of new technology.


Besides this, for improving the energy efficiency within the
existing facilities, studies are carried out and modifications are
done in-house . The Engineers and operators / technicians
connected to each plant are regularly sent for in house/ outside
training programmers and Seminars on energy conservation to
created their interest in this area as well as make them aware of the
various methods / developments in the field of energy
conservation. Reputed professionals are invited as Faculty for the
n-house programmers.

Energy Conservation Achievements:


Phulpur unit has always been a leader in adopting new
developments in the field of fertilizer production and number of
modification / revamp has been carried out over the years, which
have resulted in substantial improvement in energy consumption.
Major modifications carried out in Phulpur-1 are listed as below:
PHULPUR-I
1. Purge Gas recovery unit in Ammonia-1 plant Net improvement
in energy saving:- 0.1108 Gcal/Mt of Ammonia
2. Synthesis Converter Retrofit Net Improvement in energy
saving: - 0.117 Gcal/Mt of Ammonia.
3. Lo-Heat Ben field retrofit in CO2 removal system Net
Improvement in energy saving: - 0.096 Gcal/Mt of Ammonia.
4. Modified CO2 Compressor Turbine in Urea plant Net
Improvement in energy saving: - 0.16 MT Steam / Motif Urea.

5. Installation of Pre-Concentrator in Urea plant (In Year 2001-02)


Net Improvement in energy saving features which have been
incorporated in the new plant since design stage are as follows:

PHULPUR-II

Gas turbine drive, with Naphtha as fuel, for process air


compressor.
Heat recovery unit connected to the gas turbine for
generating high-pressure steams to meet the
requirement of Ammonia and Urea Plant.
Medium pressure process condensate striper.
GV-Low energy CO2 removal system.

Purge Gas recovery unit based on Membrane Separation Technique


has been installed in Dec. 2001 which has resulted in energy
saving by 0.11 Gcal/MT of ammonia. There has been a steady
decline in specific electrical and thermal energy consumption.
Energy consumption in Phulpur-I has been brought down from the
level of 12.5 Gcal/MT in initial years to the current level of 7.5
Gcal/MT i.e. a reduction of about 40%. Similarly in Phulpur II
the energy consumption is improving day by day and it is at a level
of 6.0 Gcal/MT of urea which is lowest among the contemporary
naphtha based plants in the country. Following table shows the
energy consumption pattern & savings achieved in energy during
last three years, which shows a remarkable reduction.

PLANT

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 %Reduction


over 2001

Ammonia-1
Urea-1
Ammonia-2
Urea-2

10.105
8.115
8.334
7.072

9.648
7.689
8.094
6.111

9.621
7.636
7.989
6.001

9.466
7.489
7.944
6.024

6.32
7.71
4.68
14.82

Note: All figures are in Mkcal/MT Recently, IFFCO-Phulpur unitII bagged Prestigious National Energy Conservation Award2003 from Govt. of India, Ministry of Power.

Energy Conservation Plans and Targets:


Energy conservation is an ongoing process at IFFCO Phulpur unit
has launched its major Energy Saving Project (ESP) worth Rs.150
Crores for its existing Ammonia & Urea plants. This project is
scheduled to be implemented in 3 phases by the year 2006.
Following major proposals are in hand at Phulpur unit as a part of
its future plans for energy conservation.

Environment and safety:


