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MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

1. Maintenance Standards Table ...................................................... 2 1


2. Tightening Torques .......................................................................... 2 6
2.1 Important Bolts and Nuts ................................................................ 2 6
2.2 Standard Bolts ................................................................................ 2 7
2.3 Standard Studs ............................................................................... 2 7
2.4 Standard Plugs ............................................................................... 2 7

3. Sealants and Lubricants Table ..................................................... 2 8


4. Maintenance Schedule ................................................................... 2 9

MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

1.

Maintenance Standards Table


Unit: mm (in.)

Group

Inspection Point

Nominal
Value

Maximum min1, (no-load)


Minimum min , (no-load)

General

3.2 (33) [469]


at 300 min1

2.8
(29) [413]

0.3 to 0.5 (3 to 5) [43 to 71]


at 1500 min1

0.15 (1.5)
[21.3]

0.1 (1) [14.2] or more


at idling

0.05 (0.5)
[7]

Crankcase

Push belt in ward with


thumb pressure
{98 N (10 kgf) [22 lbf]}
and measure deflection.

10 to 12 (0.4 to 0.5)

Warpage of gasket
contact surface
94
(3.70)

0.05 (0.0020)
or less

0.20
(0.0079)

94.000 to 94.035
(3.7008 to 3.7022)

94.200
(3.7087)

94.700
(3.7283)

(0.200)
([0.0079])

0.09
(0.035)
as journal
diameter
which is
78 (3.07)

Circularity

0.01 (0.0004)
or less

Cylindricity

0.015 (0.0006)
or less

Clearance between
bearing and journal

Both inlet and exhaust


valves

BTDC 5

V-belt deflection

Cylinder

(0.050 to 0.110)
([0.0020 to 0.0043])

Main
bearing

Tappet
bore

Camshaft
bore

Oil temperature
70 to 90C (158 to 194F)

0.25 (0.0098)

Fuel injection timing

Inside diameter

Oil and water temp.


20 to 30C (68 to 86F)

BTDC 30
ABDC 50
BBDC 74
ATDC 30
3 (crank angle)

Inlet open
Inlet close
Exhaust open
Exhaust close

Valve clearance (cold)

Crankcase

Remark

Adjust governor setting.

75020

Compression pressure
MPa (kgf/cm2) [psi]

Valve
timing

Repair
Service
Limit
Limit
(Clearance) (Clearance)

246020

Engine oil pressure


MPa (kgf/cm2) [psi]

Assembly Standard
(Standard Clearance)

Regrind if warpage is
minor.

Width of thrust journals


(Clearance between
thrust and journal)

0.100 to 0.264
(0.0039 to 0.0104)

0.300
(0.0118)

Inside diameter

14.000 to 14.018
(0.5512 to 0.5519)

14.100
(0.5551)

Refinish cylinder to
0.25 (0.0098) or 0.50
(0.0197) oversize of normal
value by honing and use the
same oversize pistons and
piston rings.
If repair limit is reached,
replace bearings. If is
exceeded, regrind journals
and use undersize bearings.
Bearing undersizes:
0.25 (0.0098)
0.50 (0.0197)
0.75 (0.0295)
Replace thrust plate.

Clearance between
tappet and bore

(0.016 to 0.052)
([0.0006 to 0.0021])

(0.080)
([0.0031])

If it exceeds the repair limit,


replace tappets.

Clearance between
camshaft journal
and bore

(0.070 to 0.110)
([0.0028 to 0.0043])

(0.15)
([0.0059])

If it exceeds the repair limit,


refinish bores and install
bushings, or replace
camshaft.

2-1

MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

Unit: mm (in.)
Group

Inspection Point

Cylinder
head

Warpage of gasket
contact surface
Compressed thickness
of gasket
Diameter
of valve
stem

Valve and Clearance


valve guide between
guide and
stem

Inlet
valve

Valve
seat

0.05 (0.0020)
or less
1.2
(0.05)

(0.065 to 0.095)
([0.0026 to 0.0037])

(0.150)
([0.0059])

Exhaust
valve

(0.080 to 0.115)
([0.0032 to 0.0045])

(0.200)
([0.0079])

Inlet
valve

0.4
(0.016)

Exhaust
valve

0.5
(0.020)
1.4
(0.055)

