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DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE

HEADQUARTERS AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY

28 SEP 2009
FROM:

AFCESA/CEO
139 Barnes Drive, Suite 1
Tyndall AFB, FL 32403-5319

SUBJECT: Engineering Technical Letter (ETL) 09-1: Airfield Planning and Design
Criteria for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
1. Purpose. This ETL provides guidance and criteria for planning and designing
airfields that support operations of Department of Defense (DOD) UAS presently fielded
or will be fielded by 2012.
2. Application: All DOD organizations responsible for planning and design of airfield
pavements.
2.1. Authority: Air Force policy directive (AFPD) 32-10, Air Force Installations and
Facilities.
2.2. Coordination:
Major command (MAJCOM) pavement engineers
HQ Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE/TD)
HQ Air Force Flight Standards Agency (AFSSA/A3A, AFSSA/A3I)
HQ Air Combat Command (ACC/A3YU, ACC/A8U1)
UAS system program offices (SPO) and program executive offices (PEO)
2.3. Effective Date: Immediately. This ETL will remain in effect until these findings
are incorporated into joint-Service pavement doctrine and similar technical guidance.
2.4. Intended Users:
Air Force Prime BEEF and RED HORSE units.
Army Corps of Engineers.
Navy NAVFAC offices and Seabee units, and Marine Corps combat engineer
units.
Construction contractors building and expanding DOD airfields.
Other organizations responsible for airfield construction.
3. References.
3.1. Air Force:
Technical Manual 1Q-4(R)A-2-DB-1, 22 April 2008, Version 07.12.001,
RAC#7, Global Hawk Technical Orders, 303d AESG/LG, WPAFB, OH 45433,
DSN 785-3473.

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

Flight Manual TO 1Q-1(M)B-1, MQ-1B and RQ-1B Systems, 1 November


2003, Change 8, 22 January 2007, Det 3, 658 AESS, 16761 Via Del Campo
Court, San Diego, CA 92127.
Flight Manual TO 1Q-9(M)A-1, USAF Series MQ-9A Aircraft, 20 February
2007, Change 1 30 April 2007, Det 3, 658 AESS, 16761 Via Del Campo
Court, San Diego, CA 92127.
Engineering Technical Letter (ETL) 08-6, Design of Surface Drainage
Facilities, 5 February 2008, HQ AFCESA, Tyndall AFB, FL 32403,
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/browse_cat.php?o=33&c=125

3.2. Navy:
A1-MQ8BA-NFM-000, NATOPS Flight Manual, Navy Model MQ-8B,
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Program Executive Office - Unmanned Aviation &
Strike Weapons, PEO (U&W) PMA-266, Multi-Mission Tactical Unmanned Air
Systems, 22707 Cedar Point Road, Building 3261, Patuxent River, Maryland
20670-1547.
3.3. Army:
Engineering and Construction Bulletin (ECB) 2008-15, Design of Surface
Drainage Facilities, 22 April 2008, Directorate of Civil Works, Washington
D.C., http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/browse_cat.php?o=31&c=214
Technical Manual (TM) 9-5895-XXX-10, Operators Manual for Shadow 200
TUAV System with RQ-7B Air Vehicle, 27 August 2004, US Army Aviation
and Missile Command, ATTN: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System, ATTN:
SFAE-AV-UAV, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898.
Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 3-230-06A, Subsurface Drainage, 16 January
2004, http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/browse_cat.php?o=29&c=4
3.4. Joint:
Pavement-Transportation Computer Aided Structural Engineering (PCASE)
design and evaluation computer program, http://www.pcase.com/
UFC 3-260-01, Airfield and Heliport Planning and Design,
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/browse_cat.php?o=29&c=4
UFC 3-260-02, Pavement Design for Airfields,
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/browse_cat.php?o=29&c=4
4. Acronyms.
ACN
ASC/658 AESG
C
CBR
DOD
ETL
F
ft

