You are on page 1of 54


Bahagian C

JAWAB 2/ 3
20 marks each


FINAL EXAM 2010/2011

7. given audiogram, reflex threshold, tympanogram. interpret data and

describe another test to confirm interpretation (hah, ngn yakinnya. non
organic hearing loss, stenger test)

1. What is overmasking
8. procedures to perform caloric test
2. Draw the graph of speech audiometry
9. describe two audiologic test to check for retrocochlear loss.
Bahagian B
1. Define
6 esei pendek
10 marks each
jwb sumua

a.) Minimum masking level

1. overmasking. define
with diagram, describe an example of overmasking

c.) Central masking

b.) Maximum masking level

d.) Under masking

2. define speech recogniton threshold
draw a speech audiogram showing moderate conductive hearing loss.
describe the graph.

e.) Over masking

2. Describe over masking

3. recruitment. define and an example of test to detect recruitment.

3. Give IA for headphone, insert earphone, and bone vibrator

4. draw acoustic reflex pathway

predict reflex that might be found in people with profound SNHL, moderate
CHL, and retrocochlear loss.

4. a) @ 200 daPa, what is the compliance measure? Why?

5. short description about meniere's disease and BPPV.

b) give the middle ear disease that lead to normal tympanometer

c) why we usually use high frequency probe (@1000 Hz) for
neonate compare to low freq probe (@ 226 Hz)?
5. Explain briefly about the audiometric for NOHL

6. advantage and disadvantage of posturography.


6. Given case study, have to know the principle for tone effect, probe
effect, and central pattern. Than explain either the result is consistent
or not
7. Explain caloric test procedure
8. a) define NOHL
b) explain with the example for stenger positive and stenger
c) give the complete procedure for finding the true threshold
9. a) the principle of tone decay
b) the procedure for the tone decay test
c) Four outcome for ABLB test (illustrate the outcome)


Final Exam (09/10)
BHG A: 2 / 3
1. Explain an audiology role at different organization

Explain about
1. Features of screening tool
2. Do and donts
3. sensitivity and specificity
4. 4 possible outcome for hearing screening
Long essay
1. What is audiological role
2. What are the instrument that is used for neonatal screening
3. history taking


Final Exam (09/10)
BHG A (SEQ) 3 / 4 10 mark each
1. Explain about agraphia

2. Given cases, then describe hx tking

2. Explain the features for the autism

3. Hearing screening at different ages

3. (a) list the reversible and non-reversible causes for dementia

BHG B: 4 / 5
4. Features to get good hearing screening
5. List the possible outcomes when performing screening test n give
the formula for sensitivity and specificity
6. Give the advantages of UNHS
7. Explain middle ear screening and its advantage
8. Do and donts during clinical session
Final Exam
Short essay

(b) Explain the history taking for dementia

4. 60 yo man, have lesion in right hemisphere lesion
(a) Explain the test for facial nerve
(b) List the expectation of this patient
BHG B (LEQ) 1 / 2 each 20 mark
5. Give one example for each for objective and subjective test
6. Explain the central auditory pathway
Final Exam (06/07)
Short essay
what the risk factor of CVA
what are
a) aphasia




b) dysharthia
c) dysphonia
and give their characteristic
explain about subcortical deafness
Cortical deafness
a) definition
b) type
c) classification
what is multiple sclerosis
Advantage of neuroaudiological test

Long essay
1. type of neuroaudiological test
2. Explain about Right Hemisphere syndrome
3. Explain about dementia and alzhemeir
4. classification and clinical presentation of CVA


3. 3 y o boy, SNHL
a) List history taking
b) Describe the causes of this case
c) Describe the suit rehabilitation for this child
4. 20 y o right facial nerve palsy
a) Explain the possible causes for the pt
b) Give the clinical features of the patience
c) Give two AEP test for facial nerve diagnosis
Final Exam (06/07)
Explain about
1. Otosclerosis
2. Barotruma Otitis media

Final Exam (09/10)

1. 36 y o, recurrent vertigo
a) History taking
GTA 207

b) List suggestion for audiological test

c) Explain the result for the test in 1b
2. Given audiogram (kahart notch at 2kHz)

1. What is ABR?
2. Mechanism of OAE
3. Application of OAE

a) Interpret the audiogram given

b) Diagnosed the pathology
c) Explain the pathophysiology



1. a) Differentiate between simple staining and differential staining
b) Explain the procedures of Gram Staining. (20m)
2. a) Role of microorganisms in human health (15m)
b) Define regional and transient normal flora (5m)
c) Explain colonization of microorganism in newborn baby (15m)
3. Define, give example of parasite and host
a) Ectoparasite
b)Obligate parasite
c) Facultative parasite
d)Accidental parasite
e) Describe two blood parasites and two intestinal parasites. Give
name, name of diseases, mode of transmission and preventive
Section B: Answer 3 out of 6 questions
4. a) Explain the relationship pH, temperature, and oxygen
requirement in microbial growth
5. a) Why virus is not a living organism? (5m)
b) Describe biological characteristics of virus (5m)
c) Why viral genome is smaller than bacterial genome (5m)
d) With diagram, explain the general viral replication process.
6. a) Describe the life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides OR ..... (5m)
b) Describe one laboratory diagnostic test on Brugia Malayi OR
Entamoeba Hystolitica. (5m)
c) Describe prevention and control measures of Malaria. (5m)
d) Explain the growth phases of bacterial growth curve.

Nasocomial Infection or Hospital Acquired Infection is common in

developing countries. They are the cause of preventable and
death diseases. Discuss.

Final exam (2009/2010)

Bahagian A:Jawab semua soalan
1. (a) Describe the principle of Gram staining. (5 marks)
(b) Give the function of reagents in Gram staining
i. Crystal violet
ii. Lugol's iodine
iii. Acetone
iv. Safranin (10 marks)
(c) Define normal flora and describe the benefit. (5 marks)
(d) Differentiate between commensalisme, mutualisme, and parasitisme.
(5 marks)
(e) Define aseptic technique and explain purpose practising it. (5 marks)
2. Can human survive on earth w/out microorganisms? Discuss and
conclude. (30 marks)
Bahagian B : Answer only 4 out of 6 question
3.(a) with an aid of graph, explain FOUR phases involved in bacterial
growth (10 marks)
(b) write short notes on 'binary fission' bacteria of rod-shaped. (10
(c) calculation of Nf . (10 marks)
a) General properties of virus. (5 marks)
b) Explain why viral genome smaller than bacterial genome. (5
c) Based on the example, explain how the viruses are classified. (10


d) H1N1- antigenic properties, nucleic arrangement, intermediate

host. (10 marks)


FINAL EXAM 20111/2012

5.Give four classification of protozoa. explain and give example.

name the disease that causes by the protozoan.
(eg answer: Pneumocystis carinii (found in lungs)- Pneumoniae)
6. Give two examples of each helminths according to their classess and
habitat in human.
a) nematode,cestode, and trematode in the liver, interstine,blood, muscle,
and lungs. (10 marks)
b) diferrentiate the characteristics between nematode, cestode, and
trematode. (5 marks)
c) describe the life cycle of the brugia malayi (a nematode)

1. Briefly explain the properties of lambda () vector in cloning

2. Explain the properties and advantages of the eukaryotic
expression vector (5min)
3. List the differences btween genomic and cDNA clone..(5min)
4. application pcr in cloning

7. a) give three important components in pre-analytical diagnosis to

ensure the good quality of result laboratory diagnosis. (15marks)
b) describe briefly the mechanism involved in the antibiotic resistance.
(15 marks)

5. mechanism of pull down 5min

Final exam (2006/07)

7. difference southern and western blotting

1. Describe 5 mechanisms of antimicrobial action and give example of

each mechanism.

8. explain the principle and role of dialysis in protein purification

2. Explain the factors that determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial

3. Draw and explain the bacterial growth curve
4. Describe the factors that influence bacterial growth
5. Calculate generation time and generation number

6. Describe the properties of IPTG and X-Gal; briefly explained of

their use in cloning experiment. (5min)

9. a) how we get the spleen from life mouse?

b) explain the differences between de novo synthesis of DNA and
salvage pathway
c) explain the principle selection of hybridoma cell in HAT medium
10. engineer e.coli to produce hCG
a) e.coli contain expression vector


b) recombinant plasmid contain cDNA

c) T4 ligation d) rest. enzyme
e) modification enzyme

4. Describe the differences between Southern blotting and Northern

blotting. (5M)

f) culture bacteria
g) extraction n purification hormone

5. Describe the differences between the one step and two step in site
directed mutagenesis. (5M)

11. seorang ahli biologi molekul ingin mencari gene drpada sel hepa
yg mengkodkn protein pembekuan drh manusia.beliau
mengetahui bhawa jujuran sebhagian kecikl gene trsebut ada

6. what is inteference RNA.

7. What are applications of proteomics?

CTGGACTGACA.terangkan berbntukan dgn gmbr rajah yng

sesuai dgn kaedah untuk mndpt gene trsebut.
12. a) define codon bias and the impact in the gene cloning and gene
expression (5min)
b) design experimental procedures on microarray assay-10 min
13. design an experiment using SDS-PAGE and western blot to detect

8. a) Describe what is codon bias and what impact of it into the cloning
and expression.
b) Give the methods and the advantages of assembly PCR
9. Describe the regulation involved of trp operon (9M)
10. Give the differentiation between Real-time PCR and Standard PCR.

specific protein from outer membrane of bacterial M. (15min)

11. Explain the principle that used in gel electropoiesis for separation the
of the gene.
Final Exam (2009/10)
1. With the example, describe the methods and applications of the PCR
technique. (5M)

12. Plasmid vector (figure) that has kan(r) and str(r) ..

- How to insert the gene?
- str(r) has EcoRI. How to isolate it?

2. Give 4 examples of the DNA polymerase and explain their function.

3. Explain the properties and functions of the eukaryotic expression
vector. (5M)


Hybridoma technology (15M)

Final exam (2002/03)

Part A


Each question 5 minutes. Answer only six questions.

1. What are the properties of IPTG and X gal and its use in experiment?

Part C
Each question 15 minutes. Answer only 2 questions

2. What are the properties and advantages of eukaryotes expression


1. a) What is codon bias? What are the impacts of codon bias in cloning
and gene expression?

3. What are the properties and use of M13 filamentous phage?

4. List down the comparison between Northern blot and Microarray.

b) Briefly describe assembly PCR and its application

2. a) Design experiment SDS-PAGE and WESTERN blot to separate
protein that found in membran bacteria X.

5. Huraikan struktur sekunder protein.

b) What are proteomics?
6. What is inteference RNA-Irna
c) With aid of flow chart, list out the steps in proteomics
7. With the aid of diagram, explain cis acting sequence and trans acting
OSPE (2002/03)
8. What is the 4 main reason of DNA sequencing?
Part B
Each question 15 minutes. Answer only 2 questions
1. You are going to clone human growth hormone. Design an experiment
till you get the protein ( you are given some key word related to the
experiment- Cloning simulation project)
2. Explain the organization of lac operon and trp operon, and with
diagram, state out their difference regarding regulation.
3. A molecular biologist wants to clone some biological factor regarding
blood clotting. He or she only knows about the small sequence
ACTGACGCGC. Design steps in getting the whole sequence

1. Station 1 you will be given a whole sequence of a gene and ask to

calculate the amino acid molecular weight. Whats the program that do
multiple alignment, define ORF and and list whats the program that
search for ORF.
2. Station 2 you are given one SDS page chamber and ask you to label
4 parts and the function of them. Then ask you what the technique that
uses this apparatus is. List out 4 composition of SDS-PAGE gel.
3. Station 3 you be given one SDS-PAGE gel and ask you what is the
stain that being use and what is the approximate molecular weight of
certain band. What is the component of sample buffer of SDS-PAGE?
Way to destain it?