1.8
(0.071)

2.13 (0.0839)

Up to 1.83
(0.0720) by
refacing

Valve
margin
Valve
sinkage

Squareness of ends with


respect to center line

19
(0.75)

147
(15)
[33]

19.010 to 19.030
(0.7484 to 0.7492)
18.980 to 19.000
(0.7472 to 0.7480)
(0.010 to 0.050)
([0.0004 to 0.0020])

(0.070)
([0.0028])

Deflection

0.3 (0.012)
or less

Deflection

0.02 (0.0008)
or less

0.05
(0.0020)

1/2 of dial indicator


reading

Journal diameter

78
(3.07)

77.955 to 77.970
(3.0691 to 3.0697)

77.850
(3.0650)

Crankpin diameter

58
(2.28)

57.955 to 57.970
(2.2817 to 2.2823)

57.800
(2.2756)

Center to center
distance between
journal and crankpin

60
(2.36)

0.04 (0.0016)

Parallelism between
journal and crankpin

Valve
seat angle

43 (1.69)

Clearance between
bushing and shaft

Crankshaft

Seat
width

47.60 (1.87)

176 to 196
(1.8 to 20)
[40 to 44]

Set force
N (kgf) [lbf]

Diameter of rocker
shaft

0.14 (0.0055)

1.5 or less

Set length

Inside diameter of
rocker bushing

0.1 (0.004)

1.0
(0.039)

48.85 (1.92)

Squareness

Main moving parts

13.9 to 14.1
(0.5472 to 0.5551)

30

Free length

Valve
pushrod

0.05
(0.002)

Inlet
valve

14
(0.55)

Remark
Regrind if warpage is
minor.

7.850
(0.3091)

8
(0.31)

Valve margin

Rocker
arm

0.20
(0.0079)

7.920 to 7.940
(0.3118 to 0.3126)

Exhaust
valve

Width

Valve
spring

Repair
Service
Limit
Limit
(Clearance) (Clearance)

7.900
(0.3110)

Angle
Valve
sinkage

Assembly Standard
(Standard Clearance)

7.940 to 7.955
(0.3126 to 0.3132)

Height to top of
valve guide

Cylinder head

Nominal
Value

Runout : 0.01 (0.004)


or less (over crankpin
length)

2-2

77.100
(3.0354)

MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

Unit: mm (in.)
Group

Inspection Point

Nominal
Value

Circularity of journal
and crankpin

0.01 (0.0004)
or less

Taper of journal and


crankpin

Crankshaft

Fillet radius of journal


and crankpin

Piston

Outside diameter
(at skirt)

End play
(Width of shaft thrust
journal)

3
(0.12)

3.1
(1.22)

Standard
0.25 (0.0098)
oversize

94
(3.70)

0.50 (0.0197)
oversize

Connecting rod

Clearance Clearance between


between ends groove and ring

Main moving parts

(0.100 to 0.264)
([0.0039 to 0.0104])

If thrust plate clearance


exceeds the repair limit,
replace thrust plates.
If it is exceeded, use
oversize thrust plates.
Thrust plate oversizes:
0.15 (0.0059)
0.30 (0.0118)

(0.300)
([0.0118])

93.955 to 93.985
(3.6990 to 3.7002)

93.770
(3.6917)

94.205 to 94.235
(3.7089 to 3.7100)

94.020
(3.7016)

94.455 to 94.485
(3.7187 to 3.7199)

94.270
(3.7114)
Check bearing clearance.
(0.200)
([0.0079])

No.2 ring

(0.045 to 0.085)
([0.0018 to 0.0034])

(0.150)
([0.0059])

Oil ring

(0.020 to 0.060)
([0.0010 to 0.0026])

(0.150)
([0.0059])

No.1 ring
Oil ring

0.30 to 0.50
(0.0118 to 0.0197)

No.2 ring

0.50 to 0.70
(0.0196 to 0.0275)

1.50
(0.0591)

29.994 to 30.000
(1.1809 to 1.1811)

Clearance between
pin and piston

0.000 to 0.016
(0.000 to 0.006)

0.050
(0.0019)

Clearance between
pin and bushing

(0.020 to 0.051)
([0.0008 to 0.0020])

(0.080)
([0.0032])