IFFCO Phulpur Unit is totally committed for maintaining an ecofriendly environment. For controlling air pollution, plants have
been provided with Bag Filters, Electro Static Precipitators, Dust
Extraction Systems, etc. A lush green belt with about 3 lakh trees
has been developed all around the factory premises, which is a
natural means of air purification. To overcome the problem of fly
ash disposal generated in the Captive.
Power plant, a dense phase dry fly ash disposal plant has been
installed which directly fills the fly ash in closed tankers for
transportation of the ash to the cement plants manufacturing
Portland pozzolana cement. Phulpur Unit has always put its best
efforts for conserving water. The effluent generated in the plant is

recycled back after purification in Reverse Osmosis Plant. Even


the sewage water generated in the township is reused in the plant
after treatment in sewage treatment plant. The plant is running on
zero effluent discharge and total recycle basis. The present specific
water consumption is the lowest among the fertilizer industry in
the country. Plant and its township have ISO 14001 certification
which speaks volumes about its environmental commitment. The
complex has won the 1st Environment Excellence award from
Indo-German Greentech foundation and TERI award on
Environment Excellence for industries with turnover of Rs.500
crore and above. Similarly safety of employees is the prime
concern of management at IFFCO Phulpur and all measures are
taken so that no untoward incidence took place. The safety
committee headed by chief of the Fire & Safety department meets
regularly and discusses the safety related problems with plant
personnel and remedial actions are taken accordingly. No. of
training programmes are organized including practical
demonstration of safety related equipments at site to create
awareness at every level, IFFCO Phulpur has own number of
safety awards from various agencies such as, FAI, Ministry of
Labors, etc.

The Power System comprises of four levels:

Generation

Transmission

Distribution

Utilization

GENERATION

There are two turbine generators TG1 and TG2 having rated output
power of 12.5 MW and 18 MW at 11 KV level. The steam
consumption of TG1 is 85 MT and of TG2 is 106 MT respectively.
Thus the total output power obtained by power plant is 30.5 MW.
These two generators require two steam turbines, for their
working. Although the electrical power requirement at IFFCO
Phulpur unit is about 25 MW.
UPPCL also provides two transmission lines of 12.5 MVA each.
Along with these power sources IFFCO Phulpur has two AMF DG
sets which are diesel fired.

TURBO-GENERATOR:
A Turbo Generator is a machine which produces electric power as
output when mechanical power is applied at its shaft.
Turbo Generators are the alternators whose shaft is run by steam
turbines.

CONSTRUCTION:

A Turbo Generator basically consists of two parts:


Stator
Rotor
The armature winding is mounted on a stationary element called
STATOR and field windings are mounted on a rotating element
called ROTOR.
The stator consists of a cast-iron frame, which supports the
armature core, having slots on its inner periphery for housing the
armature conductors. The rotor is like a flywheel having alternate
N and S fixed to its outer rim. The magnetic poles are excited from
direct current supplied by a D.C. source. In most cases necessary
exciting current is obtained from a small D.C. Shunt Generator
called as exciter which is belted or mounted on the shaft of the
Alternator itself.
NOTE: At IFFCO Phulpur, TG2 has an exciter of 43.5V and
10.8A, while TG1 is given D.C. supply through an external D.C.
source.
Because the field magnets are rotating, this current is supplied
through two slip rings. Recently brushless excitation systems have
been developed in which a 3- a.c. exciter and a group of
electronic rectifiers supply d.c. to the alternator.
NOTE: TG2 uses Brushless excitation System, while TG1 uses
two Slip Rings for excitation of its field winding.

OPERATING PRINCIPLE:

When the rotor rotates, the stator conductors (being stationary) are
cut by the magnetic flux, hence they have induced e.m.f.
produced in them. Because the magnetic poles are alternatelyN and
S, they induce an e.m.f. and hence current armature conductors,
which flows in one direction and then in the other. Hence an
alternating e.m.f. is produced in the stator conductors, whose
frequency depends on the number of N and S poles moving past a
conductor in one second and whose direction is given by Flemings
right hand rule.

RATINGS:
The ratings of the TGs are given as:
Rated speed:
Insulation CL:
Frequency:
Type:
Phase:
Species:
Ser. No.:
Coolant:
Rated power:
P.F.:
K.V.A.:

3000 RPM
B
50HZ
Teri 800-188
3
5422
1344
Air
12.5 MW (TG-1)
0.8
9020

STATOR
Voltage:
Current:

ROTOR

11KV
820 Amps

Voltage:
Current:

120V
370 Amps

EXCITER
Voltage:
Current:

132V
150 Amps

OUTPUT
Power:

10 MW/hr (T.G. 1)

Voltage:
Current:

13.5MW/hr (T.G. -2)


159V
590 Amps.