Aircraft Classification Number


Aeronautical Systems Center, 658 Aeronautical Systems Group
Celsius
California Bearing Ratio
Department of Defense
Engineering Technical Letter
Fahrenheit
feet

GCS
GDT
in
k
lbs
NAVFAC
PCASE
pci
PCN
PGCS
PGDT
Prime BEEF
Force
psi
psig
RCR
RED HORSE
TALS
TDP
UAS
UPS

ground control station


ground data terminal
inches
modulus of subgrade reaction
pounds
Naval Facilities Engineering Command
Pavement-Transportation Computer Aided Structural Design and
Evaluation
pound per cubic inch
Pavement Classification Number
portable ground control station
portable ground data terminal
Priority Improved Management Effort - Base Engineer Emergency
pound per square inch
pound per square inch gauge
Runway Condition Rating
Rapid Engineers Deployable Heavy Operations Repair Squadron
Engineers
Tactical Automated Landing System
touchdown point
unmanned aircraft systems
uninterruptible power supply

5. Definitions.
5.1. Pass. The movement of an aircraft over a specific spot or location on a
pavement feature.
5.2. Sun Screen. A cover to protect aircraft from the suns ultraviolet rays.
6. Aircraft Characteristics. Table 1 lists aircraft covered in this ETL. Tables 2 through
7 list each aircrafts dimension, weight, and operational characteristics.
Table 1. Aircraft by Service
Service

Aircraft
RQ-4A/B Global Hawk

Air Force

MQ-9A Reaper
RQ-1B/MQ-1B Predator

Army
Navy/Marine Corps

RQ-7B Shadow 200


MQ-1C ERMP Warrior
MQ-8B Fire Scout
RQ-4B Global Hawk
3

Table 2. RQ-4 Global Hawk


(See Figures 1 through 4)
RQ-4A

RQ-4B

Wing Span (ft)

116.2

130.9

Length (ft)

44.4

47.6

Height (ft)

15.2

15.4

Vertical Clearance (in)

19.5

20.65

Tread (ft)

10.6

21.1

Wheel Base (ft)

14.8

15.4

Pivot Point (ft)

75

31.24

Aircraft Turning Radius (ft)

67

20.7

Controlling Gear

Main

Main

180 Turn (ft)

133

97

Basic Empty Gross Weight (lbs)

11,900

15,317

Basic Mission Take-Off Weight (lbs)

26,750

32,190

Basic Mission Landing Weight (lbs)

12,900

16,325

Max Landing Gross Weight (lbs)

26,500

32,250

Take-Off Distance, Ground Roll (ft)

3,500

4,800

Take-Off Distance, to 50-ft (ft)

4,300

5,800

Landing Distance, Ground Roll (ft)

8,000

7,800

Landing Distance, from 50-ft (ft)

See Note

See Note

Assembly Configuration

Twin Tricycle

Single Tricycle

% of Gross Load on Assembly

88.5% on Main

89.5% on Main

Tire Pressure, Nose Gear (at Max T/O weight)

88-98 psig

109-119 psig

Tire Pressure, Main Gear (at Max T/O weight)

201-206 psig

289-299 psig

Note: Not applicable since block 10 (RQ-4A) typically flares between 45 ft (Above
Ground Level [AGL]) to 55 ft (AGL) over the runway. The flare initiation altitude is a
function of sink rate. Mission planners build landing approach for a 4.5 degree glide
slope (with engine on) and 5.25 degree (engine out). They survey the area for terrain
and obstacle clearance required to safely fly on the glide slope autonomously.