Inside diameter of
bushing

30
(1.18)

Clearance between
crankpin and
connecting rod
bearing

Flatness
Face runout

30.020 to 30.045
(1.1819 to 1.1829)
0.05/100
(0.0019/3.94)
or less

Bend and twist

End play
Flywheel

0.2 (0.008)

(0.07 to 0.11)
([0.0028 to 0.0043])

30
(1.18)

Remark

0.03
(0.0012)

No.1 ring

Diameter
Piston
pin

Repair
Service
Limit
Limit
(Clearance) (Clearance)

0.05 to 0.45
(0.0020 to 0.0177)

Protrusion

Piston
ring

Assembly Standard
(Standard Clearance)

33
(1.30)

(0.030 to 0.090)
([0.0012 to 0.0035])

(0.200)
([0.0079])

If service limit is exceeded,


replace bearing or regrind
pin and use undersize
bearing.

(0.15 to 0.35)
([0.0059 to 0.0138])

(0.50)
([0.020])

Replace connecting rod.

0.15 (0.0059)
or less

2-3

0.50
(0.020)

MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

Unit: mm (in.)
Group

Nominal
Value

Inspection Point

Assembly Standard
(Standard Clearance)
0.02 (0.0008)
or less

Cam lift C
Journal
diameter

Timing gear

Camshaft

Deflection
A=
46.916 0.3
[1.8471 + 0.004
0.012 ]

Exhaust
valve

46.880 0.3
[1.8457 + 0.004
0.012 ]

6.720
(0.2646)

6.220
(0.2450)

No.1, 2

54
(2.13)

53.94 to 53.96
(2.1236 to 2.1244)

53.90
(2.1220)

No.3

53
(2.09)

52.94 to 52.96
(2.0842 to 2.0850)

52.90
(2.0827)

5
(0.20)

(0.10 to 0.25)
([0.0039 to 0.0098])

(0.30)
([0.0118])

(0.009 to 0.050)
([0.0004 to 0.0020])

0.100
(0.0040)
(0.35)
([0.0138])

+ 0.1

A=

End play

4.5
(1.17)

(0.05 to 0.20)
([0.0020 to 0.0079])

Fit (interference) of
bushing in crankcase bore

3.5
(1.17)

(0.021T to 0.076T)
([0.0008T to 0.0030T])
0.05 to 0.15
(0.0012 to 0.0071)

Backlash

Injection nozzle

Fuel system

Valve opening pressure


MPa (kgf/cm2) [psi]

Spray cone
angle

Oil tightness of needle


valve seat

Starter (12 V2.2 kW)

Electrical system

Diameter of commutator

11.77
(120)
[1706]

31
(3.2)
[7.0]

D1

Replace thrust plates.


Replace bushing.
Replace thrust plates.

Replace gears.

Test by means of hand


tester, using diesel fuel,
at 20C (68F). If discharge
pattern is bad even after
nozzle is washed in clean
diesel fuel, replace
nozzle tip.

32
(1.26)

Spring force,
N (kgf) [lbf]

D2

Make shim adjustment.


Pressure varies by 1 (10)
[142] per 0.1 mm
(0.004 in.) thickness
of shim.

11.77 to 12.75
(120 to 130)
[1707 to 1849]

Seat shall hold a test pressure


2 MPa (20 kgf/cm2) [284 psi] lower
than valve opening pressure for
10 seconds.

18
(0.71)

Pinion clearance

0.25
(0.0098)

Length

Remark
Straighten by cold working
or replace.

6.184
(0.2435)

Clearance between
shaft and bushing

Brush

0.05
(0.0020)

6.684
(0.2632)

End play

Idler gear

+ 0.1

Inlet
valve

Repair
Service
Limit
Limit
(Clearance) (Clearance)

31.8 to 32.2
(1.25 to 1.27)

Wash or replace nozzle tip.


