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PENGANTAR

Dinamika Struktur

BAYZONI
Semester Genap 2015 - 2016

Multidegree-of-Freedom
Systems
A structure can be modeled and its response
analyzed using a SDOF model if the mass is
essentially concentrated at a single point that can
move, translate, or rotate only in one direction, or if
the system is constrained in such a way as to permit
only a single mode of displacement. In general, the
mass of a larger building or structure is distributed
throughout the structure and can move in many
ways.
A realistic description of the dynamic response of
such systems generally requires the use of a
number of independent displacement coordinates,
and modeling of the system as a multidegree-offreedom (MDOF) system.
Dynamic analysis of such MDOF systems is
discussed in the following sections.

Equations of Motion

The MDOF analysis procedure is


illustrated by examining the dynamic
response of the idealized threestory
building shown in figure below. The
mass of the structure is assumed to be
concentrated at the floor levels, which
are further assumed to be rigid and
displace in one translational direction
only. Thus, the dynamic behavior of this
structure is completely defined by the
three-story displacements u1(t), u2(t) and
u3(t).
The equation of motion of any story can
be derived from the expression of
dynamic equilibrium of all of the forces
acting on the story mass, including the
inertia, damping, and elastic forces that
result from the motion, and the
externally applied force. The equations
of equilibrium for the two stories can be
written as follows (using notation
analogous to the SDOF case):

MULTI DEGREE OF FREEDOM


Model 3 derajat kebebasan
x1

x2
F1(t)

m1
k1

x3
F2(t)

m2
k2

F3(t)
m3

k3

Keseimbangan Gaya

m1.x1 k1.x1 k 2 . x2 x1 F1 (t ) 0

m2 .x2 k 2 .x2 x1 k3 .x3 x2 F2 (t ) 0


m3 .x3 k3 . x3 x2 F3 (t ) 0

Dalam bentuk Matrik

M .X K .X F t
Dalam hal ini:
m1
M 0
0
x1
X x2
x3

0
m2
0

0
0
m 3

x1
X x 2
x 3

k1 k2
K k 2

k2
k2 k3
k3

F1 ( t )
F t F2 ( t )
F3 ( t )

Dalam hal terdapat redaman maka:


M .X C .X K .X F t

0
k 3
k 3

Keterangan:

GETARAN BEBAS
Getaran Bebas Tanpa Redaman
[ ]{ } + [ ]{ } = 0
Solusi dari persamaan di atas adalah:

( )=

. cos

( )=

( )=

. sin
2

. cos

. sin
+

. cos
2

Sehingga diperoleh persamaan:

2[

]{ } + [ ]{ } = 0

. sin

Persamaan di atas dapat ditulis:


2[

[ ]

]{ }=0

Dengan aturan Cramer solusi dari persamaan di atas:

{ }=

0
[ ]

2[

Pemecahan non-trivial dimungkinkan

[ ]

2[

] = 0

Persamaan ini disebut persamaan frekuensi sistem,


dengan memperluas determinan akan diperoleh
persaman aljabar berderajat N dalam parameter 2
untuk sistem yang mempunyai B derajat kebebasan.
2 disebut eigen-value

DETERMINANT

CONTOH:
Asumsi:

m3=1
m2=1

m1=1

K3= 3
K2= 4
K1= 5

1 0
[ ]= 0 1
0 0

0
0
1

Lantai kaku
Tidak ada deformasi aksial
Semua massa terkumpul
pada lantai

(
[ ]=

(5 + 4)
[ ]=
4
0

+ 2)
2
0

2
0
( 2 + 3) 3
3
3

4
0
9
(4 + 3) 3 = 4
0
3
3

4 0
7 3
3 3

Periode Alami |D| = 0


2[

[ ]

] = 0

(9 2 )
4
0
=0
4
(7 2 )
3
0
3
(3 2 )
(9
6

2)

19

2 )3

(9
4

(19

2 )(

+ 86
2 )2

2)