Table 3. MQ-9A Reaper


(See Figure 5)
Wing Span (ft)

66

Length (ft)

36.2

Height (ft)

11.8

Vertical Clearance (in)

20

Tread (ft)

12

Wheel Base (ft)

10.2

Pivot Point (ft)

32 to inside wing tip

Aircraft Turning Radius (ft)

98 to outside wing tip;


71 to outside wheel

Controlling Gear

Main

180 Turn (ft)

196

Basic Empty Gross Weight (lbs)

4,900

Basic Mission Take-Off Weight (lbs)

10,500

Basic Mission Landing Weight (lbs)

8,500

Max Landing Gross Weight (lbs)

10,500

Take-Off Distance, Ground Roll (ft)

3,450

Take-Off Distance, to 50-ft (ft)

3,600

Landing Distance, Ground Roll (ft)

4,375

Landing Distance, from 50-ft (ft)

5,000

Assembly Configuration

Single Tricycle

% of Gross Load on Assembly

90% on Main (assumed)

Tire Pressure, Nose Gear (at Max T/O weight)

80 psig

Tire Pressure, Main Gear (at Max T/O weight)

170 psig

Table 4. RQ-1B/MQ-1B Predator


(See Figures 6 and 7)
Wing Span (ft)

48.7
(MQ-1B Block 10 &15 is 55.25)

Length (ft)

27.0

Height (ft)

6.9

Vertical Clearance (in)

5.3

Tread (ft)

9.1

Wheel Base (ft)

10.2

Pivot Point (ft)

TBD

Aircraft Turning Radius (ft)

TBD

Controlling Gear

Main

180 Turn (ft)

196

Basic Empty Gross Weight (lbs)

1,680
(1,760 with Ice Protect System)

Basic Mission Take-Off Weight (lbs)

2,250

Basic Mission Landing Weight (lbs)

TBD

Max Landing Gross Weight (lbs)

TBD

Take-Off Distance, Ground Roll (ft)

1,800

Take-Off Distance, to 50-ft (ft)

2,500

Landing Distance, Ground Roll (ft)

1,150

Landing Distance, from 50-ft (ft)

1,700

Assembly Configuration

Single Tricycle

% of Gross Load on Assembly

90% on Main (assumed)

Tire Pressure, Nose Gear (at Max T/O weight)

452 psig

Tire Pressure, Main Gear (at Max T/O weight)

502 psig

Table 5. MQ-1C ERMP Warrior


Wing Span (ft)

56.3

Length (ft)

27.5
(29 with Alpha Probe attached)

Height (ft)

9.9 - Level
(10.32 - for uneven surfaces,
allow for an additional 5 inches)

Vertical Clearance (in)

TBD

Tread (in)

TBD

Wheel Base (in)

TBD

Pivot Point (ft)

TBD

Aircraft Turning Radius (ft)

97.5

Controlling Gear

Main

180 Turn (ft)

TBD

Basic Empty Gross Weight (lbs)

TBD

Basic Mission Take-Off Weight (lbs)

2,250

Basic Mission Landing Weight (lbs)

TBD

Max Landing Gross Weight (lbs)

3,200

Take-Off Distance, Ground Roll (ft)

TBD

Take-Off Distance, to 50-ft (ft)

TBD

Landing Distance, Ground Roll (ft)

TBD

Landing Distance, from 50-ft (ft)

1,700

Assembly Configuration

Single Tricycle

% of Gross Load on Assembly

95% on Main (assumed)

Tire Pressure, Nose Gear (at Max T/O weight)

455 psig

Tire Pressure, Main Gear (at Max T/O weight)

505 psig

Table 6. RQ-7B Shadow 200


Wing Span (ft)

14

Length (ft)

11.33

Height (ft)

3.2

Vertical Clearance (in)

TBD

Tread (in)

TBD

Wheel Base (in)

TBD

Pivot Point (ft)

TBD

Aircraft Turning Radius (ft)

TBD

Controlling Gear

Main

180 Turn (ft)

TBD

Basic Empty Gross Weight (lbs)

252 to 257

Basic Mission Take-Off Weight (lbs)

370 to 375

Basic Mission Landing Weight (lbs)

TBD

Max Landing Gross Weight (lbs)

TBD

Take-Off Distance, Ground Roll (ft)

TBD

Take-Off Distance, to 50-ft (ft)