31.4
(1.24)
11
(0.43)

26 to 36
(2.7 to 3.7)
[5.8 to 8.1]

15
(1.5)
[3.4]

0.5 to 2.0
(0.020 to
0.079)
No-load characteristics
Voltage, V

Current, A

Speed, min1

11

130 or less

3800 or more

2-4

MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

Unit: mm (in.)
Inspection Point
Alternator
(12 V50 A)

Electrical
system

Group

Nominal
Value

18.5
(0.73)

Brush height
Resistance in slip rings

Oil pump

Lubrication system

(0.20 to 0.30)
([0.0012 to 0.0018])

Diameter of main
shaft (case side)

16
(0.63)

15.985 to 16.000
(0.6293 to 0.6299)

Diameter of main shaft


(oil pump bushing side)

14
(0.55)

13.957 to 13.975
(0.5495 to 0.5502)

Remark

5
(0.20)
at 20C (68F)
0.50
[0.0197]

Replace oil
pump assembly.

Clearance between main


shaft and case

(0.032 to 0.074)
([0.0013 to 0.0029])

(0.15)
([0.0059])

Replace pump assembly.

Clearance between main


shaft and oil pump bushing

(0.025 to 0.111)
([0.0010 to 0.0044])

(0.200)
([0.0079])

Replace pump assembly.

Clearance between outer


and inner rotors

(0.13 to 0.15)
([0.0051 to 0.0059])

(0.20)
([0.0079])

Replace shaft assembly.

Clearance between rotors


and cover

(0.04 to 0.09)
([0.0016 to 0.0035])

(0.15)
([0.0059])

Replace shaft assembly.

Relief valve

Valve opening
pressure,
MPa (kgf/cm2) [psi]
Inner rotor bore

Thermostat

Repair
Service
Limit
Limit
(Clearance) (Clearance)

2.7 to 3.2 ohm

Clearance between
outer rotor and case

Cooling
system

Assembly Standard
(Standard Clearance)

0.350.05
(3.50.5)
[507]
16
(0.63)

(15.95 to 15.968)
([0.6279 to 0.6286])

Temp. at which valve


starts opening

76.52C
(1703.6F)

Temp. at which valve


lift is more than 8 (0.3)

90C (194F)

2-5

Mainshaft shrinkage fit

MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

2.

Tightening Torques

2.1 Important Bolts and Nuts


Thread
Dia. Pitch
(M-thread)

Width
across flats
mm (in.)

Nm

kgfm

lbfft

Cylinder head bolt

M12 1.75

19

113 to 123

11.5 to 12.5

83 to 90

Cylinder head plug

M16 1.5

14

39.2 to 49.0

4.0 to 5.0

28.9 to 36.2

Rocker cover

M8 1.25

12

10.0 to 13.0

1.0 to 1.3

7.23 to 9.40

Rocker shaft brackets (long)

M8 1.25

12

10.0 to 20.0

1.0 to 2.0

7.23 to 14.5

M14 2

22

98 to 108

10.0 to 11.0

72 to 80

Connecting rod caps nut

M10 1.0

14

49.0 to 59.0

5.0 to 6.0

36.2 to 43.4

Flywheel

M12 1.25

17

78.5 to 88.3

8.0 to 9.0

57.9 to 65.1

Camshaft thrust plate

M8 l.25

12

10.0 to 13.0

1.0 to 1.3

7.23 to 9.40

Front plate

M8 1.25

12

10.0 to 13.0

1.0 to 1.3

7.23 to 9.40

Timing gear case cover

M8 1.25

12

17.0 to 20.0

1.7 to 2.0

12.3 to 14.5

Crankshaft pulley

M30 1.5

46

480 to 500

49 to 51

354 to 369

Idler gear thrust plate

M10 1.25

14

29.0 to 39.0

3.0 to 4.0

21.7 to 28.9

Oil pan

M8 1.25

12

10.0 to 13.0

1.0 to 1.3

7.25 to 9.40

Rear plate

M10 1.25

14

54.0 to 65.7

5.5 to 6.7

39.8 to 48.5

Fuel injection pump delivery


valve holders

M14 1.5

14

44.0 to 54.0

4.5 to 5.5

32.5 to 39.8

Fuel injection pump gear nut

M12 1.75

19

58.8 to 68.6

6.0 to 7.0

43.4 to 50.6

Fuel injection pump gear


(inline, swirl chamber type)
(inline, direct injection type)