3
2

(3. 3) + 4 4. (3

60 = 0
2)

+ (86

60 = 0

= 0.8502

= 0.922

= 5.52

= 2.35

= 12.6

= 3.55

2)

=0

Solusi untuk Ragam ke-1


(9 0.85022 )
4
0

4
(7 0.85022 )
3

0
3
(3 0.85022 )

8.15 4
0
4 6.15 3
0
3 2.15

1
1
1

1
1
1

(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)

1
1
1

(1)
(1)
(1)

0
= 0
0
0.351
= 0.716
1

0
= 0
0

Solusi untuk Ragam ke-2


1
1
1

(2)
(2)
(2)

1.052
= 0.882
1

Solusi untuk Ragam ke-3


1
1
1

(3)
(3)
(3)

3.62
= 3.168
1

Normalisasi Eigenvctor

1 T
n
( 3.614 3.169 1 )

Mn n M n
1 T
M1 n
M

1 1

1
n

1
1 n M1

1 1

M1 ( 24.105)

0.736
1 0.646

0.204

Normalisasi Eigenvctor
2 T
n
( 1.049 0.881 1 )

Mn n M n
2 T
M2 n
M

2 2

2
n

2
2 n M2

1 1

Mn n M n

3 3

3
n

3
3 n M3

0.619
2 0.519

0.59
3 T
n
( 0.352 0.717 1 )

3 T
M3 n
M

M2 ( 2.876)

1 1

M3 ( 1.637)

0.275
3 0.56

0.782

Developing a Way To Solve


the Equations of Motion
This will be done by a transformation of
coordinates
from
normal
coordinates
(displacements at the nodes) To modal
coordinates (amplitudes of the natural Mode
shapes).
Because of the orthogonality property of the
natural mode shapes, the equations of motion
become uncoupled, allowing them to be
solved as SDOF equations.
After solving, we can transform back to the
normal coordinates.

Solutions for System in


Undamped Free Vibration
(Natural Mode Shapes and Frequencies)

Solutions for System in


Undamped Free Vibration (continued)

Mode Shapes for


Idealized 3-Story Frame

Concept of Linear Combination of


Mode Shapes
(Transformation of Coordinates)

U=Y

Orthogonality Conditions

Ortogonalitas : Contoh 1
Matrix Kekakuan :

Matrix Massa :

9 4 0
K 1 4 7 3

3
3

Eigenvalue :

2i

1 0 0
M 0 1 0

0
0
1

n 3

Eigenvectors :

12.508
2 5.642

0.85

dim :

0.736 0.619 0.275


0.646 0.519 0.56

0.204 0.59 0.782


3.537
2.375

0.922

3.614 1.049 0.352


n 3.169 0.881 0.717

1
1
1

Ortogonalitas : Contoh 1
1 0 0
T
M 0 1 0

0 0 1

0
24.105 0
T
n M n 0
2.876 0

0
0
1.637

0
12.508 0
T
K 0
5.642 0

0 0.85
0

15
15

301.5
2.703 10
5.98 10

n K n 1.905 10 15
16.226
0

15
15

1.033 10
1.392
5.908 10

Development of
Uncoupled Equations of Motion

Development of
Uncoupled Equations of Motion
(Explicit Form)

Development of
Uncoupled Equations of Motion
(Explicit Form)

Earthquake Loading for


MDOF System

Vibration Analysis by Matrix Iterations

LANGKAH
PENYELESAIAN
TAKE HOME
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8)
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Pilih bangunan
Tentukan ukuran balok, kolom dan pelat
Tentukan Beban Hidup dan Beban Mati
Hitung Massa tiap-tiap lantai
Hitung kekakuan masing-masing kolom
Bentuk Matrik Massa
Bentuk Matrik Kekakuan
Hitung w2
Hitung mode shape
Hitung mode shape normalisasi
Bentuk persamaan sdof