TBD

Landing Distance, Ground Roll (ft)

TBD

Landing Distance, from 50-ft (ft)

TBD

Assembly Configuration

Single Tricycle

% of Gross Load on Assembly

95% on Main (assumed)

Tire Pressure, Nose Gear (at Max T/O weight)

TBD

Tire Pressure, Main Gear (at Max T/O weight)

35+1 psig

Table 7. MQ-8B Fire Scout


(See Figure 8)
Max Length (Main rotor Spread, tail rotor vertical) (ft)

31.67

Length (nose to tail, main rotor folded over tail, tail rotor
vertical) (ft)

23.25

Length (nose to tail rotor horizontal)(ft)

24.73

Width (outer diameter of skid tubes) (ft)

6.2

Height of main rotor blades (ground to flat rotor disc) (ft)

8.92

Height of vertical stabilizer antenna (ft)

9.75

Main rotor diameter (ft)

27.71

Tail rotor diameter (ft)

4.25

Ground clearance (fuselage, Water Line to ground) (in)

21

Ground clearance (tail skid) (ft)

3.25

Turning Radius in tow (ft)

20

Maximum gross take-off weight (lbs)

3,150

Maximum towing weight (lbs)

3,150

Basic Empty Gross Weight (lbs)

2,029

Assembly Configuration

Skid tubes

5.2. Aircraft Classification Numbers. The International Civil Aviation Organization


(ICAO) has developed and adopted a standardized method of reporting pavement
strength for conventional rigid and flexible pavements. The procedure is known as
the Aircraft Classification Number/Pavement Classification Number (ACN/PCN). The
ACN is a number that expresses the effect an aircraft will have on a pavement. The
PCN is a number that expresses the capability of a pavement to support aircraft
operations. The ICAO manual specifies that the bearing strength of a pavement
intended for aircraft of mass greater than 5,700 kg (12,500 lbs) shall be made
available using the ACN/PCN method. Therefore, the Global Hawk is the only UAS
aircraft that will be included. Figures 9 and 10 are ACN relationships for the Global
Hawk on flexible and rigid pavements respectively.

Figure 1. RQ-4A Global Hawk Dimensions

10

*(Diameter)

Figure 2. RQ-4A Clearances and Turning Radii

11

Figure 3. RQ-4B Dimensions

12

FEET MINIMUM
TURNING WIDTH

*RADII

Figure 4. RQ-4B Clearances and Turning Radii

13

Figure 5. Dimensions of MQ-9A Reaper

14

Figure 6. Dimensions of RQ-1 B Predator

15

Figure 7. Dimensions of the MQ-1B Predator

16

Figure 8. Dimensions of the MQ-8B Fire Scout

17

RQ4-B GLOBAL HAWK


15
14

13

ACN

12
11
10
9
8
7
6
15

Load (kips)
15.3 MIN
32.3 MAX

20
25
30
Aircraft Gross Weight, (kips) Flexible Pavement

35

ACN Value for each Flexible Subgrade Category (CBR, %)


A (> 13)
B (>=8 - <=13)
C (>=4 - <8)
D (< 4)
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
13.7
13.7
13.7
13.7

Figure 9. ACN for RQ4-B Global Hawk on Flexible Pavement

18

RQ4-B GLOBAL HAWK


15

14
13

ACN

12
11
10
9
8
7
6
15

Load (kips)
15.3 MIN
32.3 MAX

20
25
30
Aircraft Gross Weight, (kips) Rigid Pavement

A (> 400)
6.9
14.8

35

ACN Value for each Rigid Subgrade Category (k, pci)