M12 1.75
M14 1.5

19
22

58.8 to 68.6
83.4 to 98.0

6.0 to 7.0
8.5 to 10.0

43.4 to 50.6
61.5 to 72.3

Fuel return pipe nuts

M10 1.25

17

20.6 to 24.5

2.1 to 2.5

15.2 to 18.1

Fuel return pipe flare nut

M10 1.25

14

17.7 to 21.6

1.8 to 0.22

13.0 to 15.9

Fuel injection pump overflow valve

M12 1.0

17

20.0 to 29.0

2.0 to 3.0

14.5 to 21.7

Fuel injection pipe nuts

M12 1.5

17

26.5 to 32.4

2.7 to 3.3

19.5 to 23.9

Oil pump gear

M10 1.25

14

28.0 to 38.0

2.9 to 3.9

21.0 to 28.2

Oil pan drain plug

M14 1.5

17

34.0 to 44.0

3.5 to 4.5

25.3 to 32.5

Oil pressure relief valve

M22 1.5

27

44.1 to 53.9

4.5 to 5.5

32.5 to 39.8

l/418NPTF

14

35.3 to 43.1

3.6 to 4.4

26.0 to 31.8

Thermostat

M16 1.5

19

20.6 to 24.5

2.1 to 2.5

15.2 to 18.1

Exhaust manifold (bolt only) (with spacer)

M8 1.25

12

27.5 to 33.3

2.8 to 3.4

20.3 to 24.6

Starter terminal B

M8 1.25

12

9.81 to 11.8

1.0 to 1.2

7.23 to 8.68

Alternator pulley

M16 1.5

24

98 to 137

Description

Main bearing caps

Coolant drain plug

2-6

Tightening Torque

10.0 to 14.0 72.3 to 101.3

MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

Thread
Dia. Pitch
(M-thread)

Width
across flats
mm (in.)

Nm

kgfm

lbfft

M10 1.25

12

15.0 to 20.0

1.5 to 2.0

10.8 to 14.5

Glow plug (terminal)

M4 0.7

1.0 to 1.5

0.10 to 0.15

0.72 to 1.08

Nozzles tip retaining nut (to engine)

M20 1.5

21

53.0 to 64.7

5.4 to 6.6

39.1 to 47.7

Thermostat case

M8 1.25

12

17.0 to 20.0

1.7 to 2.0

12.3 to 14.5

Description
Glow plug (body)

Tightening Torque

2.2 Standard Bolts


Torque
Thread Diameter
(mm)

4T

7T

Nm

kgfm

lbfft

Nm

kgfm

lbfft

M6

2.94 to 4.90

0.3 to 0.5

2.17 to 3.62

7.85 to 9.80

0.8 to 1.0

5.79 to 7.23

M8

9.80 to 12.7

1.0 to 1.3

7.23 to 9.40

14.7 to 21.6

1.5 to 2.2

10.8 to 15.9

M10

17.7 to 24.5

1.8 to 2.5

13.0 to 18.1

29.4 to 41.2

3.0 to 4.2

21.7 to 30.4

M12

29.4 to 41.2

3.0 to 4.2

21.7 to 30.4

53.9 to 73.5

5.5 to 7.5

39.8 to 54.2

2.3 Standard Studs


Torque (tap end)
Thread Diameter
(mm)

For driving in aluminum materials

For driving in ferrous materials

Nm

kgfm

lbfft

Nm

kgfm

lbfft

M8

4.90 to 5.90

0.50 to 0.60

3.62 to 4.34

11.8 to 13.7

1.2 to 1.4

8.68 to 10.1

M10

12.7 to 14.7

1.3 to 1.5

9.40 to 10.8

21.6 to 25.5

2.2 to 2.6

15.9 to 18.8

2.4 Standard Plugs


Torque
Thread Diameter

For aluminum materials

For ferrous materials

Nm

kgfm

lbfft

Nm

kgfm

lbfft

NPTF 1/16

4.90 to 7.85

0.5 to 0.8

3.62 to 5.79

7.85 to 11.8

0.8 to 1.2

5.79 to 8.68

PT 1/8

7.85 to 11.8

0.8 to 1.2

5.79 to 8.68

14.7 to 21.6

1.5 to 2.2

10.8 to 15.9

PT 1/4, NPTF 1/4

19.6 to 29.4

2.0 to 3.0

14.5 to 21.7

34.3 to 44.1

3.5 to 4.5

25.3 to 32.5

53.9 to 73.5

5.5 to 7.5

39.8 to 54.2

PT 3/8

Remarks: 1. The torque values shown above are for the bolts with spring washers.
2. Do not apply any oil to the bolt threads.

