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Control Systems

Control system is an important mechanism which alters


the state of the system based on the input to the system.
An efficient control system enhances the productivity of a
components by providing fine control over the desired
range. In the nature everything is controlled or other wise
leads to catastrophic manner which creates a huge
damage. In the same way in and around you everything is
controlled by some component to ensure the stability. For
example a light in a room is controlled by an electric
switch. When a switch is on electricity flows and the light
will be on, same for the reverse operation. The articles are
divided in to sections shown in bellow.
Basics of control system
The control system consists of three components
1.
2.
3.

Input

Logic operation
Output or decision device

Input is the cause parameter on which the control system acts, The logic
operation is the intended or desired operation to perform on the input for
generating
a
new
output
state.

Basic control system

The output is drive parameter which actuates the end


component to perform the desired task. These can be open
loop or closed loop control systems depends on output
feed back. Block diagram reduction helps in analysis and
simplification of control system.

Frequency Domain Anylysis

Frequency Domain Analysis

Frequency response of the system is a steady state


response the system in which the output may differs in
amplitude and phase. Analysis a system in frequency
domain is easy compared to time domain analysis. Based
on the output response characteristics the behavior of the
system can be predicted. The various frequency domain
analysis techniques are root locus, bode plots, Nyquist
plots etc.
Process Control
Process is a method of changing raw materials in to useful
end product. The raw materials changes it state from one
form to another form (liquid to gas etc) during the
conversion process. The process industries may be
chemical industry, power industry, manufacturing
industry. Process control refers to the methods which are
used to control the process parameters to obtain a good
end product. Now a days increase in electronics growth
and enhancement in control strategies almost all the
process are automatic to reduce the manual intervention.
PID controller and advanced controllers places a major
role
automatic
control
system. more

Process control

PLC

Programmable Logic controller (PLC)


With the advanced electronics PLC are the most widely used logic controllers
for controlling the plant components. Small PLC can control the number of
components with the desired logic. Where as input and output components
are same as basic control system and logic operation is replaced with PLC to
increase
the
efficiency
and
integrity.
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