B (>=200 - <=400)
C (>=100 - <200)
D (< 100)
6.9
6.9
6.9
14.8
14.8
14.8

Figure 10. ACN for RQ4-B Global Hawk on Rigid Pavement

19

6. Dimensional Criteria. This section presents design considerations for UAS airfields.
These criteria are provided as a supplement to the criteria given in UFC 3-260-01,
Airfield and Heliport Planning and Design.
6.1. Runway and Overrun Descriptions. Criteria presented in UFC 3-260-01 will be
used. Only exceptions for UAS will be identified herein. The Global Hawk requires a
Class B airfield as defined in UFC 3-260-01. The Reaper, Predator, and ERMP
require a Class A airfield, with some noted exceptions due to support equipment that
must be in close proximity to the airfield. Criteria for the Shadow 200 and the Fire
Scout are included in this ETL.
6.1.1. Global Hawk. Takeoff distances are a function of the engine thrust, runway
slope, runway condition rating, takeoff gross weight, temperature and pressure
altitude and wind. Landing distances depend on brake rate, gross weight,
temperature and pressure altitude, runway condition rating, runway slope,
spoilers, and wind. Runway length requirements for the RQ-4A Global Hawk can
be calculated from the following figures. Figure 11 gives the density ratio as a
function of the temperature and pressure altitude at the runway site. Figures 12
to 15 give the landing distance as a function of density ratio, wind, and runway
slope. Takeoff distances are shown in Figure 16 as a function of density ratio,
wind, and runway slope. Performance data for the RQ-4B is being developed and
not available.
Example of calculation of runway length requirements for RQ-4A Global Hawk:
Given:
Pressure Altitude = 4,000 ft.
Average high temperature for warmest month = 89 F
Gross Weight of Aircraft = 26,500 lbs
Wind= 0 knots
Runway Slope= 1% uphill
Brake Rate= 8 ft/sec
Runway Condition Rating = 15 (wet)
From:
Figure 11 Density Ratio = 0.81
Figure 13 Corrected landing distance - touchdown waypoint to stop =
9,400 ft.
Figure 16 Corrected takeoff ground run = 5,000 ft.
Runway length requirement would be 10,000 ft. This could be shortened since
the aircraft will not likely land at maximum weight.

20

Runway width requirements are related to navigation quality, which is a rating of


signal strength as determined by system site selection and communications
personnel. The theoretical runway width requirements for operations at various
navigational quality values are shown in Table 8. For operations from a typical
150-foot-wide runway, the minimum required navigation quality is 17. (Note: A
navigational quality of 17 is always considered the minimum for takeoffs,
regardless of the actual runway width.) As the widest runway likely to be
encountered is 300 feet, a minimum navigational quality of 15 would be required
for landings. When navigation quality values are degraded to less than required
for the available runway width, an alternate landing site, such as a dry lakebed or
unoccupied auxiliary airfield, should be identified as a safe alternative.
Table 8. Theoretical Runway Width Requirements
Navigation Quality

Theoretical Runway Width (ft)


Requirements

18

148

17

148

16

208

15

268

14

328

13

388

12

448

Another exception to the Class B runway requirements is the longitudinal slope.


Runway slope limits apply to constant slope runways. The slope on downhill
runways could match or exceed the flare sink rate, causing excessive flare
distance and possible runway departure. The slope on uphill runways could limit
flare distance, causing a hard landing. For takeoffs and landings, the maximum
uphill slope is 1.0%. For landings, the maximum downhill slope limits vary with
gross weight, ranging from 0.25% to 0.5% with decreasing gross weight, as
indicated in Figures 12 thru 14.