4. Station 4- given the picture of DNA sequencing and ask you base on
the picture to write down the sequence of that gene from 5 to 3. Then
ask you the component of DNA sequencing and then how many
primers to use.
5. Station 5 given a chart about PCR, ask u to write down the 3 steps
and the temperature of the steps and calculate the annealing
temperature of primer and also write down the component of PCR.
6. Station 6 given you the result of western blot ask u the technique
and then ask you about the membrane, the application of western blot.
Stain of western blot.
7. Station 7- given the agarose gel result, ask the how many base pair of
the result, then ask why got 2 band which is due to contamination,
then ask what is the gel being use, stain of agarose gel
8. Station 8- give you the picture of blue white phenotype, ask you the
function of x gal. the significance of blue colony, 2 other methods of
screening, count the blue colony,
9. Station 9 given a picture of vector, ask to list the part of certain
function out, then what is the function of lac I gene.
10. Station 10- give you the picture of restriction enzymes out then ask to
calculate how many fragments and then the size and then what is the
enzyme for ligation and also 2 methods of transformation and then.
What is the software for restriction enzyme?

FINAL EXAM 2010/2011

1. Explain hematopoiesis and the site process for hemostasis from
first week gestation to adulthood.

Explain the the pathway for energy production and pathway that
prevent oxidative stress in red blood cell.

3. a) Describe metabolism of iron and factors that affect absorption of

b) Describe the role of iron in Hemoglobin synthesis.
4. a) Describe fibrnolysis process.
b) Describe 2 roles of fibrinogen degradation product in regulating
Secondary hemostasis.
c) State 2 fibrinolysis inhibitor.
Mean Reference Method X = 142
Mean New Method Y=157
Standard error= 8.3
By doing partial T test

t critical=



Final Exam (2009/10)


With the diagram, describe the structure and function of the cellular
composition of blood. (30M)



a) Explain the structure and function of hemoglobin.

b) Explain the.hemoglobinoxygen tension..


i- Fibrinolysis
ii- Protein S and Protein D
a) Explain two principles of hematology analyzer. (15M)

b) Give two examples of the characteristic of blood cell which can make
error during the operation of hematology analyzer.
iBased on the two examples you give above, assume the two results
iiBased on the two example you give above, state two solutions that
must taken before start the operation to avoid the errors. (15M)
a) A comparison studies have been conducted on the method of
determining glucose. 31 patients with the high range of glucose
concentration are analyzed by using method Y and compared with
reference method X. Mean of method Y is 157 mg/dl, while mean of
method X is 142 mg/dl. Standard error of the difference between mean
value is 8.3.

State the meaning of t value at P= .05.


What is the conclusion about the assessment of method Y?

a) List the five functions of platelet in the hemostasis. (5M)

b) Explain their functions in the blood hemostasis. (25M)



Determine t value.
What is t critical value at P= .05?

Final exam (2006/07)

1. a) Define haematopoiesis
b) Draw flow chart of haematopoiesis
2. Explain the uptake, absorption and storage of Vitamin B12
3. Draw and explain the cascade diagram of coagulation
4. a) List 3 screening tests for coagulation screening test
b) Explain the principle, normal value and interpretation of one of the
5. Briefly, explain;
a Pernicious anemia
b Iron deficiency anemia
6. Draw Lavey-Jenning and Cudum chart and from Levey-Jenning, what is
the interpretation for 1 normal control and 2 controls: normal and abnormal

OSPE (2003/04)
4 active station, 16 non-active station and 14 rest station
Active station
1. Penaksiran hemoglobin



semua langkah perlu diikuti

memakai glove
shake the bottle b4 anything start
ingat to keep the bottle in dark place
Ingat the range of the normal one and also the prinsip

2. Hematokrit dan sedikit soalan tambahan tentang normal range dan

3. Pengiraan white blood cell
Focus kepada faktor pencairan
ikut semua jalan pengiraan
ingat the normal range
4. Differential count
Only do the counting step and write down the absolute and percentage
then commend
about the result whether the patient is healthy or not.
Normally will get the normal sample. Have to remember all the normal
range of all the white blood cell
Non-active station
1. There will be station about all cells like basofil, eosinofil, monosit,
limfosit and neutrofil. Through microscope or picture. Will ask you
about what is the cell, write two reason how you recognize this
cell, how long they can live in human body, tempat dihasilkan,
function of this cell, normal range of this cell, what is the granul
inside for basofil
2. Terdapat tiga alat iaitu piper RBC, Wintrobe tube, Neubauer
chamber, ask name and function

3. Got microscope or RBC, ask what sell is that, function, briefly

describe about destruction of RBC and its longevity in human body
4. Question of platelet, where it from, original sell, function and
normal range
5. Picture of hematopoeisis, label missing name and get the function
of some missing name
6. ESR, show you the result, interpret yourself. And remember the
normal range
7. Remember the slide of sumsung tulang, ask what cell and what it
going to form and then the function
8. Ask about labeling of Hb formation, label the missing name, and
also ask about, hexose monophosphate shunt, label the missing
9. Count the MCV, MCH and MCHC base on the value provided.
10. There will be two bottles of vacumtainer, the blue cap and pink
purple one. Ask you about which one is use for what experiment
and if vacumtainer y use for experiment a, what happen
11. Count red blood cell, the table already given, just add all and get
the average and then count out the RBC count result. Remember
the normal range of rbc,wbc and platelet.


Answer 3 out of 5 questions

10 | P a g e

1. a) With diagram, describe Type I Hypersensitivity (10m)



B cell


b) List 5 characteristics of vaccines for public health. (10m)

2. a) Describe the mechanism of inflammation. (10m)

Explain the effects of chronic inflammation. (10m)


a) Explain the importance of Ig gene rearrangement.

b) Explain how phagocytes destroy a pathogen withing
4. Immune response against parasite.
a) Explain the role of neutrophils in innate immunity.
b) Explain ways for the organism to evade from immune response.
5. a) List the differences between Th1 and Th2 cell subsets.
b) List the differences between major histocompatibility molecule
Class I and Class II.
Final Exam (2009/2010)

CD3, zeta
Ig, Ig


FINAL EXAM 2009/2010

b. Discuss the naming of drug & give 1 example for each. [8]

6. Secretory IgA in mucosal immunity.

7. Fill the table: comparison of T and B cell activation.


11. Precaution to face future symptom in allergic-induced asthma.

2. 5 mechanism how T cells ignore the self-antigen.

5. Percepitation of curve.

CD4/ CD8

10. Allergic-induced asthma (diagram and explain)

1. a. Define drug. [2]-

4. Anti-rejection therapy.

9. SLE (explain laboratory diagnosis)

1. Hemolytic New-Born Disease (HND) during pregnancy.

3. diGeorge syndrome.


c. Name 1 drug and explain its pharmacology. [10]

2. a. Explain the difference between enteral and parental administration.
Give appropriate example with your explanation [10]
b. Give the most disadvantages of intravenous (IV) route of
administration. [2]
c. Differentiate between: [8]

11 | P a g e


Oral and siblingual route of administration

II. Subcutaneous injection and intramuscular injection

c. Blood brain barrier

d. Partial agonist

3. a. Define adrenergic drug & their classification. [10]

e. Entero-hepatic cycling

b. State the sites of Beta 2-adrenergic receptors and the effects if the
receptors are stimulated. [10]

f. Antidepressant drug
g. Therapeutic index

4. a. Differentiate between mineralcorticoids and glucocorticoids [10]

Peperiksaan Akhir 2006/07
b. Give explanation of physiology on aldosteron in the body
5. a. Define types of DM and their drugs. [6]

Bahagian A
Jawab hanya satu (1) soalan

b. Explain 1 type of oral diabetic drug and its pharmacology. [14]

1. Terangkan satu ubat sosial. Terangkan juga impak ubat itu (20)

6. a. Difference between in-vivo and in-vitro. [8]

2. Ubat-ubatan terkawal di Malaysia dikawal oleh Bahagian Farmaseutikal

Kementerian Kesihatan malaysia. Terangkan fungsi badan ini. Nyatakan
satu ubat terkawal dan terangkan tentang ubat itu.

b. Explain 1 practical and its effects. [12]

7. a. List down lists of contraceptive [2]
b. Give mechanism of action of oral contraceptive drug [10]
c. Explain adverse effect of oral contraceptive drug [8]
8. Write a short note on 5 of the following: [20]
b. Plasma protein binding

Bahagian B
Jawab hanya lima (5) soalan
1. Terangkan tentang pengiklanan ubat dari segi implikasi moral dan etika.
Pilih satu contoh kaedah pengiklanan ubat dan nyatakan implikasinya. (10)
2. Ubat boleh dikumuhkan melalui beberapa cara
a Nyatakan cara perkumuhan ubat
b Terangkan cara untuk meningkatkan atau menurunkan aras
perkumuhan ubat. Sertakan contoh.
3. a) Terangkan klasifikasi ubat B-adrenergik
b) Nyatakan reseptor Beta dan kesannya jika dirangsang (5)

12 | P a g e

4. a) Terangkan kalsifikasi neurotransmiter CNS (5)

b) Terangkan kesan farmakologi benzodiazepine (5)
5. Terangkan mekanism kerja ubat; (10)
a Theophylline
b Ipratropium
6. Beserta diagram, bincangkan tindakan unat ulser peptik (10)

5. Jelaskan penyebaran dan isipadu penyebaran. Dengan satu contoh

drug, jelaskan penyebaran dan perkumuhan drug tersebut.
6. a) Nyatakan 2 pemberian ubat secara enteral dan 2 pemberian ubat
secara parenteral
b) jelaskan setiap satu enteral dan parenteral
7. a) Nyatakan 3 drug NSAID
b) Jelaskan kebaikan dan keburukan drug NSAID

7. a) Apakah maksud bioperolehan? Terangkan faktor-faktor penyerapan

b) Nyatakan cara pemberian ubat kepada pesakit
8. a) Apakah ubat? (2)
b) Terangkan secara umum mekanism tindakan ubat (8)

8. a) Nyatakan 3 jenis kontraceptif

b) Jelaskan mana-mana 2 jenis kontraceptif yang dinyatakan di atas

Final exam (2005/06)

Setiap soalan mempunyai 10 markah. Jawab hanya 6 soalan

10. a) Jelaskan persamaan dan perbezaan ubat herba dan ubat sintetik.
b) Jelas satu ubat herba yang popular di malaysia

1. a) Namakan 5 neurotransmitter
b) Dengan rajah, jelaskan bagaimana neurotransmisi berlaku pada end
plat motor

11. a) Nyatakan jenis-jenis adrenergic receptor dan lokasi bagi setiap

b) Jelaskan kegunaan satu pemblok receptor adrenergic.

2. a) Jelaskan kesan amphetamin atas sistem saraf

b) Nyatakan 3 kegunaan amphetamin
c) Jelaskan kesalahgunaan amphetamin

12. a) Kelaskan drug antihypertention.

b) Jelaskan mekanisme salah satu jenis drug hypertensive bersama
dengan kesan buruknya.