RADIAL FAN
Type:
No. of fans:
Application:
Turbine rating:
Fan speed:
Motor/turbine speed:

NDV 16 BAB
2 (0ne fan driven by Motor and
another driven By turbine)
Forced draft fan
275 KW
1480 rpm
1480 rpm

NOTE: TG-1 has exciter with brush while TG 2 has brush less
exciter. In TG 2 electronic rectifiers is used by which D.C. is
produced by rectifying a.c. into d.c.

PURCHASED POWER
IFFCO Phulpur purchases 25 MVA of power from UPPCL.
For this purpose UPPCL provides IFFCO Phulpur with two
transmission lines of 12.5 MVA each at 132 KV.

AMF DG SETS
There are two AMF DG (Auto main failure Diesel Generator) sets
which produce electrical power of

1MW at 415 V
2.2 MW at 415V.

Thus the total emergency power for which we have diesel


generator sets is 3.2 MW.
These AMF DG Sets are used in case both the Turbo Generators
fail and the UPPCL power is also unavailable to the plant.
The AMF sets are not used to run the plant. These sets are used to
obtain the required electrical power to start a motor which aids to
circulate the oil in bearings of large turbines. Also it is used to
obtain the required electrical power for the emergency shut down
of the plant.
The power generated by TG1 and TG2 and the power taken from
UPPCL transmission lines along with the armature current,
terminal voltage, frequency and power factor as on 6/17/2010 are
as given:

GENERATED POWER PURCHASED POWER


MW
AMP
KV
Hz
PF

TG-1

TG-2

10.38
760.07
10.97
49.77
0.79

15.55
983.54
11.11
49.78
0.86

ACTUAL
VOLTAGE
SET VOLTAGE

UPPCL
LINE-1
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

UPPCL LINE2
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

LINE-1
10.60

LINE-2
10.75

11.00

11.00

NOTE: All the data in the above table are as on 17/6/2010

TRANSMISSION

There are two transmission lines from UPPCL having capacity of


50 MVA each, at line voltage 132 KV.
The IFFCO Phulpur Unit purchases 12.5 MVA of power from
each.

The transmission of electrical power at IFFCO Phulpur Unit is


mainly at 11 KV level. Thus the bus bars are used for transmitting
electric power in the plant.

For the distribution of power at lower voltage


levels underground cables are used.

DISTRIBUTION
The distribution of electrical power at IFFCO Phulpur Unit is done
at different voltage levels.
Voltage levels prevailing in the distribution network

132KV at the transmission level (Switch yard).

11KV both at generation level and distribution level to


various plants.
3.3KV intermediate level.
415V constitute the backbone of the whole network, most
widespread.
The distribution of electrical power involves transformers and
circuit breakers.
Thus first of all lets us understand the transformer and circuit
breaker in brief:

TRANSFORMER:
A transformer is a static apparatus by means of which electrical
power in one circuit is transformed into electrical power of the
same frequency in another circuit.
In other words we can say that it is an apparatus which transforms
electrical power at different voltage levels such that the frequency
remains same.

It can raise or lower the voltage n a circuit but with a


corresponding decrease or increase in the current.