21

Figure 11. Density Ratio from Temperature and Pressure Altitude

22

Figure 12. RQ-4 Landing Distance for 4 Ft/Sec Brake Rate

23

Figure 13. RQ-4 Landing Distance for 8 Ft/Sec Brake Rate

24

Figure 14. RQ-4 Landing Distance for 12 Ft/Sec Brake Rate


25

Figure 15. RQ-4 Landing Distance for 12 Ft/Sec Brake Rate with Override Selected

26

Figure 16. RQ-4 Takeoff Ground Run

27

6.1.2. Reaper, Predator and ERMP. Runway and overrun requirements for the
Reaper and Predator will conform to those of an Air Force Class A runway and
the ERMP to those of an Army Class A runway as described in UFC 3-260-01.
6.1.2.1. Reaper. Takeoff and landing figures for the MQ-9A Reaper are
referenced to a Standard Day. A Standard Day is at a temperature of 59 F
(15 C). Figures 17 and 18 give the takeoff ground roll and correction for
runway slope for a Standard Day. Figures 19 and 20 are for a takeoff ground
roll for a Standard Day plus 30 F. Figures 21 and 22 give landing distances
and correction for runway slope for the MQ-9A.
Example of Runway Length calculation for MQ-9A Reaper:
Given:
Pressure Altitude = 4,000 ft.
Average high temperature for warmest month = 89 F
Gross Weight of Aircraft = 10,500 lbs
Wind= 0 knots
Runway Slope= 1% uphill
Runway Condition Rating = 15 (wet)
From:
Figure 19 STD+30F (59F+30F=89F) Takeoff Ground Run= 5,600 ft.
Figure 20 Ground Roll with slope= 6,250 ft.
Figure 21 Landing Ground Roll = 4,950 ft.
Figure 22 Corrected Landing Ground Roll for Slope = 4,000 ft.
Runway length requirement would be 6,500 ft.
6.1.2.2. Predator. Takeoff and Landing figures for the RQ-1B/MQ-1B Predator
are shown in Figures 23 to 26 with corrections for runway slope and Runway
Condition Rating (RCR).
Example of runway length requirement for MQ-1B Predator:
Given:
Pressure Altitude = 4,000 ft.
Average high temperature for warmest month = 89 F
Gross Weight of Aircraft = 2,250 lbs
Wind= 0 knots
Runway Slope= 1% uphill
Runway Condition Rating = 15 (wet)

28

From:
Figure 11- Density Ratio = 0.81
Figure 23 Takeoff Ground Run = 3,600 ft.
Figure 24 Takeoff Ground Run with slope correction= 4,200 ft.
Figure 25 Landing Ground Roll = 1,360 ft.
Figure 26 Landing Ground Roll with corrections for Slope and RCR= 1,600
ft.
Runway Length requirement = 4,500 ft.
Note: For assistance with conditions other than those covered in Tables 17
through 27, contact:
ASC/658 AESG
Area B, Bldg 11
WPAFB, OH 45433
(937) 904-4536
PSS.MQ-9@wpafb.af.mil
6.1.2.3. ERMP. Performance data for the ERMP has not been developed.
Runway length and width requirements are 4,500 feet by 100 feet and should
follow the criteria for a Class A Army airfield.
6.1.3. Shadow 200. The launch and recovery site requires a clear, flat area, large
enough for the required landing touchdown dispersion and runway length and
width. The overall site consists of a rectangular area at least 450 feet long and
164 feet wide. In addition to the main rectangular area, an additional area on
either side of the operating strip called the net run-out area is required. Each net
run-out area is 100 feet long and 50 feet wide. This makes the operating surface
with net run-out areas at least 650 feet long and 50 feet wide. The maximum
length of the rectangular area is 1080 feet and the maximum length of the
operating surface is 1280 feet (see Figures 27 and 28). The site should be
aligned with the prevailing wind direction. Maximum permitted tail wind during
landing is 5 knots. The overall site length includes at least 100 feet of rollout
space beyond the barrier net. The rollout space shall be provided to permit air
vehicle net arrestment without any obstacles or ruts larger than 2 inches in size.
The minimum overall site length may be reduced to 650 feet if the grade (slope)
along the runway centerline is near zero. The runway direction slope may not
exceed 1.7% grade within the entire runway and rollout space. The slope
perpendicular to runway direction must also fall within the 1.7% grade. Typical
layouts for the long field and short field are shown in Figures 27 and 28. In
addition to runway dimension and grade restrictions, obstacle /terrain clearances
must also be observed. Figures 29 and 30 describe the required clearances. All
obstacle and terrain height restrictions are measured relative to the touchdown
point (TDP) elevation.