3. Jelaskan mekanisme diuretics, bagi setiap mekanisme sertakan

dengan contoh drug dengan kesan famakologinya.

CA 2003/04

9. a) Takrif Antibiotik
b) Jelaskan masalah penggunaan antibiotik yang keterlaluan

1. Define drug. What are the sources of drug? Give examples

4. Nyatakan 5 sumber bagi drug. Huraikan langkah-langkah sebelum
sesuatu ubat dipasarkan


13 | P a g e

chemical substance given to human body

for the benefit of the recipient
WHO: any substances/product that is used or intended to be used
to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states
for the benefit for the recipient

The benefit:
To cure disease - antibiotics
To prevent disease
- vaccine
To suppress disease
- insulin
To diagnosed disease - Ba in X-ray
Sources of drugs:
Can be divided into 3 sources:
Semi synthetic
1) Natural: extract from natural sources
- Plant
Alkaloids nitrogenous substances e.g. Morphine, Atropine
Glycosides non nitrogenous substances e.g. Digitalis
- Animals
e.g. Insulin from cow (bovine) or pork (porcine)

- Minerals
e.g. Iron, Zinc
2) Semi synthetic: chemical modification of pure compound from natural

e.g. Heroin from morphine, Penicillin V from Benzylpenicillin

3) Synthetic: new molecules synthesis in laboratory
e.g. Barbiturate, Sulphonamides

2. What do you mean by Pharmacokinetics? Discuss the processes &

factors influencing drug absorption
- What the body does to the drug
- The process involved (ADME):
- a process of which the drug is transferred from site of administration into
the circulation
- except intravenous, direct into circulation
- the drug have to cross cell membrane to reach circulation
- the process:
passive diffusion
from high concentration to low
active diffusion - from low concentration to low concentration,
needs energy
facilitated diffusion
- from high concentration to low
concentration, but using a carrier, specialized

14 | P a g e

Factors influence absorption:

1) lipid solubility
2) nature of the drug (acidic/basic)
3) molecular size of the drug
4) disintegration & dissolution of the drug
5) ionization of the drug
6) pH of the media
7) surface area
8) gastrointestinal motility
9) blood supply
10) presence of food & other medication

3. Explain BBB. Describe the importance of Plasma Protein Binding

(PPB) of drugs.
BBB Blood Brain Barrier
The brain requires a protected environment in which to function
A specialized structural barrier, the blood brain barrier, plays a key
role in this protection and maintaining this environment.
This is a tight junction to prevent easy entry of drugs into brain
There is no fenestrations or slit in between the endothelial cells of
capillaries here (normally in other areas, there are slits or gaps
through which WS drugs can pass)
Layer of astrocyte foot processes makes this more impermeable
Only lipid soluble substances can cross the lipid membrane
Plasma Protein Binding
- When the drugs appear in the circulation, a fraction of drug molecules
bind with plasma protein & another fraction remain free

In general, binding is reversible and obeys the law of mass action

There is always an equilibrium between bound & free drug
Free drug(D)+(A) drug-albumin complex (DA)

- Diazepam: 98% bound, 2% free

- Morphine: 35% bound, 65% free
- This equilibrium will always be maintained whatever might be the amount
of the drug in circulation at any time
- Drugs usually bind with Albumin
- Some drugs also bind with alpha1-acid glycoprotein & lipoprotein
- Generally acidic drugs bind with Albumin. Two particular sites of the
albumin molecule bind acidic drugs with high affinity (strongly)
- Basic drugs bind with alpha1-acid glycoprotein & LP
Importance of PPB of the drugs
Bound drugs are inactive
Bound drugs cant cross the membranes
Bound drugs are not metabolized or excreted
Bound drugs remain as reservoir
- When free drug concentration is decreased then bound drugs become
free and maintains the equilibrium
- Only free drugs are active, metabolized & excreted

4. Discuss briefly the mechanism of action of drugs.

There are many mechanisms by which a drug act in the body
A) Non-specific mechanism of drug action
B) Specific mechanism of drug action

15 | P a g e

Can bind irreversibly to enzyme
Xanthine oxidase (Allopurinol)

Non-specific mechanism
- Drugs do not bind with any specific substance in the body
- They produce effect due to their physico-chemical property


- Example:

Transport protein
- Some drugs are insufficiently lipid soluble
- Thus need carrier to transport along membrane
e.g.: Noradrenaline
Structural Protein
- Drug bind to this will lead to changes in conformation of the proteins
e.g.: Colchicine bind to tubulin
- Binding of the drug will inhibit tubulin polymerisation
- In turns interferes with the immune system

Antacids relief pain

They are alkaline in chemical nature
They reacts with gastric HCl and neutralizes acid
Acid + Alkali = Salt + Water

Specific mechanism of action

- Drugs bind with specific substance within the body & thus produce effect
- By interaction with these target proteins, drugs exert their effects
- Broadly divided into:
Ion channels
Carrier molecules
4 types of receptor:
Type 1: Channel-linked receptor
Type 2: G-protein-coupled receptor
Type 3: Kinase-linked receptor
Type 4: Receptor that regulate gene transcription
- Lipid soluble drug alter cell function by impairing enzymes activity
- Usually resemble enzymess natural substrate
Thus may compete for binding

5. Describe the processes of drug Excretion through kidney.

- It is the elimination of drug from the body
- Last phase of Pharmacokinetics
- Mainly drug excretion occurs after biotransformation of the drug
- Some drugs are excreted in unchanged form that is without any
Renal excretion
- Drugs come to renal tubules filtration and excreted with urine
- Main route of drug excretion
- Almost all drugs are excreted by this route
- The two kidneys constitute less than 1% of the total body weight, but
receive about 25% of the cardiac output.
- Afferent arterioles from the renal artery supply blood to the glomerulus at
arterial pressure.
- About 20% of this is converted to glomerular ultrafiltrate.

16 | P a g e

- Further absorption and reabsorption takes place at various points along

the nephron.
- The final product (urine) is only about 1% of the volume of the original
glomerular filtrate.
Mechanisms involved in renal excretion
Glomerular filtration (GF)
Active tubular secretion (ACS)
Passive tubular reabsorption (PTR)

- GF
: Drugs come to tubule by filtration through glomerulus
- ATS : Drugs come to proximal convoluted tubule from peritubular
- PTR : Drugs are reabsorbed from tubules to circulation
- So, Net Renal Clearance = GF + ATS - PTR
Glomerular Filtration
- The pore size of glomerular capillaries is about 40 .
- The glomerular ultrafiltrate will therefore contain soluble drugs and other
- Up to MW 50000Da can be filtrated
- Albumin (MW 69,000) is not filtered
- Drugs bund to large plasma proteins (e.g., albumin) will not be filtered
and so the filtration rate of a drug will be directly proportional to its free
concentration in plasma.
Active Tubular Secretion
- In the proximal convoluted tubule, there is an active secretion of ionized
drugs into the lumen.
- This is a carrier mediated transport system
- This ensures that drugs which are protein-bound are excreted.

- Active tubular secretion can be saturated, and drugs can compete for
- Types of transport system
Two types of transport systems are present:
One transports acidic substances and another transports basic
Acidic transport system carries only acidic drugs & other endogenous
acidic substances
Basic transport system carries only basic drugs & other endogenous
basic substances
Passive Tubular Reabsorption
- This is a passive process
- Despite glomerular filtration and active secretion, the renal clearance of
many drugs is slow because they are substantially reabsorbed from the
distal portion of the nephron.
- About 99% of the water filtered through the glomerulus is reabsorbed in
the kidney tubule.
- This results in a considerable concentrating effect which makes a
significant concentration gradient
- So, drugs passively moves from tubules to circulation
- PTR depends on:
Ionization of the drug
Concentration gradient between tubules & blood.
pH of the urine
Nature of the drug ( acidic or basic)
- Acidic drugs are better excreted in alkaline urine & Basic drugs are
better excreted in acidic urine (opposite to drug absorption)
- Weak bases are excreted more efficiently by carnivores (acid urine) and
weak acids are excreted more efficiently by herbivores (basic urine).
CA batch B (2003/04)

17 | P a g e

What are the criteria of drugs? Describe the routes of
administration of drugs
Criteria of drug
1) Chemical nature:
- generally weakly acidic or weakly basic substance
2) Size:
- generally low molecular weight (100-1000 Da)
- some are of high MWinsulin 6000
3) Shape:
- usually complimentary to the shape of the receptor so that can easily
Routes of administration of drugs
A) Enteral
Through GIT
B) Parenteral
Other than GIT
Injections IV/IM/SC
Oral route:
Most drugs are administered orally
Very convenient

Easy to take the drug

No need of assistance
Patient himself/herself can take it
No need of sterilization
Preparations are usually cheap

Not possible for semiconscious or unconscious patients
Not possible if vomiting
Irritant or unpalatable drugs not possible
Some drugs are destroyed by gastric HCle.g., Benzyl penicillin
Some are destroyed by enzymes, eg, Insulin
Some are not absorbed from GIT, e.g. Streptomycin
Some drugs undergo extensive 1st pass hepatic metabolism .eg,
GTN (Nitroglycerine)
Sublingual route
Very vascular under tongue
Directly goes to systemic circulation
Not destroyed by GIT acid, enzymes etc
Avoid 1st pass hepatic metabolism
GTN (Nitroglycerine is given)
Suppositories are given
Irritant drugs can be given
Absorption rapid
No 1st pass hepatic metabolism
Suitable for children

18 | P a g e

Paracetamol suppository

Intravenous (IV)
Directly goes to circulation
No need of absorption
Bioavailability is 100%
Large amount of drug can be giveneg, blood, saline etc.
Immediate effect
Emergency route
Self administration not possible
Needs expert assistance
Needs sterilization
Chance of spreading infection
Chance of air embolism
Chance of hypersensitivity reaction
Intramuscular (IM)
- Directly given into muscles
- From muscles drugs go to circulation
- Absorption is good
- Generally antibiotics, analgesics are given
- Water soluble drugs can be given

- Disadvantage:
Needs assistance
Sterilization needed
Chance of spreading infection

Subcutenous (SC)
- Given under the skin
- Slow absorption
- Long acting effect
- eg Insulin in DM
- Some vaccines are given
- Here also need expert assistance & sterilization
- Directly goes into bronchus/lungs
- Rapid effect
- Large amount reaches at the site of action
- eg
Bronchodilators in Bronchial Asthma
General anesthetics during surgery
- Required amount can be given at the site
- Easy to administer
- Rapid effect
- eg
Ear infection
2. What do you mean by Pharmacodynamics? Discuss the names of
drugs & advantage of using INN
What the drug does to the body
All effects of drug
Mechanism of action
A drug is known by many names.

19 | P a g e

A) Chemical name - very difficult to remember

B) Generic name
Official name
rINN (Recommended International Non-Proprietary name)
Same throughout the world
C) Brand name
Proprietary name
Trade name
Different by pharmaceutical companies
Chemical name: 2-acetoxybenzoic acid
Generic name: Aspirin
Brand name: Disprin, Empirin etc.
Advantage of using Generic name (INN)
Easier to remember
Same throughout the world
Less chance of confusion
Easily understood by all health professionals
3. Define drug metabolism. Explain the phases & different reactions
of drug Metabolism
Definition: Metabolism or Biotransformation refers to modification or
alteration of chemical composition of drug within the body usually by
enzyme-catalyzed reactions.