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF
TRANSFORMER:
The physical basis of a transformer is mutual induction between
two circuits linked by a common magnetic flux. In its simplest
form, it consists of two inductive coils which are electrically
separated but magnetically linked through a path of low reluctance.
The two coils possess high mutual inductance. If one coil is
connected to a source of alternating voltage, an alternating flux is
setup in the laminated core, most of which is linked with the other
coil in which it produces mutually induced e.m.f. (according to
faradays law of electro magnetic induction e= MdI/dT). If the coil
circuit is closed, a current flows in it and so electric energy is
transferred (entirely magnetically) from the first coil to the second
coil. The first coil, in which electric energy is fed from the ac
supply mains, is called Primary Winding and the other from which
energy is drawn out, is called secondary winding. In brief, a
transformer is a device that:
Transfers electric power from one circuit to another
It does so without a change of frequency
It accomplishes it by electromagnetic induction and

Where the two electric circuits are mutual inductive


influence of each other.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS:
A circuit breaker is used for making or breaking a circuit.
There are various types of circuit breakers used at IFFCO Phulpur
unit which are4 as follows:

Type of Circuit Breakers used:


MOCB- at 132KV, 3.3KV level.

VCB- at 11KV level.

VC- at 3.3KV level.


ACB- at 415V level.

VACCUM CIRCUIT BREAKER

132KV AT THE TRANSMISSION


LEVEL:
Electrical power is purchased from UPPCL at 132 KV level by two
Transmission lines of 12.5 MVA each at the switch yard.

Type of Circuit Breaker used:


MOCB- at 132KV level

DISTRIBUTION AT 11KV LEVEL:


Electrical power is generated at 11KV level in the power plant. The
purchased electrical power from UPPCL at 132 KV level is
stepped down to 11 KV level by:
Two step down Transformers of rating 132/11 KV and 12.5
MVA each.
This Electrical power at 11KV level is distributed to the various
plants and is used to drive big motors and pumps of the various
plants.
Type of the circuit breaker used:
Vacuum Circuit Breaker at 11 KV level.

POWER DISTRIBUTION PANEL

DISTRIBUTION AT 3.3 KV
(INTERMEDIATE) LEVEL:
Electrical power at 11 KV level is stepped down to 3.3 KV level
by:
Twelve 11/3.3 KV Step down transformers
Type of the circuit breaker used:
VC- at 3.3KV level
This electrical power at 3.3 KV level is distributed in the various
plants and is used to drive motors and pumps of the various plants.

DISTRIBUTION AT 415V LEVEL:


The distribution of electrical power at 415V constitutes the back
bone of the whole network.
The electrical power at 3.3 KV level is stepped down to 415V
by:
sixteen 3.3/0.440KV step down transformers
Also the electrical power at 11KV level is directly stepped down
to 415V level by:

Thirty three 11/0.440KV step down transformers


This electrical power at 415V level is used to drive small
motors, pumps and also for the illumination purposes in single
phase.
Type of the circuit breaker used:
ACB- at 415V level.

ELECTRICAL POWER
DISTRIBUTION SINGLE LINE
DIAGRAM:
The following electrical power distribution single line diagrams
will further describe the scheme of electrical power distribution
at IFFCO Phulpur unit:

11 KV INTEGRATED GRID AT
POWER PLANT

The above single line diagram shows the 11KV integrated grid at
power plant of IFFCO Phulpur unit.
It represents the two Turbo Generators connected to 11 KV bus
through the circuit breakers. It also shows two transmission lines at
132 KV level connected to the 11 KV bus through two 132/11KV
transformers and two circuit breakers respectively.
It also represents that the two Turbo Generators are interconnected
to each other through two Series Reactors Reactor 1 and Reactor 2.
Also the two TGs are connected to the two transmission lines.
It shows that the power is distributed to the various loads through
bus bars at 11 KV level.

The following single line diagrams will


represent the electrical power distribution
scheme and the loads at 11 KV level and
the subsequent distribution levels.

UTILISATION
The total electrical power consumption in the various plants of the
unit is about 25 MW. And the power consumption at the township
is 1MW.
The electrical power is mainly consumed in driving motors, pumps
and in the illumination purposes. The motors used in the plant are
mainly squirrel cage induction motors due to their robust
construction and very less requirement of maintenance.

