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# For the sake of some readers we shall first define a lune: A lune is a concave c

losed region bounded by two circular arcs respectively with radii r_1 and r_2 an
d distance between their centers as d, where r_1 \geq r_2. This region looks lik
e a digit of the moon (hence lune or what Hindus call the indukal) or the illumin
ated fraction of a star or planetary body eclipsed by another. The formula for t
he area of the lune is complicated but has a nice symmetry to it:
A_l=r_2^2 \cos^{-1}\left(\dfrac{r_1^2-r_2^2-d^2}{2dr_2}\right)-r_1^2\cos^{-1}\le
ft(\dfrac{r_1^2-r_2^2+d^2}{2dr_1}\right)+\\[5pt] \dfrac{1}{2}\sqrt{\left(d+r_1+r
_2\right)\left(d-r_1+r_2\right)\left(d+r_1-r_2\right)\left(-d+r_1+r_2\right)}
One notices from the formula that the first two terms with inverse cosine functi
ons can give rise to transcendental numbers, like fractions of \pi. Due to the s
ubtraction at certain angles these can potentially cancel each other out leaving
the 3rd term which is in principle geometrically constructable. This suggests t
hat the quadrature of at least some lunes should be possible in principle.
At some point during our school years, shortly after acquiring some elementary g
eometrical insights, we learned of this problem of the squaring of lunes we quic
kly performed for ourselves the construction of the lunes specified by a rectang
le and \dfrac{1}{4}th square lune and proved their quadrature (simple problems).
A few years later we successfully conquered the trapezium lune and proved its q
uadrature for ourselves as part of a study of some Hindu mathematics. The third
squareable lune is conceptually similar but its conventional compass and straigh
t-edge construction needs one to construct a segment of length \dfrac{\sqrt{11}+
\sqrt{3}}{2}. While relatively easy, this was practically cumbersome given the u
sual paper-size we used those days for our physical compass/ruler constructions.
It was then that we read of Proclus mentioning yavana-s using a cheat for this pu
rpose. But a comparable cheat is rather natural to Hindus due their geometry being
dependent on the rami; hence we use here.
The remaining two squareable lunes were apparently first proved to be so by Eule
r (though it is also attributed to some others). To construct them exactly with
a compass and straight-edge would need one to construct lengths which are expres
sed as ratios of grisly multiple nested radicals and we have never attempted to
do so nor figured out a way using other curves. Likewise, the deep reasons for t
he very existence of only these five and no more squareable lunes remained beyon
d us. Baffled by all this any fancies we might have had of pursuing mathematics
as a mode of living came to an end. It showed us that there are kinds of insight
and understanding pertaining to mathematical expression that are not easy or ev
en possible for a human with a limited mental capacity to acquire as a part of h
is regular course of existence. Aristotle informs us regarding the yavana Hippoc
rates, who achieved the initial lune quadratures, that he was so immersed in his
geometry that he was pretty much lost in his regular life: a stark reminder of
the blurring of the boundaries between mathematical virtuosity and dysfunctional
ity. This was something we could appreciate despite lacking that virtuosity.
Yet, what we did learn regarding the lunes was rather fascinating and reminded u
s of experiments with other curves whose area becomes independent of \pi, like a
type of lemniscate we described earlier. The construction of the classic \dfrac
{1}{4}th square lune is part of some yantra-s such as the bhtavijaya and the Hind
u re-appropriation of Majughoa. We have also seen an intriguing figure termed the i-ya
ntra contemplated upon by sdhaka-s in the school of the kaula practitioner Hasamihu
from Gujarat, which includes the first two and possibly the third squareable lun
e. We have not seen any textual precedence for this. We place here the construct
ion of the first three squareable lunes.
The four lunes specified by a rectangle and the \dfrac{1}{4}th square lune