Inactivation of drug
Change of solubility of drug
Active to another active
Inactive to active
Active to toxic metabolite

Site of drug metabolism

- Virtually every tissue has some ability to carry out drug biotransformation
- However, the most important organ for drug metabolism is LIVER
- The major site of drug metabolism within hepatocyte and other cells is
the membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Phases of metabolic reactions
2 phases
A) Phase I reactions (Non-synthetic reactions)
B) Phase II reactions (Synthetic reactions)
Conjugation reactions
Drug Phase I reaction Phase II reaction LS & inactive Excretion
Fate of Phase I reactions
- This reaction introduces or unmasks a functional group (hydroxyl, amine,
sulfhydryl group)
- Makes the drug more polar and suitable for phase II reaction
- Drugs losses some activity
- Sometimes become toxic metabolite
- This reaction also known as non-synthetic reaction

The main objective is to detoxify the drug & to enhance drug elimination:

20 | P a g e

- Most common & important reaction
- Enzymes MFO (mixed function oxidases) - Cytochrome p450 & NADPHCytochrome p450 reductase
- Enzymes are present in the ER membrane
- Examples of Oxidation - Phenobarbitone, phenytoin, morphine,
acetaminophen, amphetamine etc
- Example: Chloramphenicol, haloperidol etc.
- Drugs are hydrolyse by esterases, amides, peptidases etc
- Example: Procaine, succinylcholine etc
Fate of Phase II reaction
- Coupling of the drug or drug metabolite with an endogenous substance
(Glucoronide, sulfate, glutathione etc)
- All drugs become inactive
- All drugs become WS (polar)
- Excreted easily
- Also known as synthetic reaction
- Needs transferase enzymes
- Example:
1. Glucoronidation: Morphine
2. Acetylation: Sulphonamides
3. Glutathione conjugation: Ethacrinic acid
4. Glycine conjugation: Salicylic acid
5. Methylation: Epinephrine, Dopamine
6. Sulfate conjugation: Acetaminophen

1. What do you mean by Bioavailability of drugs? Describe the

factors influencing Bioavailability of drugs
-The percentage of administered drug available in the systemic circulation
- if 100 mg is administered & 60 mg reaches in systemic circulation, then
bioavailability is 60%
- In IV administration - bioavailability is 100%
- Orally - bioavailability less
Factors influencing bioavailability:
Factors influencing absorption in GIT
Destruction of drug in GIT
1st pass hepatic metabolism
Factors influence absorption in GIT:
11) lipid solubility
12) nature of the drug (acidic/basic)
13) molecular size of the drug
14) disintegration & dissolution of the drug
15) ionization of the drug
16) pH of the media
17) surface area
18) gastrointestinal motility
19) blood supply
20) presence of food & other medication
Destruction of drug in GIT
-Some drug are destroy in GIT by the gastric juice (HCL) or by the
presence of food
1st pass hepatic metabolism

21 | P a g e

GIT Portal circulation Liver Systemic circulation

- Before reaching systemic circulation
- Some drugs are metabolized when passes through the liver
- All drugs ultimately metabolizes in the liver but this metabolism happens
during 1st pass through liver
- Usually most drugs undergo some extent of 1st pass hepatic metabolism
especially when given orally
- If this 1st pass hepatic metabolism happens extensively for any drug
-Then, the effect of that drug is not found
- Example:
Nitroglycerine (GTN)

5. Describe the relationship of nature of drug (acidic or basic) with

the pH of urine with example related to drug excretion.
Renal excretion
- Drugs come to renal tubules filtration and excreted with urine
- Main route of drug excretion
- Almost all drugs are excreted by this route
Mechanisms involved in renal excretion
The following mechanisms:
1. Glomerular filtration (GF) - drugs come to tubule by filtration
through glomerulus
2. Active tubular secretion (ACS) - drugs come to proximal
convoluted tubule from peritubular circulation
3. Passive tubular reabsorption (PTR) - drugs are reabsorbed from
tubules to circulation
Net Renal Clearance = GF + ATS - PTR

Process of excretion in kidney depends on:

Size of the drug
Plasma protein binding
Ionization of the drug
Concentration gradient between tubules & blood.
pH of the urine
Relationship of nature of the drug (acidic or basic) & pH of urine
If the drug more ionized in urine
More WS
Less crossings of tubular membrane
Less PTR
More excretion
Therefore an acidic drug in alkaline urine
More ionized
Less PTR
More excretion
If acidic drug in acidic urine
Less ionized
More PTR
Less excretion
For basic drug in acidic urine
More ionized
Less PTR
More excretion
If basic drug in alkaline urine
less ionized

22 | P a g e

f) Clinical Pharmacology

more PTR
less excretion

2. Describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic.

Therefore acidic drugs are better excreted in alkaline urine & basic drugs
are better excreted in acidic urine (opposite to drug absorption)
Excretion of drug can be enhanced by altering the pH of urine
- Excretion of acidic drugs (aspirin) can be enhanced by alkalization of
- This is known as Forced Alkaline Diuresis (FAD)
- Similarly excretion of basic drugs (Amphetamine) can be enhanced by
acidification of urine
- Urine acidifiers
Ammonium chloride
Ascorbic acid
Acid phosphates
- Urine alkalinizers
Sodium bicarbonate
Potassium citrate
Sodium citrate
Citric acid
Topical Question
Definition :
to Pharmacology




3. Give 4 uses of drug with an example.

4. Define drug, medicine and excipients.
5. Describe 3 sources of drug.
6. What are the advantages of using generic name?
7. Define :
a) Affinity
b) Efficacy
8. Give 3 types of drug and describe each.
Routes of Drug Administration & Formulations
1. Give 5 factors influenced drug reach the site of action.
2. Fill in the blank the table below:



Define :
a) Pharmacology
Disadvantagesb) Pharmacognosy
c) Pharmacy
d) Medical Pharmacology
e) Therapeutic

23 | P a g e

Describe the sites, enzyme involved and phases of drug

3. Fill in the blank table below:




Definition :
Advantages :


Describe the phases of drug metabolism.


Explain the enzyme induction and enzyme inhibition.


Explain 5 factor influencing metabolism.

ANS & Neurotransmitters



Draw the pictures of the Nervous System Division.


Fill in the table below.


a) Describe the Autonomic Nervous System with picture.

b) Fill in the table below.


a) Draw a simple picture of Synapse.
b) Describe the picture briefly.


a) List down the criteria Neurotransmitter must have.
b) Describe the types of Neurotransmitter according to:
i) Classical Neurotransmitter.
ii) Type of effect


a) Give 2 major classes of Neurotransmitter receptor.

b) For each, describe briefly.


a) Fill in the table below.

4.Describe inhalation and topical of drug administration.

5.Describe Enteric-coated preparations (EC) and Sustained-release
6.Differentiate the solid form of drug by fill in the blank the table below.


Describe syrup & elixir.


Define Suspension and Emulsion.


Describe the topical preparation for drop, cream & oilment.

Metabolism of the Drug


Give 5 consequences of drug metabolism, each with example

24 | P a g e

a) Fibroadenoma

b) Draw the picture of endocrine signaling and synaptic signaling.

PNS is divided into 2 broad groups.
a) Define :
i) Cholinergic Neurotransmitter
ii) Adrenergic Neurotransmitter
b) Describe cholinergic and adrenergic neurotransmitter with

b) Ectopic pregnancy
c) Endometrial hyperplasia
6.a) Barrett oesophagus

b) name tumors on stomach
c) Acute appendicitis
7.a) azotemia
b) define nephotic syndrome
1.Short note:

c) describe pathogenesis and morphology of kidney in post streptococcal


a) free radical

8.a) causative factors for lung cancer

b) caseous necrosis

b) name two subtypes of lung cancer that related with smoking

c) apoptosis

c) pathogenesis of mycobacterium tuberculosis

2. a) Differentiate acute and chronic inflammation

9.a) test for diagnosis of thyroid disease

b) explain each steps in phagocytosis

b) causes of hyperthyroidism

c) function of C3a, C3b, and C5a as the complement derived chemical

mediators in inflammation.

c) multinodular goiter
CA II (2002/03)

5. Short note:

25 | P a g e

1. a)
What are the roles of the chemical mediator in acute
What are the outcomes of acute inflammation? 2m
2. a)

Define inflammation 2m
What are the cardinal signs of acute inflammation 4m
Explain the mechanism of swelling 4m

3. a)

Define pus
What are the compositions of pus
What are the causative agents of pus

a) 15 minutes
b) 24 hours
2. a)

4. Explain wound healing by first intention


3. Describe the pathogenesis of primary tuberculosis


4. a)

5. What are the characteristics of benign neoplasm


6. Discuss the effects of neoplasm on patients

Describe the causes for hypertension

Explain the pathophysiology of hypertension


7. a)

define embolism and explain systemic embolism

Define shock and explain the pathophysiology of shock

8. a)

list out the cellular adaptive changes

Give a detail account of any one of them 6m

5. a)

9. Explain the role of macrophages in chronic inflammation


Describe the pathology of rheumatic heart disease

List down the complication of rheumatic heart disease
List down the common tumor of stomach
List out the risk factor of gastric carcinoma
Explain the pathological features of gastric carcinoma


10. a) define atherosclerosis

b) explain the modified risk factor of atherosclerosis
c) what if the consequences of atherosclerosis


FINAL EXAM (09/10)


Hemolytic New-Born Disease (HND) during pregnancy.


5 mechanism how T cells ignore the self-antigen.


diGeorge syndrome.

CA II (2003)
1. Describe the morphology changes of myocardial infarction during

26 | P a g e


Anti-rejection therapy.


Percepitation of curve.


Secretory IgA in mucosal immunity.


Fill the table: comparison of T and B cell activation.

Lymphocytes Antigen

2. Gives principle, procedure, interpretation for

(a) Coagulase test (10 m)
(b) Catalase test (10 m)
(c) Oxidase test (10 m)



3. (a) Staph and strep, differences in term of coagulase test, hemolysis of

agar, growth on mannitol (15 m)
(b) principles, procedure for bacitracin, optochin and CAMP test ( 15 m)
4. (a)general characteristics of nisseriaceae ( 6 m )
(b) Procedure to distinguish N.gonorrhoea and N.meningitis ( 15 m)-sugar
( c) collection and transport of specimen for suspected gonorrhea.

B cell


CD3, zeta

CD4/ CD8




Ig, Ig




SLE (explain laboratory diagnosis)


Allergic-induced asthma (diagram and explain)

5. (a) Distinguish bacillus antracis and bacillus cereus. Colony morphology,

biochemical reaction
(b) short notes on clostridium perfringens and clostridium tetani

6. (a)Cultural morphology of mycobacterium spp. ( 6 m)

( b) mantoux test, more 5mm. interpretation??
(c ) Lab diagnosis for Salmonella typhii.