The electrical power consumed by various plants is given as


follows:

POWER CONSUMPTION PLANT


WISE

POWER CONSUMPTION IN UNIT 1

S. No

PLANT NAME

ACTUAL
LOAD IN
KW

1.

POWER PLANT 1 3727.04

2.

AMMONIA 1

3.

UREA 1
4174.56
UREA 1, NEW 3.3
KV
INSTALLATIONS
IN UREA I IN
CEP-2008

4.

OFFSITES 1

1723.68

5.

BAGGING 1

300

TOTAL

11853.28 or
11.853 MW

REMARKS

INCLUDING
CHP

1928.00
INCLUDING
CEP

POWER CONSUMPTION IN POWER


PLANT 1:

S.
No

Eqpt.
Name

1.

Boiler
Feed Pump

950

950

760.00

2.

Mill motor

280

1120

896.00

3.

Ash Water
Pump

175

350

280.00

4.

CW Pump

150

300

240.00

5.

CT Fan

93

186

148.80

6.

ID Fan

120

480

384.00

7.

FD Fan

130

520

416.00

8.

Miscellane
ous

322

257.60

TOTAL

Total
Running KW
Total
Actual
Installed
Nos.
Rating Running load
Load

4228.00 3382.40
KW
KW

Standby

Turbine

POWER CONSUMPTION IN
AMMONIA PLANT 1:

S.
No

Eqpt Name

Total
Running KW
Installed
Nos
Rating

Total
Running
Load

Actual
Load

Standby

1.

CO2 Blower

470

470

376.00

2.

CT Fan

110

660

528.00

3.

CW Pump - C

1030

1030

824.00

4.

CW Pump - C
LOP for 101J

132

0.00

Turbine

5.

LOP for 103J

55

0.00

Turbine

6.

LOP for 103J

37

0.00

Turbine

7.

CO2 Stripper
Reflux Pump

30

30

24.00

8.

Vacuum
Condensate
Pump

55

0.00

Turbine

9.

Cold
Ammonia
Pump

55

0.00

Turbine

10.

Hot Ammonia
Pump

18.5

0.00

Turbine

TOTAL

2300.00
KW

1840.00
KW

POWER CONSUMPTION IN UREA- 1


PLANT:

S.
No

Eqpt Name

1.

HP Amm
Pump
Carbamate
Pump
Med. Pr.
Carbamate
Pump
Melted Urea
Pump
Condensate
Pump
LOP for co2
comp
Hydrolyser
pump
Urea cw
pump
Urea ct fan
TOTAL

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Total
Running KW
Total
Actual
Installed
Nos
Rating Running Load
Load
3

480

1440

1152.00

310

620

496.00

75

75

60.00

90

90

72.00

30

30

24.00

55

55

44.00

110

110

88.00

530

1060

848.00

150

450
360.00
4155.70 3324.56
KW
KW

Standby

NEW 3.3 KV INSTALLATIONS IN


UREA I IN CEP-2008

COOLING WATER PUMP 420 KW


CARBAMATE PUMP 265 KW
TOTAL ELECTRICAL LOAD

INSTALLED INCLUDING 415 V MOTORS IS


850KW

POWER CONSUMPTION IN
OFFSITE-1 PLANT:

S.
NO
1.

Eqpt. Name

Bore wells

Total Running KW
Total Actual Stand
Installed
Nos.
Rating Running Load
Load
14

82

492

393.60

FIRE MCC-1
2.

Fire electric
pump

220

220

176.00

3.

Jockey pump

18.5

18.5

14.80

SOFTENING 1
4.

Transfer pump

75

75

60.00

5.

Agitator pump

5.5

5.5

4.40

S.
NO

Eqpt. Name

6.

Clarifier
pump

Total
Running KW
Total
Actual Standby
Installed
Nos.
Rating Running Load
Load
4

15

15

12.00

RAW WATER I
7.

Service water
pump

75

75

60.00

8.

Drinking
water pump

15

15

12.00

9.