29

6.1.4. Fire Scout. The Fire Scout is designed to be launched from a ship or from
land. The Fire Scout can utilize any cleared area to launch and recover. The
limited-use helipad (50 ft by 50 ft) described in UFC 3-260-01 is acceptable for
this aircraft. Line of site in any launch and recovery area to the UHF/VHF
antennas connected to the ground control station is mandatory. Performance and
clearance requirements are being developed.
6.2. Clear Zones, Accident Potential Zones, and Imaginary Surfaces. The clearance
and grade requirements for runways that support the UAS outlined in this ETL shall
follow the requirements in UFC 3-260-01. For the Reaper and Predator, support
infrastructure includes ground control stations (GCS), satellite communication links,
ground data terminals (GDT), and associated equipment such as HVAC systems
and generators. The GDT provides a line-of-sight communication link from the GCS
to the aircraft and may create sighting issues requiring the need to apply for a
permissible deviation per Attachment 14 of UFC 3-260-01.

30

Figure 17. MQ-9 Predator Takeoff Ground Roll for STD Day

31

Figure 18. Corrections for Runway Slope for MQ-9 on STD

32

Figure 19. Takeoff Ground Roll for MQ-9 on STD +30 F

33

Figure 20. Runway Slope Corrections for MQ-9 on STD + 30F

34

Figure 21. Landing Ground Roll for MQ-9.

35

Figure 22. Runway Slope Corrections for MQ-9 Landing Ground Roll

36

Figure 23. RQ-1B/MQ-1B Predator Takeoff Ground Run

37

Figure 24. RQ-1B/MQ-1B Runway Slope Correction on Takeoff Ground Roll

38

Figure 25. RQ-1B/MQ-1B Landing Ground Roll

39

Figure 26. RQ-1B/MQ-1B Landing Ground Roll Corrections for Slope and RCR

40

Figure 27. Shadow 200 Launch and Recovery Site (Long Field)

* The approach-direction distance from runway edge to TDP may be reduced from 160 ft to
100 ft if the approach terrain is of an appropriate grade. This will reduce the overall length from
710 ft to 650 ft and the runway length from 510 ft to 450 ft. See paragraph 6.1.3 for specific
requirements. There is no limitation on the maximum approach-direction distance from runway
edge to TDP.

Figure 28. Shadow 200 Launch and Recovery Site (Short Field)
41

From Figure 30 in this Region

Figure 29. Shadow Lateral Obstacle Clearances

42

Figure 30. Shadow Approach Obstacle Clearances


6.3. Taxiways and Aprons. The widths and turning radius of taxiways should
conform to the Class B requirements for the Global Hawk and the Class A
requirements for the Reaper, Predator, and ERMP.
6.3.1. Global Hawk. Parking areas for the RQ-4A Global Hawk should be
designed with dimensions shown in Figure 31. Layouts for the tie-downs for the
RQ-4A are shown in Figure 32. Parking areas for the RQ-4B Global Hawk should
conform to dimensions shown in Figure 33. Locations for tie-downs on the
RQ-4B are shown in Figure 34 but specific dimensions for the tie-down point
have not been provided. Tie-downs should be designed to resist an uplift force
equal to the rated capacity of the tie down chain (i.e., typically 10,000 pounds).
Special apron areas for hot refueling or arming/disarming are not required for the
Global Hawk.
6.3.2. Reaper and Predator. These UAS are typically parked under sun screens
during daytime and in hangars at night and during severe weather, negating the
need for tie-downs. As discussed in paragraph 6.2, support infrastructure for
these systems must be sited in accordance with UFC 3-260-01.