10. Precaution to face future symptom in allergic-induced asthma.

1. (a) Principles, purpose of gram staining (6m)
(b) function of mordant in gram staining (3 m)
(c) disadvantages of using old culture, ways to overcome? ( 6m)
(d) differences between commensalism, mutualism, parasitism
(e) beneficial role of normal flora

7. (a) Nosocomial infection ( 15 m)

(b) urine collection and transport (15 m)

27 | P a g e

8. Actinomyces vs Nocardia

iv- Camp test

v- bile-esculin


(each question-30 markah)

Write a short note:


Haemophilus influenzae




Non-tubeculous mycobacterium




Mycobacterium complex


a) explain how to differentiate staphylococcus and streptococcus


a) general morphological, colonies characteristic, biochemical test:

b) proper specimen collection and test involve in their isolation:

i-C. tetani
ii- C. perfringens

b) explain how to differentiatebetween staphilococcus aureus and

catalase-negative streptococcus

FINAL 2005/06

c) explain principle and propose of each test:

Final exam essay question, total ten, answer any six

i- catalase
ii- bacitacin
iii- SXT

1. a) Describe laboratory diagnosis method in identify superficial

fungal. 5%
b) What staining used in fungal identification 5%?
c) What lab diagnostic method to identify and isolate candida
species. 5%

28 | P a g e

c) Give the basis in the nomenclature of influenza virus 5%

2. Describe fungal infection in
a) adherence 5%
b) Invasion 5%
c) Tissue injury 5%
3.a) what lab diagnostic method to identify Crpytococcus neoformans?
b) Histoplasma capsulatum? 5%
c) Coccidioides immitis? 5%


Final exam 2011/2012
1. With a suitable diagram, describe mechanism of inflammation
2. Regarding phagocytosis;
a) discuss role of chemokine on phagocytosis activity of
macrophage (10 min)

4. Pathogenesis, diagnostic and prevention/ treatment of hepatitis B,C,

D (cant remember whether all type of hepatitis virus were asked or
not, but 3 components were asked) 15%
5.a) pathogenesis of mycoplasma
b) Lab diagnosis of ocular-genital Chlamydia infection

b) explain how phagocyte destroys a pathogen within their

phagolysosome (10 min)
3. Inate imunity against candida albican
4. a) influencing factor of the immunogenicity of antigen.

6. a) with suitable diagram, explain the pathogenis of DHF/DSS 10%

b) State serological test of dengue diagnosis 5%
7. a) pathogenesis of polio 8%
b) Advantages & disadvantages of oral polio vaccine OPV 7%
8.a) how HIV evade immune system?
b) Use a suitable graph, typical serological markers in HIV infection
c) Causes of false positive ELISA?false negative ELSIA?false positive
western blot? (not sure which one already)
9. a) RSV, not sure whether pathogenesis/lab diagnostic method
10. a) measles, not sure whether pathogenesis/lab diagnostic/
treatment 5%
b) Explain antigenic drift and shift of influenza infection 5%

b)characteristic of vaccines to fulfil public health goal.

5. With a suitable diagram, describe the differences between MHC
class I and MHC class II. 20MARKS


FINAL EXAM 2011/2012
1.Describe the pathophysiology of the Hemolytic new born anemia.
2.Explain the latex agglutination.

29 | P a g e

3.Explain 5 possible mechanism of B cell tolerance.

4.State 5 advantages of the flow cytometry compared to microscope.
5.Wih the aid of a diagram, describe the basic principle of precipitation
6.Describe anti-rejection therapy.
7.Describe the immunological mechanism of the systemic lupus
8.Explain the treatment of LAK with IL-2.

1.Describe the pathophysiology of the Hemolytic new born anemia.
2.Explain the latex agglutination.
3.Explain 5 possible mechanism of B cell tolerance.
4.State 5 advantages of the flow cytometry compared to microscope.
5.Wih the aid of a diagram, describe the basic principle of precipitation
6.Describe anti-rejection therapy.
7.Describe the immunological mechanism of the systemic lupus
8.Explain the treatment of LAK with IL-2.

Long essay
9.(a)Explain risk factors that cause Grave diseases.(10m)
(b)Explain the immunological mechanism of the Grave diseases.(10m)
10.(a)Why we need to regulate immune response?(10m)
(b) Explain how the antibody help in the regulation of the immune
11.What is cadaveric transplant?(2m)
(b)Why HLA typing is important in the transplantation?(10m)
(c)Describe 2 HLA typing technique.(8m)
12.(a)Differentiation between t-cell activation n b-cell activation.(Table)(5m)
(b)Describe the role of Antigen presenting cell in the T cell activation with
the aid of diagram.(15m)
13.(a) Explain about allergen-induced-asthma (15min)
(b)State some advices that should be given to the patient so that the
asthmatic condition is not worsen. (5min)

Long essay
9.(a)Explain risk factors that cause Grave diseases.(10m)
(b)Explain the immunological mechanism of the Grave diseases.(10m)
10.(a)Why we need to regulate immune response?(10m)
(b) Explain how the antibody help in the regulation of the immune
11.What is cadaveric transplant?(2m)
(b)Why HLA typing is important in the transplantation?(10m)
(c)Describe 2 HLA typing technique.(8m)
12.(a)Differentiation between t-cell activation n b-cell activation.(Table)(5m)
(b)Describe the role of Antigen presenting cell in the T cell activation with
the aid of diagram.(15m)
13.(a) Explain about allergen-induced-asthma (15min)
(b)State some advices that should be given to the patient so that the
asthmatic condition is not worsen. (5min)

FINAL EXAM 2010/2011

30 | P a g e


FINAL EXAM 2011/2012

b) Discuss the synthesis, storage, action and metabolism of Ach with

the aid of a diagram

Section B (Compulsory essay)

1. Give the differences of the following with examples:

7. a) Function of corticosteriod
b) Side effects of long-term use of steroid


Topical administration and parenteral administration (10m)


Intradermal administration and transdermal administration


8. a) Discuss the mechanism of actions of drugs

b) State the 4 types of receptor
c) Explain the mechanisms of the 4 types of receptor in (b)

FINAL EXAM 2010/2011

2. Pharmacokinetics
a) Define pharmacokinetics and list the 4 parts of pharmacokinetics.
b) Drug metabolism
c) Briefly discuss the 2 phases of drug metabolism
Section C (Choose 4 out of 6 essays)
3. Give differences between in-vivo and in-vitro. Explain 1 practical and
its effect
4. a) Define Type 2 DM and effects of insulin on it
b) Discuss the types of exogenous insulin in relations to their onset
time and duration of action
5. a) State 4 characteristics of an ideal anesthesia
b) State the type of general anesthesia and give 2 examples on each
c) Discuss the type of neuromuscular blockers
6. a) Differences between somatic and autonomic nervous system


1. a) define drug
b) explain the classification of drug naming and give examples.
c) describe briefly pharmacology of aspirin.
2. a) differences enteral and parenteral administration.
b) i. Differences oral and sublingual administration
ii. Differences subcutaneous and intramuscular administration.
3. a) i.
Define psychosis
Pathogenesis of psychosis.
b) i.
Classification of depression
4. a) Differentiate in vivo and in vitro techniques.
b) Describe methods of one of laboratory practical.


FINAL EXAM 2011/2012

31 | P a g e

1. a)define hematopoiesis (2min)

b) explain the hematopoiesis of formation and its
c)explain the process of ageing ang mechanism of destruction of
normal red cell (10min)
2. a)differences btween adult hb n fetal hb
b)characteristic of hb at different level of oxygen tension c)role of
iron in hb synthesis

short note ttg absolute indices of rbc, differential count n esr

( setiap satu 10 min)

b) Discuss one of the eating disorder listed above

2. Breast milk contain various protective factors make it more superior than
other milk. List the protective factors and its action
3. Explain the physiology of lactation
4. List the RNIs of an adult female
5. a) Explain the nature of adolescent
b) Explain the stages of maturation
Final 2007/08

4. a) list 5 fx of platelet in hemostasis (5m)

b) explain their mechanism and fx in the blood hemostasis
i) fibinolysis
ii) protein c and protein s (25m
5. a) list 5 fx of platelet in hemostasis (5m)
b) explain their mechanism and fx in the blood hemostasis
i) fibinolysis
ii) Protein C and Protein S (25m)
Final Exam (2006/07)
1. a) List the eating disorder

a. state the dietary guideline for Malaysian and 2 uses of it


a. explain the normal physiological changes during pregnancy in
Explain each phases of pregnancy
b. explain how additional nutrient intake can maintain these
physiological changes
c. explain the consequences when weight gain during pregnancy
a. explain how iron deficiency anaemia occur and how it
pathogenesis in children and adolescent
b. explain what consequences of IDA among children and

a. explain what is osteoporosis


Peperiksaan Akhir (2006/07)

32 | P a g e

1. Terangkan penyediaan kek melalui;
a) kaedah konvensional
b) keadah biskut

a. Kenapa ubi dielakkan daripada matahari

b. Kesan penyimpanan ubi dalam peti sejuk kepada hasil ubi yang

2. Terangkaan prinsip penyediaan ubi kentang melalui kaedah;

a) membakar
b) goreng minyak penuh
3. Nyatakan jangka masa pembakaran dan suhu bagi masakan;
a) lembu
b) anak lembu
c) babi
d) daging ayam

a. Freezing effect on fish texture

b. Doneness test for poultry

5. guideline for making cakes

6. role of fat in flaky pastry
Peperiksaan akhir (2005/06)
1. Terangkan fungsi makanan (10)

Penilaian Berselanjar I (2006/07)

1. Terangkan tujuan makanan dimasak

2. Terangkan sejarah tanaman dan pemakanan dalam tamadun manusia


2. Terangkan cara untuk mengelakkan keracunan makanan

3. Explain the function of macronutrient (10)

3. Nyatakan faktor-faktor pembiakan bakteria

4. Describe the function of vitamin in our body (10)

4. Senaraikan 5 mikroorganisme yang boleh menyebabkan keracunan

Final 2007/08

5. Apakah RNI? Terangkan bagaimanakah RNI boleh digunakan untuk

meningkatkan taraf pemakanan seseorang (10)
CA 1 2005/06

1. procedure to serve Food Free Risk

2. vprepare yeast bread
a. sponge
b. batter

1. Function of Vitamin A relate to

A. Vision
B. Epithelial cells
C. Growth and development
D. Nervous system

33 | P a g e

E. Cardiovascular system
2. Pengambilan Vitamin C melebihi 3000mg/hari menyebabkan
A. Peningkatan asid urik serum
B. Kemusnahan biotin bagi sesetengah individu
C. Pembentukan kidney stone
D. Peningkatan lipoprotein berketumpatan tinggi
E. Ketidakseimbangan asid-bes
3. Individu yang berisiko terhadap kekurangan vitamin C
A. Perokok
B. Alkoholik
C. Individu obes
D. Pesakit kencing manis
E. Ahli sukan yang melakukan aktiviti lasak
4. Fungsi utama makanan merangkumi
A. Menyediakan bahan baker untuk badan manusia
B. Menghilangkan rasa lapar
C. Mencegah penyakit
D. Merawat penyakit
E. Menyediakan nutrient untuk proses regulasi
5. perubahan biokimia yang berlaku sewaktu kekurangan protein
A. Peningkatan serum albumin
B. Penurunan serum protein
C. Penurunan ekskresi hidroksiprolin urinary
D. Peningkatan ekskresi kreatinin
E. Gangguan imbangan asid-bes
6. Kekurangan sekunder zat makanan boleh diakibatkan oleh
A. Gangguan fungsi
B. Penurunan utilisasi
C. Gangguan angkutan