Urea service
water pump

30

30

24.00

S.
NO

Eqpt. Name

CONTD.
Total
Running KW
Total
Actua Stand
Installed
Nos.
Rating Running l Load
by
Load

DM PLANT 1
10.

DM Transfer
pump

67

134

107.20 Turbin
e

11.

Degassor
blower

3.7

7.40

5.92

12.

Degassor pump

37

37

29.60

KTI1
13.

Hdrogen
compressor

160

160

128.00

14.

Nitogen
compressor

160

0.00

15

Combustion air
blower

16

16

12.80

CONTD

S.NO

Eqpt.Name

Total
Running KW
Installed Nos
Rating

Total
Actual
Running Load
Load

16.

Dewatering pump

30

30

24.00

AIR
COMPRESSOR
1
17.

IR compressor

765

765

612.00

18.

LOP IR Comp

2.2

2.2

1.76

2154.60

1723.68

TOTAL

POWER CONSUMPTION IN UNIT 2

S.No

PLANT NAME

ACTUAL
LOAD IN
KW

REMARKS

1.

POWER PLANT 2 1940.00

2.

AMMONIA 2

7202.08

INCLUDING
CDR

3.

UREA 2

5892.44

INCLUDING
CEP

4.

OFFSITES 2

1720.32

5.

BAGGING 2

500

TOTAL

17254.84 or
17.25MW

POWER CONSUMPTION IN POWER


PLANT:

S.
No.

Eqpt.
Name

1.

Boiler
Feed Pump

1000

2.

CW pump

3.

CT Fan

4.

FD Fan

5.

Main oil
Pump
Condensate
extraction
pump
Condensate
transfer
pump
Make up
water
pump

6.
7.
8.

Total
Running KW
Total
Installed
nos.
Rating Running
Load

Actual
load

Standby

1000

800.00

Turbine

340

680

544.00

75

150

120.00

275

275

220.00

75

75

60.00

30

30

24.00

30

30

24.00

110

110

88.00

Turbine

9.

ACW

75

75

60.00

Contd.

S.
No

Eqpt.
Name

Total Running KW
Total
Actual Standby
Installed
nos.
Rating Running load
Load

10. Turning
gear
motor

22

0.00

0.00

11. J O P

15

0.00

0.00

12. LSHS
Pump

30

0.00

0.00

TOTAL

2425.00 1940.00

POWER CONSUMPTION IN
AMMONIA PLANT 2:

S.
No

Eqpt Name

Total
Running KW
Total
Actual
Installed
Nos
Rating Running Load
Load
2
0
300
0
0.00

Standby

1.

H2 recycle
compressor

2.

I D Fan

840

840

Turbine

3.

F D Fan

840

840

Turbine

4.

Air cooler fan

17.50

17.50

14.00

5.

CO2 blower

510

510

408.00

6.

Ammonia CT
fan
Semilean soln
pump
Lean soln
pump
Cond pump

82

574

459.20

1100

1100

880.00

450

450

3600.00

15

15

12.00

7.
8.
9.

Turbine

10.
11.
12.

for E-3301
Vetrocock
filter pump
2nd
condensate
pump
Excess cond
pump

22

22

17.60

15

15

12.00

150

150

120.00

1st process
condensate
pump
`
2nd
process
condensate
pumo

30

30

CONTD
24.00

75

75

60.00

15.

LOP for
TP 3301

5.5

16.50

13.20

16.

HP
circulation
pump for
H3461

27.5

27.5

22.00

17.

Ammonia
product
pump

30

30

24.00

18.

HP
circulation
pump

7.5

7.5

6.00

13.

14.

19.

Boiler
feed water
pump

1450

20.

Cond
pump for
E-3601

15

1450 1160.00 Turbine

15

12.00

CONTD
21.

LOP for
TP 3601

5.5

5.5

4.40

22.

Flue gas
CW pump
A

75

75

60.00

23.