43

Figure 31. Parking Area Dimensions for RQ-4A Global Hawk

44

Figure 32. Tie-Down Layout for the RQ-4A Global Hawk

45

Figure 33. Parking Area Dimensions for RQ-4B Global Hawk

46

Figure 34. Locations for Tie-Downs for RQ-4B Global Hawk

47

7. Structural Design Criteria.


7.1. Procedures for the structural design of airfields to support the UAS are
presented in this section. These criteria are submitted as a supplement to that given
in UFC 3-260-02, Pavement Design for Airfields. The proliferation of UAS throughout
the DOD resulted in requiring the criteria to be updated to include these aircraft.
7.2. Procedures and requirements for site investigation; base, subbase, and
subgrade; frost design; and stabilization should follow those outlined in UFC 3-26002. It is expected that the Global Hawk, Reaper, Predator, and ERMP will only
operate on surfaced pavements. Design curves for both flexible and rigid pavements
for the Global Hawk are shown in Figures 35 and 36. Designs for all other aircraft
should follow the minimum thickness requirements for both rigid and flexible
pavements as outlined in UFC 3-260-02. The PCASE program is recommended for
detail design, but manual designs are as follows:
7.2.1. Flexible Pavement Example for Global Hawk:
Given:
Design Subgrade CBR 6 percent
Aircraft Load 32,250 pounds
Aircraft Pass Level 10,000 passes
Enter Figure 35 at 6 CBR. Go vertically to the aircraft load of 32,250 pounds.
Go horizontally to 10,000 passes, then go vertically to read a 10.5-inch design
thickness requirement.
From Table 8-5 of UFC 3-260-02, the minimum surface thickness is 4 inches
over a 100 CBR base course and 5 inches over an 80 CBR base course.
Design with a 100 CBR base course would be:
4 inches of asphalt surface course
6.5 inches of 100 CBR base course
Compacted subgrade
Design with an 80 CBR base course would be:
5 inches of asphalt surface course
6.0 inches of 80 CBR base course (Minimum base thickness controls.)
Compacted subgrade

48

RQ4-B GLOBAL HAWK (Traffic Area A)


CBR
1

10

100

100

3225
0

2500 0
lbs
1600
0 lbs

lbs

100

s
ss e
es
Pa
as s
0P
0
1 0
00
100

ses
Pas

10

1
1

10

100

Thickness, in

Figure 35. Flexible Pavement Design Curve for the RQ4-B Global Hawk
7.2.2. Rigid Pavement Design Example.
Given:
Design Flexural Strength of PCC 640 psi
Design Modulus of Subgrade Reaction, k 25 pci
Design Aircraft Load 32,250 pounds
Design Pass Level 10,000 passes
Traffic Area A
Enter Figure 36 at a flexural strength of 640 psi. Move horizontally to k value
of 25 pci. Move vertically to the aircraft load of 32,250 pounds. Move
horizontally to the pass level of 10,000. Move vertically to Traffic Area A, then
move horizontally to read a required design thickness of 8.5 inches.
The design would be 8.5 inches of PCC over a minimum of 4 inches of
aggregate base course or that to meet minimum thickness for drainage layers
as shown in UFC 3-230-06A, Subsurface Drainage.

49

RQ4-B GLOBAL HAWK (Traffic Area A)


1400

1300

1200

1000

900

10
100 Passes

12

1000 Passes

14

lb
s

25
00
0

16
00
0

lbs
32
25
0

700

25 K

K
100
250 K

800

Thickness, In.

lb
s

1100

500 K

Flexural Strength, psi

Traffic Area A

10000 Passes

600

16

500

18

400

20

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Figure 36. Rigid Pavement Design Curve for the RQ4-B Global Hawk
8. Point of Contact. Recommendations for improvements to this ETL are encouraged
and should be furnished to the Pavements Engineer, HQ AFCESA/CEOA, 139 Barnes
Drive, Suite 1, Tyndall AFB, FL 32408-5319, DSN 523-6439, Commercial (850) 2836439, e-mail AFCESAReachbackCenter@tyndall.af.mil.

LESLIE C. MARTIN, Colonel, USAF


Chief, Operations and Programs Support Division

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