D. Keperluan menurun
E. Pengurangan ekskresi
7. protein
A. Terbina daripaa 20 jenis asid amino
B. Pada rambut mengandungi fosforus
C. Globul boleh membentuk koloid
D. Serabut terdiri daripada gluten dan kolagen
E. Boleh bersifat bes saja.
8. berkenaan protein
A. Struktur primernya tidak berubah dengan tindak balas dengan bes
B. Haiwan boleh mensintesis protein dari sumber ertentu
C. Membentuk 16-20% struktur tubuh mnusia
D. Keperluannya sama untuk setiap individu
E. Penambahan renin merubah bentuk sekundernya.
9. mengenai gula
A. Bentuk paling ringkas dikenali sebagai monosakarida
B. Sukrosa merupakan sejenis gula penurun
C. Rafinosa mmberikan kesan ketidakselesaan kepada system
D. Kebanyakannya berbentuk hablur
E. Fruktosa memberkan darjah kemanisan relative yang sangat tinggi
10. mengenai bahan berkanji
A. Terbina daripada unit gula ringkas
B. Boleh dihidrolisis oleh glukoamilase
C. Saiz granulnya bergantung kepada kandungan amilosa
D. Gelatinisasi merupakan proses pembentukan granul
E. Larut dalam air sejuk
11. mengenai alcohol
A. Boleh dihasilkan daripada proses fermentasi buah-buahan

34 | P a g e


Menghasilkan 7kCal/gram tenaga

Boleh membantu proses penghsdaman makanan
Pemanjangan proses fermentasi akan menukrkannya kepada keju
Boleh menyebabkan penyakit arteri koronari

12. mengenai gula alkohol

A. Menghasilkan 7 kCal/gram tenaga
B. Biasanya digunakan sebagai pemanis pengganti dalam makanan
C. Memberi kesan pencernaan apabila diamil berlebihan
D. Tidak karsinogen kepada manusia
13. mengenai metabolisme alcohol
A. Perlu memalui proses penghsdaman yang kompleks
B. Kesemua alcohol diserap di usus kecil
C. Banyak dijmpai di dalam darah berbnding di tulang
D. Prosesnya bermula di hepar
E. Ditukarkan kepada lemak apabila diambil berlebihan,

b) How carbon skeleton amino acid can get? Explain the function of
carbon skeleton
c) Name one inborn error metabolism of amino acid and why it cause
deleterious effect (4)
2. Vitamin D
a) Describe the physiological and biological function of vitamin D (4)
b) Describe the metabolism of vitamin D (4)
c) Name 2 disease of deficiency of vitamin D (2)
Section B
3. Explain how the fiber can prevent colon cancer
4. Name several metabolic pathways during starvation and prolong fasting.
How these metabolisms are very crucial during that time?


Final exam (2006/07)
Section A
1. Indispensable amino acid
a) Describe indispensable amino acid and give a example


Peperiksaan Akhir (2009/2010)
Bahagian A : MCQ 60 soalan
Bahagian B : Jawab 5 dari 7 soalan esei
1.i- diberi data, perlu buat Q test..boleh terima atau reject data terbesar tu
ii- soalan ni kait dgn soklan kat determine ade bias atau tidak

35 | P a g e

1. Data
2. i-nyatakan 2 metode analisis protein yg diiktiraf oleh kerajaan
ii- nyatakan serba ringkas fungsi perkara di bawah ini
- asid borik
- selenium tablet
-asid hidroklorik
-protein factor
(10 mrkah)
3.terangkan bagaimana analisis lemak daripada kentang goreng
dijalankan menggunakan batch solvent method menggunakan hexane sbg
solvent ( 10 mrkah)
4.huraikan preparation n analisis of fiber
5. satu kedai kek roti telah menghasilkan roti sihat beserta labu dan
penambahan antioksidan dan.. satu kajian ingin dijalankan bg mengetahui
penerimaan masyarakat umum ttg produk baru ini.
State sensory evaluation that is suitable to used. Give your reason
b) State attributes that are suitable to be test.
c) sila lukiskan (draw) borang penilaian rasa bagi panel terlatih
6. sila nyatakan pertimbangan yang perlu dilakukan during moisture
7. sila tuliskan note ringkas tentang
i- reverse phase of HPLC
ii- normal phase HPLC
iii- turus (column) chromatography
terdapat 2 bahagian A n B
Peperiksaan Akhir (2006/07)

a) Soalan pengiraan Q test (5)

b) Soalan pengiraan penentuan bias (5)
2. Bincangkan tentang kelemahan;
a) Kaedah Kjeldahl (5)
b) Kaedah Dumas (5)
3. Terangkan perkara praktikal yang perlu diambilkira semasa analisis
penentuan lembapan (10)
4. Terangkan proses penentuan kandungan lenak dalam roti canai dengan
menggunakan kaedah pengekstrskan berperingkat (10)
5. Terangkan perkara yang biasa dilakukan semasa penyediaan dan
analisis fiber dietari (10)
6. Anda telah mencipta jus buah-buahan campuran yang baru
a) Nyatakan kaedah penilaian deria yang sesuai untuk digunakan.
Berikan alasan (2)
b) Nyatakan atribut yang sesuai yang boleh diuji (3)
c) Buat satu borang penilaian deria (5)
Final Exam (2006/07)
1. Explain how lactation can;
a) Baby spacing
b) Uterine involution
c) Decrease post partum hemorrhage

36 | P a g e

On-line exam (2006/07)

1. Why diabetics always hungry?

b. factors determine food intake 11


2. Why PEM patients suffer from repeated infection?

3. Why vegetarian diet is good for the hypertensive patients?
4. Why diabetic patients are affected with cataract earlier than normal
5. After reducing the body weight of an obese person, he/she will
a. continue his previous diet
b. reduce food intake
c. Increase the food intake.
6. Name the hormones which are increased during PEM.
Final 2007/08

a. State 3 types of eating disorder

b. explain one of any type given above 10
c. draw the viscous cycle of eating disorder. Explain it


a. Define infection 2
b. Relationship infection with malnutrition
c. impact of infection to nutrient status


a. Define;
i. hunger
ii. satiety
iii. appetite


a. Explain apple and pear shape related to obesity

b. give complication due to apple and pear shape of obesity
c. explain sedentary lifestyle related to obesity

a. define food security

b. give factors of food security in developing country
c. state the food programme in Malaysia
GTD 209

FINAL EXAM 2007/08

pilih 4 dari 6
1. define power, who need power, scare to power
2. define plan, why must plan, principle of making plan
3. idealism,
4. define community,
5. tempat dan latar blkg tempat praktikal, aktiviti/kajian yg dijalankan,
kaedah kajian, keputusan dan perbincangan, kesimpulan


Peperiksaan Akhir (2006/07)
Section A (10 marks each)
Answer all question

37 | P a g e

1. Seorang pesakit kanser payu dara telah dirujuk kepada anda.

Terangkan skil komunikasi yang perlu ada pada anda sebagai pegawai

6. List the nutritional objective for future

2. One patient comes to you for consultation. Explain the possible changes
that might occur

8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology (10)

7. Explain 4 types of new food processing


9. What are the advantages and disadvantages of computers in the

dietetic field

3. Describe the purpose of medical record

4. Explain the content of case report

10. Explain the role of clinical dietician (10)

5. What are the complaints by the patient regarding food served in the
hospital? How will you deal with it?
Section B (20 marks)
Answer only one (1) question

12. Explain the role of administrative dietician (10)

GTD 211 Dietetics Skills and Communication

Final 2011/2012

6. Explain the nutritional scenario in Malaysia. How to tackle these


Section A: 30m
15 MCQ (T/F)

7. Describe about diet counseling.

Dr. Sakinahs lecture notes

Food exchange list

Continuous Assessment 1 and II (2006/07)

1. Terangkan skil komnikasi yang perlu ada pada ahli dietetic


2. Explain about food exchange list


Section B (do all): 50m

3. Explain about Glycemic index


1. Discuss new counseling technique.

4. Describe about new counseling technique


2. State 10 counseling guidelines.

5. How to prepare the reading materials in nutrition education


38 | P a g e

3. State 10 diet/nutritional educational tools and the importance if each

4. What are the importances of scientific nutrition journals to
dietitians/nutritionist? How to find a periodic journal article?
5. Nutritional objectives in current century.
Section C (choose 1): 20m
Write short notes on:

1. Describe how the professional below cooperate with dietitian in

health care system.
a) Bacteriologist
b) Speech Therapist
c) Clinical Psychologist
2. State the strengths and weaknesses of teaching methods in
nutritional education.

1. a) 4 phases of teaching
3. Explain 2 methods to estimate the height and weight of bedridden
b) Steps in giving nutrition education
c) Various skills required by a dietitian in giving nutrition education
2. a) Biotechnology

4. Define journal and explain how you find periodical material in your
university library.

b) New methods of food processing

c) Skinfold and upper arm anthropometry
d) Women nutrition

5. Describe the dietary pattern of Hispanic people and those living in

the Mediterranean.
Section C (20 mark each; answer 1)

FINAL 2009/2010
Section B (10 mark each; answer all)

39 | P a g e

6. Describe the dietary pattern of Malays, Chinese and India

population in Malaysia and explain why regular nutritional
intervention in Malaysian population.
7. What is the role and responsibility of food service department.
How they manage their responsibility and complaint.
Final Exam (2008/2009)
Section A (10 marks each)
Answer all question
1. List out 10 guidelines for documentation of medical record.
2. A patient list time visit to diet clinic for diet counseling. She does not
concern her diet and her family has history of obesity. Explain the stages
of changes.
3. State the importance and procedures of knee height measurement.
4. Strengths & weakness of 3 nutrition education methods.
5. Reason for the importance to improve women nutrition.
Section B (20 marks each)
Answer only one (1) question

FINAL EXAM (09/10)
Section A
15 mcQ
Section B (8 esei daripada 10 esei- 5 markah setiap satu)
1. ethics as a forensic scientist
2. define fibre and types of source fibre
4. pancromatic film, orthocromatic film
Section C (8 esei daripada 10 esei- 10 markah setiap satu)
13. kenapa cap jari merupakan bukti yg paling jelas
14. typical explosion and effects of explosion
15. a. define phishing b. plan of investigation phishing
16. a. diagram of greenought principle b. advantage and uses of
17. a. types of foot print b. electrostatic dust lifting shoe print
19. tyre identification
20. couple charge device (CCD)

1. Steps in diet counseling

Section D (2 esei daripada 4- 15 markah setiap satu)


1. a. general thing in sketch b. sketch based on paragraph given

2. origin tracing of blood stain
3. (sama dengan past year 08/09)

40 | P a g e

4. a. skid mark-define and give characteristic (4 markah)

b. derive equation connect 's' and 'v' (8markah)
c. how to get the initial speed (3 markah)

a. Berikan 7 ciri-ciri karekter yang boleh digunkan untuk

membandingkan cap jari.
b. Berikan pengertian non-porous surface (permukaan tidak
berliang) dan berikan 4 contoh.

Berikan 3 jenis cap jari latent.


4. a.

Section B
1. Gives the type of physical evidences and its evidential value.

b. Derive the equation that can connect the stopping distance, s

and the speed, v and discuss its significance.
c. Calculation of skid marks.
5. a. Define stereomicroscope. Briefly give a comparison between
stereomicroscope and binocular compound microscope.