1st wash
water circu
pump

45

45

36.00

24.

DM water
pump

110

110

88.00

25.

Ammonia
CW pump

1570

1570

1256.00

26.

Aux LOP
for TP
3801

5.5

11

8.80

27.

Fuel
naphtha

20

20

16.00

Turbine

feed pump
28.

MOV R
3204 inlet
TOTAL

7.5

7.5

6.00

8029.00 6423.00

POWER CONSUMPTION IN CDR


PLANT:

S.
No

8.
9.

Eqpt
Name

Total
Running KW
Total
Actual Standby
Installed Nos
Rating Running Load
Load
1. FG Blower
1
1
475
475
380.00
for CDR
2. CO2
1
1
160
160
128.00
compressor
3. FG CW
2
1
75
75.00
60.00
pump
4. 1st wash
2
1
45
45
36.00
water cir.
pump
5. Rich soln
2
1
55
55
44.00
pump
6. Reg. reflux
2
1
9.3
9.3
7.44
pump
7. Lean soln
2
1
55
55
44.00
pump
2ND wash
2
1
30
30
24.00
water cir.
pump
Steam
2
1
15
15
12.00

10.
11.

condensate
pump
FG ware
wash pump
Caustic
feed pump
TOTAL

45

45

36.00

9.3

9.3

7.44

973.60

778.88

POWER CONSUMPTION IN UREA


PLANT 2:

31 AREA
S.
No

Eqpt
Name

Total Running KW
Total Actual Standby
Installed
Nos
Rating Running Load
Load

1.

Ammonia
pump

860

860

688.00

2.

Carbamate
pump

390

390

312.00

3.

Carbamate
soln pump

37

37

29.60

4.

CW pump

30

30

24.00

5.

Ammonia
boost up
pump

860

860

688.00

6.

MP
Flushing

110

110

88.00

7.

Ammonical
water
pump

30

30

24.00

8.

Urea melt
pump

55

55

44.00

Contd

S. No

Eqpt.
Name

Total
Running KW
Total
Installed
Nos
Rating Running
Load

Actual
Load

9.

Urea
recovery
pump

15

15

12.00

10.

LP
Flushing
pump

30

30

24.00

11.

Process
condensa
te pump

22

22

17.60

12.

Hydrolys

150

150

120.00

Standb

er pump
13.

Ammoni
cal pump

15

15

12.00

14.

Waste
water
feed
pump

30

30

24.00

15.

Waste
water
transfer
pump

30

30

24.00

16.

MP24A/B

55

55

44.00

CONTD
S. Eqpt.
Total Running KW
Total Actual Standby
No Name Installed
Nos.
Rating Running Load
Load
17. MP27A/B

22

22

17.60

18. MK3A/B

18.5

37.00

29.00

19. ME8A/B

11

11

8.80

20. MT-1

7.5

7.5

6.00

21. LOP
for
amm.
pump

2.2

4.4

3.52

41 Area

S. No Eqpt Name

1.

Ammonia
pump

Total
Running KW
Total
Installed
Nos
Rating Running
Load
2

860

860

Actual
Load
688.00

Stan
by

2.

Carbamate
pump

390

390

312.00

3.

Cabamate
soln pump

37

37

29.60

4.

CW pump

30

30

24.00

5.

Amm boost
pump

30

30

24.00

6.

Ammonical
water pump

11

11

8.80

7.

Urea melt
pump

11

11

8.80

8.

MP 21A/B

5.5

5.5

4.40

S. No Eqpt Name

Total
Running KW
Total
Installed
Nos
Rating Running
Load

Actual
Load

9.
10.

MP-24A/B
MP-27A/B

2
2

1
1

55
22

55
22

44.00
17.60

11.

MK-3A/B

18.5

37

29.60

12.

41 MME 25

15

0.00

0.00

13.

LOP for
amm pump

2.2

4.40

3.52

14.