2-7

MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

3.

Sealants and Lubricants Table


Apply to

Mating Parts

Sealant or Lubricant

How to Use

Oil pan

Crankcase

ThreeBond 1207C

Apply to seal.

Rear bearing cap seat on crankcase

Rear bearing cap

ThreeBond 1212

Apply to corners before


installing cap.

Side seals

Crankcase rear
bearing cap

ThreeBond 1212

Apply to side seals.

Cylinder head coolant hole plug

Cylinder head

ThreeBond 1386D

Apply to plug hole.

Crankcase coolant hole plug

Crankcase

ThreeBond 1386D

Apply to plug hole.

Crankcase oil hole plug

Crankcase

ThreeBond 1386D

Apply to plug hole.

Return oil hole plug hole

Crankcase

ThreeBond 1386D

Apply to plug hole.

Crankshaft threads

Crankshaft pulley
nut

ThreeBond 1212

Apply to crankshaft thread


before tightening nut.

Rear gasket

Crankcase and rear


plate

ThreeBond 1212

Apply to both sides of rear


gasket.

CAUTION
When changing parts, be sure to use OEM
designed parts. Unless OEM designed parts
are used, the exhaust emission warranty will
be voided.
Modification to the fuel system can only be
done under these circumstances:
Fuel and exhaust system repairs must only
be conducted by an authorized CAT lift truck
dealer.
Tampering or adjusting the fuel system
components outside the manufacturers
specs will void the warranty.
The fuel injection pump must be replaced as
an assembly.

2-8

MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

4.

Maintenance Schedule
(3) Perform service on items at multiples of the
original requirement. For example, at Every 200
service hours, also service those items listed under
Every 50 service hours and Every 10 service hours.

(1) Use the service meter to determine servicing


intervals.
(2) The servicing intervals in the schedule are for an
average operating conditions. Service the engine
earlier than the scheduled intervals if necessary.
(The intervals depends on application, operating
conditions and fuel oil and lube oil used in the
engine. Adjust the intervals to meet the actual
operating conditions.)

Check, clean, wash or adjust.


Change.
S Rely on Cat lift truck dealer if necessary.

Daily/Weekly Inspection
Interval
No.

Item

Cooling fan

Check

Engine coolant

Check level

Battery electrolyte

Check level

Engine (exhaust, noise, vibration)

Check

Engine oil

Check level

Fuel

Check level

Fuel hose, pipes, joints

Check

V-Belt (fan and alternator)

Check tension

Air cleaner element

Clean

Notes: 1.
2.
3.

Action

Every day
(10 hrs)

Remarks

Weekly
(10 hrs)

Add distilled water as required. (Note 1)

(Note 2)

Not required if battery type is full maintenance free.


In corrosive or abrasive environments, clean, lubricate, or change more frequently.
When fuel with poor quality is used, check, drain, and change more frequently.

2-9

MAINTENANCE STANDARDS
Maintenance Schedule

Yearly or
every 2000 service hours

Action

Every 6 months or
1000 service hours

Item

Every 3 months or
500 service hours

Group

1st month or 200 hrs only


after delivery of new truck

Interval

Remarks

Lubrication
system

Engine oil

Change

Oil filter

Change

Engine
body

Cylinder head bolt, manifold nut


(bolts & nuts of engine exterior)

Check

Fuel system

Engine idle speed

Check

Injection nozzle

Check

Fuel filter

Change

S (Note 3)

Fuel hose

Change

Radiator fin

Check/Clean

Engine coolant

Change

Cooling
system

Radiator cap, rubber hose

Replace in 2-4 years

Check

Intake & ex- Intake & exhaust valve clearance


haust system
Air cleaner element

Check

Electrical
system

Battery electrolyte specific gravity

Check

(Note 1)

Alternator

Check

Starter

Check

Change

Check, clean, wash or adjust.


Change.
S Rely on Cat lift truck dealer if necessary.
Notes: 1.
2.
3.

Not required if battery type is full maintenance free.


In corrosive or abrasive environments, clean, lubricate, or change more frequently.
When fuel with poor quality is used, check, drain, and change more frequently.

2-10