2. Briefly write how to cast a shoe impression using dental stone.

3. Define the depth of field and the factors that contribute it
4. Give the characteristics of ear prints.


5. Tell about how to make tyre identification.

6. Gives the type of blood stain.
7. Important features of explosiveF
8. List the DNA marker that is used in the DNA analysis.
9. Give four uses of infrared radiation
10. Define the ultraviolet flourescence and give three application in the
forensic science.
Section C
1. Define measure that can be taken to curbing the snatch theft
2. Briefly discuss of dynamics of physical evidences.

Define skid mark.

Explain principle of
Greenough principle.

Common Main Objective.

c. Briefly discuss of advantages of stereomicroscope and its

6. a. Define the feature of digital camera.
b. Discuss the couple charge device in the digital camera as a
image sensor in order of spectral sensitivity and its resolution.
c. Discuss pixelization
7. Give two specimen that is taken for question document analysis.
8. a.

Define cybervandalism.

b. Briefly discuss what you can do to detect and prevent it.

9. Define how to take and preserve the following

Hair in dust.

3. Cap jari,

41 | P a g e


Hair that is loose attach


Hair that is cuttted.

a) Huraikan 'labour turnover'

11. Discuss of the formation of phenomenon in glass fracture that is

b) Berikan 4 faktor terhadap fenomena di atas

(25 markah)

a. Cone Fracture

Bahagian B

b. Radial Fracture

Pilih 2 dari 4 soalan


3) Berikan 5 cabaran utama yang pengurusan sumber manusia yang

dihadapi oleh unit pembahagian tugas anda
(25 markah)
4) Sebagai slaah seorang pengurus, anda bertanggungjawab untuk
mengambil pekerja untuk organisasi anda. Bagaimanakah yang akan anda
(25 markah)

Concentric Fracture

Define ribs marks and tell how to tell the direction of impact using
ribs marks.


5) Berikan contoh cara untuk memotivasikan pekerja anda


Terdapat 2 bahagian, A dan B.Jawab semua soalan di bahagian A dan pilih
2 soalan dari bahagian B daripada 4..

(25 markah)

6) Berikan 5 perbezaan di antara latihan di luar kerja dan di dalam kerja

(25 markah)

Bahagian A
Soalan 1:
Berikan penerangan secara ringkas tentang:
a) Perancangan waktu kerja
b) Latihan induksi
c) Teori dua faktor
d) Analisis pekerja
e) Job description
Soalan 2


(25 markah)
Final Exam

42 | P a g e

1. List down the principle of asepsis surgery

2. Discuss about the legal guidelines for medications and nurses role
during medication
3. List the diagnostic tests
4. A scenario given. You are asked to write nursings implementations
toward a stress client

FINAL EXAM 2011/2012

c) Give 4 health education with rationale to the patient

Final Exam 2010/2011

1. Scenario given
a. Brief explain about the mechanism of vomiting and nausea
b. Nursing diagnosis and intervention
2. Scenario given
a. Explain about the basis principles of dialysis
b. I/O chart given. Interpret the result and give health education for
client on dialysis

1. Scenario given:

What is urolithiasis? @ renal disorder.

How to confirm a patient has that disease? Investigation that can

be done.

Nursing Management of patient.

2. Scenario given about BPH.


What is BPH?

What test can be done to confirm BPH?

Nursing management of patient with BPH.


Final Exam
1. Define mechanic of body and list the important element for mechanic
body and the application of mechanic body
2. Indication and contraindication for oral care and hair
3. I/O chart given. Write the nursing diagnosis according to the I/O chart
and the effect of misinterpret and documentation


a) Formulate 3 nursing diagnosis based on scenario given

Final Exam

b) Give 4 nursing intervention based on nursing diangnosis given

at 1(a)

1. Scenario given.
a. Type of pneumothoraxs and give your rational

43 | P a g e

b. Nursing diagnosis
c. Nursing intervention
2. Scenario given
a. Define hypertension
b. Type of the client BP
c. Explain the pathophysiology of hypertension
d. Nursing management
FINAL EXAM 2011/2012
1. Scenario: Patient had motor-vehicle accident, had diagnose as
haemopneumothorax, doctor insert the chest tube drainage.

Give the rationale why insert the chest tube drainage to the

b) Give the management of:


Specific physical examination




Chest tube drainage

c) After that, the insertion site of the chest tube had blockage
with a soaked blood. Give the immediate intervention
regarding this problem.
2. Scenario: patient ada history COPD. Then, dia diagnosed dapat
pneumonia. Patient complaint difficulty in breathing. Lung

assessment ada sound ronchi. So, patient had been given

oxygen 3L via nasal prong and proup the bed at fowlers position.
a) Formulate nursing diagnosis based on scenario.
b) Build the nursing care plan regarding:

Nursing diagnosis


Nursing intervention


c) After some time, patient are given atropine. Build the nursing
care plan as using the same in (b).

3. Scenario: Patient had motor-vehicle accident, had diagnose as
haemopneumothorax, doctor insert the chest tube drainage.
d) Give the rationale why insert the chest tube drainage to the
e) Give the management of:
Specific physical examination
Chest tube drainage
f) After that, the insertion site of the chest tube had blockage
with a soaked blood. Give the immediate intervention
regarding this problem.
4. Scenario: patient ada history COPD. Then, dia diagnosed dapat
pneumonia. Patient complaint difficulty in breathing. Lung

44 | P a g e

assessment ada sound ronchi. So, patient had been given

oxygen 3L via nasal prong and proup the bed at fowlers position.
d) Formulate nursing diagnosis based on scenario.
e) Build the nursing care plan regarding:
Nursing diagnosis
Nursing intervention
FINAL EXAM 2011/2012
1. Scenario given: breastfeeding
a) What is the advantages of breastfeeding?
b) Formulate nursing intervention with rationale based on the
nursing diagnosis given.
2. Scenario: mother with gestational Diabetis mellitus
a) State the complication to the newborn
b) Formulate nursing diagnosis
c) Formulate nursing intervention with rationale based on the
nursing diagnosis given.
Give the health education to patient.

1. Scenario: patient had sigmoid colon cancer, he had undergo
colostomy operation, he had moderate pain at wound site and felt
embrassed with smelly discharge
d) Formulate 3 nursing diagnosis based on scenario given
e) Give 4 nursing intervention based on nursing diangnosis given
at 1(a)
f) Give 4 health education with rationale to the patient
2. Scenario: patient had diagnosed hepatitis B. he complaint loss of
appetite, itching at skin and with tes coloured urine. He also had
jaundice in his eyes and skin.
a) Formulate 4 nursing diagnosis based on scenario given
b) Give 4 nursing intervention based on nursing diangnosis given
at 1(a)
c) State 4 complications of hepatitis B
d) Give 4 health education regarding preventing measure in
Drug used


3. Scenario given: patient hyperemisis gravidarum, vomiting, nausea
c) Formulate nursing diagnosis
d) Formulate nursing intervention with rationale based on the
nursing diagnosis given.

4. Scenario: mother with gestational Diabetis mellitus

45 | P a g e

d) State the complication to the newborn

e) Formulate nursing diagnosis

Formulate nursing intervention with rationale based on the

nursing diagnosis given.

g) Give the health education to patient


(Final Exam 2009/2010)
Part B:
Answer all the questions
1. Describe on how the metabolism in which the bodys adaptation of
macronutrient metabolism in order to maintain endogenous stores
of fuels during short-term starvation. (10 marks)
2. Explain the functions of hydrochloric acid present in gastric juice
for digestion for the digestion of foods in stomach. (10 marks)

GTN 202 : Principles of Food Preparation
FINAL EXAM 2011/2012
1. discussion in detail about manual dishwasher
2. discuss what is
a. First rising
b.second rising
c.oven spring
3. Give short note on the mixing method of yeast bread
a.straight dough
b.rapid mixing
a.two type of cookies
c.Give your reasons why cookies are crispier than cakes?
a. Why potato is kept away from the sunlight?
b. What are the effects of potatoes that are stored inside
a refrigerator to the fried potatoes?
6.a. Freezing effect on fish texture
b. Doneness test for poultry
7. a.two best way to prepare vegetable
b. step of preparing vegetable by simmering method

3. Describe
a) Definition of dietary fiber
b) Health benefits or disease condition that could prevent from
increased of dietary fiber.
Part C
Answer 2 out of 3
4. Metabolism of carbon skeleton of amino acid could yield whole
range of important biological compounds in the body
a) How the carbon skeleton can be formed
b) Explain the formation of other compounds fro m the carbon

5. Describe
a) How essential fatty acids can be obtained
b) Metabolic and biological pathway of essential fatty acids that
prevent the coronary heart disease

46 | P a g e

9. Distillation for Kjeldahl method.

6. The micronutrient deficiency could lead to morbidity and
development of disease and death
a) Describe the sequential of micronutrient deficiency that lead
morbidity , development of disease and death
b) With the specific micronutrient describe the sequence of
micronutrient deficiency

GTN 210 :Nutrition for Health and Fitness

FINAL EXAM 2011/2012
Essay Question

a) 2 indicators used in distillation.

b) Functions of

[2 mark]

[8 mark]


Boric acid




Acid Hydrochloric


Protein factor

10. Describe the process of extraction of lipid in fried potato using

batch extraction and hexane as the solvent.
11. Sample preparation and analysis of dietary fiber.

1. role of CHO, protein, and fat with energy system in lom-,moderate,and

high intensity exercise..
2. what is hypertension? why it is dangerous to your health? DISCUSS 5
behavourmodification to prevent hypertension.
3. give 3 advantages and 3 disadvantages of dieting and exercise in
weight control program respectively.

12. A bread company developed a new brand of healthy bread high in

antioxidant and fiber.
a) State the sensory evaluation that is suitable to use if the
company want to test the bread among consumer. Give your
[2 mark]
b) State the attributes that are suitable to be tested.

GTN 211: Food Analysis

FINAL EXAM 2011/2012
Bahagian B (10 mark each; answer 5 out of 7)
8. According to the data given calculate

c) Draw an evaluation form for panel.

[3 mark]

[5 mark]

13. Write a short note on practical consideration in determination of

moisture content.
14. Write a short note on:

d) Qtest and see whether need to reject the largest value or not

a) Normal phase of HPLC

e) To determine whether there is subject bias or not.

b) Reverse phase of HPLC

47 | P a g e


Final Exam (2009/2010)
Bahagian A : MCQ
Bahagian B :
1. Sila nyatakan cara Bodpod berfungsi.
2. Nyatakan 10 kekuatan antropometri.
Bahagian C :
Soalan tentang situasi seorang pak cik dan senarai makanan yang
diambilnya dari pagi hingga malam.
a) Analisis makanan yang telah dinyatakan (spt: tenaga, CHO, fat,
protein, Ca, Mg, Na etc <guna buku komposisi makanan>

c) State the importance of carbohydrate with respect to Malaysia

food guide pyramid.
3) a) State the rationale for niacin, folate and vitamin A to have unit of
measure as equivalent. (10m)
b) State the types of anemia cause by vitamin and mineral. (10m)
4) a) i) List out main sources of vitamin A
ii) Function of vitamin A
iii) Deficiencies of vitamin A
b) Give reasons for vitamin K injection towards newborn babies.
c) List out the vitamin D deficiency. (4m)
5) a) Write a short note about dietary mineral (5m)
b) State the factors that enhance and inhibit the bioavaibility of
mineral. (10m)
c) Write about the relation between mineral and human bone. (5m)

FINAL EXAM (2010/2011)

1) a) i) List the types of Dietary Reference Intake Standards. (5 m)
ii) Give the definition for each type of Dietary Reference Intake
Standards (5m)
b) Describe the difference in the usage of the term of RDA and
c) Why there is a difference between children and 60 years old
adult with 30 years old
adult in energy requirement. (6m)
2) a) Give the classification of carbohydrate. (8m)
b) Describe the digestion and absorption process of carbohydrate.