Air

22

0.00

0.00

Stan
by

compressor
15.

Urea CW
pump

1300

2600

2080.00

16.

Urea CT
fan

97

485

388.00

6573.8

5259.04

TOTAL

NEW INSTALLATIONS IN UREA II


2 AMMONIA PUMP MOTORS OF 225 KW EACH
4 VACCUM CONCENTRATION FEED PUMP MOTORS
OF 30 KW EACH

4 BUFFER PUMP MOTORS OF 5.5 KW EACH

2 LOP(s) FOR AMMONIA PUMPS OF 2.2 KW EACH


2 CO2 REFLUX PUMP MOTORS OF 18.5 KW EACH

TOTAL INSTALLED LOAD IS 633.4 KW

NOTE: It is to be noted that the motors installed in the plants are


mainly Induction motors.

TOTAL LOAD
LOAD OF TOWNSHIP IS 1 MW
MISCELLANEOUS LOAD IS 0.5 MW
LOAD OF P1 IS 11.85 MW
LOAD OF P2 IS 17.25 MW

SO TOTAL LOAD OF THE PLANT AFTER CEP IS


30.6 MW

LOAD SHEDDING SCHEME


THROUGH LMS
LMS refers to Load Management System. It uses a Programmable
Logic Circuit (PLC). The PLC is the backbone of LMS.

Programmable Logic Circuit (PLC):


Programmable Logic Controller ( PLC ) is a special
purpose computer with digital processing capabilities,

designed for real time control in industrial applications.


The LMS system monitors the whole electrical power system and
whenever there is requirement it cuts the power supply to the non
critical elements of the plants.
In the following table we have given the load shedding scheme
when TG 1 is unavailable or we can say only TG 2 is available.
Thus the total electrical power generation limits due to
unavailability of TG1 but the requirement of the IFFCO Phulpur
unit under normal conditions is 30.6 MW.
Thus electrical power requirement of the whole unit can not be
met, thus the electrical power supply is given to only critical
elements of the plant.

Thus the load shedding scheme when only TG 2 is


available:
S. No.

Plants to be kept alive

Load in MW Plants to be
tripped

1.

AMM 1

1.92

UREA 1

2.

AMM 2

7.2

BAGGING 1

3.

POWER PLANT 1

3.7

AMM 2
CWP(1570
KW)

4.

POWER PLANT 2

1.94

UREA 1
CWP(3

5.

UREA 2

5.9

CO2
BLOWER

6.

BAGGING 2

0.4

BOREWELLS,
CHP

7.

OFSITES 1 &2

1.2

TOWNSHIP

8.

INST AIR
COMPRESSORS

1.2

ASH WATER
PUMPS

9.

MISC

0.5

N2 & START
UP HEATER

23.96

NON PLANT
BLDGS

TOTAL LOAD

In the following table we have given the load shedding scheme


when TG 2 is unavailable or we can say only TG 1 is available.
Thus the total electrical power generation limits but the
requirement of the IFFCO Phulpur unit under normal conditions is
30.6 MW.
Thus electrical power requirement of the whole unit can not be
met, thus the electrical power supply is given to only critical
elements of the plant.

WHEN ONLY TG1 IS AVAILABLE


S. No

PLANTS TO BE
KEPT ALIVE

LOAD IN
MW

PLANTS TO
BE TRIPPED

1.

AMM 1

1.92

UREA 1&2

2.

AMM 2

7.2

BAGGING
1&2

3.

POWER PLANT 1

3.72

AMM 2

CWP(1570
KW)
4.

POWER PLANT 2

1.94

UREA 2
CWP(3)

5.

OFFSITES 1

1.72

CO2
BLOWER

6.

INST AIR
COMPRESSORS

1.2

BOREWELLS,
CHP

7.

MISC

0.5

TOWNSHIP

8.

ASH WATER
PUMP

9.

N2 & START
UP HEATER
TOTAL

18.2 MW