GTP 201/2
FINAL EXAM 2011/2012
Bahagian A (Jawab semua soalan)
A) Terangkan mengenai LARSP (5m)
B) Bagaimana alat ini digunakan sewaktu tiada ujian spesifik. (5m)
C) 3 Argumen Guendozi dalam jurnalnya. (10m)
D) Faedah penggunaan LARSP kepada Cody dan Taylor dalam
jurnal kajian Guendozi (10m)

48 | P a g e

2. Soalan Mengenai:
a) Contradiction, paraphrase dan entailment (semantic relations)
b) Thematic role (10M)
c) PRISM (8M)
3. A) Terangkan mengenai Mac Arthur Baits CDI (5m)
B) Terangkan mengenai data analisis yang dapat diekstrak
daripada Spontaneous Language Samples. (5m)
C) Terangkan mengenai 3 faktor utama pilihan bahasa oleh SLP
dan parents dalam kajian yang dijalankan oleh A.Razak et.Al.
(2009) (20m)
Bahagian B (Pilih satu sahaja)
4. Terangkan mengenai:
a) Euphemisme
b) Laras

2. Siti, 6 years old, language delay attend clinic session and had
acquired some words and manage to pronounce the words
correctly. At home, she does not want to talk. How to increase her
talking behaviour with correct pronunciation? Create a behavioural
management plan with at least 2 behavioural technique that
involve Sitis mother.
3. Explain how an OT deals with a pediatric patient who comes to the
clinic first time.
Bahagian C:
1. Explain palate development.
2. Cleft palate problems associated with:
a) Hearing
b) Feeding
c) Speech and language
3. 3 others development than gross development
4. Gross motor development from age birth to 6 years old.

c) Pidgin
Secara ringkas dan berikan 2 contoh daripadanya.
5. Mengenai aspek yang dapat digunakan untuk penilaian bahasa,
James (1993), Terangkan mengenai 2 aspek tersebut.
GTP 204/2
FINAL EXAM 2011/2012
Bahagian B:
1. Explain about Ushers Syndrome

GTP 205
FINAL EXAM 2011/2012
1.How sounds travel from source to listener
2. Difference between sound and light..
3. difference of pitch (high and low frequency)
4. given diagram; standing wave, node, antinode. State type of harmonic
5. given length and speed of closed end first harmonic find fundamental
6 Penanda akustik

49 | P a g e

6. Beza dan perkaitan informant dan formant

3) Test to measure VO2 max

7. Beza dan perkaitan spektrograf dan spektrogram

4) Differences of laboratory physical fitness and field physical fitness


8. Beza nilai frekuensi formant

9. Analisis spektrografik membantu penyelesaian masalah fonologi.
10. Beza vokal dan konsonan berdasarkan analisis spektrografik.
11. Bagaimana bibir sebagai alat artikulasi membentuk bunyi letupan.
12. Bagaimana analisis spektrografik membantu membezakan bunyi
nasal, letusan, letupan, geluncuran dan plosif.

5) Test use to measure body composition.

6) Describe what is mean by passive,active,subjective and objective
in instrument of measurement.


1) Describe level of participation with example.
2) Various of Sport Sc that can give benefit to coach. State major of
Sport Sc.
3) Factors that can improve phsychological training.
4) Objectives of multilateral development.
5) Describe annual planning.

1. briefly describe about BIA and BodPod
2. factors that affect reliability
3. open and close questionaire
1) 5 purposes of measurement and evaluation
2) Methods for muscular strength

6) Objectives of talent identification.

7) Objectives of physical training.


1. emotion response related to controllability and stability attribution to
predict future performance
2. lazarus concept of stress

50 | P a g e

3. cognitive and somatic anxiety

4. team cohesion n feature of sport gp
5. attentional focus
6. type of aggression n interaction of it
7. 9 dimension of flow
8. goal setting weightlifter n principles of it
II..9. inverted u hypo n 2 oth model
10. 4 elements of flow
11.burnout models
12. physiopsychology,elements n the application
1) Describe introspection and observation.
2) 5 ways to develop intrinsic motivation.
3) Types of aggression.Describe..
4) Describe Fazeys and Hardeys theory.
5) 4 elements of attentional.
6) Describe Banduras theory of self-efficacy.
7) Describe multidimensional nature anxiety.
8) a) What is psychophysiology?
b) Elements in psychophysiology
c) Application of psychophysiology in sport.
9) Describe Lazarus concept of stress.
10) Design goal setting of tenpin bowling. Principle to achieve effective
11) Process of team cohesion.

GTU 201: HEALTH AND SOCIETY (2010/2011)
Soalan A (Jawab Semua Soalan)
1. Bencana alam seperti tsunami yang melanda pada Disember
2004 dan gempa bumi di Pakistan pada Ogos 2010 telah
menyebabkan berlakunya penyakit. Jelaskan bagaimanakah
penyakit boleh terkesan dengan menggunakan SATU teori
penyebab penyakit beserta contoh.
(30 min/25m)
2. Masalah gejala sosial dalam kalangan remaja sering dikaitkan
dengan pelabelan, penyimpangan dan stigma.
a. Terangkan dengan ringkas kaitan antara pelabelan,
penyimpangan dan stigma. (10m)
b. Jelaskan punca-punca berlakunya penyimpangan dan
cara-cara mengatasi penyimpangan dari aspek keluarga
dan masyarakat. (15m)
Soalan B (Pilih SATU soalan sahaja)
3. Jelaskan perkaitan antara sektor kesihatan dan kemiskinan (25m)
4. Jeaskan kebaikan reformasi kesihatan terhadap wanita (25m)
5. Terdapat 3 jenis keluarga.
a. Terangkan peranan keluarga dan masalah kesihatan.

51 | P a g e

b. Bandingkan baik dan buruk tiga jenis keluarga apabila

menghadapi situasi salah seorang ahli keluarga
menghidap penyakit yang kronik dan dimasukkan ke
hospital. (25m)
Soalan C (Pilih SATU soalan sahaja)
6. Faktor sosial penentu kesihatan
a. Jelaskan dengan ringkas kepentingan Faktor Sosial
Penentu Kesihatan. (10m)
b. Jelaskan TIGA factor social penentu kesihatan dalam
menyelesaikan masalah penyakit berjangkit. (25m)
7. En Harun berumur 65 tahun dan seorang penoreh getah. Dia
menghidap kencing manis dan darah tinggi. Dia perlu
mendapatkan rawatan susulan tetapi sering tidak hadir ke klinik
untuk mendapatkan rawatan. Bagaimanakah cara untuk
mengubah tingkah laku En Harun. (25m)
8. Pn Salmah ialah seorang ibu tunggal dan mempunyai 4 orang
anak. 2 orang anaknya menghidap penyakit mental. Dia tidak
mempunyai sumber pendapatan yang tetap. Selain itu, dia juga
dipulaukan. Sebagai seorang professional kesihatan, apakah
tindakan anda untuk mengatasi masalah ini. (25m)

Final Exam Semester 1 (2009/2010)

Bahagian A: WAJIB jawab kesemua soalan
1. Pilih DUA faktor sosial penentu kesihatan dan kemudian huraikan.

Bahagian B: Sila PILIH SATU soalan sahaja

3. H1N1(selsema babi)- terangkan satu teori penyebab penyakit yang
boleh menjelaskan penyakit ini. (30minit/25m)
4. Pilih SATU







5. Mengikut Mechanic, terdapat pelbagai variabel. Terangkan DUA dan

huraikan. (30 minit/25m)
Bahagian C: Sila PILIH SATU sahaja
6. Nyatakan TIGA faktor yang boleh dilakukan oleh sesebuah keluarga
bagi membantu keluarga yang menghidapi masalah kesihatan. (30
7. Berikan hujah dan mendapat anda jika ada yang mencadangakn
kepada kerajaan Malaysia untuk mengadakan institusi perkhidmatan
kesihatan berasaskan:
i. bertunjangkan kebajikan dan percuma
ii. berasaskan bayaran
8. Terdapat satu teori yang dinamakan Teori mundur. Huraikan(30
GTX 213: Basic science of nuclear medicine
FINAL EXAM 2011/2012

2. Terdapat hubungan di antara status kesihatan dan status kemiskinan.

Huraikan kedua-dua hubungan ini dan jelaskan. (30 minit/25m)

1. Write an essay about beta- decay. Give appropriate example.

52 | P a g e

2. Why technetium 99m Is ideal as radionuclide?

3. Write about the mechanism of localization of
4. Properties of an ideal diagnostic/therapeutics
5. Why iodine 131Is ideal as therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.
6. Steps of development of radiopharmaceuticals.

5. With appropriate graph write about the spectral emissions of

6. Write an essay about the structure of the film.
7. Write about the advantages and disadvantages of tabular grains.
8. Write about the importance of replenishment.
9. Write about the composition of intensifying screen.
10. Factors affecting screen speed and image details.

7. Write about moly-generator.

8. Write about the gas ionization curves.
9. With appropriate diagram, write about scintillation detector
10. Write about the liquid scintillation detector.
11. Write an essay for quality control of dose calibrator.

GTX 214: basic science in diagnostic radiology

FINAL EXAM 2011/2012
1. Please write an essay about properties of radiation.
2. With the help of diagram write an essay about types of
3. With the help of diagram write an essay about types of x-ray
4. Write an essay about the characteristics of emulsion.

HTU 201
FINAL EXAM (2010/2011)
Bahagian A
1. Islamofobia dalam kalangan masyarakat bukan Islam dikaitkan
dengan masyarakat Islam itu sendiri. Jelaskan Islamofobia dan
langkah-langkah menangani tuduhan tersebut.
2. Jelaskan kepentingan Dialog antara Tamadun.
Bahagian B
3. Jelaskan prinsip-prinsip pandangan semesta Tamadun Islam
4. Jelaskan bagaimana untuk mengangkis tuduhan keganasan
melalui pendekatan Islam Hadhari.
Bahagian C
5. Jelaskan impak dan pencapaian Tamadun Melayu terhadap
sistem kepercayaan tamadun tersebut pada kurun ke-13.

53 | P a g e

6. Selepas kedatangan Islam, jelaskan pencapaian yang dicapai oleh

Tamadun Melayu.
Bahagian D
7. Jelaskan pandangan Konfucius dalam perana
a. Individu dan masyarakat
b. Institusi keluarga


8. Jelaskan ciri-ciri bidang tersebut dalam Tamadun China

a. Bidang seni lukis
b. Bidang sains dan teknologi
Bahagian E
9. Rasa pernah jumpa, mungkinkah pada kelahiran yang lepas
Petikan di atas menjadi kebiasaan dalam filem Hindi. Jelaskan
perkaitan LIMA konsep dalam ajaran agama Hindu.
10. Jelaskan reformasi keagamaan Hindu pada kurun ke-6.

54 | P a g e